Krieg, Andrea G.; Kuhl, Danielle C.
Drawing on theories of social structure and normative exposure, we examine how the neighborhood context of socioeconomic advantage and racial composition affects race/ethnic differences in youth binge drinking. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, logistic regressions reveal significant racial differences, with whites having higher odds of binge drinking than other groups. We also find that neighborhood advantage and racial composition have moderating effects on binge drinking; black youths’ odds of binge drinking are significantly lower than whites’ odds in highly advantaged neighborhoods, and Hispanics living in racially integrated neighborhoods have significantly lower odds of binge drinking than Hispanics living in white neighborhoods. PMID:28082754
van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E
Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior.
Esteve-Arenys, Anna; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Cantacorps, Lídia; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Valverde, Olga
Binge ethanol drinking is an emerging pattern of excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults. Repeated ethanol intoxication has negative consequences during critical periods of brain development. Therefore, binge ethanol intake represents a vulnerability factor that promotes subsequent manifestations of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral binge ethanol intake during adolescence on the subsequent effects of cocaine in C57BL/6 mice. Firstly, we evaluated the oral ethanol intake of two binge ethanol procedures with different ethanol concentrations (20% v/v versus 30%, v/v). The highest ethanol intake was found in mice exposed to the lower ethanol concentration (20% v/v). In a second experiment, mice exposed to binge ethanol procedure were evaluated to study the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity, behavioural sensitization, and the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm. Mice exposed to ethanol binging showed discrete detrimental effects in responses to cocaine in the different experiments evaluated. Our findings revealed that the pattern of binge ethanol consumption in adolescent mice here evaluated produced a weak facilitation of cocaine responses. The present study highlights the importance of interventions to limit the deleterious effects of binge ethanol drinking during adolescence.
Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C
Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.
Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare
Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…
Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio
According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Girardi, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria
Binge drinking, a pattern associated with worse outcome, is becoming increasingly popular among youths, thus negatively impacting social life. To investigate drinking patterns and their underlying motives in Italian adolescents, the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form were administered to 332 school-age teenagers (16-19 years; 139 girls, 193 boys) from a single Roman school, recruited at their classrooms through the intermediation of their teachers. Boys scored higher than girls on all drinking and binge measures. They also scored higher on the Enhancement, Social, and Conformity Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form subscales. Binge drinking scores positively correlated with gender, alcohol consumption, and with all Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form subscales. In the two-step hierarchical model, Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form enhancement and conformity predicted alcohol use and Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form coping motives significantly predicted binge drinking. Binge drinking is prevalent among Italian adolescents, who mainly drink to enhance perceived positive effects of alcohol, conform to their social groups, and face their problems. Boys binge more than girls.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz
This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most prestigious adolescents had the highest longitudinal risks of binge drinking, although they had no immediate risk. Alcohol consumption-related interventions overlooking longitudinal dynamics of social networks may not effectively prevent adolescents from binge drinking in young adulthood.
... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. Getting Help If you think you or a ...
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex
A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…
Gil-Hernandez, Soledad; Garcia-Moreno, Luis M
Alcohol is probably the most common legal drug of abuse in Western countries. The prevalence of binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents is a worrisome phenomenon. Adolescents and university students who practice a BD pattern have difficulty performing tasks involving prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory, planning, attention, and decision making. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between BD and executive functioning in adolescents. Two hundred twenty-three high-school students between 12 and 18 years old (15.19 ± 2.13) participated in our study. They were assigned to one of three groups according to their pattern of alcohol consumption: BD (subjects who consumed alcohol intensively, n = 48), MAC (subjects who consumed alcohol moderately, n = 53), and CTR (non-drinking subjects, n = 122). The students were evaluated with two groups of testing tools: a set of performance neuropsychological tests and two questionnaires of executive functioning. The results showed that the students who drank alcohol exhibited a more pronounced dysexecutive symptomatology (disinhibition, executive dysfunction, intentionality, executive memory), but they obtained better results than controls on some of the neuropsychological tests such as Spatial Location, Five Digit Tests, or Stroop Test. According to the results, we can deduce that heavy alcohol drinking in adolescents brings a certain dysfunction of prefrontal circuits. This prefrontal dysfunction is not so clearly demonstrated in the neuropsychological tests used, but it was observed in the performance of daily activities. In the Discussion section we raise issues about sociodemographic features of the sample and ecological validity of the traditional neuropsychological tests. The neurotoxic effects of BD on prefrontal cortex can be less evident throughout adolescence, but if alcohol consumption persists, the executive dysfunction would be exacerbated.
Strong, Moriah N; Yoneyama, Naomi; Fretwell, Andrea M; Snelling, Chris; Tanchuck, Michelle A; Finn, Deborah A
Binge drinking, defined as achieving blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 80 mg%, has been increasing in adolescents and was reported to predispose later physical dependence. The present experiments utilized an animal model of binge drinking to compare the effect of ethanol "binge" experience during adolescence or adulthood on subsequent ethanol intake in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Adolescent and adult mice were initially exposed to the scheduled high alcohol consumption procedure, which produces BECs that exceed the levels for binge drinking following a 30-min ethanol session every third day. Ethanol intake and BECs were significantly higher in the adolescent ( approximately 3 g/kg, 199 mg%) versus adult ( approximately 2 g/kg, 135 mg%) mice during the first three ethanol sessions, but were more equivalent during the final two ethanol sessions (1.85-2.0 g/kg, 129-143 mg%). Then, separate groups of the ethanol-experienced mice were tested with ethanol naïve adolescent and adult mice for 2-h limited access (10% and 20% solutions) or 24-h (5%, 10% and 20% solutions) ethanol preference drinking. Limited access ethanol intake was significantly higher in female versus male mice, but was not altered by age or ethanol experience. In contrast, 24-h ethanol intake was significantly higher in the adolescent versus adult mice and in female versus male mice. Furthermore, binge drinking experience in the adolescent mice significantly increased subsequent ethanol intake, primarily due to intake in female mice. Thus, adolescent binge drinking significantly increased unlimited ethanol intake during adulthood, with female mice more susceptible to this effect.
Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.
Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229
Aguilar, Maria A.; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta
Background Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood. Methods We pretreated juvenile (34–47 days old) or adult (68–81 days old) mice with EtOH (1.25 g/kg) following a binge-drinking pattern. Then, after a three-week period without drug delivery, they were subjected to a chronic cocaine treatment in adulthood and tested under cocaine withdrawal by the ensuing paradigms: open field, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, tail suspension test, and object recognition. Another set of mice were treated with the same EtOH binge-drinking procedure during adolescence and were tested immediately afterwards under the same behavioral paradigms. Results Adolescent EtOH pretreatment undermined the anxiogenic effects observed after cocaine abstinence, reduced prepulse inhibition, and increased immobility scores in the tail suspension test following cocaine withdrawal. Moreover, the memory deficits evoked by these substances when given separately were enhanced in cocaine-withdrawn mice exposed to EtOH during adolescence. EtOH binge drinking during adolescence also induced anxiety, depressive symptoms, and memory impairments when measured immediately afterwards. In contrast, neither EtOH nor cocaine alone or in combination altered any of these behaviors when given in adulthood. Conclusions EtOH binge drinking induces short- and long-term behavioral alterations and modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms when given in adolescent mice. PMID:28291777
Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk
Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…
Mu, Karen J.; Moore, Sara E.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.
Objective To investigate the relation between Internet use and binge drinking during early and middle adolescence. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a sub-sample of 8th and 10th graders from the Monitoring the Future (MtF) study, which annually surveys a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth on their attitudes, behaviors, and values. This study includes data from 21,170 8th and 24,362 10th graders who participated between 2007 and 2012 and were asked questions about Internet use and binge drinking. Results In fully adjusted models, we found a dose response relation between hours of recreational Internet use (i.e. outside work or school) and binge drinking which was stronger for 8th than 10th graders. Compared to <1 h of Internet use per week, odds ratios estimates for 1-5 h/week, 6-19 h/week, and 20 or more h/week were 1.24 (99% CI: 0.85, 1.82), 1.83 (1.28, 2.61), and 2.78 (1.99, 3.87) for 8th graders, respectively. For 10th graders, this same association was attenuated [estimated OR=1.06 (99% CI: 0.96, 1.16); 1.20 (1.03, 1.40); and 1.30 (1.07, 1.58), respectively]. Conclusions Drawing on a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth, we find a significant, dose-response relation between Internet use and binge drinking. This relation was stronger in 8th graders versus 10th graders. Given that alcohol is the most abused substance among adolescents and binge drinking confers many health risks, longitudinal studies designed to examine the mediators of this relation are necessary to inform binge drinking prevention strategies, which may have greater impact if targeted at younger adolescents. PMID:26807435
Gilpin, Nicholas W; Karanikas, Chrisanthi A; Richardson, Heather N
Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42) in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA), a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity), an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects with implications
Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Karanikas, Chrisanthi A.; Richardson, Heather N.
Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (∼postnatal days 28–42) in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA), a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity), an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects with
Doumas, Diana M; Miller, Raissa; Esp, Susan
This study examined protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a moderator of the relationship between impulsive sensation seeking and binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of high school seniors (N=346). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that impulsive sensation seeking was a significant predictor of binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences and that PBS moderated these relationships. Specifically, manner of drinking moderated the relationships such that among students with high impulsive sensation seeking, those using strategies related to how they drink (e.g. avoiding rapid and excessive drinking) reported lower levels of binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences than those using fewer of these strategies. Clinical implications are discussed including using personality-targeted interventions that equip high impulsive sensation seeking adolescents with specific strategies to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences.
Hargreaves, Garth A; Monds, Lauren; Gunasekaran, Nathan; Dawson, Bronwyn; McGregor, Iain S
Teenagers are more likely than adults to engage in binge drinking and could be more vulnerable to long-term brain changes following alcohol abuse. We investigated the possibility of excessive adolescent drinking in a rodent model in which beer (4.44% ethanol vol/vol) is presented to adult and adolescent male Wistar rats. Experiment 1 tracked ad libitum beer and water consumption in group-housed rats from postnatal day (PND) 28-96. Rats consumed an average of 7.8 g/kg/day of ethanol during adolescence (PND 34-55) and this gradually declined to a lower level of intake in adulthood (PND 56-93) of 3.9 g/kg/day. In Experiment 2, beer was made available to both adolescent (PND 29+) and adult (PND 57+) rats for 2h each day in a custom-built "lickometer" apparatus over 75 days. Access to beer was provided either 1 day out of every 3 ("intermittent" groups) or every day ("daily" groups). Relative to body weight, adolescent rats consumed more beer than adult rats in these limited access sessions. Adolescents with intermittent access consumed more than adolescents with daily access, a "binge"-like effect that was not observed in adult groups and that disappeared in adulthood. After 3 months of daily or intermittent alcohol consumption, the preference for beer versus sucrose was assessed. Rats previously kept under an intermittent schedule displayed a higher preference for beer relative to 3% sucrose, but only when testing occurred after 2 days of abstinence. In Experiment 3, adolescent (PND 30-37) and adult (PND 58-65) rats were given 20-min access to beer and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were assessed. Adolescent groups consumed more alcohol than adults and showed higher BACS that were typical of human "binge" drinking (>80 mg/dL). Despite this, the correlation between BAC and beer intake was similar in both age groups. Together these results show that the intermittent presentation of alcohol itself appears to have subtle long-lasting effects on the motivation
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship…
Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.
Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. PMID:28152062
Purpose Many studies have documented associations among sexual victimization (SV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use; however, few have examined these associations longitudinally among adolescents. The present study evaluated the impact of SV on the longitudinal trajectory of PTSD symptoms and binge drinking (BD) among adolescent girls, a population known to have high rates of SV and alcohol use. Methods Participants (N = 1,808 at wave 1) completed interviews regarding PTSD symptoms, BD, and SV experiences over approximately three years. Results Multilevel modeling revealed decreases in PTSD symptoms over the course of the study; however, compared to non-victims, SV adolescents reported greater PTSD symptoms at wave 1 and maintained higher levels of PTSD symptoms over the course of the study after controlling for age. SV reported during the study also predicted an acute increase in PTSD symptoms at that occasion. BD increased significantly over the course of the study; however, SV did not predict initial BD or increases over time. SV reported during the study was associated with acute increases in BD at that occasion, although this effect diminished when participants reporting substance-involved rape were excluded. Conclusions SV was associated with immediate and long-lasting elevations in PTSD symptoms, but not with initial or lasting elevations in BD over time, suggesting that adolescent victims have yet to develop problematic patterns of alcohol use to cope with SV. However, SV was associated with acute increases in PTSD symptoms and BD, suggesting a need for BD interventions to reduce alcohol-related SV. PMID:22188834
Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David
A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity.
Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria
This is a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 101 twelve-year-old adolescents enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Diamantina in the State of Minas Gerais. The scope was to evaluate the prevalence of binge drinking among 12-year-old schoolchildren and its association with gender, socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by family members and best friends. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire entitled the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages by friends and family. Parents/guardians answered the form on sociodemographic questions. Descriptive analyses and association tests were performed (p < 0.05). The prevalence of binge drinking was 24.8%. Alcoholic beverage consumption began at the age of 10 (16.8%), though sex was not associated with binge drinking by adolescents. However, attending a public school (0.005) and alcohol consumption by best friends (p < 000.1) were associated with binge drinking by adolescents in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of binge drinking was high and was associated with low socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by the best friend. No association between sex and alcohol consumption by the family members of adolescents was detected.
Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Chaney, Lisa; Jones, Marvia
The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) is a conceptual model that supports coalition-driven efforts to address underage drinking and related consequences. Although the SPF has been promoted by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and implemented in multiple U.S. states and territories, there is limited research on the SPF’s effectiveness on improving targeted outcomes and associated influencing factors. The present quasi-experimental study examines the effects of SPF implementation on binge drinking and enforcement of existing underage drinking laws as an influencing factor. The intervention group encompassed 11 school districts that were implementing the SPF with local prevention coalitions across eight Kansas communities. The comparison group consisted of 14 school districts that were matched based on demographic variables. The intervention districts collectively facilitated 137 community-level changes, including new or modified programs, policies, and practices. SPF implementation supported significant improvements in binge drinking and enforcement outcomes over time (p < .001), although there were no significant differences in improvements between the intervention and matched comparison groups (p > .05). Overall, the findings provide a basis for guiding future research and community-based prevention practice in implementing and evaluating the SPF. PMID:27217310
This paper examines the relationship that social fraternity and sorority membership has with binge drinking incidence and frequency among 18-24 year old full-time 4-year college students who participated in the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. To net out unobserved heterogeneity, several measures of situational and total alcohol use are entered into the regressions as explanatory variables. Fraternity membership coefficients are substantially reduced in size, but remain large and highly significant, suggesting a causal effect on binge drinking. Otherwise, the estimates identify idiosyncratic selection into fraternities and binge drinking across students with similar overall drinking profiles. Particularly notable is that behavior by underage students appears to drive the relationship.
Bekman, Nicole M.; Winward, Jennifer L.; Lau, Lily L.; Wagner, Chase C.; Brown, Sandra A.
Background While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. Methods The present study examined negative mood states among 16–18 year-old high school students with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at three time points during a 4–6 week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Results Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared to non-drinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: m = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however differences in affect were not observed after 4–6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that males may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than females with sustained abstinence. Conclusions Findings suggest that high dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. PMID:23550712
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Hong, Hyokyoung Grace; Wills, Thomas A.
Considerable clinical and empirical evidence has accumulated over the past decades indicating that there is a strong association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence, but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the processes linking the association. The aim of this paper is to examine mechanisms that might account for the association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence. Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents (ages ranging 12–21; N = 6,337), this study examined the role of individual self-regulatory processes in the associations, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, peer substance use, parental alcoholism, and parent–child conflict. Factor analyses were used to test the measurement structure of self-regulatory processes. Findings confirmed the association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence. Structural modeling analyses indicated indirect effects for childhood maltreatment primarily through poor self-regulatory processes and peer substance use. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22494222
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Hong, Hyokyoung Grace; Wills, Thomas A
Considerable clinical and empirical evidence has accumulated over the past decades indicating that there is a strong association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence, but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the processes linking the association. The aim of this paper is to examine mechanisms that might account for the association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence. Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents (ages ranging 12-21; N = 6,337), this study examined the role of individual self-regulatory processes in the associations, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, peer substance use, parental alcoholism, and parent-child conflict. Factor analyses were used to test the measurement structure of self-regulatory processes. Findings confirmed the association between childhood maltreatment and heavy episodic drinking in adolescence. Structural modeling analyses indicated indirect effects for childhood maltreatment primarily through poor self-regulatory processes and peer substance use. Implications for future research are discussed.
Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa
Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…
Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein
Background Binge drinking among Dutch adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Few interventions so far have focused on adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Because binge drinking increases significantly during those years, it is important to develop binge drinking prevention programs for this group. Web-based computer-tailored interventions can be an effective tool for reducing this behavior in adolescents. Embedding the computer-tailored intervention in a serious game may make it more attractive to adolescents. Objective The aim was to assess whether a Web-based computer-tailored intervention is effective in reducing binge drinking in Dutch adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Secondary outcomes were reduction in excessive drinking and overall consumption during the previous week. Personal characteristics associated with program adherence were also investigated. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 34 Dutch schools. Each school was randomized into either an experimental (n=1622) or a control (n=1027) condition. Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2014. At baseline, demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later (May and June 2014). After the baseline assessment, participants in the experimental condition started with the intervention consisting of a game about alcohol in which computer-tailored feedback regarding motivational characteristics was embedded. Participants in the control condition only received the baseline questionnaire. Both groups received the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using logistic regression mixed models analyses for binge and excessive drinking and linear regression mixed models analyses for weekly consumption. Factors associated with intervention adherence in the experimental condition were explored by means of a linear regression model. Results In total, 2649 adolescents participated
Cisler, Josh M; Begle, Angela M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with a range of subsequent negative outcomes; however, research has yet to test whether IPV operates as a specific risk factor for separate psychopathology outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, or binge drinking. To address this, cumulative exposure to IPV and non-IPV-related traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and binge drinking were measured 3 times over approximately 3 years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 3,614 at Wave 1). Results demonstrated that cumulative IPV exposure predicted subsequent PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking (βs = .07, .12, .10, and .09, respectively; all ps < .01) when all cross-relationships (e.g., the effect of delinquency on future binge drinking) were in the model. Exposure to non-IPV traumatic events generally did not confer vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology outcomes. Overall, findings from this study advance the literature in this area by exploring consequences for adolescents following cumulative IPV exposure.
Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J
Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.
Vetreno, R P; Crews, F T
Adolescence is a critical developmental stage of life during which the prefrontal cortex (PFC) matures, and binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common. Recent studies have found that ethanol increases neuroinflammation via upregulated high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). HMGB1/TLR 'danger signaling' induces multiple brain innate immune genes that could alter brain function. To determine whether adolescent binge drinking persistently increases innate immune gene expression in the PFC, rats (P25-P55) were exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE [5.0 g/kg, 2-day on/2-day off schedule]). On P56, HMGB1/TLR danger signaling was assessed using immunohistochemistry (i.e., +immunoreactivity [+IR]). In a separate group of subjects, spatial and reversal learning on the Barnes maze was assessed in early adulthood (P64-P75), and HMGB1/TLR danger signaling was measured using immunohistochemistry for +IR and RT-PCR for mRNA in adulthood (P80). Immunohistochemical assessment at P56 and 24 days later at P80 revealed increased frontal cortical HMGB1, TLR4, and TLR3 in the AIE-treated rats. Adolescent intermittent ethanol treatment did not alter adult spatial learning on the Barnes maze, but did cause reversal learning deficits and increased perseverative behavior. Barnes maze deficits correlated with the expression of danger signal receptors in the PFC. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that adolescent binge drinking leads to persistent upregulation of innate immune danger signaling in the adult PFC that correlates with adult neurocognitive dysfunction.
Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice
This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3)…
College binge drinking is examined from the perspectives of two cultures. The traditional culture views binging as deviant; the second culture promotes it. In this context, logit regression is used to explore the effects of various factors, including student employment and parental education. Employed students are less likely to binge than are students who are not employed. Also, students whose mother is a college graduate, but whose father is not, are more likely to binge than other students. The prescriptions for reducing binge drinking are different when the behavior is perceived as mainstream rather than deviant. The research calls for the development of a process for promoting cultural change in an environment of continually changing student leadership.
Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena
This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155
McBride, William J; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Edenberg, Howard J; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L
The objective of this study was to determine changes in gene expression within the extended amygdala following binge-like alcohol drinking by male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Starting at 28 days of age, P rats were given concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol for 3 one-h sessions/day for 5 consecutive days/week for 3 weeks. Rats were killed by decapitation 3 h after the first ethanol access session on the 15th day of drinking. RNA was prepared from micropunch samples of the nucleus accumbens shell (Acb-sh) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Ethanol intakes were 2.5-3.0 g/kg/session. There were 154 and 182 unique named genes that significantly differed (FDR=0.2) between the water and ethanol group in the Acb-sh and CeA, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses indicated that adolescent binge drinking produced changes in biological processes involved with cell proliferation and regulation of cellular structure in the Acb-sh, and in neuron projection and positive regulation of cellular organization in the CeA. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that, in the Acb-sh, there were several major intracellular signaling pathways (e.g., cAMP-mediated and protein kinase A signaling pathways) altered by adolescent drinking, with 3-fold more genes up-regulated than down-regulated in the alcohol group. The cAMP-mediated signaling system was also up-regulated in the CeA of the alcohol group. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis indicated significant G-protein coupled receptor signaling and transmembrane receptor protein kinase signaling categories in the Acb-sh and CeA, respectively. Overall, the results of this study indicated that binge-like alcohol drinking by adolescent P rats is differentially altering the expression of genes in the Acb-sh and CeA, some of which are involved in intracellular signaling pathways and may produce changes in neuronal function.
McClintick, Jeanette N; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J
Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system.
Chen, Hu; He, Donghong; Lasek, Amy W.
Background Alcohol exposure leads to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain, which profoundly impacts neuronal plasticity. Perineuronal nets (PNs) are specialized ECM structures that enclose subpopulations of neurons in the cortex. Adolescent exposure to alcohol induces long-lasting increases in the expression of PN components in the cortex in adult mice. However, it has not been determined whether binge alcohol exposure in young adults alters PNs. Here, we examined PNs and their core components in the insula and primary motor cortex after repeated binge-like ethanol consumption in adult mice. Methods The 4 day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was performed in mice for 1 or 6 weeks to model binge alcohol consumption. The impact of ethanol drinking on PNs was examined by fluorescent staining of brain sections using a marker for PNs, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). In another set of experiments, cortex was dissected and Western blots and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed to evaluate the expression of the PN proteins aggrecan, brevican, and phosphacan. Results Binge-like ethanol drinking for 6 weeks caused a significant increase in PNs in the insula, as measured by WFA binding. Aggrecan, brevican and phosphacan protein expression, and aggrecan mRNA expression, were also elevated in the insula after 6 weeks of ethanol drinking. In contrast, expression of PN components did not change after 1 week of DID. The increase in PNs appears to be specific to the insula, since alterations were not observed in the primary motor cortex. Conclusions Our results provide the first evidence that insular PNs increase after long-term binge drinking. The insula mediates compulsive alcohol use. Since PNs influence neuronal firing and plasticity, increased PNs in the insula after multiple binge cycles may contribute to restricted neuronal plasticity and lead to the development of compulsive alcohol use. PMID:26332441
Herring, Rachel; Berridge, Virginia; Thom, Betsy
Binge drinking is a matter of current social, media and political concern. Within the current debates binge drinking is sometimes portrayed as a recent phenomenon, but in fact it has a history and concern about binge drinking is not new. This paper sets the phenomenon in its historical context by examining how the nature and definition of binge…
Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John
Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with…
López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando
It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition.
Baggish, Rosemary; Wells, Peter
When questioned about illegal, mood-altering substance use, 15,743 high school students surveyed in the last three years with the "Independent School Health Check" said alcohol is most commonly used. For the 30 days prior to filling out the survey, 33.9 percent of the students reported drinking, and 24.2 percent reported binge drinking…
Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël; Poncin, Marie; Maurage, Pierre
This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers. Hazardous binge drinkers were characterized by strong drinking motives but moderate impulsivity. Binge drinking should thus no more be considered as a unitary drinking pattern but rather as a habit encompassing a variety of psychological profiles. Moreover, risky drinking habits in young people might be mainly related to disproportionate drinking motives. Future studies should thus consider binge drinking heterogeneity, and prevention programs focusing on drinking motivations should be developed.
Melón, Laverne C; Wray, Kevin N; Moore, Eileen M; Boehm, Stephen L
Binge drinking during adolescence may perturb the maturing neuroenvironment and increase susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. In the present series of experiments, we utilized a modified version of the drinking in the dark-multiple scheduled access (DID-MSA) procedure to study how heavy binge drinking during adolescence alters responsivity to ethanol later in adulthood. Adult and adolescent C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) males and females were given access to a 20% ethanol solution for 3 hourly periods, each separated by 2h of free water access. B6 adults and adolescents consumed 2 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol an hour and displayed significant intoxication and binge-like blood ethanol concentrations. There was an interaction of sex and age, however, driven by high intakes in adult B6 females, who peaked at 11.01 g/kg. Adolescents of both sexes and adult males never consumed more than 9.3 g/kg. D2 mice consumed negligible amounts of alcohol and showed no evidence of intoxication. B6 mice were abstinent for one month and were retested on the balance beam 10 min following 1.75 g/kg ethanol challenge (20%v/v; i.p). They were also tested for changes in home cage locomotion immediately following the 1.75 g/kg dose (for 10 min prior to balance beam). Although there was no effect of age of exposure, all mice with a binge drinking history demonstrated a significantly dampened ataxic response to an ethanol challenge. Female mice that binge drank during adulthood showed a significantly augmented locomotor response to ethanol when compared to their water drinking controls. This alteration was not noted for males or for females that binge drank during adolescence. These results highlight the importance of biological sex, and its interaction with age, in the development of behavioral adaptation following binge drinking.
Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl
There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…
Barth, F. Diane
Numerous programs have been instituted to address the widely recognized problem of binge drinking in college students, with some excellent results. Yet binge drinking is commonly still viewed as a socially acceptable form of relaxing and bonding with peers, often with the stated goal of getting as drunk as possible as quickly as possible. The…
Trolian, Teniell L.; An, Brian P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
For this study we considered the influence of binge drinking behavior in college on students' critical thinking gains. Findings suggest that binge drinking has a negative influence on students' critical thinking gains over 4 years of college and that this effect was driven by students with the lowest levels of precollege critical thinking. In both…
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of…
Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L
This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.
McCoy, Sarah Louise; Nieland, Martin Nicholas Stephen
Aims: To investigate whether "binge-drinking" is new by comparing the behaviour and attitudes of two generations at the same age and of one generation at different ages. Methods: Fifty-six student/parent pairs completed questionnaires partially based on the Adolescent version of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (Brown, S.A.,…
Valenstein-Mah, Helen; Larimer, Mary; Zoellner, Lori; Kaysen, Debra
Sexual victimization is prevalent on U.S. college campuses. Some women experience multiple sexual victimizations with heightened risk among those with prior victimization histories. One risk factor for sexual revictimization is alcohol use. Most research has focused on associations between alcohol consumption and revictimization. The current study’s objective was to understand potential mechanisms by which drinking confers risk for revictimization. We hypothesized that specific drinking consequences would predict risk for revictimization above and beyond the quantity of alcohol consumed. There were 162 binge-drinking female students (mean age = 20.21 years, 71.3% White, 36.9% juniors) from the University of Washington who were assessed for baseline victimization (categorized as childhood vs. adolescent victimization), quantity of alcohol consumed, and drinking consequences experienced, then assessed 30 days later for revictimization. There were 40 (24.6%) women who were revictimized in the following 30 days. Results showed that blackout drinking at baseline predicted incapacitated sexual revictimization among women previously victimized as adolescents, after accounting for quantity of alcohol consumed (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.07, 3.01]). Other drinking consequences were not strongly predictive of revictimization. Adolescent sexual victimization was an important predictor of sexual revictimization in college women; blackout drinking may confer unique risk for revictimization. PMID:26401899
Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda
Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica
Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508
Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28-37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found that AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility.
Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185
Thiele, Todd E; Navarro, Montserrat
This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called "drinking in the dark" (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes, Best, Belknap, Finn, and Crabbe (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2-4 h, beginning 3 h into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal's dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to
Berridge, Virginia; Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy
Binge drinking is a matter of current social, political and media concern. It has a long-term, but also a recent, history. This paper discusses the contemporary history of the concept of binge drinking. In recent years there have been significant changes in how binge drinking is defined and conceptualised. Going on a ‘binge’ used to mean an extended period (days) of heavy drinking, while now it generally refers to a single drinking session leading to intoxication. We argue that the definitional change is related to the shifts in the focus of alcohol policy and alcohol science, in particular in the last two decades, and also in the role of the dominant interest groups. The paper is a case study in the relationship between science and policy. We explore key themes, raise questions and point to a possible agenda for future research.
Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G
Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.
Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, Kathryn P; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals "mature out" of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through 2 years after college (M ages = 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across 2 time periods-(a) the end of high school to the end of college and (b) the 2-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested 7 binge-drinking trajectories: frequent, moderate, increasing, occasional, low increasing, decreasing, and rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with increasing and decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that "late bloomers," who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students.
Ashenhurst, James R.; Harden, Kathryn P.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim
College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals “mature out” of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through two years after college (mean ages 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across two time periods – (1) the end of high school to the end of college, and (2) across the two-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested seven binge drinking trajectories: Frequent, Moderate, Increasing, Occasional, Low Increasing, Decreasing, and Rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with Increasing and Decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the Increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that “late bloomers,” who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students. PMID:26348219
Haines, Michael; Spear, Sherilynn F.
A five-year study examined the effects of a mass media campaign to change college students' perceptions of peer norms and binge drinking. Annual survey data indicated a significant drop in numbers of students who perceived binge drinking as the norm and a corresponding reduction in binge drinking. (SM)
Wilcox, Mark V; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A
Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the 'drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a 'front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Method Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents’ and friends’ self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Results Girls’ binge eating was associated with their male friends’ (odds ratio=2.33; p=.03) and fathers’ binge eating (odds ratio=3.38; p=.02), but not with their female friends’ or mothers’ binge eating (p>.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents’ or friends’ behavior. Discussion Adolescent girls’ binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. PMID:24105696
Nelson, Suzy; McHugh Engstrom, Cathy
The present study builds on previous findings and analyzes how social climate (Moos, 1988), chapter advisement, and living status differ for members of high- and low-achieving fraternities (as measured by cumulative chapter GPA) and how the interplay of personal and environmental factors influence binge drinking and GPA among college men in…
This book takes a broad look at the problems of hazing and binge drinking on college campuses. It includes a history of hazing and suggestions for reform. The chapters are: (1) The Tradition; (2) Greekthink; (3) Alcohol Misuse; (4) A Weed in the Garden of Academe; (5) Greek Traditions and Tragedies; (6) Sororities; (7) The Law and Hazing; (8)…
Banta, Jim E.; Haskard, Kelly B.; Haviland, Mark G.; Williams, Summer L.; Werner, Leonard S.; Anderson, Donald L.; DiMatteo, M. Robin
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported mental health and binge drinking, as well as health status, sociodemographic, social support, economic resource, and health care access indicators to antihypertension medication adherence. Method: Analysis of 2003 California Health Interview Survey data. Results: Having poor mental…
Reckdenwald, Amy; Ford, Jason A.; Murray, Brittany N.
It is well-known that college students are at an increased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking compared to their same-age peers who are not in college. We use Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, specifically, her discussion of adolescence-limited offending, to contextualize this finding regarding this minor form of deviance. We also incorporate…
Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne
Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…
Lee, Kaziya M; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A; Waltermire, Ryan S; Szumlinski, Karen K
Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal.
Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence
Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…
Llerena, Susana; Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Puente, Angela; Cabezas, Joaquín; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio
The consumption of alcoholic beverages is harmful to human health. In recent years, consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages have changed in our society, and binge drinking has generalized. It is considered to be a socio-sanitary problem with few known consequences in terms of individual and third-party social impacts (in the form of violence or traffic accidents) and its organic impact (affects the liver and other organs and systems, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems) and represents an important financial burden due to its increasing economic impact. This review provides a global approach to binge drinking and emphasizes its epidemiological character, the effect of this type of consumption and the possible management of a problem with an increasing tendency in our society. PMID:26644814
Sa, J.; Seo, D.-C.; Nelson, T. F.; Lohrmann, D. K.; Ellis, N. T.
Objective: To investigate two risky behaviours (i.e. binge drinking and drinking and driving) and their individual- and college-level correlates among South Korean international college students in the USA Design: Cross-sectional online survey (student response rate = 41.6%). Setting: South Korean college students (N = 1201) were recruited from 52…
Grucza, Richard A.; Norberg, Karen E.; Bierut, Laura J.
Analysis of the data from 20 administrations of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reveal an overall lower trend in the rate of binge drinking for the period from 1979-2006. This period encompasses the transition to a uniform legal drinking age of 21 in the U.S. Little improvement is seen in binge drinking among college students while…
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods:…
Donaldson, Candice D; Handren, Lindsay M; Crano, William D
Binge drinking is associated with many health and financial costs and is linked to risks of legal consequences. As alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, the current study assessed the relationship between parental behaviors and strategies in forecasting adolescents' likelihood of binge drinking and later arrest. Restricted data from waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to assess hypotheses. A weighted path analytic model (N = 9421) provided a multifaceted picture of variables linked to later antisocial behavior. Low parental monitoring, low parental warmth, parent alcohol use, and parent expectancies regarding their children's alcohol use were associated with higher incidence of adolescent binge drinking. In turn, low monitoring, low warmth, parent alcohol use, parent expectancies, and underage consumption were associated with binge drinking in early adulthood. Binge drinking during both adolescence and young adulthood were predictive of respondents' likelihood of arrest 8-14 years later. Findings demonstrated the substantial, enduring effects of parental behaviors on child alcohol-related actions and have implications for parent-targeted interventions designed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. They suggest campaigns focus on parenting strategies that involve setting effective and strict alcohol-related rules and guidelines, while maintaining a warm and supportive family environment.
0293 TITLE: Melanocortin and Opioid Peptide Interactions in the Modulation of Binge Alcohol Drinking PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Todd E. Thiele...NUMBER Melanocortin and Opioid Peptide Interactions in the Modulation of Binge 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0293 Alcohol Drinking 5c. PROGRAM...determine if MC receptor (MCR) agonists and opioid receptor antagonists interact to protect against binge-like alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner
Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F
Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Baek, Tae Hyun; Shen, Lijiang; Reid, Leonard N
This experiment examined the interaction effects of message framing and counterfactual thinking on attitudes toward binge drinking and behavioral intentions. Data from a 2 (message framing: gain vs. loss) × 2 (counterfactual thinking priming: additive vs. subtractive) between-subjects factorial design showed that a gain-framed message resulted in lower binge drinking intentions than did a loss-framed message after subjects engaged in additive counterfactual thinking. The effects of a loss-framed message on binge drinking intentions occurred when subtractive counterfactual thinking was induced. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-binge drinking public service announcements are discussed.
Gonzalez, Vivian M.
Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N = 182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly 4 times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it would appear that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976
Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina
Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.
Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret; Liu, Wen; Spear, Linda P; Crews, Fulton T
During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70) produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48) and adult (P70-P90) binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.
Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the United States answered questions assessing key predictors and individual characteristics. In the Wave 2 survey, 179 participants returned and reported their drinking behavior over 2 weeks' time. After conducting a negative binomial regression, we found that more favorable attitude toward drinking and less perceived control of drinking at Wave 1 were associated with more binge drinking at Wave 2; subjective norm at Wave 1 was not a significant predictor of binge drinking at Wave 2; students with higher stress at Wave 1 engaged in more binge drinking at Wave 2, but those with higher loneliness did not. Implications of findings are discussed.
Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Johnson, Michael A.
Professionals have debated the use of the term binge drinking over the past couple of decades, yet little attention has been paid to college student perceptions. We explored how students at one university qualitatively defined binge drinking; whether their own definitions coincided with those adopted by researchers; and whether students' own…
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël; Gjerde, Line C.; Eilertsen, Espen M.; Landrø, Nils I.
Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs [working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)] were assessed. Eighteen months later, information on alcohol habits for 103 of the participants were gathered. Data were analyzed by means of multilevel regression modeling. Results: Future severity of binge drinking was uniquely predicted by performance on the Information sampling task, assessing risky decision-making (β = -1.86, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.04). None of the study variables predicted severity or change in binge drinking. Conclusion: Future severity of binge drinking was associated with making risky decisions in the prospect for gain, suggesting reward hypersensitivity. Future studies should aim at clarifying whether there is a causal association between decision-making style and binge drinking. Performance on all executive tasks was unrelated to change in binge drinking patterns; however, the finding was limited by overall small changes, and needs to be confirmed with longer follow-up periods.
Bauer, Lance O.; Ceballos, Natalie A.
Ninety-seven female students, aged 18–20 yrs, were assigned to groups consisting of 55 infrequent (less than monthly) and 42 frequent (at least monthly) binge drinkers. The groups were compared on self-report measures of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and alexithymia. The groups were also compared on several objective measures relevant to neural and genetic mechanisms, such as brain activation during a time estimation task and selected genotypes. Analyses of stimulus-locked brain activity revealed a slow cortical potential generated over the right parietal cortex during time estimation that was more negative in the frequent binge drinking group. This group also showed a greater prevalence of a CHRM2 genotype previously associated with substance dependence and Major Depressive Disorder as well as a modest elevation on a non-planning impulsiveness self-report scale. We conclude that the enhanced brain activation shown by binge drinkers during time estimation compensates for an underlying deficit. That deficit may be reflected in poor planning skills and a genetic difference indicating increased risk for both externalizing and internalizing disorders in later life. PMID:24530440
Banca, Paula; Lange, Iris; Worbe, Yulia; Howell, Nicholas A.; Irvine, Michael; Harrison, Neil A.; Moutoussis, Michael
Abstract The degree to which an individual accumulates evidence prior to making a decision, also known as reflection impulsivity, can be affected in psychiatric disorders. Here, we study decisional impulsivity in binge drinkers, a group at elevated risk for developing alcohol use disorders, comparing two tasks assessing reflection impulsivity and a delay discounting task, hypothesizing impairments in both subtypes of impulsivity. We also assess volumetric correlates of reflection impulsivity focusing on regions previously implicated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Sixty binge drinkers and healthy volunteers were tested using two different information‐gathering paradigms: the beads task and the Information Sampling Task (IST). The beads task was analysed using a behavioural approach and a Bayesian model of decision making. Delay discounting was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Regression analyses of primary outcomes were conducted with voxel‐based morphometry analyses. Binge drinkers sought less evidence prior to decision in the beads task compared with healthy volunteers in both the behavioural and computational modelling analysis. There were no group differences in the IST or delay discounting task. Greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the beads task was associated with smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal volumes. In contrast, greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the IST was associated with greater dorsal cingulate and precuneus volumes. Binge drinking is characterized by impaired reflection impulsivity suggesting a deficit in deciding on the basis of future outcomes that are more difficult to represent. These findings emphasize the role of possible therapeutic interventions targeting decision‐making deficits. PMID:25678093
Banca, Paula; Lange, Iris; Worbe, Yulia; Howell, Nicholas A; Irvine, Michael; Harrison, Neil A; Moutoussis, Michael; Voon, Valerie
The degree to which an individual accumulates evidence prior to making a decision, also known as reflection impulsivity, can be affected in psychiatric disorders. Here, we study decisional impulsivity in binge drinkers, a group at elevated risk for developing alcohol use disorders, comparing two tasks assessing reflection impulsivity and a delay discounting task, hypothesizing impairments in both subtypes of impulsivity. We also assess volumetric correlates of reflection impulsivity focusing on regions previously implicated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Sixty binge drinkers and healthy volunteers were tested using two different information-gathering paradigms: the beads task and the Information Sampling Task (IST). The beads task was analysed using a behavioural approach and a Bayesian model of decision making. Delay discounting was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Regression analyses of primary outcomes were conducted with voxel-based morphometry analyses. Binge drinkers sought less evidence prior to decision in the beads task compared with healthy volunteers in both the behavioural and computational modelling analysis. There were no group differences in the IST or delay discounting task. Greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the beads task was associated with smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal volumes. In contrast, greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the IST was associated with greater dorsal cingulate and precuneus volumes. Binge drinking is characterized by impaired reflection impulsivity suggesting a deficit in deciding on the basis of future outcomes that are more difficult to represent. These findings emphasize the role of possible therapeutic interventions targeting decision-making deficits.
Huo, Hai-Feng; Chen, Yong-Lan; Xiang, Hong
A more realistic binge drinking model with time delay is introduced. Time delay is used to represent the time lag of the immunity against drinking in our model. For the model without the time delay, using Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we obtain that the alcohol-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]. We also obtain that the unique alcohol-present equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]. For the model with time delay, the local stability of all the equilibria is derived. Furthermore, regardless of the time delay length, using comparison theorem and iteration technique, we obtain that the alcohol-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable under certain conditions. Numerical simulations are also conducted to illustrate and extend our analytic results.
Simons, Jeffrey S; Christopher, Michael S; McLaury, Ann E
This study examined relations between personal strivings and alcohol use among college students. Personal strivings are ongoing goals that individuals are characteristically trying to achieve through their behavior. Participants generated lists of personal strivings following standard instructions and then completed an assessment of alcohol use and related problems. Participants returned to complete a follow-up assessment of drinking behavior after 30 days. Personal strivings were coded into content categories by trained raters using a coding manual. Four content categories were examined for this study: achievement, affiliation, health, and self-presentation. A series of t tests revealed that participants endorsing achievement strivings reported less alcohol-related problems and marginally fewer instances of binge drinking during the 30-day follow-up period. In contrast, participants endorsing self-presentation strivings reported more alcohol-related problems during the follow-up period.
Micali, Nadia; Field, Alison E; Treasure, Janet L; Evans, David M
Objective Cognitions and behaviors characteristic of binge eating are associated with a polymorphism in the FTO gene, robustly related to body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. We investigated the association between binge eating and the individual and combined effect of 32 SNPs robustly associated with BMI in a population-based sample. We hypothesized that higher BMI and binge eating might share a common genetic etiology. Methods Binge eating was assessed in adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at age 14 (n = 5,958) and 16 years (n = 4,948). We tested associations between 32 BMI-related SNPs and binge eating in crude and BMI-, age-, and gender-adjusted regression models. Results Crude analyses showed an association between binge eating and rs1558902 (FTO) that persisted after adjustment for BMI (OR = 1.20, P = 8 × 10−3). A weighted allelic score consisting of all 32 BMI-related SNPs was associated with binge eating (P = 8 × 10−4); this association attenuated (P = 0.08) when rs1558902 was removed from the weighted allelic score. Conclusions BMI-related genes are associated with adolescent binge eating, in particular an FTO polymorphism. Although replication is needed, our findings have biological plausibility and are consistent with a postulated effect of FTO on appetite and food intake. Future studies should aim to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between FTO, binge eating, and obesity. PMID:26193063
Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink.
Clinkinbeard, Samantha S; Johnson, Michael A
Professionals have debated the use of the term binge drinking over the past couple of decades, yet little attention has been paid to college student perceptions. We explored how students at one university qualitatively defined binge drinking; whether their own definitions coincided with those adopted by researchers; and whether students' own definitions varied according to their behavior. The most common definition provided by students included a description of the consumption of a large, non-specific, amount of alcohol. Only half of the students who, by standard definition, participated in binge drinking in the previous 30 days actually identified their behavior as such. Finally, binge drinkers were more likely to define binge drinking in an extreme manner such that it results in vomiting or blacking out.
Choi, Hye Jeong; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Brem, Meagan J.; Elmquist, JoAnna; Stuart, Gregory L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Temple, Jeff R.
Purpose To investigate the temporal relation between energy drink and alcohol use among adolescents. Methods Data were collected from adolescents attending public high schools in two waves (n = 894). Results Path analysis indicated that energy drink use at baseline was positively associated with the number of drinking days but not binge drinking or average drinks per drinking day over the past 30 days at follow-up. This relation remained while controlling for race, age, gender, previous alcohol use, and impulsivity. Conclusions Alcohol use prevention efforts should consider energy drink use as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26632245
de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; de Paula Silva, Carlos José; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria
Objectives Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students. Research Design and Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother’s schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively. Results The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588). Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010), those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001) and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235–6.466), p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654–8.535), p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21–3.06), p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended. PMID:25719561
Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette
This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…
McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…
Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett
Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the
Weitzman, Elissa R.; Nelson, Toben F.
Considerable attention has been paid to heavy episodic or "binge" drinking among college youth in the United States. Despite widespread use, the binge measure is perceived by some as a low intervention threshold. We use data from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (n = 49,163) to describe patterns of consumption and harms…
Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato
Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma
As adolescents' alcohol abuse is more widespread almost everywhere, the aim of this study was to better understand the influence of both alcohol expectancies and parenting styles on this risky behaviour in order to allow the development of future prevention programmes, by evaluating the correlation between these variables. A total of 1500 subjects…
McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.
Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927
Chauhan, Preeti; Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro; Keyes, Katherine M
Background Neighborhood context is associated with binge drinking and has significant health, societal, and economic costs. Both binge drinking and neighborhood context vary by race and ethnicity. We examined the relations between neighborhood characteristics —neighborhood norms that are accepting of drunkeness, collective efficacy, and physical disorder — and binge drinking, with a focus on examining race and ethnic-specific relationships. Methods Respondent data were collected through 2005 random digit-dial-telephone survey for a representative sample of New York City residents; neighborhood data were based on the 2005 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey. Participants were 1,415 past year drinkers; Whites (n = 877), Blacks (n = 292) and Hispanics (n =246). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate population average models. Results For the overall sample, neighborhood norms that were more accepting of drunkenness were associated with greater binge drinking (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.37); collective efficacy and physical disorder were not significant. However, when examining this by race/ethnicity, greater collective efficacy (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.91) and greater physical disorder (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93) were associated with less binge drinking for Whites only. Neighborhood norms that were more accepting of drunkenness were associated with binge drinking among Whites (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.38) and, while not significant (perhaps due to power), the associations were similar for Hispanics (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.83, 1.68) and slightly lower for Blacks (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.84). Conclusions Overall, results suggest that neighborhood characteristics and binge drinking are shaped, in part, by factors that vary across race/ethnicity. Thus, disaggregating data by race/ethnicity is important in understanding binge drinking behaviors. PMID:26969558
Hartley, David E; Elsabagh, Sarah; File, Sandra E
This study compared the mood and cognitive performance of male and female teetotal and binge drinking students. The binge drinkers had significantly lower self-ratings of trait anxiety and depression and of state alertness at the time of testing than did the teetotallers. The females had significantly higher ratings of trait and state anxiety, but there were no Sex x Bingeing interactions on mood. The binge drinkers made significantly fewer correct responses in a test of sustained attention and recalled fewer line drawings. There was a significant Sex x Binge interaction in a spatial recognition task because the male, but not the female, binge drinkers were slower to make correct responses. Males performed better than females in both the spatial and pattern recognition memory tasks. There were three tests of executive function. In a spatial working memory task, males performed better than females, but there were no effects of binge drinking. There were no effects in a test of mental flexibility. However, in a test of planning, the binge drinkers were significantly slower than the teetotallers were. Thus, compared with a group of teetotallers, the binge drinkers had lower trait anxiety and depression and poorer performance in tests of sustained attention, episodic memory and planning ability.
Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks.
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Chainey, Timothy A; Stephens, Christine
Teenage binge drinking is a significant health issue. To explore teenagers talk about binge drinking, four peer-group interviews were conducted with 20 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, with experience of excessive alcohol use. A discourse analysis showed that a 'drinking is cool' discourse constructed 'getting wasted' as an integral part of social life, while a 'drinking as a social lubricant' discourse described the behavioural functions of alcohol use. Participants also actively resisted an 'alcohol is bad' discourse, which acknowledges the risks of alcohol use. The findings illustrate how teenagers use these resources in sophisticated ways to position the teen drinker positively and negatively.
Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna
Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of
Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…
Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus
Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100
Keatley, David A; Ferguson, Eamonn; Lonsdale, Adam; Hagger, Martin S
Binge drinking is associated with deleterious health, social and economic outcomes. This study explored the lay understanding of the causes of binge drinking in members of the general public in the United Kingdom and Australia. Participants in the United Kingdom (N = 133) and Australia (N = 102) completed a network diagram exercise requiring them to draw causal paths and provide path strength ratings between 12 candidate factors (24-h opening, age, alcohol advertizing, alcohol availability, boredom, drinking culture, income, low cost, parental influence, peer pressure, stress and supermarket discounts) and binge drinking. Results indicated good consistency in paths across samples, although differences in frequency and strength ratings for some paths were found. Drinking culture, peer pressure and low alcohol cost were perceived as direct causes of binge drinking in both samples. Low alcohol cost and drinking culture were most frequently viewed as direct causes of binge drinking in UK and Australian participants, respectively. Supermarket discounts and low cost of alcohol were most frequently viewed as indirect causes of binge drinking by UK and Australian samples. Findings reflect general awareness and prominence of factors affecting binge drinking in both national groups. Findings may inform the development of campaigns to promote public support policies to curb binge drinking.
Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando
The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.
McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.
This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…
Twigg, Liz; Moon, Graham
Binge drinking has been linked to escalating costs of hospitalisation and to premature mortality, and implicated in a range of acute and chronic health problems as well as crime, violence and other negative aspects of the wider well-being agenda. Variously defined, it can be characterised as brief periods of heavy drinking (across one day or evening) within a longer time-frame of lower consumption or even abstinence (across a week or several weeks). In England the current binge drinking epidemic has become particularly salient in the past decade and has been seen largely in terms of excessive consumption by younger people, particularly women in urban centres. It has also been linked to the liberalisation of licencing laws and the promotion of 24 h club cultures. This paper presents an observational study of the regional development of binge drinking between 2001 and 2009 as evidenced in the Health Survey for England. We innovate by using two different definitions of binge drinking within a multivariate multilevel modelling framework, with a focus on the random effects attributable to the year of study and region. We control for age, sex, ethnicity, marital status and individual socio-economic status, and confounding by neighbourhood deprivation and urbanisation. The paper identifies pronounced regional geographies that persist in the face of controls and vary little over time, and strong spatio-temporal gender differences which reflect the definition of binge drinking.
Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M
Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than men. They get intoxicated more quickly and have a higher blood alcohol level than men, even when body weight and alcohol consumption are the same. Despite this we are seeing a convergence of the drinking patterns of young women and young men, including binge drinking. In this research, 20…
Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…
Workman, Thomas A.
The drinking behaviors of college students have gained national attention over the past several years. Deemed by public health researchers as "binge drinking," the issue has created a distinct set of texts under the "public health" frame of discourse that ultimately guides public policy. Using J.R. Gusfield's (1996) theory of…
DeSimone, Jeffrey S.
This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual behavior in nationally representative data on age 18-24 four-year college students. For having sex, overall or without condoms, large and significant positive associations are eliminated upon holding constant proxies for time-invariant sexual activity and drinking preferences.…
Barry, Adam E; Stellefson, Michael L; Hanik, Bruce; Tennant, Bethany L; Whiteman, Shawn D; Varnes, Julia; Wadsworth, Shelley M
It is unclear to what degree previous and/or current alcohol consumption predicts enlistment into the military. The current investigation explored the extent to which binge drinking was related to propensity to join the military among a national sample of high school seniors (n = 14,577) responding to the 2008 Monitoring the Future survey. Independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analyses were employed to explore the research question. Results indicated that twelfth grade students who intended to join the military after graduating from high school binge drank a significantly greater number of days (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = -0.22) than those not intending to enlist. Even after controlling for various sociodemographic and lifetime drinking characteristics, binge drinkers had a higher propensity to join the military (odds ratio = 1.079, Wald = 5.53, df = 1, p < 0.05) than those who did not binge. Moreover, as binge drinking increased, so did one's propensity to join the military. Our findings lend credence to the notion that high school binge drinkers may be self-selecting into military service. These findings underscore the importance of adequately assessing the frequency of high-risk alcohol consumption and their associated correlates among potential military recruits before accession.
Shields, Julie Delaney; Archiopoli, Ashley M.; Bentley, Joshua M.; Weiss, David; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; White, Judith McIntosh; Sharp, Mercedes Kelsey; Hong, Zhibin; Kimura, Miwa
This study explores binge-drinking behaviors and attitudes among Hispanic and non-Hispanic college students. The authors surveyed students at the same large Hispanic-serving university used in a 1999 study by Bennett et al., partially replicating that earlier research. While the percentage of students who reported binge drinking in the present…
Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn
A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…
Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee
While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others.
Roberts, S.C.M; Subbaraman, MS; Delucchi, K; Wilsnack, SC; Foster, DG
Background Women who terminate pregnancies drink more subsequent to the pregnancy than women who give birth, including women who give birth after seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Methods Data are from the Turnaway Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of 956 women who sought to terminate pregnancies at 30 U.S. facilities. This paper focuses on the 452 women who received terminations just below facility gestational limits and 231 who were denied terminations because they presented just beyond facility gestational limits. This study examined whether baseline characteristics moderate the relationship between termination and subsequent binge drinking and whether stress, feelings about the pregnancy, and number of social roles mediate the relationship. Results Only having had a previous live birth modified the termination-binge drinking relationship. Among women with previous live births, binge drinking was reduced among women carrying to term compared to terminating the pregnancy. Among women who had not had a previous live birth, however, the reduction in binge drinking among those denied termination was not sustained over time, and binge drinking of those who had and had not had terminations converged by 2.5 years. Neither stress, negative emotions, nor social roles mediated effects on binge drinking. Positive emotions at one week mediated effects on binge drinking at six months, although positive emotions at two years did not mediate effects on binge drinking at 2.5 years. Conclusions Higher levels of binge drinking among those who terminate pregnancies do not appear due to stress or to negative emotions. Only parous women – and not nulliparous women – denied terminations experienced sustained reductions in binge drinking over time. PMID:26747416
De Boni, Raquel B.; Zheng, Lu; Rosenkranz, Susan L.; Sun, Xin; Lavenberg, Jeffrey; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; La Rosa, Alberto; Pierre, Samuel; Severe, Patrice; Cohn, Susan E.; Collier, Ann C.; Gross, Robert
Background Understanding patterns of antiretroviral adherence and its predictors is important for designing tailored interventions. Alcohol use is associated with non-adherence. This study aimed to evaluate: 1) if there was a difference in weekday compared with weekend adherence in HIV-infected individuals from low and middle income countries (LMIC), and 2) whether binge drinking was associated with this difference. Methods Data from a randomized trial conducted at 9 sites in 8 LMIC were analyzed. Microelectronic monitors were used to measure adherence. Differences between weekday and weekend adherence in each quarter (successive 12-week periods) were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and predictors of adherence, including baseline binge drinking, were evaluated using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Data from 255 participants were analyzed: 49.8% were male, median age was 37 years and 28.6% enrolled in Haiti. At study entry, only 2.7% reported illicit substance use, but 22.3% reported binge drinking at least once in the 30 days prior to enrollment. Adherence was higher on weekdays than weekends (median percent doses taken: 96.0% vs 94.4%; 93.7% vs 91.7%; 92.6% vs 89.7% and 93.7% vs 89.7% in quarters 1–4 respectively, all p<0.001). Binge drinking at baseline and time on study were both associated with greater differences between weekday and weekend adherence. Conclusions Adherence was worse on weekends compared to weekdays: difference was small at treatment initiation, increased over time and was associated with binge drinking. Screening and new interventions to address binge drinking, a potentially modifiable behavior, may improve adherence in HIV-infected individuals in LMIC. PMID:26774947
Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Xiao, Hong
This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and monthly binge drinking; unemployed women were more likely to use marijuana. Women in both categories were at risk for polysubstance use. Additional research is needed to explicate how labor force participation influences women's substance use.
VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Grimsrud, Kristin N.; Midic, Uros; Mtango, Namdori; Latham, Keith E.
Objective To determine if binge ethanol prior to ovulation affects oocyte quality and gene expression and subsequent embryo development Design Binge ethanol given twice weekly for 6 months followed by standard IVF cycle and subsequent natural mating. Setting Research University – National Primate Research Center Animals Adult female rhesus monkeys Interventions Binge ethanol twice weekly for 6 months prior to standard in vitro fertilization cycle with or without embryo culture. With in vivo development, ethanol treatment continued until pregnancy was identified. Main Outcome Measures Oocyte and cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, embryo development to blastocyst and pregnancy rate Results Reduced embryo development in vitro, changes in oocyte and cumulus cell gene expression, and an increase in spontaneous abortion during very early gestation Conclusions This study provides evidence that binge drinking can affect the developmental potential of oocytes even after alcohol consumption had ceased. PMID:25492684
Guise, Jennifer M F; Gill, Jan S
Binge drinking in young people, particularly females and students, is a source of some concern to those engaged in health education. The concept is usually defined in terms of quantities of alcohol consumed within a relatively short space of time. Research suggests that reasons for drinking are varied, and are likely to be influenced by culture and context. This study aimed to explore issues important to female undergraduate students in Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 participants who were asked to describe what they understand by the term 'binge drinking', why they drink and what might trigger excessive consumption. Discourse analysis was used to explore the possible 'functions' of what was said, as well as the content. Participants showed sensitivity to how others might interpret their responses. They described binge drinking in terms of its behavioural effects rather than quantities consumed. Crucially, they positioned themselves outside the categories of 'serious' or 'anti-social' drinkers. These findings have important implications for our understanding of factors influencing drinking behaviour in this group of people, which in turn impacts on the potential design of health-enhancing interventions. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of a discourse analytic approach to accounts of drinking behaviour.
Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M.; Alipour, Kent K.; Michael, Laura A.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.
Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents. During this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive/behavioral impairments in rats. Binge models, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days cause these effects. There has been little work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated binge administration during adolescence on later ethanol-induced behavior in young adulthood and adulthood. The repeated four-day binge model may serve as a good approximate for patterns of human adolescent alcohol consumption as this is similar to a “bender” in human alcoholics. The present set of experiments examined the dose-response and sex-related differences induced by repeated binge ethanol administration during adolescence on sweetened ethanol (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) intake in young adulthood. In both experiments, on postnatal days (PND) 28–31, PND 35–38 and PND 42–45, ethanol (1.5, 3.0 or 5.0 g/kg) or water was administered intragastrically to adolescent rats. Rats underwent abstinence from PND 46–59. Subsequently, in young adulthood, ethanol and saccharin intake were assessed. Exposure to any dose of ethanol during adolescence significantly enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood. However, while female rats had higher overall g/kg intake, males appear to be more vulnerable to the impact of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequently increased ethanol intake in young adulthood. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence did not alter saccharin consumption in young adulthood in male or female rats. Considering that adolescence is the developmental period in which ethanol experimentation and consumption is usually initiated, the present set of experiments demonstrate the importance of
Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara
The current study investigated whether binge drinking in female undergraduates could be reduced by the mere measurement effect (MME), and by altering binge drinker prototypes from the prototype willingness model (PWM). Whether willingness added to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was also explored. Female undergraduates aged 17-25 (N=122) were randomly allocated to a prototype manipulation, mere measurement, or control group, and completed two online questionnaires separated by 14-21 days. Controlling for past behaviour, MME group consumed less alcohol than the control group, and this effect was more extreme for those who previously consumed more alcohol. However, the prototype manipulation had no effect. The TPB variables were predictive of intentions and behaviour, but willingness was not. Despite limitations, the MME could be utilised to reduce binge drinking in female undergraduates. The TPB appears to model binge drinking in female undergraduates better than the PWM, implying that binge drinking can be a reasoned behaviour.
Haskard, Kelly B; Banta, Jim E; Williams, Summer L; Haviland, Mark G; DiMatteo, M Robin; Przekop, Peter; Werner, Leonard S; Anderson, Donald L
Binge drinking and poor mental health may affect adherence to treatment for individuals with asthma. The purposes were to (a) examine the relationship of self-reported binge drinking and mental health to adherence to daily asthma control medications and (b) identify other demographic and health-related factors associated with asthma control medication adherence. Secondary analyses of 2003 adult California Health Interview Survey data were undertaken, and these analyses identified 3.2 million California adults who had been told by a physician they had asthma. Of these, approximately 1.7 million were symptomatic. Binge drinking significantly predicted medication nonadherence among California adults with symptomatic asthma (OR = .63, 95% CI = .45-.89), whereas poor mental health did not. Other predictors of nonadherence (odds ratios < 1, p < .05) included being overweight, younger age, having some college education, being a current smoker, and having no usual source of medical care. Predictors of adherence (odds ratios > 1, p < .05) were older age, more frequent asthma symptoms, more ER visits, more missed work days, being African American, and being a non-citizen. Intervention efforts could be directed toward improving medication adherence among adult asthma patients who engage in risky health behaviors such as binge drinking. Also at risk for medication nonadherence and therefore good targets for asthma control medication management interventions are adults who are overweight, younger (18-44 age range), have some college education, and no usual source of medical care.
Wechsler, Henry; Kelley, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elissa R.; San Giovanni, John Paul; Seibring, Mark
Surveyed college administrators about how colleges were preventing binge drinking. There was widespread prevention involving general alcohol education, restricting advertising at sporting events, and allocating alcohol-free living spaces. Programming was less prevalent for more targeted alcohol education, social norms campaigns, outreach, and…
Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.
We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…
Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan
College Greek life students self-report high rates of binge drinking and experience more alcohol-related problems than students who are not members of the Greek system. But little research has been conducted to measure differences in alcohol-free housing (dry) and alcohol-allowed housing (wet). The purpose of this quantitative study was to…
D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A
Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed. PMID:26412923
D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A
Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed.
Flett, Gordon L.; Goldstein, Abby; Wall, Anne-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Wekerle, Christine; Azzi, Nicole
Objective: In September 2005, the authors explored the relationship between perfectionism and binge drinking in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: The authors recruited 207 first-year college students (76 men, 131 women) to complete the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale…
McBride, Nicole M.; Barrett, Blake; Moore, Kathleen A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence
Objective: This study explored associations between positive alcohol expectancies, and demographics, as well as academic status and binge drinking among underage college students. Participants: A sample of 1,553 underage college students at 3 public universities and 1 college in the Southeast who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey in the…
Jun, Mikyoung; Agley, Jon; Huang, Chunfeng; Gassman, Ruth A.
The extent to which social norms (injunctive and descriptive) are associated with collegiate alcohol use--including binge drinking--has been examined at length, but studies examining the efficacy of interventions derived thereof have reported mixed outcomes. This study examines data from 5,124 college students at 13 different colleges collected by…
DeSimone, Jeffrey S.
This paper estimates the impact of binge drinking on sexual activity among a nationally representative set of high school students during the 1990s and 2000s. The main innovations are explicitly controlling for time-invariant preferences regarding sexual behavior and alcohol use, and eliminating non-drinkers from the comparison group. I find that…
Rozensher, Susan G.; Seal, David S.
The experiential learning approach has been gathering substantial momentum and support in educational circles. In the team-based experiential learning project presented here, which effectively integrated theory and application, students were charged with creating an integrated marketing communications plan to demarket binge drinking on the college…
Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.
Background This paper examines the association between perceived neighborhood violence, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy, and binge drinking among Mexican Americans residing on the U.S.-Mexico border. Methods Data were collected from a multi-stage cluster sample of adult Mexican Americans residing in the U.S.-Mexico border areas of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1,307). The survey weighted response rate was 67%. Face-to-face interviews lasting approximately one hour were conducted in respondents’ homes in English or Spanish. Path analysis was used to test whether collective efficacy mediated the impact of perceived neighborhood violence on binge drinking. Results Among 30+ year old women, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood violence on binge drinking in a theoretically predicted way: Lower perceptions of violence predicted an increased perception of collective efficacy, which in turn, predicted less binge drinking. Direct effects of violence perceptions on binge were non-significant. Younger 18 to 29 year old women showed a similar (but non-significant) pattern of effects. Perceived collective efficacy also mediated the effects of perceived violence on binge drinking among men, but in opposite ways for older and younger men. Older men showed the same mediating effect as older women, but the effect reversed among younger men due to a strong, positive relation between collective efficacy and binge drinking. There were also age differences in the direct effect of violence perceptions on binge drinking: Perceptions of violence predicted more binge drinking among young men, but less among older men. Conclusions These results highlight the complexity of people’s responses to neighborhood characteristics in regard to their drinking. Young men in particular seem to react very differently to perceptions of collective efficacy than other groups. However, among both men and women, collective
Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Sanchez-Amate, Maria Del Carmen; Cubero, Inmaculada
Orexins (OX) have been recently implicated in ethanol seeking and self-administration. A few recent studies have provided additional evidence that OX receptor antagonists effectively reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in subjects spontaneously showing high levels of ethanol intake. The present study further evaluates the contribution of OXR1 to excessive binge-like drinking of ethanol in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice from a pharmacological and molecular approach. The main findings in the study are: (1) Icv administration of SB-334867 (3 μg/μl) blunted ethanol (20% v/v), but not saccharin (0.15% w/v) binge-like drinking in a drinking in the dark procedure, without any alteration of chow consumption or total calories ingested; (2) Icv administration of SB-334867 (3 μg/μl) increased the latency to recover the righting reflex after a sedative dose of ethanol without any significant alteration in ethanol peripheral metabolism; (3) four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of saccharin, but not ethanol binge-like drinking blunted OXR1 mRNA expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Present findings extend the current knowledge pointing to a role for OX signaling in ethanol sedation, which might partially explain the inhibitory effect of OXR1 antagonists on ethanol consumption. Combined pharmacological and molecular data suggesting the contribution of OXR1 in ethanol binge-drinking leading us to propose the idea that targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to control binge-consumption episodes of ethanol in vulnerable organisms failing to spontaneously reduce OX activity.
Fraser, Sarah L; Muckle, Gina; Abdous, Belkacem B; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W
Prenatal exposure to an average of 0.5 oz absolute alcohol per day (the equivalent of 7 standard drinks per week) during pregnancy has been found to be associated with numerous adverse effects on pre- and postnatal development. In the animal model, concentrated alcohol exposure has been found to lead to more adverse effects than exposure to the same total quantity of alcohol ingested in smaller doses over a longer period of time. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether, in a population where binge drinking is common but total alcohol consumption across pregnancy is low, prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with effects on prenatal growth, visual acuity and cognitive development during infancy. The second aim is to determine which of several indicators of alcohol consumption best predicts pre- and postnatal outcomes. Data were collected from 216 Inuit women and their infants living in Nunavik, the northern region of Québec. Maternal interviews were conducted during mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 6 months postpartum. Birth weight, length, and head circumference were assessed at delivery. Visual acuity and cognitive development were assessed at 6 months of age. In this population in which infrequent heavy episodic drinking is common, even occasional binge exposure was associated with reduced prenatal growth and poorer visual acuity at 6 months of age. A simple dichotomous measure of binge drinking during pregnancy provided the best predictor of fetal growth and 6-month acuity. The population studied here is unusual in terms of its pattern of binge alcohol consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to observe effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on infant growth and development in a sample where the average daily alcohol intake is low (<0.5 ounces).
Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.
Bulloch, Andrew G.M.; Williams, Jeanne V.A.; Lavorato, Dina H.; Patten, Scott B.
Background: Heavy drinking is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little information is available on trends in Canada regarding alcohol abuse. We sought to estimate abstinence, binge drinking and alcohol intake exceeding low-risk drinking guidelines in the Canadian population from 1996 to 2013. Methods: The data sources for this analysis were a series of cross-sectional national health surveys of the Canadian population carried out by Statistics Canada between 1996 and 2013. These were cross-sectional files from the National Population Health Surveys of 1996 and 1998, plus the Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2013. Respondents were aged 18 years and older. Results: The proportion of binge drinkers increased steadily from 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.2%-14.2%) in 1996 to 19.7% (95% CI 19.1%-20.3%) in 2013. The corresponding proportions for men were 20.8% (95% CI 19.9%-21.7%) in 1996, and 25.7% (95% CI 24.7%-26.6%) in 2013; for women, these proportions were 6.9% (95% CI 6.4%-7.5%) in 1996, and 13.8% (95% CI 13.1%-14.5%) in 2013. No significant increases were seen in the proportion of people who exceeded low-risk drinking guidelines or of abstainers during the same period. Interpretation: The rate of self-reported binge drinking in Canada has increased from 1996 to 2013, relatively more so among women than among men. No evidence of an increase in the proportion of people exceeding low-risk drinking guidelines or of abstainers was seen during the same period. These results suggest that binge drinking is of particular concern regarding intervention strategies aimed at improvement of public health. PMID:28018872
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
Schmidt, Ricarda; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja
A sizeable body of research has documented Expressed Emotion (EE) to predict clinical outcomes in various psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Patients' perceptions of relative's EE, however, were found to play an important role in the processing of EE. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived EE in adolescent binge-eating disorder (BED) and its impact on eating disorder psychopathology. Adolescents (12-20 years) seeking treatment for BED (n = 40) were compared to adolescents without current or lifetime eating disorder (CG; n = 40). Both groups were stratified according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), and socio-economic status. The Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) and the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE were administered to assess patients' perceived maternal EE. Additionally, adolescents and mothers completed questionnaires on eating disorder and general psychopathology. On the FMSS, 37.5 % of patients with BED perceived their mothers as high EE (vs. 12.5 % in the CG). On the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE, patients with BED reported significantly higher levels of perceived maternal criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and lower levels of perceived warmth than controls. After controlling for the diagnosis of BED, perceived criticism and warmth, as assessed by questionnaire, significantly explained adolescents' global eating disorder psychopathology. Negative perceptions of maternal behavior and emotional atmosphere towards the child are characteristic of adolescent BED. As documented for other eating disorders, family factors are likely to have substantial implications for the maintenance and treatment of adolescent BED.
Pleil, Kristen E.; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; McCall, Nora M.; Kendra, Alexis M.; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.
Summary paragraph Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies including alcohol abuse, and anxiety1–4. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin–releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF play opposing functional roles in the regulation of emotional and reward–seeking behaviors; therefore, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could play a role in the development of these pathologies. Here, we used converging physiological, pharmacological, and chemogenetic approaches to identify a precise neural mechanism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic brain region involved in pathological reward and anxiety behaviors, underlying the interactions between NPY and CRF in the regulation of binge alcohol drinking in both mice and monkeys. We found that NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) activation in the BNST suppressed binge alcohol drinking by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission specifically in CRF neurons via a novel, Gi-mediated, PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism. Further, chronic alcohol drinking led to persistent alterations in Y1R function in the BNST of both mice and monkeys, highlighting the enduring, conserved nature of this effect across mammalian species. Together, these data provide both a cellular locus and signaling framework for the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcohol use disorders. PMID:25751534
DeBar, Lynn L.; Wilson, G. Terence; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Burns, Beryl; Oyler, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Tom; Clarke, Gregory N.; Dickerson, John; Striegel, Ruth H.
There is a need for treatment interventions to address the high prevalence of disordered eating throughout adolescence and early adulthood. We developed an adolescent-specific manualized CBT protocol to treat female adolescents with recurrent binge eating and tested its efficacy in a small, pilot randomized controlled trial. We present lessons…
Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline
The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…
McKinney, Christy M; Chartier, Karen G; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T Robert
The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and neighborhood poverty. The 1,784 current drinkers in the survey reported on their binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and other covariates. AOD was defined as the number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 persons and was obtained at the zip code level. Neighborhood poverty was defined as having a low (<20%) or high (≥20%) proportion of residents living in poverty at the census tract level. We used logistic regression for survey data to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tested for differences of associations by sex. Associations of neighborhood poverty with binge drinking were stronger for male than for female drinkers. The association of neighborhood poverty with alcohol-related problems was also stronger for men than for women. We observed no relationships between AOD and binge drinking or alcohol-related problems in this couples survey. Efforts to reduce binge drinking or alcohol-related problems among partners in committed relationships may have the greatest impact if targeted to male drinkers living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, as well as residence in an impoverished neighborhood are risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and other relationship conflicts.
Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth.
Johnson, C Anderson; Xiao, Lin; Palmer, Paula; Sun, Ping; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Bechara, Antoine
The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinkers, but not lighter drinkers, would show signs of impairment on tasks of affective decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), when compared to adolescents who never drank. We tested 207 10th grade adolescents in Chengdu City, China, using two versions of the IGT, the original and a variant, in which the reward/punishment contingencies were reversed. This enables one to distinguish among different possibilities of impaired decision-making, such as insensitivity to long-term consequences, or hypersensitivity to reward. Furthermore, we tested working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Paper and pencil questionnaires were used to assess drinking behaviors and school academic performance. Results indicated that relative to never-drinkers, adolescent binge drinkers, but not other (ever, past 30-day) drinkers, showed significantly lower net scores on the original version of the IGT especially in the latter trials. Furthermore, the profiles of behavioral performance from the original and variant versions of the IGT were consistent with a decision-making impairment attributed to hypersensitivity to reward. In addition, working memory and school academic performance revealed no differences between drinkers (at all levels) and never-drinkers. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for demographic variables, working memory, and school academic performance, the IGT significantly predicted binge-drinking. These findings suggest that a "myopia" for future consequences linked to hypersensitivity to reward is a key characteristic of adolescents with binge-drinking behavior, and that underlying neural mechanisms for this "myopia" for future consequences may serve as a predisposing factor that renders some adolescents more susceptible to future addictive behaviors.
McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Worth, Keilah A.; Sargent, James D.
Objective To describe ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) and its association with attitudinal susceptibility, initiation of alcohol use, and binge drinking. Design Three-wave longitudinal study. Setting Confidential telephone survey. Participants Representative US sample of 6522 adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline survey (4309 of whom were never-drinkers at 8 months); subjects were resurveyed at 16 and/or 24 months. Main Exposures Ownership of ABM (first assessed at the 8-month survey) and attitudinal susceptibility to alcohol use. Outcome Measures Initiation of alcohol use that parents did not know about and binge drinking (≥5 drinks in a row). Results Prevalence of ABM ownership ranged from 11% of adolescents (at 8 months) to 20% (at 24 months), which extrapolates to 2.1 to 3.1 million US adolescents, respectively. Clothing and headwear comprised 88% of ABM. Beer brands accounted for 75% of items; 45% of items bore the Budweiser label. Merchandise was obtained primarily from friends and/or family (71%) but was also purchased by the adolescents themselves (24%) at stores. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership and susceptibility were reciprocally related, each significantly predicting the other during an 8-month period. In turn, we found that ABM ownership and susceptibility predicted both initiation of alcohol use and binge drinking, while controlling for a broad range of covariates. Conclusions Alcohol-branded merchandise is widely distributed among US adolescents, who obtain the items one-quarter of the time through direct purchase at retail outlets. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership is independently associated with susceptibility to as well as with initiation of drinking and binge drinking. PMID:19255387
Correia, Christopher J; Carey, Kate B; Simons, Jeffrey; Borsari, Brian E
Heavy episodic drinking is a relatively common phenomenon among college students, and students who engage in binge drinking are at increased risk for a variety of adverse consequences. This paper investigates relationships between substance use and reinforcement derived from specific categories of substance-free activities among a sample of 256 college undergraduates. Data from a standardized behavioral inventory were used to compare the frequency, pleasure, and reinforcement potential of substance-free events and activities experienced by binge drinkers and a comparison group. Binge drinkers reported significantly lower scores across a variety of substance-free activity categories and, in the majority of the cases, the relationship between binge drinking and decreased reinforcement density remained significant after accounting for the effects of the use of other drugs and demographic variables. These results are consistent with a growing body of evidence linking substance use to deprivation of substance-free reinforcement.
Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD) recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years) attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months) compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7%) of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1). Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message. PMID:21689457
Pridemore, William Alex
Aims and design This study employs unique newly available Russian mortality data to examine the social connection between binge drinking and homicide in the country. Setting, participants and measurements All death certificates of those aged 20–64 years in the Udmurt Republic, Russia, were analyzed according to day and cause of death for the years 1994–98. Deaths due to alcohol poisoning were used as a proxy for binge drinking. Findings There was a high bivariate correlation (r = 0.75) between the daily distribution of deaths due to alcohol and homicide. The number of alcohol deaths was significantly higher on Saturdays and Sundays (presumably as a result of drinking on Friday and Saturday nights) and the number of homicide deaths was significantly higher on Fridays and Saturdays. Conclusions The levels of alcohol consumption and homicide in Russia are among the highest in the world, and there is mounting evidence that the two are related. Binge drinking, preference for distilled spirits and a high social tolerance for heavy drinking may act as social and cultural contextual factors that might increase the risk of violent outcomes. The high correspondence between the daily distribution of alcohol and homicide deaths provides indirect evidence for the social connection between them. While these findings do not represent a causal connection, when placed in the context of the growing literature on this topic they provide further support of an association between alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia and preliminary evidence for the intermediate role in this relationship played by social context. PMID:15265100
Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Maenner, G; Gledhill-Hoyt, J; Lee, H
In 1997, the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study resurveyed colleges that participated in a 1993 study. The findings revealed little change in binge drinking: a slight decrease in percentage of binge drinkers and slight increases in percentages of abstainers and frequent binge drinkers. Two of 5 students were binge drinkers (42.7%); 1 in 5 (19.0%) was an abstainer, and 1 in 5 was a frequent binge drinker (20.7%). As was true in 1993, 4 of 5 residents of fraternities or sororities were binge drinkers (81.1%). Asian students showed a greater increase and White students a greater decrease in binge drinking from 1993 to 1997, compared with all other students. Among students who drank alcohol, increases in frequency of drinking; drunkenness; drinking to get drunk; and alcohol-related problems, including drinking and driving, were reported. Binge drinkers in both 1993 and 1997 were at increased risk of alcohol-related problems, and nonbingers at colleges with high binge drinking rates had increased risks of encountering secondhand effects of binge drinking.
Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John
High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p < 0.05). No such relationship was found with less than weekly binge drinking. Among both MSM and TW, having a female partner was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 3.3, p < 0.05) and binge drinking at least weekly (aRRR = 3.4, p < 0.05), while disclosure of sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p < 0.01; aRRR = 4.0 for disclosure to three-nine types of people, p < 0.01). No such relationship was found with at least weekly binge drinking. Binge drinking at least weekly was marginally associated with a number of sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p < 0.10), inconsistent condom use with a non-regular partner (aOR = 0.5, p < 0.10), and decreased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (a
Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…
Gilligan, Conor; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard
Early consumption of full servings of alcohol and early experience of drunkenness have been linked with alcohol-related harmful effects in adolescence, as well as adult health and social problems. On the basis of secondary analysis of county-level prevalence data, the present study explored the current pattern of drinking and drunkenness among 15- and 16-year-old adolescents in 40 European and North American countries. Data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Children survey and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs were used. The potential role of alcohol control and policy measures in explaining variance in drinking patterns across countries was also examined. Policy measures and data on adult consumption patterns were taken from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, Eurostat and the indicator of alcohol control policy strength developed by Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA et al. [(2007) Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries. PLoS Med 4:e151.]. We found that a non-significant trend existed whereby higher prices and stronger alcohol controls were associated with a lower proportion of weekly drinking but a higher proportion of drunkenness. It is important that future research explores the causal relationships between alcohol policy measures and alcohol consumption patterns to determine whether strict policies do in fact have any beneficial effect on drinking patterns, or rather, lead to rebellion and an increased prevalence of binge drinking.
Robinson, Lillian D.
Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…
Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.
Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…
Adamo, Kristi B.; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Goldfield, Gary S.
Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530
Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino
Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex.
Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Reingle, Jennifer
Background This paper examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Methods Respondents come from two independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results U.S. born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign born, independent of national group. Among foreign born Hispanics, age of arrival in the U.S. is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. Conclusions An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. PMID:24689445
Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L
The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.
Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The "BITE". British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18-24.] and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) [Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.], as well as 13 additional questions regarding the eating episodes and family-meal patterns. The results show that binge eating is a frequent behaviour in adolescence with 33.2% of the sample reporting binge eating at least once in the last six months. The adolescents who reported binge eating had higher scores on most of the YSR first-order factors compared to those who do not engage in this behaviour. No differences were found in family meal patterns. Questions regarding the binge-eating episodes were also analysed making comparisons by age and gender.
Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao
This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bekman, Nicole M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Trim, Ryan S.; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.
Purpose Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and non-drinking and motives for non-drinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives, (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Methods Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1648 high school students. Results Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer non-drinking motives than lighter drinkers or non-drinkers, however non-drinking expectancies only differed between non- and rare- drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated binge drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reduce drinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Conclusion Drinking and non-drinking expectancies, and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:21534645
Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.
Background This paper examines differences in drinking and binge drinking between Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in two metropolitan areas away from the border (Houston, Texas, and Los Angeles, California). Methods Respondents in the non-border area (Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) who were interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the U.S.-Mexico border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results There were no differences between border and non-border Mexican American men in the proportion of drinkers, the proportion who binge drink at least once a year and volume of alcohol consumption. However, within each location, there were significant differences in drinking by age, indicating that younger men drank more than men who were older. Border women showed significant differences across age groups in the proportion of drinkers, in binge drinking and volume of alcohol consumption, which were not seen among non-border women. Conclusions Women’s drinking seems to be more affected than men’s by their residence on or off the U.S.-Mexico border. This is seen most clearly among young women 18–29 years old and it is associated with an increased proportion of drinkers, a higher volume of drinking and an increased proportion of women who report binge drinking. Increased drinking in this group of younger women seems to be associated with drinking in Mexico. PMID:22017228
Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.
Background Minimal scientific information is available to inform public health policy on binge drinking prior to pregnancy detection. The nonhuman primate provides a valuable animal model for examining consequences to reproduction and offspring function that may result from this common pattern of alcohol abuse. Methods Adult female rhesus monkeys were dosed with 1.5 g/kg-d ethanol by gavage two days/week beginning seven months prior to mating and continuing to pregnancy detection at 19–20 days gestation. Postnatal evaluation of control (n=6) and ethanol treated (n=4) infants included a neonatal neurobehavioral assessment, a visual paired comparison (cognitive) test at 35 days of age and mother-infant interaction at 100–112 days of age. Results Alcohol-exposed neonates did not differ from controls in posture and reflex measures. Longer durations of visual fixation, suggesting slower visual processing, and greater novelty preference were seen in the alcohol group. At early weaning age, as infants spent more time away from their dams, more of the reunions between mother and infant were initiated by the mothers in the alcohol-exposed group, suggesting a more immature mother-infant interaction. Conclusion Intermittent high dose alcohol exposure (binge drinking) discontinued at early pregnancy detection in rhesus monkey can result in altered behavioral function in the infant. Mediating effects on ovum, reproductive tract and early embryo can be explored in this model. Studies of longer-term consequences in human populations and animal models are needed. PMID:24164332
Adams, Rachel Sayko; Larson, Mary Jo; Corrigan, John D.; Ritter, Grant A.; Horgan, Constance M.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Thomas V.
Objective To examine whether experiencing a traumatic brain injury (TBI) on a recent combat deployment was associated with postdeployment binge drinking, independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Using the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel, an anonymous survey completed by 28,546 personnel, the study sample included 6,824 personnel who had a combat deployment in the past year. Path analysis was used to examine whether PTSD accounted for the total association between TBI and binge drinking. Main Measures The dependent variable, binge drinking days, was an ordinal measure capturing the number of times personnel drank 5+ drinks on one occasion (4+ for women) in the past month. TBI-level captured the severity of TBI after a combat injury event exposure: TBI-AC (altered consciousness only), TBI-LOC≤20 (loss of consciousness up to 20 minutes), and TBI-LOC>20 (loss of consciousness greater than 20 minutes). APTSD positive screen relied on the standard diagnostic cutoff of 50+ on the PCL-C. Results The final path model found that while the direct effect of TBI (0.097) on binge drinking was smaller than that of PTSD (0.156), both were significant. Almost 70% of the total effect of TBI on binge drinking was from the direct effect; only 30% represented the indirect effect through PTSD. Conclusion Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to understand the underlying mechanisms that explain the relationship between TBI and increased postdeployment drinking. PMID:25310293
Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536
Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C
Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948
Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James
Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…
Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E
Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use.
Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Huiberts, Annemarie
The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent alcohol-specific parenting practices relate to adolescents' alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems, and whether these associations are moderated by socioeconomic status (SES), i.e. parents' education level and family income. The present data were collected within the framework of a representative study on alcohol use among Dutch students. The present findings are based on data from respondents who had been drinking in the past year (81.5%), and of whom one of the parents had filled out a short questionnaire including SES characteristics (52%). The sample consisted of 1,344 adolescents. Adolescents were approached in a school setting; parents received a short questionnaire at the home address. The results show that applying strict rules about alcohol use and having qualitative good conversations about drinking alcohol seem to prevent adolescents from heavy drinking patterns, whereas parental alcohol use seems to promote adolescents' drinking. A positive association was found between frequency of alcohol communication and availability of alcohol at home on the one hand and adolescents' drinking on the other. Some moderating effects of SES were found.
Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet
We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…
McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert
The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…
Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…
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... take when they're sober. They may drive drunk and injure themselves or others. Driving isn't the only motor skill that's impaired, though. Walking is also more difficult while intoxicated. In 2000, roughly one third ... People who are drunk also take other risks they might not normally ...
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J
Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.
Silvestre de Ferron, Benoit; Bennouar, Khaled-Ezaheir; Kervern, Myriam; Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Robert, Alexandre; Rabiant, Kevin; Antol, Johann; Naassila, Mickaël
Background: Binge drinking is common in adolescents, but the impact of only a few binges on learning and memory appears underestimated. Many studies have tested the effects of long and intermittent ethanol exposure on long-term synaptic potentiation, and whether long-term synaptic depression is affected remains unknown. Methods: We studied the effects of one (3g/kg, i.p.; blood ethanol content of 197.5±19mg/dL) or 2 alcohol intoxications (given 9 hours apart) on adolescent rat’s memory and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus slice after different delay. Results: Animals treated with 2 ethanol intoxications 48 hours before training phase in the novel object recognition task failed during test phase. As learning is related to NMDA-dependent mechanisms, we tested ketamine and found the same effect as ethanol, whereas D-serine prevented learning deficit. In hippocampus slice, NMDA-dependent long-term synaptic depression was abolished 48 hours after ethanol or ketamine but prevented after D-serine or in a low-Mg2+ recording medium. Long-term synaptic depression abolition was not observed 8 days after treatment. An i.p. treatment with MK-801, tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine, or muscimol was ineffective, and long-term synaptic potentiation, intrinsic excitability, and glutamate release remained unaffected. The input/ouput curve for NMDA-fEPSPs was shifted to the left 48 hours after the binges with a stronger contribution of GluN2B subunit, leading to a leftward shift of the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro relationship. Interestingly, there were no cellular effects after only one ethanol injection. Conclusion: Two ethanol “binges” in adolescent rats are sufficient to reversibly abolish long-term synaptic depression and to evoke cognitive deficits via a short-lasting, repeated blockade of NMDA receptors only, inducing a change in the receptor subunit composition. Furthermore, ethanol effects developed over a 48-hour period of abstinence, indicating an important role of
Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.
Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419
Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines historical variation in age 18 to 26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both levels of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over 3 decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976 to 2004 were surveyed at…
Keyes, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Goldmann, Emily; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro
INTRODUCTION Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for behavioral disorders in adulthood. One explanation for this life-course association is that child maltreatment increases vulnerability to the effects of subsequent stressors; however, the extent to which maltreatment increases sensitivity to social context has never been examined. We evaluated whether the association between neighborhood physical disorder and binge drinking was modified by child maltreatment exposure. METHODS Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, a prospective representative sample of predominately African Americans in the Detroit population. Neighborhood physical disorder was measured via systematic neighborhood assessment. Child maltreatment indicators included self-reported physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Incident binge drinking was defined as at least one episode of ≥5 drinks (men) or ≥4 drinks (women) in the past 30-day period among those with no binge drinking at baseline (N=1,013). RESULTS Child maltreatment and neighborhood physical disorder interacted to predict incident binge drinking (B=0.16, p=0.02) and maximum number of past 30-day drinks (B=0.15, p=0.04), such that neighborhood physical disorder predicted problematic alcohol use only among individuals with high exposure to child maltreatment. CONCLUSION The results add to the growing literature that African Americans in the U.S. are exposed to an array of stressors that have pernicious consequences for problematic alcohol use. Our results document the need for increased attention to the potential for at-risk alcohol use among populations with a high degree of stress exposure. PMID:21981990
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents with binge symptoms reported lower scores on secure attachment and father's care, and higher scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment. Binge eating symptoms were associated with father's care, but not with father's overprotection. Also, binge symptoms were negatively associated with secure attachment styles, and positively with preoccupied and fearful attachment. The data, finally, provided evidence that at higher levels of preoccupied attachment, the impact of binge symptoms tended to be lower when father's care was high.
Wechsler, H; Kelley, K; Weitzman, E R; SanGiovanni, J P; Seibring, M
In 1999, the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveyed 734 US college administrators to learn what colleges were doing to prevent binge drinking. Respondents rated the severity of student alcohol-abuse problems and described prevention efforts and institutional investments in prevention infrastructure. Prevention practices were widespread in the areas of general education about alcohol, use of policy controls to limit access to alcohol, restricting advertising at home-game sporting events, and allocation of living space to alcohol-free dormitories. Programming was less prevalent for more targeted alcohol education, outreach, and restrictions on alcohol advertising in campus media. Nationally, most of the surveyed colleges reported having a campus alcohol specialist, many had task forces, and about half were performing in-house data collection. Less common were program evaluations, community agreements, or neighborhood exchanges. Prevention practices varied with institutional characteristics and the surveyed administrators' perceptions of the severity of alcohol problems.
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Palm, Kathleen M.; Dalton, Elizabeth; Fava, Maurizio
There are high rates of comorbidity between heavy drinking and depressive symptoms among college students, often resulting in severe alcohol-related consequences. No empirically supported treatment exists that concurrently addresses both of these problems in this population. Research with college students has demonstrated that brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Thus, a program combining BMI and CBT-D appears ideal for college students with co-occurring binge drinking and depressive symptoms. This manuscript presents the rationale and format of a BMI + CBT-D treatment protocol for this population, and provides a case example of a female college student who received the protocol and experienced improvement in depressive symptoms, a reduction in alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences, and an increase in readiness to change alcohol consumption. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25170188
Bekman, Nicole M; Anderson, Kristen G; Trim, Ryan S; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A
Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and nondrinking and motives for nondrinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, nondrinking expectancies, and nondrinking motives; (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use; and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1,648 high school students. Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer nondrinking motives than did lighter drinkers or nondrinkers; however, nondrinking expectancies only differed between nondrinkers and rare drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, nondrinking expectancies, and nondrinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while nondrinking expectancies and nondrinking motives differentiated binge-drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reduce drinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Drinking and nondrinking expectancies and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies.
Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.
Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…
Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro
Few studies have assessed changes in alcohol use before and after a massive disaster. We investigated the contribution of exposure to traumatic events and stressors related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to alcohol use and binge drinking. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics collected in Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama on adults aged 18–85 (n=439): 1) data from 1968–2005 on household income; 2) data from 2005 and 2007 on total number of drinks per year and number of days the respondent binged; and 3) data from 2007 on exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Exposure to each additional hurricane-related traumatic event was associated with 79.2 more drinks and 2.46 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 1.09, 5.55), while more post-disaster stressors were associated with 16.5 more drinks and 1.23 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 0.99, 1.51). Respondents who had followed a lower lifetime income trajectory and were exposed to more lifetime traumatic events experienced the highest risk of reporting increased alcohol use given exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Disaster-related traumatic events and the proliferation of post-disaster stressors may result in increased post-disaster alcohol use and abuse. Disaster-related exposures may have a particularly strong impact among individuals with a history of social and economic adversity, widening preexisting health disparities. PMID:20977977
Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro
Few studies have assessed changes in alcohol use before and after a massive disaster. We investigated the contribution of exposure to traumatic events and stressors related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to alcohol use and binge drinking. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics collected in Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama on adults aged 18-85 (n=439): (1) data from 1968 to 2005 on household income; (2) data from 2005 and 2007 on total number of drinks per year and number of days the respondent binged; and (3) data from 2007 on exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Exposure to each additional hurricane-related traumatic event was associated with 79.2 more drinks and 2.46 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 1.09, 5.55), while more post-disaster stressors were associated with 16.5 more drinks and 1.23 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 0.99, 1.51). Respondents who had followed a lower lifetime income trajectory and were exposed to more lifetime traumatic events experienced the highest risk of reporting increased alcohol use given exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Disaster-related traumatic events and the proliferation of post-disaster stressors may result in increased post-disaster alcohol use and abuse. Disaster-related exposures may have a particularly strong impact among individuals with a history of social and economic adversity, widening preexisting health disparities.
Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly
We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.
Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.
Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637
Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael
How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations.
Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed.
McClain, Justin A; Hayes, Dayna M; Morris, Stephanie A; Nixon, Kimberly
Binge alcohol exposure in adolescent rats potently inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis by altering neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and survival; however, it is not clear whether alcohol results in an increase or decrease in net proliferation. Thus, the effects of alcohol on hippocampal NPC cell cycle phase distribution and kinetics were assessed in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Cell cycle distribution was measured using a combination of markers (Ki-67, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and phosphohistone H3) to determine the proportion of NPCs within G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics were calculated using a cumulative bromodeoxyuridine injection protocol to determine the effect of alcohol on cell cycle length and S-phase duration. Binge alcohol exposure reduced the proportion of NPCs in S-phase, but had no effect on G1 or G2/M phases, indicating that alcohol specifically targets S-phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics studies revealed that alcohol reduced NPC cell cycle duration by 36% and shortened S-phase by 62%, suggesting that binge alcohol exposure accelerates progression through the cell cycle. This effect would be expected to increase NPC proliferation, which was supported by a slight, but significant increase in the number of Sox-2+ NPCs residing in the hippocampal subgranular zone following binge alcohol exposure. These studies suggest the mechanism of alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis and also reveal the earliest evidence of the compensatory neurogenesis reaction that has been observed a week after binge alcohol exposure.
Nugent, Nicole R.; Lally, Michelle A.; Brown, Larry; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to numerous negative outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLH) and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms may play a role in maintaining alcohol use problems. The opioid receptor mu-1 (OPRM1) gene may play a role in both PTSD and alcohol use. We examined the association between PTSD and drinking motives as well as variation in the OPRM1 as a predictor of both PTSD and drinking motives in a sample of 201 PLH reporting recent binge drinking. Self-reported PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with drinking motives for coping, enhancement, and socialization. OPRM1 variation was associated with decreased PTSD symptom severity as well as enhancement motives for drinking. PMID:22143634
Moore, Michele Johnson; Soderquist, Jessie; Werch, Chudley
In this study, the authors evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a binge drinking prevention intervention for college students delivered via the Internet versus a parallel print-based intervention delivered via postal mail. A total of 116 college students completed the baseline survey. The authors then randomized the students into the Web or print group and sent them intervention materials. One hundred and six students completed the posttest survey. The intervention consisted of a series of 4 weekly "newsletters" in electronic or print format. The authors collected data using a standardized online 42-item survey. They found that an Internet-based binge drinking prevention intervention for college students was feasible. Results supported the efficacy of this intervention for those students already binge drinking, regardless of delivery mode. The authors found no significant differences on outcome measures when delivered via the Internet or postal mail. Results lend support to the use of the Internet as a viable alternative to more traditional health intervention delivery methods.
Bae, Mihyun; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Patel, Neha; Haughey, Norman J.
Binge drinking is a common form of alcohol abuse that involves repeated rounds of intoxication followed by withdrawal. The episodic effects of binge drinking and withdrawal on brain resident cells are thought to contribute to neural remodeling and neurological damage. However, the molecular mechanisms for these neurodegenerative effects are not understood. Ethanol (EtOH) regulates the metabolism of ceramide, a highly bioactive lipid that is enriched in brain. We used a mouse model of binge drinking to determine the effects of EtOH intoxication and withdrawal on brain ceramide metabolism. Intoxication and acute alcohol withdrawal were each associated with distinct changes in ceramide regulatory genes and metabolic products. EtOH intoxication was accompanied by decreased concentrations of multiple ceramides, coincident with reductions in the expression of enzymes involved in the production of ceramides, and increased expression of ceramide degrading enzymes. EtOH withdrawal was associated with specific increases in ceramide C16:0, C18:0 and C20:0 and increased expression of enzymes involved with ceramide production. These data suggest that EtOH intoxication may evoke a ceramide phenotype that is neuroprotective, while EtOH withdrawal results in a metabolic shift that increases the production of potentially toxic ceramide species. PMID:25060779
Samardzić, Senka; Bujsić, Gordana; Kozul, Karlo; Tadijan, Domagoj
The aim of this paper was to explore alcohol consumption and the development of this habit in the adolescent population based on qualitative data from 59 anonymous essays written by high school students. We found that the most of adolescents had their first experiences with alcohol in the seventh or eighth grades. They reported that they usually drank alcohol to be happy, to relax, to be courageous in approaching the opposite sex, to fit into society, and to be popular. Factors affecting drinking are influence of peers, family and social attitude towards drinking, laws and enforcement of legislation. In further prevention programs, we must be able to demonstrate that "having a good time" does not mean drinking alcohol. Programs for the prevention of alcohol-related problems must begin by adolescence, including both sexes equally and can be achieved through a coordinated and intense public health effort.
Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S
Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006
Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early
Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian
High-dosage alcohol intoxication (i.e., binge drinking in humans) is an increasingly prevalent problem. Despite the well-known long-term consequences, the acute effects of high-dosage alcohol intoxication on cognitive control processes have not been investigated with respect to neurophysiological changes in humans. We provide insights into the effects of high-dosage ethanol intoxication on action control functions in humans on the basis of neurophysiological (EEG) data. Action control processes were examined in a stop-change task. Based on a detailed analysis of behavioral and electrophysiological data, we demonstrate a specific modulation of action cascading processes. Opposed to commonly held views, high-dosage ethanol intoxication (0.9-1.13 ‰) exerts highly specific effects on cognitive subprocesses mediating action control. If action control processes are performed in succession, intoxicated and non-intoxicated participants perform equally well. However, action control processes become compromised during high-dosage ethanol intoxication, when different response options require processing resources in parallel. Under high-dose ethanol intoxication, subjects are not able to prioritize different response options. We could demonstrate that the effects were of high effect sizes (η (2) = 0.702) and rely more on response selection deficits than on deficits in attentional processing. The changes in response selection processes are mediated via the anterior cingulate cortex. The specificity of the observed effects may be due to a differential involvement of dopaminergic and GABAergic processes in action control and attentional selection processes.
Keith, Diana R.; Hart, Carl L.; McNeil, Michael P.; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D.
Background and Objectives In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Methods Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N =1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Results Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. PMID:25930151
Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Mendelson, Tamar
Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity–both independently and in combination–with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors. PMID:26705374
Lee-Winn, Angela E; Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Mendelson, Tamar
Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors.
Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja
Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology.
Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada
Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol
Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E; Cubero, Inmaculada
Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in the limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kgi.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge
Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia
Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…
Background Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder – the gold standard treatment for adults with binge eating disorder. Methods/design In a single-center efficacy trial, 60 12- to 20-year-old adolescents meeting diagnostic criteria of binge eating disorder (full-syndrome or subthreshold) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th or 5th Edition, will be centrally randomized to 4 months of cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 30) or a waiting-list control condition (n = 30). Using an observer-blind design, patients are assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after the end of treatment. In 20 individual outpatient sessions, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents focuses on eating behavior, body image, and stress; parents receive psychoeducation on these topics. Primary endpoint is the number of episodes with binge eating over the previous 28 days at post-treatment using a state-of-the art clinical interview. Secondary outcome measures address the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, mental comorbidity, self-esteem, quality of life, and body weight. Discussion This trial will allow us to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent binge eating disorder, to determine cost-effectiveness, and to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment will help to prevent excessive weight gain. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results
Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth
A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…
Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Cantacorps, Lídia; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, María A; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta
Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent excessive eating. In addition to altering the neurobiological reward system, several studies have highlighted that consumption of palatable food increases vulnerability to drug use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet consumed in a binge pattern during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine. After 40 days of binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week (PND 29-69), the reinforcing effects of cocaine on conditioning place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigm were evaluated in adolescent male mice. Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels and the effects of bingeing on fat on CB1 mu opioid receptor (MOr) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) were also assessed. Our results showed a significant escalation in the consumption of a high-fat diet between the first and last week. High-fat binge (HFB) animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a subthreshold dose of cocaine in the paradigms assayed, and animals under fat withdrawal were more vulnerable to the reinstatement of conditioned place preference. HFB mice also showed enhanced cocaine self-administration. After fat withdrawal, exposure to a new fat binge reinstated cocaine seeking. Although HFB did not modify leptin levels, a decrease in plasmatic ghrelin was observed. Moreover, this pattern of fatty diet resulted in a reduction of MOr and CB1 gene expression in the NAcc and an increase in GHSR expression in the VTA. We propose that bingeing on fat during adolescence induces long-lasting changes in the brain through the sensitization of brain reward circuits, which predisposes individuals to seek cocaine during adulthood.
... Underage drinking is affected by exposure to alcohol marketing. Underage drinking is also influenced by adult drinking, ... alcohol use. Reporting on youth exposure to alcohol marketing because it influences underage drinking. We know what ...
Under the Influence: The Binge Drinking Epidemic on College Campuses. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (May 15, 2002).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
A hearing was held to explore the problem of binge drinking on campus and to consider possible responses to this problem. Following an opening statement by Senator Joseph Lieberman, a panel of witness who have done research and work in the field gave testimony. These witnesses commented on the problem of binge drinking: (1) Raynard S. Kingston,…
Vetreno, Ryan P.; Crews, Fulton T.
Adolescence is a developmental period that coincides with the maturation of adult cognitive faculties. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can impact brain maturation. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 20% EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we discovered that AIE treatment reduced neurogenesis (i.e., doublecortin-immunoreactive [DCX + IR] cells) in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus of late adolescent (P56) male Wistar rats that persisted during abstinence into adulthood (P220). This reduction in neurogenesis was accompanied by a concomitant reduction in proliferating cells (Ki-67) and an increase in cell death (cleaved caspase-3). In the hippocampus, AIE treatment induced a long-term upregulation of neuroimmune genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its endogenous agonist high-mobility group box 1 as well as several proinflammatory signaling molecules. Administration of lipopolysaccharide, a gram-negative endotoxin agonist at TLR4, to young adult rats (P70) produced a similar reduction of DCX + IR cells that was observed in AIE-treated animals. Behaviorally, AIE treatment impaired object recognition on the novel object recognition task when assessed from P163 to P165. Interestingly, object recognition memory was positively correlated with DCX + IR in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus while latency to enter the center of the apparatus was negatively correlated with DCX + IR in the ventral dentate gyrus. Together, these data reveal that adolescent binge ethanol exposure persistently inhibits neurogenesis throughout the hippocampus, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might contribute to altered adult cognitive and emotive function. PMID:25729346
Lewis, Todd F.; Milroy, Jeffrey; Wyrick, David; Hebard, Stephen P.; Lamberson, Katie A.
Researchers have identified college student-athletes as a subgroup at risk for heavy drinking and associated consequences. Yet, few studies have examined multiple variables simultaneously to determine which stand out as most robust to explain drinking behavior among student-athletes. Student-athletes from 54 National Collegiate Athletic…
Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron
Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.
Shingleton, Rebecca M.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Franko, Debra L.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Yu, Jessica S.; Krishna, Meera; Nock, Matthew K.; Herzog, David B.
Objective Adolescents who self-injure often engage in bingeing/purging (BP). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has potential to offer insight into the relationship between self-injury and BP. The aims of this study were to examine the frequency and context of BP using EMA in a sample of nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) adolescents. Method Thirty adolescents with a history of NSSI responded to questions regarding self-destructive thoughts/behaviors using a palm-pilot device. Descriptive analyses compared thought/behavior contexts during reports of BP and NSSI thoughts/behaviors (occurring together vs. individually). Results BP thoughts were present in 22 (73%) participants, occurring on 32% of the person-days recorded; 59% of these participants actually engaged in BP behavior. Seventy-nine percent of BP thoughts co-occurred with other self-destructive thoughts. Adolescents were more often with friends/peers than alone or with family when having BP thoughts. Worry and pressure precipitated both BP and NSSI thoughts, but perceived criticism and feelings of rejection/hurt were associated more often with BP thoughts than with NSSI thoughts. Discussion BP thoughts and behaviors were common in this sample, often occurring with other self-destructive thoughts. Future EMA research is needed to address the function of BP symptoms, the contextual variables that increase risk for BP thoughts, and the factors that predict the transition of thoughts into behaviors in adolescents with and without self-injury. PMID:23729243
Urberg, Kathryn; Goldstein, Marilyn S.; Toro, Paul A.
The goal of this study was to explore whether supportiveness from a parent or a friend moderated the effects of the supportive person's drinking on the trajectory of adolescent alcohol abuse dependence symptoms. High-risk adolescents recruited from shelters and a matched sample of adolescents recruited from the sheltered adolescent's former…
Vetreno, Ryan P; Qin, Liya; Crews, Fulton T
Adolescence is characterized behaviorally by increased impulsivity and risk-taking that declines in parallel with maturation of the prefrontal cortex and executive function. In the brain, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is critically involved in neurodevelopment and neuropathology. In humans, the risk of alcoholism is greatly increased in those who begin drinking between 13 and 15years of age, and adolescents binge drink more than any other age group. We have previously found that alcoholism is associated with increased expression of neuroimmune genes. This manuscript tested the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinking upregulates RAGE and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 as well as their endogenous agonist, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and mRNA analyses found that RAGE expression was increased in the human post-mortem alcoholic orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Further, an earlier age of drinking onset correlated with increased expression of RAGE, TLR4, and HMGB1. To determine if alcohol contributed to these changes, we used an adolescent binge ethanol model in rats (5.0g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) and assessed neuroimmune gene expression. We found an age-associated decline of RAGE expression from late adolescence (P56) to young adulthood (P80). Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure did not alter RAGE expression at P56, but increased RAGE in the young adult PFC (P80). Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure also increased TLR4 and HMGB1 expression at P56 that persisted into young adulthood (P80). Assessment of young adult frontal cortex mRNA (RT-PCR) found increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidases, and neuroimmune agonists at P80, 25days after ethanol treatment. Together, these human and animal data support the hypothesis that an early age of drinking onset upregulates RAGE/TLR4-HMGB1 and other neuroimmune genes that persist into young adulthood and
Vetreno, Ryan P.; Qin, Liya; Crews, Fulton T.
Adolescence is characterized behaviorally by increased impulsivity and risk-taking that declines in parallel with maturation of the prefrontal cortex and executive function. In the brain, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is critically involved in neurodevelopment and neuropathology. In humans, the risk of alcoholism is greatly increased in those who begin drinking between 13 and 15 years of age, and adolescents binge drink more than any other age group. We have previously found that alcoholism is associated with increased expression of neuroimmune genes. This manuscript tested the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinking upregulates RAGE and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 as well as their endogenous agonist, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and mRNA analyses found that RAGE expression was increased in the human post-mortem alcoholic orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Further, an earlier age of drinking onset correlated with increased expression of RAGE, TLR4, and HMGB1. To determine if alcohol contributed to these changes, we used an adolescent binge ethanol model in rats (5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) and assessed neuroimmune gene expression. We found an age-associated decline of RAGE expression from late adolescence (P56) to young adulthood (P80). Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure did not alter RAGE expression at P56, but increased RAGE in the young adult PFC (P80). Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure also increased TLR4 and HMGB1 expression at P56 that persisted into young adulthood (P80). Assessment of young adult frontal cortex mRNA (RT-PCR) found increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidases, and neuroimmune agonists at P80, 25 days after ethanol treatment. Together, these human and animal data support the hypothesis that an early age of drinking onset upregulates RAGE/TLR4-HMGB1 and other neuroimmune genes that persist into young adulthood and
Wilson, Sylia; Malone, Stephen M; Thomas, Kathleen M; Iacono, William G
Developmental changes in structure and functioning are thought to make the adolescent brain particularly sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol. Although alcohol use disorders are relatively rare in adolescence, the initiation of alcohol use, including problematic use, becomes increasingly prevalent during this period. The present study examined associations between normative drinking (alcohol initiation, binge drinking, intoxication) and brain morphometry in a sample of 96 adolescent monozygotic twins. A priori regions of interest included 11 subcortical and 20 cortical structures implicated in the existing empirical literature as associated with normative alcohol use in adolescence. In addition, co-twin control analyses were used to disentangle risk for alcohol use from consequences of alcohol exposure on the developing brain. Results indicated significant associations reflecting preexisting vulnerability toward problematic alcohol use, including reduced volume of the amygdala, increased volume of the cerebellum, and reduced cortical volume and thickness in several frontal and temporal regions, including the superior and middle frontal gyri, pars triangularis, and middle and inferior temporal gyri. Results also indicated some associations consistent with a neurotoxic effect of alcohol exposure, including reduced volume of the ventral diencephalon and the middle temporal gyrus.
Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Zaso, Michelle J.; Maisto, Stephen A.
Objective: Although the association of impulsivity with diverse alcohol outcomes has been documented, the mechanisms by which impulsivity predicts drinking over time remain to be fully characterized. The authors examined whether positive drinking consequences, but not negative drinking consequences, mediated the association between impulsivity and…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne
What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219
Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne
What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus.
Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, US; Wimberley, T; Støvring, H; Bertrand, J; Landrø, NI; Mortensen, EL
Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children’s executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child’s age at testing, and the child’s gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations between maternal low to moderate average weekly consumption and BRIEF index scores were observed. In adjusted analyses, binge drinking in gestational week 9 or later was significantly associated with elevated Behavioural Regulation Index parent scores (OR 2.04, 95% CI 0.33–3.76), and with the risk of high scores on the Metacognitive Index assessed by the teacher (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01–4.23). Conclusions This study did not observe significant effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on executive functioning at the age of 5 years. Furthermore, only weak and no consistent associations between maternal binge drinking and executive functions were observed. PMID:22712874
Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass
The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…
McKay, Michael Thomas
Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.
Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire
There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.
Jones, Sandra C.; Reis, Samantha
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the features of alcopops which make them attractive to Australian adolescents, which features are most important in determining choice of ready-to-drinks (RTDs) over other alcoholic drinks, and whether these vary by age and gender. Design/methodology/approach: Mixed methods study. Participants in…
Kilburn, Tina R.; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Landrø, Nils Inge; Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Grove, Jakob; Sværke, Claus; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Background Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT) and information processing time (IPT) in young children. Method Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60–64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R) was administered. Results Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1–4. Conclusion This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring. PMID:26382068
Arliss, Rebecca M
Assessment of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet in the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community has been neglected. A questionnaire was used to investigate these health risk behaviors in 466 students at an urban community college and results for the 138 AAPI study participants were compared to the 328 non-Asians. Results for AAPI study participants showed that twenty percent (20.3%) were current cigarette smokers and 7.7% smoked eleven or more cigarettes per day. Ten percent (10.7%) reported binge drinking on one to two days per month and 17.3% reported binge drinking on three or more days per month. With regard to physical activity, 28.8% participated in stretching, 23.6% in strength and toning, 29.4% in moderate exercise, and 25.4% in vigorous exercise. Results indicated that on the day preceding the survey, only 11.9% consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, 88.4% ate no more than two servings of high-fat foods, and 37.6% consumed tofu, soymilk, or other soy food. AAPI study participants were more likely to frequently binge drink (p < .05), less likely to participate in strength and toning exercises (p < .05), and more likely to consume soy foods daily (p < .01) than non-Asian study participants. Recommendations are presented for health promotion program planning.
Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954
Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Acciaro, Carla; Lobina, Carla; Loi, Barbara; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi
Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption using the standard 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with unlimited access; under this regimen, sP rats daily consume 6-7 g/kg alcohol. The present study assessed a new paradigm of alcohol intake in which sP rats were exposed to the 4-bottle "alcohol (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen during one of the 12 h of the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle; the time of alcohol exposure was changed daily in a semi-random order and was unpredictable to rats. Alcohol intake was highly positively correlated with the time of the drinking session and averaged approximately 2 g/kg when the drinking session occurred during the 12th hour of the dark phase. Alcohol drinking during the 12th hour of the dark phase resulted in (a) blood alcohol levels averaging approximately 100 mg% and (b) severe signs of alcohol intoxication (e.g., impaired performance at a Rota-Rod task). The results of a series of additional experiments indicate that (a) both singular aspects of this paradigm (i.e., unpredictability of alcohol exposure and concurrent availability of multiple alcohol concentrations) contributed to this high alcohol intake, (b) alcohol intake followed a circadian rhythm, as it decreased progressively over the first 3 h of the light phase and then maintained constant levels until the beginning of the dark phase, and (c) sensitivity to time schedule was specific to alcohol, as it did not generalize to a highly palatable chocolate-flavored beverage. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, limited access to multiple alcohol concentrations may result in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats, modeling - to some extent - human binge drinking. A progressively increasing emotional "distress" associated to rats' expectation of alcohol might be the neurobehavioral basis of this drinking behavior.
Attention, impulsivity and cognitive flexibility in adult male rats exposed to ethanol binge during adolescence as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task: the effects of task and ethanol challenges
Rationale Alcohol abuse is prevalent in adolescent humans, but the long-term behavioral consequences of binge alcohol drinking are unknown. Objectives This study investigated the long-term effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure on attention and impulsivity. Methods Adolescent male rats were exposed to 5 g/kg of 25% v/w ethanol every 8 h for 4 days. During adulthood rats were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) assessing attention, impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Results There was no metabolic tolerance to ethanol in adolescent rats during AIE exposure. In the 5-CSRTT under baseline conditions, there were no differences between AIE-exposed and control rats in accuracy, omissions or premature responses, although AIE-exposed rats tended to make more timeout responses than control rats. The short-duration stimulus challenge decreased accuracy and increased omissions and timeout responses in both AIE-exposed and control rats. The long intertrial interval challenge increased premature responses in all rats. An ethanol challenge decreased correct responses, and increased omissions in control, but not in AIE-exposed, rats. Control, but not AIE-exposed, rats exhibited decreased premature and timeout responses after ethanol administration. Response latencies were not affected in AIE-exposed or control rats indicating no sedative effects of ethanol challenge. Conclusions The results indicate that ethanol binge exposure during adolescence has long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, which persist into adulthood and can be revealed after re-exposure to ethanol. AIE-induced diminished responses to disruptive effects of ethanol on attention, impulsivity and cognitive flexibility may lead to increased alcohol drinking and other maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. PMID:21881872
Pozueta, Ana; Diaz-Ceballos, Isabel; Lamarain, Maider; Perez, Carmen; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual
Our aim was to evaluate whether or not alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking is associated with alterations of memory and executive functions in a population of university students. At the same time, we have studied the role of potential modulating factors, such as the APOE genotype or physical exercise.University students enrolled in academic year 2013–2014 at Escuelas Universitarias Gimbernat-Cantabria, affiliated with the University of Cantabria, were invited to participate in the study. We gathered sociodemographic data and details regarding the lifestyle of 206 students (mean age 19.55 ± 2.39; 67.5% women). We evaluated memory and executive functions via a series of validated cognitive tests. Participants were classified as binge drinkers (BD) and non-BD. Using Student's t-distribution we studied the association between cognitive tests and BD patterns. Multivariate analyses were carried out via multiple linear regression. 47.6% of the students were found to be BD. The BD differed significantly from the non-BD in their results in the executive functions test TMT B (43.41 ± 13.30 vs 37.40 ± 9.77; p = 0.0003). Adjusting by age, sex, academic records, age at which they started consuming alcohol, cannabis consumption, level of physical activity and other possible modifying variables, the association was statistically significant (p = 0.009). We noticed a statistically significant inverse correlation (Pearson’s r2 = -0.192; p = 0.007) between TMT B and starting age of alcohol consumption. Differences were observed in another executive functions test, TMT A, but only in the group of women (19.73±6.1 BD vs 17.78±5.4 non-BD p = 0.05). In spite of the young age of our participants, BD was associated with a lower performance in the executive functions test (TMT B). These deficits were related to the age at which they started drinking alcohol, suggesting an accumulative effect. PMID:27861563
Salas-Gomez, Diana; Fernandez-Gorgojo, Mario; Pozueta, Ana; Diaz-Ceballos, Isabel; Lamarain, Maider; Perez, Carmen; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual
Our aim was to evaluate whether or not alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking is associated with alterations of memory and executive functions in a population of university students. At the same time, we have studied the role of potential modulating factors, such as the APOE genotype or physical exercise.University students enrolled in academic year 2013-2014 at Escuelas Universitarias Gimbernat-Cantabria, affiliated with the University of Cantabria, were invited to participate in the study. We gathered sociodemographic data and details regarding the lifestyle of 206 students (mean age 19.55 ± 2.39; 67.5% women). We evaluated memory and executive functions via a series of validated cognitive tests. Participants were classified as binge drinkers (BD) and non-BD. Using Student's t-distribution we studied the association between cognitive tests and BD patterns. Multivariate analyses were carried out via multiple linear regression. 47.6% of the students were found to be BD. The BD differed significantly from the non-BD in their results in the executive functions test TMT B (43.41 ± 13.30 vs 37.40 ± 9.77; p = 0.0003). Adjusting by age, sex, academic records, age at which they started consuming alcohol, cannabis consumption, level of physical activity and other possible modifying variables, the association was statistically significant (p = 0.009). We noticed a statistically significant inverse correlation (Pearson's r2 = -0.192; p = 0.007) between TMT B and starting age of alcohol consumption. Differences were observed in another executive functions test, TMT A, but only in the group of women (19.73±6.1 BD vs 17.78±5.4 non-BD p = 0.05). In spite of the young age of our participants, BD was associated with a lower performance in the executive functions test (TMT B). These deficits were related to the age at which they started drinking alcohol, suggesting an accumulative effect.
Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.
Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832
Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report.
Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.
This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…
The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…
Smith, Gregory T; Simmons, Jean R; Flory, Kate; Annus, Agnes M; Hill, Kelly K
One's expectancies for reinforcement from eating or from thinness are thought to represent summaries of one's eating-related learning history and to thus influence the development of binge-eating and purging behavior. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors tested this hypothesis and the hypothesis that binge eating also influences subsequent expectancy development. The authors used trajectory analysis to identify groups of middle school girls who followed different trajectories of binge eating, purging, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies. Initial eating and thinness reinforcement expectancies identified girls whose binge eating and purging increased during middle school, and expectancies differentiated girls who began these problem behaviors from girls who did not. Initial binge-eating scores differentiated among eating expectancy developmental trajectories. The onset of most behaviors can be understood in terms of learned expectancies for reinforcement from these behaviors. The same model can be applied to the risk for eating disorders.
Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T
Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction.
van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E
The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.
receptor ligands on ethanol intake and opioid levels in alcohol-preferring AA rats. Brain Res Bull 59:97– 104. Pritchard LE, Turnbull AV, White A... trouts ol < Tf’gether these data suggest that. in anrmals prone to drinking excess amounts of< ar ticipatory behaviors related to ethanol-seeking
Maney, Dolores W.; Theodorou, Elena; Vasey, Joseph J.
This paper describes a study that tested the effects of an educational intervention on the alcohol-related knowledge, normative beliefs, attitudes, and psychosocial skills of high-risk drinking college students. Knowledge items measured cognitive awareness of alcohol risks. Normative beliefs and attitude measures reflected misperceptions of…
Wechsler, Henry; Kuh, George; Davenport, Andrea E.
The purpose of this study is to compare the drinking and associated behavior of fraternity and sorority members to that of nonmembers. The project is national in scope, and its results can help determine whether public perceptions of alcohol use by students affiliated with Greek social organizations are warranted. This study will also lend some…
Reilly, Erin E.; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew
Objective: Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by…
DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A
Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.
Correas, A.; Cuesta, P.; López-Caneda, E.; Rodríguez Holguín, S.; García-Moreno, L. M.; Pineda-Pardo, J. A.; Cadaveira, F.; Maestú, F.
Adolescence is a period of ongoing brain maturation characterized by hierarchical changes in the functional and structural networks. For this reason, the young brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. Nowadays, binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol consumption increasingly prevalent among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the evolution of the functional and anatomical connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in young binge drinkers along two years. Magnetoencephalography signal during eyes closed resting state as well as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) were acquired twice within a 2-year interval from 39 undergraduate students (22 controls, 17 binge drinkers) with neither personal nor family history of alcoholism. The group comparison showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern along at least two years, binge drinkers displayed an increased brain connectivity of the DMN in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, the structural connectivity did not show significant differences neither between groups nor over the time. These findings point out that a continued pattern of binge drinking leads to functional alterations in the normal brain maturation process, even before anatomical changes can be detected. PMID:27506835
McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.
Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…
Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.
Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…
Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.
Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a
Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Wang, Pan; Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Prescott, Carol A.
Aims To test whether drinking onset moderates genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the etiology of alcohol expectancies across adolescence. Design Longitudinal twin design. Setting Community sample from Los Angeles, CA, USA. Participants A total of 1292 male and female twins, aged 11–18 years, were assessed at 1 (n = 440), 2 (n = 587) or 3 (n = 265) occasions as part of the risk factors for the Antisocial Behavior Twin Study. Measurements Social behavioral (SB) alcohol expectancies were measured using an abbreviated version of the Social Behavioral subscale from the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire for adolescents (AEQ-A). Drinking onset was defined as >1 full drink of alcohol. Findings Alcohol expectancies increased over age and the increase became more rapid following onset of drinking. The importance of genetic and environmental influences on SB scores varied with age and drinking status, such that variation prior to drinking onset was attributed solely to environmental influences, whereas all post-onset variation was attributed to genetic influences. Results did not differ significantly by sex. Conclusion Only environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use prior to drinking onset, whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset. PMID:25586461
Armenta, Brian E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Gentzler, Kari C.
Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking one year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associated with drinking five years later, but only for adolescents who reported no past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26999351
A translational systems biology approach in both animals and humans identifies a functionally related module of accumbal genes involved in the regulation of reward processing and binge drinking in males
Stacey, David; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Ruggeri, Barbara; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Cattrell, Anna; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Band, Hamid; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Buchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Easton, Alanna; Fauth-Buehler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavanh, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Rotter, Andrea; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Mameli, Manuel; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Mueller, Christian; Schumann, Gunter
Background The mesolimbic dopamine system, composed primarily of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to striatal structures, is considered to be the key mediator of reinforcement-related mechanisms in the brain. Prompted by a genome-wide association meta-analysis implicating the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene in the regulation of alcohol intake in men, we have recently shown that male Rasgrf2−/− mice exhibit reduced ethanol intake and preference accompanied by a perturbed mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore propose that these mice represent a valid model to further elucidate the precise genes and mechanisms regulating mesolimbic dopamine functioning. Methods Transcriptomic data from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of male Rasgrf2−/− mice and wild-type controls were analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). We performed follow-up genetic association tests in humans using a sample of male adolescents from the IMAGEN study characterized for binge drinking (n = 905) and ventral striatal activation during an fMRI reward task (n = 608). Results The WGCNA analyses using accumbal transcriptomic data revealed 37 distinct “modules,” or functionally related groups of genes. Two of these modules were significantly associated with Rasgrf2 knockout status: M5 (p < 0.001) and M6 (p < 0.001). In follow-up translational analyses we found that human orthologues for the M5 module were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with genetic association signals for binge drinking in male adolescents. Furthermore, the most significant locus, originating from the EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4) gene (p < 0.001), was also significantly associated with altered ventral striatal activity in male adolescents performing an fMRI reward task (pempirical < 0.001). Limitations It was not possible to determine the extent to which the M5 module was dysregulated in Rasgrf2−/− mice by perturbed mesolimbic
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Toumbourou, John W; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12-17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18-24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68-2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted.
Naimi, Timothy S.; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O’Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David
Background and Objectives Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. Methods An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13–20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Results Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Conclusions Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts. PMID:26425112
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…
Bauman, Karl E.; Bryan, Elizabeth S.
Found support for the hypothesis that subjective-expected utility (the degree to which expected consequences of a behavior when considered together by the individual are perceived as either more positive or more nagative) accounts for the fact that male adolescents drink more beer than females. (CMG)
Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.
The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…
Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun
Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.
Tyler, Kim A.; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Bersani, Bianca
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the influence of key characteristics on adolescent alcohol misuse (i.e., maternal binge drinking, parenting, peers, school characteristics, and the adolescent's own behavior) change over time and whether predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Using prospective,…
Dunn, Michael S; Bartee, R Todd; Perko, Michael A
Research has demonstrated a relation between alcohol use and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to a host of problems including high-risk sexual behavior, date rape, and academic problems. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption among adolescents and to examine the relations of alcohol use (lifetime, current, binge) with sexual activity variables (sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, condom use, and pregnancy) among adolescents completing the 1993-1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis showed alcohol use was associated with high-risk sexual activity. Binge drinking had stronger relations with sexual activity variables than lifetime use and current use of alcohol. This result is of particular concern, in that binge drinking has been implicated in many problem behaviors. As such, it is of great importance to intervene in the high-risk practices of adolescents before problems occur.
with binge eating had significantly greater total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference , insulin resistance and insulin levels than...distribution of fat around the abdomen, and is considered a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference is often used in adults as...development during puberty may confound measures of waist circumference (Biltoft & Muir, 2009). Risk Factor Defining level according to
The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics theory. Using 2980 best-friend dyads constructed from the National Longitudinal Study ofAdolescent Health ("Add Health"), I show that the peer influence process differs by the gender structure of the friendship. Adolescents in same-sex best friendships influence one another mutually, consistent with prior theoretical and empirical approaches to adolescent problem behavior: By contrast, boys in mixed-sex best friendships have influence over their female friends' drinking patterns, while the girls do not have any effect on their male friends' drinking behavior a finding consistent with status characteristics theory. The results indicate that peer influence models that do not take gender into account in the structure of the friendship misrepresent the unequal influence dynamics between boys and girls.
Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R
Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed.
Peterson, Peggy L.; And Others
A longitudinal study of 450 adolescents and their parents, begun when the adolescents were ages 12 to 13, found that parental drinking frequency was a predictor of alcohol use at ages 14 to 15 for both black and white adolescents. Good family management practices and proscriptions against involving children in other family members' alcohol use…
Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E
Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker
Birch, Sharla M.; Lenox, Mark W.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R.; Cudd, Tim A.; Washburn, Shannon E.
Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4–41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker
Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Svenningsson, Per
The popular recreational drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is often taken as intermittent binges by adolescents at dance clubs. The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie MDMA-induced psychiatric conditions are still poorly understood. In the present study, mimicking adolescent patterns of administration, repeated intermittent MDMA binges (3x5 mg/(kg day) given 3h apart, every 7th day for 4 weeks) were given to adolescent mice and rats. Behavioral responses in the open-field and autoradiographic ligand-binding to dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters in reward regions of the brain were measured. In the open-field, total horizontal activity (HA) was significantly increased in both mice and rats following the first and third weekly administered MDMA binge. However, rats, but not mice, exhibited an enhanced activity in the centre of the open-field arena, indicating on reduced anxiety or enhanced impulsivity, which is known to be associated with altered serotonin activity. Specific binding of DAT, but not SERT, was significantly reduced in the mouse AcbSh and CPU using in vitro autoradiography. On the contrary, SERT, but not DAT density was significantly reduced in the AcbSh of rats. Taken together, our data provide evidence for differential regulation of DAT and SERT densities in reward-related brain regions of rats and mice after long-term intermittent administration of MDMA.
Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) offers a parsimonious explanation of purposive behavior, but in the study of healthy and risk behaviors its sufficiency may be questioned. Working with binge-drinking, a very common risk behavior in Spanish undergraduate students, we used two strategies for improving predictions from TPB: using behavioral intention (BI) and behavioral expectation (BE) as proximal antecedents of behaviors and adding as new predictors two future-oriented emotions (anticipated and anticipatory). Hierarchical regression analyses show that while anticipated emotions improved TPB explanations of BI, anticipatory emotions improved the explanations of BE. The present results show the influence of future emotions in the prediction of behavioral intention and behavioral expectation.
Murphey, David; Vaughn, Brigitte; Barry, Megan; Terzian, Mary
A substantial proportion of high school students consume alcohol, with nearly a quarter of 12th grade students reporting binge drinking in the past two weeks. Drinking alcohol in adolescence is associated with a variety of other risky behaviors, as well as with an increased likelihood of long-term problems reaching into adulthood. This "Adolescent…
Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.
Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity
Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret A; Robinson, Donita L
Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative-motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity to
Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark H.; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Wimberley, Theresa; Landrø, Nils Inge; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at age five years. Design Follow-up study Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008 Population Prospective cohort study of 1,628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Parent and Teacher versions were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. The full statistical model included the following potential confounders: Maternal binge drinking or low-moderate alcohol consumption, respectively, parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child’s age at testing, the child’s gender, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, family-home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, and the child’s health status. Main outcome measures Behaviour among children assessed by the SDQ parent and teacher forms. Results Adjusted for all potential confounders, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal low to moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.1, CI 0.5–2.3 and OR 1.1., CI 0.6–2.1 for the total difficulties scores) or between binge drinking and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.2, CI 0.8–1.7 and OR 0.8, CI 0.6–1.2). Conclusion This study observed no consistent effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption or binge drinking in early pregnancy on offspring behaviour at age 5 years. PMID:23837773
Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.
de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes
Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…
Paxton, S J; Schutz, H K; Wertheim, E H; Muir, S L
This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel
This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology.
Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á
While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.
Jaffe, Jana M.
The use of alcohol by adolescents is a growing problem. Adolescents drinking and driving continues to be of great concern to society, as adolescent death from drinking and driving is not only untimely and unwarranted, but also preventable. Consequently, the need to find an intervention that speaks directly to adolescents about the negative effects…
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.
The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating…
Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.
We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529
Cox, Malcolm; Pritchard, Colin
To determine parental and school influences upon the behaviour and attitudes of adolescents of smoking versus non-smoking parents and of those "liking and disliking" school. Utilising a self-administered confidential standardised questionnaire, a representative sample of Southern English 10th and 11th year secondary school pupils was obtained. Current drink, drug and sexual behaviour were explored and data on adolescents whose parents smoked was extrapolated and compared against adolescents of non-smoking parents. Pupils reporting "liking school" were compared against those "not liking school" and all results statistically analysed. There were 17% smoking mothers [SM] and 23% smoking fathers [SF]. The focus is upon students of SF whose adolescents are significantly more often engaged in substance misuse (38-18%), drinking in pubs (31%-15%), binge drinking (32%-18%), and under-age sexual activity (27%-14%) plus smoking (51%-32%), truanting (43%-23%), vandalism (32%-22%) and stealing (19%-11%). SM students had higher incidence of sexual behaviour (33%-13%) and unprotected sex (21%-6%). Students of smoking parents were less well informed and had significantly more negative attitudes about social behaviour and responsibility. "Liking school" was associated to significantly lower rates of problematic behaviour, which predominately was not related to the social background of the pupils. The smoking father criteria carries a social class bias, nonetheless these parents need to be aware of the particular behaviour of their children and their increased risk. SF do not "cause" the behaviour rather it reflects something of the nature of the adolescent's relationship to parents, school and society.
Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer
Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.
This correlational study tested the efficacy of the social-ecological theory (Moos, 1979) by employing the University Residential Environmental Scale and multiple regression analysis to examine the influences of personal attributes (SAT, parents' level of education, race/ethnicity, and high school drinking) and environmental factors (high/low…
Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D
Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…
Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J
Friends are presumed to exert a substantial influence on young people's drinking patterns. The current study focused on the effects of the best friend's drinking behaviour on the alcohol consumption of 12-14-year-old adolescents. Furthermore, we hypothesized friendship characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and sociometric status differences) to moderate the extent in which adolescents had been influenced by their best friends. Longitudinal data of 1276 adolescents and their best friends were used to examine whether the adolescent's friend's drinking behaviour, reciprocity of the friendship, and status differences between friends affected the magnitude of change in the adolescent's drinking behaviour. The findings showed that best friend's drinking behaviour is related to adolescent's drinking both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Cross-sectionally, this association was particularly strong between mutual friends and friends with lower status. In longitudinal analyses, a different picture emerged. Respondents were most likely to adopt their friend's drinking behaviour when it was a unilateral friend with a higher status.
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.
The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of “numbing” while eating (ps < .01). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a subgroup, most of whom reported LOC eating. Cluster members reported having a trigger initiate episodes, eating while watching television, and having decreased awareness regarding the amount consumed. The authors conclude that aspects of LOC eating during youth are similar to aspects of adult episodes, but a youth-specific presentation may exist. Findings may provide an intervening point to prevent excessive weight gain and eating disorders. PMID:18085907
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D; Wilfley, Denise E; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A
The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating (ps<.01). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a subgroup, most of whom reported LOC eating. Cluster members reported having a trigger initiate episodes, eating while watching television, and having decreased awareness regarding the amount consumed. The authors conclude that aspects of LOC eating during youth are similar to aspects of adult episodes, but a youth-specific presentation may exist. Findings may provide an intervening point to prevent excessive weight gain and eating disorders.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.
McInnes, A.; Blackwell, D.
Aims: The main aim of this article was to determine the self-reported drinking behaviours of school age children in Sunderland in the North East of England. The results presented are derived from data collected by a Health Related Behaviour Survey, which was administered by the Schools Health Education Unit (SHEU) of the University of Exeter.…
López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena; Camarasa, Jorge
Methylone is a cathinone derivative that has recently emerged as a designer drug of abuse in Europe and the USA. Studies on the acute and long-term neurotoxicity of cathinones are starting to be conducted. We investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes indicative of neurotoxicity after methylone administration (4 × 20 mg/kg, subcutaneously, per day with 3 h intervals) to adolescent rats, to model human recreational use. In addition, we studied the effect of methylone on spatial learning ad memory using the Morris water maze paradigm. Our experiments were carried out at a high ambient temperature to simulate the hot conditions found in dance clubs where the drug is consumed. We observed a hyperthermic response to methylone that reached a peak 30 min after each dose. We determined a serotonergic impairment in methylone-treated rats, especially in the frontal cortex, where it was accompanied by astrogliosis. Some serotonergic alterations were also present in the hippocampus and striatum. No significant neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic system was identified. Methylone-treated animals only displayed impairments in the probe trial of the Morris water maze, which concerns reference memory, while the spatial learning process seemed to be preserved.
Lee, Kaziya M.; Coelho, Michal A.; McGregor, Hadley A.; Solton, Noah R.; Cohen, Matan; Szumlinski, Karen K.
Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence). Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v) for 2 h/day), while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs); however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test (FST) compared to water
Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja
Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…
Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Gutierrez, Inti Barrientos; Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.
Objectives To assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from two Latin American countries. Methods Cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge-drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style and media access. Results Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7) and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8% and 10.9% respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (OR) comparing quartiles 4 and 1 1.99 (95% CI 1.73 - 2.30) for current drinking, 1.68 (1.39 - 2.02) for binge drinking, and 1.80 (1.52 - 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 - 1.76.) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to trying drinking (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 - 1.64). Conclusions Higher levels of exposure to alcohol use in films was associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. PMID:26857804
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Christiansen, Bruce A.; And Others
Examined power of expectancies measured in early adolescents to predict self-reported drinking onset and drinking behavior measured one year later. Results showed that five of seven expectancy scores readily discriminated between nonproblem drinkers and those subsequently beginning problem drinkers and accounted for large portion of variance in…
Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.
The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.
OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035
Crego, Alberto; Rodriguez-Holguín, Socorro; Parada, María; Mota, Nayara; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando
Working memory (WM) is a major cognitive function that is altered by chronic alcohol consumption. This impairment has been linked to alterations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Animal and human studies have shown that the adolescent brain is more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than the adult brain, particularly those structures that mature late on in development, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal brain. The aim of the present study was to assess visual working memory and its neural correlates in young university students who partake in intermittent consumption of large amounts of alcohol (binge drinkers). A sample of 42 binge drinkers and 53 corresponding control subjects performed an identical pairs continuous performance task (IP-CPT) in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) study. The results revealed that, despite adequate performance, binge drinkers showed a smaller late positive component (LPC) associated with hypoactivation of the right anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) for matching stimuli, in comparison with control subjects. These findings may reveal binge drinking-related functional alteration in recognition working memory processes and suggest that impaired prefrontal cortex function may occur at an early age in binge drinkers.
Helfer, Jennifer L; Goodlett, Charles R; Greenough, William T; Klintsova, Anna Y
Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal binge-like alcohol exposure. On postnatal days (PD) 4-9, pups were either intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner, sham intubated, or reared normally. On PD30-42, all animals were randomly assigned to two adolescent conditions: wheel running or inactive control. Animals were injected with BrdU every day between PD32 and PD42 and perfused on PD42 or PD72. In inactive control animals at both PD42 and PD72, cell proliferation and neurogenesis did not differ between postnatal treatment groups. Wheel running significantly increased the number of BrdU-labeled cells on PD42 in all three postnatal treatments. On PD72, only the normal controls showed significant increases in survival of newly generated cells resulting from the wheel running. These results indicate that adolescent wheel running can induce comparable increases in cell proliferation and neurogenesis in alcohol-exposed and control rats, but the long-term survival of those newly generated cells is impaired relative normal controls. Exercise may provide a means to stimulate neurogenesis, with implications for amelioration of hippocampal-dependent learning impairments associated with alcohol exposure. However, benefits requiring long-lasting survival of the newly generated cells will depend on identifying ways to promote survival.
Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer
Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to…
Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage=16.15; SD=.75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673
Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816
Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa
Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576
Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa
Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P
In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females.
Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.
In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5 g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75 g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75 g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799
... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...
Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...
Di Pentima, L; Magnani, M; Tortolani, D; Montecchi, F; Ardovini, C; Caputo, G
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was administered to 62 adolescent female patients (mean age 14.3): 35 with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (RAN), and 27 with binge/purging-type anorexia nervosa (B/PAN) according to the DSM-IV criteria, all at onset and initial diagnosis. The PBI was also administered to a control group (55 subjects) and 22 patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease. The three groups were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The RAN and B/PAN patients gave significantly different interpretations of the parental bond (PB): for the former, it was adequate with both parents, for the latter it was inadequate, especially with the father. The fact that these differences exist at the onset of anorexia prior to any possible effect of therapy suggests that its structure is determined by different family dynamics.
Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe
Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.
Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg
This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Beck, Kenneth H.; Lockhart, Susan J.
A model of parental involvement in the prevention of teenage drinking and driving is presented. It is suggested that parents' effectiveness at intervening to prevent teenagers from drinking and driving depends on their stage of involvement. Parents are often unaware of the true extent and nature of teen drinking. (SLD)
Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen
Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578
Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W
Purpose Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend’s influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Methods Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high-school adolescents (N=2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results Results indicated that the influence from (1) is stronger on adolescent substance use than (2), especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of (2), adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for (3) indicated that the influence from “best friends” was weaker than the one from non-“best friends,” which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends’ influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. PMID:22824443
Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z
Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P <0.001). Whereas more girls claimed to drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.
Background Parents play a critical role in their children’s introduction to alcohol. A range of parenting factors have been associated with the progression to risky drinking among adolescents, and have recently formed the basis of the Australian ‘Parenting Guidelines for Adolescent Alcohol Use’ designed to help parents delay or reduce their adolescents’ alcohol use. Methods This study aimed to explore the experiences and attitudes of parents of adolescents to gain insight into: (1) the extent to which the behaviours of parents follow the recommendations made in the guidelines; and (2) approaches to reduce hazardous drinking among adolescents. Thirty-two telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents, and the content of discussions was examined using thematic analysis. Results Parents used approaches they thought would minimise harm and promote healthy development in their children. The guidelines address key areas of concern for parents but their adherence to these approaches is low in certain areas. Many parents provided some alcohol to their adolescents and often cited the social norm of drinking among their adolescents’ peers as a source of pressure to supply. Conclusions Further dissemination of the guidelines may be the first step in a public health strategy, but it is likely that parents will require support to effectively adopt the recommendations. Understanding the influences on parents’ beliefs about their children’s drinking and the functions of social networks in the creation of behavioural norms relating to alcohol consumption and supply may be necessary to address adolescent risky drinking. PMID:22747699
van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald
This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…
Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.
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Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Romelsjö, Anders; Tengström, Anders
This longitudinal study examined possible gender differences regarding risk and protective factors for heavy episodic drinking among 1,222 seventh-grade students (aged 13) in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, with follow-up 2 years later. Logistic regression analyses showed that several factors predicted heavy episodic drinking. The strongest predictors for boys' heavy episodic drinking in the ninth grade were heavy episodic drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 5.30) and smoking in the seventh grade (OR = 5.80). Drinking peers (OR = 2.47) and smoking (OR = 2.44) in the seventh grade showed the strongest association for girls. Furthermore, high parental monitoring and having a secure attachment to parents may have a protective effect when risk factors are present. Our results lend support to prevention initiatives to strengthen the parent-child relation and focus on adolescents' ability to resist peer pressure and of limiting parental provision of alcohol. The study's limitations are noted.
Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung
This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies.
Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A
While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls.
Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M
Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Henjum, Sigrun; Terragni, Laura; Torheim, Liv Elin
Background Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks) among adolescents. Methods In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3) were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents. PMID:27652684
Hung, Chao-Chia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan
Objective Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated. Methods Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression. Results The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60). Conclusions The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender. PMID:25877273
Crawford, Devan M.
This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10–12 and 13–15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother’s positive parenting. PMID:18998209
LIU, W.; CREWS, F. T.
The brain continues to develop through adolescence when excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent in humans. We hypothesized that binge drinking doses of ethanol during adolescence will cause changes in brain ethanol responses that persist into adulthood. To test this hypothesis Wistar rats were treated with an adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg, i.g. 2 days on–2 days off; P25–P54) model of underage drinking followed by 25 days of abstinence during maturation to young adulthood (P80). Using markers of neuronal activation c-Fos, EGR1, and phophorylated extracellar signal regulated kinase (pERK1/2), adult responses to a moderate and binge drinking ethanol challenge, e.g., 2 or 4 g/kg, were determined. Adult rats showed dose dependent increases in neuronal activation markers in multiple brain regions during ethanol challenge. Brain regional responses correlated are consistent with anatomical connections. AIE led to marked decreases in adult ethanol PFC (prefrontal cortex) and blunted responses in the amygdala. Binge drinking doses led to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) activation that correlated with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) activation. In contrast to other brain regions, AIE enhanced the adult NAc response to binge drinking doses. These studies suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes long-lasting changes in brain responses to alcohol that persist into adulthood. PMID:25727639
Liu, W; Crews, F T
The brain continues to develop through adolescence when excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent in humans. We hypothesized that binge drinking doses of ethanol during adolescence will cause changes in brain ethanol responses that persist into adulthood. To test this hypothesis Wistar rats were treated with an adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg, i.g. 2 days on-2 days off; P25-P54) model of underage drinking followed by 25 days of abstinence during maturation to young adulthood (P80). Using markers of neuronal activation c-Fos, EGR1, and phophorylated extracellar signal regulated kinase (pERK1/2), adult responses to a moderate and binge drinking ethanol challenge, e.g., 2 or 4 g/kg, were determined. Adult rats showed dose dependent increases in neuronal activation markers in multiple brain regions during ethanol challenge. Brain regional responses correlated are consistent with anatomical connections. AIE led to marked decreases in adult ethanol PFC (prefrontal cortex) and blunted responses in the amygdala. Binge drinking doses led to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) activation that correlated with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) activation. In contrast to other brain regions, AIE enhanced the adult NAc response to binge drinking doses. These studies suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes long-lasting changes in brain responses to alcohol that persist into adulthood.
Maynard, Mark E; Leasure, J Leigh
Binge drinking damages the brain, and although a significant amount of recovery occurs with abstinence, there is a need for effective strategies to maximize neurorestoration. In contrast to binge drinking, exercise promotes brain health, so the present study assessed whether it could counteract ethanol-induced damage by augmenting natural self-repair processes following one or more binge exposures. Adult female rats were exposed to 0 (control), 1 or 2 binges, using an established 4-day model of binge-induced neurodegeneration. Half of the animals in each group remained sedentary, or had running wheel access beginning 7 days after the final binge, and were sacrificed 28 days later. To assess binge-induced hippocampal damage and exercise restoration, we quantified volume of the dentate gyrus and number of granule neurons. We found that a single binge exposure significantly decreased the volume of the dentate gyrus and number of granule neurons. A second binge did not exacerbate the damage. Exercise completely restored baseline volume and granule neuron numbers. To investigate a potential mechanism of this restoration, we administered IdU (a thymidine analog) in order to label cells generated after the first binge. Previous studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is decreased by binge alcohol exposure, and that the hippocampus responds to this insult by increasing cell genesis during abstinence. We found increased IdU labeling in binge-exposed animals, and a further increase in binged animals that exercised. Our results indicate that exercise reverses long-lasting hippocampal damage by augmenting natural self-repair processes.
Mushquash, Christopher J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; McGrath, Patrick J.
Objective: The factor structure of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was examined in a sample of First Nations (i.e., Mi'kmaq) adolescents. Results: Exploratory principal components analysis indicated a three-factor structure (conformity, coping, and positive reinforcement motives), with the positive reinforcement…
Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel
We investigated differences in drinking behaviors and sources of alcohol among Native American (n = 361) and White adolescents (n = 1,735), ages 11 to 19. Native American youth were more likely to have consumed alcohol in their lifetime and been intoxicated in the last 30 days than Whites. Native American drinkers were almost twice as likely to…
Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael
Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…
Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo
Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…
Foxcroft, David R.; Lowe, Geoff
Presents meta-analysis of 30 recently published research studies which reported influence of clearly identifiable family socialization variables on self-reported adolescent drinking. Variables were sorted along the dimensions of support and control and along a family structure dimension. Results indicated a low support and lax control were…
Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.; Hensel, Devon J.
Our study of the adolescent life course proposes that substantial maturation occurs within three intertwined arenas of development: the social, the psychological, and the normative attainment. Further, each arena may be linked, respectively, to three youth problem dimensions: drinking, depressive affect, and academic achievement. We use latent…
Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur
Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263
Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne
Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…
When adolescents in the United States of America trail much of the world on measures of school achievement, but are among the world leaders in violence, unwanted pregnancy, STDs, abortion, binge drinking, marijuana use, obesity, and unhappiness, it is time to admit that something is wrong with the way that the country is raising its young people.…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…
Nagy, Stephen; Dunn, Michael S.
Study provides a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents in a southern state from four time periods over the past decade. Also examines the relationship between alcohol initiation and binge drinking behaviors and sexual initiation, pregnancy, multiple sex partners, and violence. Regression analyses showed very modest…
Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen
The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.
Jun, Hyun-Jin; Sacco, Paul; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Camlin, Elizabeth A. S.
Background In adolescence, internalizing (e.g., anxious, depressive, and withdrawn) and externalizing (e.g., aggressive, oppositional, delinquent, and hyper-active) symptoms are related with alcohol use. However, the directionality among internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and alcohol use during adolescence is equivocal. Moreover, gender differences and similarities among these behaviors are not definitive in existing literature. Objectives This study examined longitudinal relationships between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and past-month alcohol use among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Using longitudinal survey data from a study of community-dwelling adolescents (n = 724), we estimated cross-lagged structural equation models to test relations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms (as measured by the Youth Self Report, YSR [Achenbach, 1991]) and self-report alcohol use in the past month among adolescents. Gender differences were tested in a multiple group structural equation model. Results Alcohol use at age 12 was a predictor of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 15 for both boys and girls. With regard to gender differences, girls demonstrated an association between internalizing symptoms and drinking at age 12, whereas boys showed a stronger association between externalizing symptoms and drinking at age 18. Conclusions/Importance Early alcohol use is problematic for youth, and results of this study lend support to prevention programs for youth. Preventing or curbing early drinking may offset later externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as ongoing alcohol use, regardless of gender. PMID:26646723
Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro
A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.
Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M
Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications.
Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.
King, Kevin M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Chassin, Laurie
Although there is much empirical support for the relation between stress and alcohol consumption in adolescence, it is unclear whether exposure to stressors is associated with overall trajectories or temporary elevations in drinking. Moreover, little research has explored whether the stress-alcohol use association in adolescence may be explained by shared risk factors that produce both individual differences in stress exposure and elevated risk for alcohol use. The current study tested these hypotheses within the context of a state-trait model of family stressors in a prospectively studied sample of children at high risk for alcoholism: children of alcoholic parents and matched controls (n = 451). Levels and growth in alcohol use were modeled longitudinally from ages 13 to 17. Results indicated that shared risk factors accounted for 53% of the impact of trait family stressors on growth in adolescent drinking, but time-specific exposure to familial stressors still predicted short-term boosts in alcohol use in adolescence. These findings imply that trait familial stressors mark adolescents at risk for alcohol use, and also impact adolescent alcohol use within a short time frame (i.e. over a year versus over many years) when they occur above and beyond the adolescent’s “usual load” of stressors. PMID:19685957
Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M
Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking.
Pesola, F; Shelton, KH; Heron, J; Munafo, M; Hickman, M; van den Bree, MB
Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2,964 adolescents (64% females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using Structural Equation Modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager’s sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for refusal skills with peers and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526
Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah
This study assessed the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence rates among four major ethnic groups of Hawai'i and examined the relationship among risk factors, protective factors, and demographic variables related to underage drinking. A total of 196 students were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, the American Drug and Alcohol Survey, and the Prevention Planning Survey. Drinking rates for Native Hawaiian students were significantly higher than those for Japanese and Caucasian students. Multiple logistic regression models accounted for 49% of the variance for any alcohol use. Ethnic group differences were found when data were disaggregated for Asian and Pacific Islander students.
Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen
Aim To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9–17. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Results Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Conclusion Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. PMID:27864186
Colder, Craig R.; O’Connor, Roisin M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Wieczorek, William F.
This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/Non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for three years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking. PMID:24841180
Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F
This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie
Parenting adolescents with externalizing symptomatology has been repeatedly shown to be stress-inducing for parents. One possible coping strategy for parents dealing with this chronic stress may be drinking. The current study extended previous research by examining the prospective relations between adolescents' externalizing behaviors and parents' negative affect and alcohol consumption. Additionally, the present study tested whether this mediated effect is a function of parental social support. Adolescents' externalizing symptoms prospectively predicted mothers' negative affect. Interestingly, however, mothers' negative affect prospectively predicted mothers' drinking only for those mothers with low social support. Furthermore, the mediated effect (Wave 1 adolescent externalizing symptoms → Wave 2 mother negative affect → Wave 3 mother drinking) was significant only for mothers with low social support. There were no effects of adolescents' externalizing symptoms on fathers. PMID:19034738
Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David
The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)
Svensson, Mikael; Hagquist, Curt
This paper examines how the unemployment rate is related to adolescent alcohol use and experience of binge drinking during a time period characterized by big societal changes. The paper uses repeated cross-sectional adolescent survey data from a Swedish region, collected in 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2002 and 2005, and merges this with data on local unemployment rates for the same time periods. Individual level frequency of alcohol use as well as experience of binge drinking is connected to local level unemployment rate to estimate the relationship using multilevel modeling. The model includes municipality effects controlling for time-invariant differences between municipalities as well as year fixed effects controlling for municipality-invariant changes over time in alcohol use. The results show that the unemployment rate is negatively associated with adolescents' alcohol use and the experience of binge drinking. When the unemployment rate increases, more adolescents do not drink at all. Regular drinking (twice per month or more) is, on the other hand, unrelated to the unemployment rate. Examining gender-differences in the relationship, it is shown that the results are driven by behavior in girls, whereas drinking among boys does not show any significant relationship with changes in the unemployment rate.
Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S
Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend
Field, Alison E.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Falbe, Jennifer; Flint, Alan; Haines, Jess; Rosner, Bernard; Camargo, Carlos A.
Objective Sales of regular soda are declining, but sales of other sweetened beverages, such as sports drinks, are increasing. Our objective was to determine the prospective associations between sports drinks and body mass index (BMI) gains among adolescents and young adults. Design and Methods We prospectively followed 4,121 females and 3,438 males in the Growing Up Today Study II, aged 9–16 in 2004, from across the United States. Data was collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Servings per day of various beverages were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among the girls, each serving per day of sports drink predicted an increase of 0.3 BMI units (95% confidence interval (CI) CI 0.03–0.54) more than their peers over the next 2–3 years. Among the males, each serving of sports drinks predicted a 0.33 BMI (95% CI 0.09, 0.66) increase. In addition, boys who increased their intake over the 2–3 year interval gained significantly more than their peers during the same time interval. Conclusions Intake of sports drinks predicted larger increases in BMI among both females and males. Our results suggest that school policies focused on obesity prevention should be augmented to restrict sports drinks. PMID:25044989
Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F
The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.
Donovan, John E.
Rossow et al. ’s systematic review highlights the fact that we know less than we thought about the role of parent drinking in the etiology of teen drinking. Further research is needed to clarify both the aspects of parent drinking that impact later drinking by adolescent offspring as well as the mediators and moderators of this relation. PMID:26767336
Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.
The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312
Huerta-Saenz, Lina; Irigoyen, Matilde; Benavides, Jorge; Mendoza, Maria
The last decade has seen an increasing trend in consumer preference of bottled water over tap water. Little is known what type of water children and adolescents prefer for drinking and what their parents think of their community tap water. The study objective was to assess drinking water preferences, perceptions of the qualities of tap water and bottled water, and fluoride knowledge in an urban pediatric population. We conducted an anonymous survey of a convenience sample of caretakers of children and adolescents at an urban clinic regarding their preferences for tap or bottled water, their perceptions of the quality of tap and bottled water and their knowledge of fluoride. Of the 208 participants (79% African American, 9% Latino), 59% drank tap water, 80% bottled water. Only 17% drank tap water exclusively, 38% drank bottled water exclusively, 42% drank both. We found no significant differences in water preferences across age groups, from infancy to adulthood, or among ethnic groups. Ratings for taste, clarity, purity and safety were significantly higher for bottled water than tap water (P < 0.001). Only 24% were aware of fluoride in drinking water. We conclude bottled water was preferred over tap water in an urban minority pediatric population. Perceptions of the qualities of water seemed to drive drinking preferences. Public health strategies are needed to increase public awareness of the impact of bottled water consumption on oral health, household budgets and the environment.
Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N; MacKinnon, David P; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L; Reynolds, Kim D
The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits.
Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin
The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.
Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia
Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.
Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L
Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may increase susceptibility for binge eating only in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral exposure factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and nonshared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. These effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating and that the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating.
in 2008 reported drinking at or above hazardous drinking levels, including 5% who met screening cri- teria for possible alcohol dependence. 10 These...stop 035, Waltham, MA 02454 (email@example.com). DOI: 10.1097/ HTR .0b013e318268db94 Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S
Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.
Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…
Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H
This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed.
Depestele, Lies; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence
This study investigated the caregiving experiences of mothers and fathers of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered (ED) inpatients with and without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Sixty-five mothers and 65 fathers completed the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. All inpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related to assess NSSI and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale to assess eating disorder symptoms. Mothers reported significant more negative and more positive caregiving experiences compared with fathers. Mothers (but not fathers) of restrictive ED patients reported more positive caregiving experiences compared with mothers of binge-eating/purging patients. The presence of NSSI in ED patients was associated with more negative caregiving experiences of both parents. Mothers and fathers of ED inpatients differ in caregiving experiences, and both binge-eating behaviours and NSSI negatively affect their caregiving experience. Therefore, supportive interventions for parents of ED patients are necessary, especially of those patients who engage in NSSI.
Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Zaso, Michelle J; Glatt, Stephen J; Sher, Kenneth J; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Kate B; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P
Peer drinking norms are arguably one of the strongest correlates of adolescent drinking. Prospective studies indicate that adolescents tend to select peers based on drinking (peer selection) and their peers' drinking is associated with changes in adolescent drinking over time (peer socialization). The present study investigated whether the peer selection and socialization processes in adolescent drinking differed as a function of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat genotype in two independent prospective data sets. The first sample was 174 high school students drawn from a two-wave 6-month prospective study. The second sample was 237 college students drawn from a three-wave annual prospective study. Multigroup cross-lagged panel analyses of the high school student sample indicated stronger socialization via peer drinking norms among carriers, whereas analyses of the college student sample indicated stronger drinking-based peer selection in the junior year among carriers, compared to noncarriers. Although replication and meta-analytic synthesis are needed, these findings suggest that in part genetically determined peer selection (carriers of the DRD4 seven-repeat allele tend to associate with peers who have more favorable attitudes toward drinking and greater alcohol use) and peer socialization (carriers' subsequent drinking behaviors are more strongly associated with their peer drinking norms) may differ across adolescent developmental stages.
Disney, Lynn D.; Yi, Hsiao-ye
Objectives. We assessed the effect of internal possession (IP) laws, which allow law enforcement to charge underage drinkers with alcohol possession if they have ingested alcohol, on underage drinking behaviors. Methods. We examined Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from 12 states with IP laws and with YRBS data before and after each law’s implementation. We used logistic regression models with fixed effects for state to assess the effects of IP laws on drinking and binge drinking among high school students. Results. Implementation of IP laws is associated with reductions in the odds of past-month drinking. This reduction was bigger among male than among female adolescents (27% vs 15%) and only significant among younger students aged 14 and 15 years (15% and 11%, respectively). Male adolescents also reported a significant reduction (24%) in the odds of past-month binge drinking under IP laws. Conclusions. These findings suggest that IP laws are effective in reducing underage drinking, particularly among younger adolescents. PMID:23597385
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Testa, Maria; Downs, Julie S.
Experimentation with alcohol and sexuality is a normative aspect of adolescent development. Yet both present distinct risks to adolescent females and are especially problematic when they intersect. Although youth are often cautioned about the dangers associated with having sex and using alcohol, popular entertainment media frequently depict the combination of alcohol and sexuality as carefree fun. It is unclear how adolescent females interpret these contradictory messages in their everyday lives. Focus group interviews were used to explore young women's understandings of the relation between alcohol and sexuality. Young women, ages 14–17 years (N = 97, 61% White), and their mothers were recruited through advertisements in local newspapers to participate in separate, simultaneous focus group interviews. Only data from the 15 daughters' groups are presented here. Qualitative analysis revealed that participants recognized the risks associated with combining alcohol and sex, yet they also perceived sexual advantages to drinking alcohol. Advantages included facilitating social and sexual interactions and excusing unsanctioned sexual behavior. Alcohol was also seen as increasing the likelihood of sexual regret and coercion through impaired judgment and self-advocacy abilities. Educational and prevention efforts need to consider adolescent developmental and social needs, as well as the influences of the larger cultural context in which youth function. PMID:23833392
Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur
Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T
High rates of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, including drinking and driving, occur among college students. Underlying reasons for the heightened impaired driving rates in this demographic group are not known. The authors hypothesized that acute tolerance to the interoceptive cues of intoxication may contribute to these maladaptive decisions to drive in binge drinkers. Groups of binge-drinking and non-binge-drinking college students (N = 28) attended sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) or a placebo. The development of acute tolerance to subjective ratings of intoxication and simulated driving performance was assessed by comparing measures taken during the ascending phase and descending phases of the blood alcohol curve. Compared with placebo, alcohol increased ratings of intoxication and impaired multiple aspects of simulated driving performance in both binge and non-binge drinkers. During the descending phase of the blood alcohol curve, binge drinkers showed acute tolerance to alcohol's effect on subjective intoxication, and this effect was accompanied by an increased rating of willingness to drive. By contrast, non-binge drinkers showed no acute tolerance.
Konstantinov, Igor E.
Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085
Marmorstein, Naomi R
Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug–impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug–impaired drivers (RWI). Method: The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Results: Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p < .001) and RWI (OR = 3.92, p < .001) after controlling for parenting practices and selected covariates. Father’s monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p < .001). In contrast, mother’s monitoring knowledge predicted lower RWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates only (OR = 0.67, p < .05), but the effect was reduced to nonsignificance when controlling for teen substance use. Conclusions: Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors. PMID:24411792
... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... For example, the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls appetite) may fail to send proper ...
Faulkner, S; Hendry, L. B.; Roderique, L; Thomson, R.
Objective: The aim of this paper was to investigate drinking patterns, attitudes towards drinking and predictors of binge drinking as well as negative consequences of binge drinking in students. Design & Method: Data was collected by questionnaire from 261 students living on campus at one Welsh university. Results: The results showed that…
Malone, Stephen M.; Luciana, Monica; Wilson, Sylia; Sparks, Jordan C.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Iacono, William G.
The present study used a monozygotic (MZ) cotwin-control (CTC) design to investigate associations between alcohol use and performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a sample of 96 adolescents (half female). The MZ CTC design is well suited to shed light on whether poor decision-making, as reflected on IGT performance, predisposes individuals to abuse substances or is a consequence of use. Participants completed structural MRI scans as well, from which we derived gray matter volumes for cortical and subcortical regions involved in IGT performance and reduced in adolescents with problematic alcohol use. Drinking was associated with poorer task performance and with reduced volume of the left lateral orbital-frontal cortex. CTC analyses indicated that the former was due to differences between members of twin pairs in alcohol use (suggesting a causal effect of alcohol), whereas the latter was due to factors shared by twins (consistent with a pre-existing vulnerability for use). Although these preliminary findings warrant replication, they suggest that normative levels of alcohol use may diminish the quality of adolescent decision-making and thus have potentially important public health implications. PMID:24676464
Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
A connection between preferences for heavy metal, rap, reggae, electronic dance music, and substance use has previously been established. However, evidence as to the gender-specific links between substance use and a wider range of music genres in a nationally representative sample of adolescents has to date been missing. In 2003, the Dutch government funded the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use (DNSSSU), a self-report questionnaire among a representative school-based sample of 7,324 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, assessed music preference, tobacco, and alcohol use and a set of relevant covariates related to both substance use and music preference. Overall, when all other factors were controlled, punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse, and reggae were associated with more substance use, while pop and classical music marked less substance use. While prior research showed that liking heavy metal and rap predicts substance use, in this study a preference for rap/hip-hop only indicated elevated smoking among girls, whereas heavy metal was associated with less smoking among boys and less drinking among girls. The types of music that mark increased substance use may vary historically and cross-culturally, but, in general, preferences for nonmainstream music are associated positively with substance use, and preferences for mainstream pop and types of music preferred by adults (classical music) mark less substance use among adolescents. As this is a correlational study no valid conclusions in the direction of causation of the music-substance use link can be drawn.
Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Culbert, Kristen M; Kashy, Deborah A; Sisk, Cheryl L
Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge during puberty. Two independent samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 and n = 36) were followed longitudinally across pre-early puberty, mid-late puberty, and adulthood. Binge eating proneness was defined using the binge eating resistant (BER)/binge eating prone (BEP) model of binge eating that identifies BER and BEP rats in adulthood. Across two samples of rats, binge eating proneness emerged during puberty. Mixed linear models showed little difference in palatable food intake between BER and BEP rats during pre-early puberty, but significant group differences emerged during mid-late puberty and adulthood. Group differences could not be accounted for by changes in nonpalatable food intake or body weight. Similar to patterns in humans, individual differences in binge eating emerge during puberty in female rats. These findings provide strong confirming evidence for the importance of biological risk factors in developmental trajectories of binge eating risk across adolescence.
Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; O'Toole, Terrence; Huang, Youjie
There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (<3 glasses water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it <1 time/day, and drinking it 1 to 2 times/day (vs drinking it ≥3 times/day; ORs 1.83, 1.91, and 1.32, respectively), drinking no milk and drinking <2 glasses of milk/day (vs drinking ≥2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking <1 soda/day (vs drinking none; OR 1.40), drinking fruit-flavored drinks/sports drinks <1 time/day and drinking it ≥1 time/day (vs drinking none; ORs 1.49 and 1.41, respectively), eating at a fast-food restaurant ≥3 days/week (vs none; OR 1.38, respectively), not participating on team sports or participating on 1 to 2 team sports in previous 12 months (vs participating on ≥3 teams; ORs 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), and consuming snack/soda while watching television/movies "sometimes" and "most/every time" (vs never; ORs 1.65 and 2.20, respectively). The strongest factor associated with low water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption.
Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F
This article reviews the neurocognitive and neuroimaging literature regarding the effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structure and function. Adolescents who engage in heavy alcohol use, even at subdiagnostic levels, show differences in brain structure, function, and behavior when compared with non-drinking controls. Preliminary longitudinal studies have helped disentangle premorbid factors from consequences associated with drinking. Neural abnormalities and cognitive disadvantages both appear to predate drinking, particularly in youth who have a family history of alcoholism, and are directly related to the neurotoxic effect of alcohol use. Binge drinking and withdrawal and hangover symptoms have been associated with the greatest neural abnormalities during adolescence, particularly in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions.
Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L
Binge ethanol consumption has widespread negative consequences for global public health. Rodent models offer exceptional power to explore the neurobiology underlying and affected by binge-like drinking as well as target potential prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies. An important characteristic of these models is their ability to consistently produce pharmacologically-relevant blood ethanol concentration. This review examines the current available rodent models of voluntary, pre-dependent binge-like ethanol consumption and their utility in various research strategies. Studies have demonstrated that a diverse array of neurotransmitters regulate binge-like drinking, resembling some findings from other drinking models. Furthermore, repeated binge-like drinking recruits neuroadaptive mechanisms in mesolimbocortical reward circuitry. New opportunities that these models offer in the current context of mechanistic research are also discussed. PMID:26021391
Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Maki; Kondo, Shuji; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Higuchi, Susumu; Ohida, Takashi
In this study, we attempted to clarify the associations between various sleep disturbance symptoms and the frequency and amount of alcohol use among Japanese adolescents. This study was designed as a cross-sectional sampling survey. A self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. A total of 99,416 adolescents responded, and 98,867 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. The prevalence rates of sleep disturbance in the 30 days preceding the day of the survey were as follows: subjectively insufficient sleep (SIS) (boys: 37.6%, girls: 38.7%); short sleep duration (SSD) with less than 6 h of sleep (boys: 28.0%, girls: 33.0%); difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) (boys: 12.5%, girls: 14.1%); difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) (boys: 10.1%, girls: 10.9%); and early morning awakening (EMA) (boys: 5.1%, girls: 5.0%). Adolescents reporting one or more symptoms of DIS, DMS, and EMA were classified as having insomnia, and its prevalence was 21.5%. The prevalence of each symptom of sleep disturbance increased significantly with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed in the previous 30 days and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session (p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for each symptom of sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, tended to increase with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. The prevalence of sleep disturbance is particularly high among adolescents drinking alcohol. The risk of having each symptom of sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, increases with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. These findings reconfirm the need to eliminate underage drinking to ensure good sleep among adolescents.
Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim
College students continue to drive after drinking at alarmingly high rates. Age trends suggest that driving after drinking increases from late adolescence across the college years, largely mirroring trends in binge drinking. Relatively little research, however, has examined change over time in driving after drinking among college students or tested whether some students might be at greater risk of escalations in driving after drinking. Using a sample of 1,833 nonabstaining students who completed surveys for seven semesters across the college years, we tested whether personal (i.e., age of drinking onset, gender, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking) and contextual (i.e., college residence) factors were associated with changes in driving after drinking. Using latent growth curve modeling, we found significant individual differences in rates of change in driving after drinking. Male students and students who began drinking earlier in life increased in driving after drinking more rapidly, whereas living in on-campus housing was associated with time-specific decreases in driving after drinking. These results demonstrate the value of considering driving after drinking from a longitudinal perspective and suggest possible avenues toward preventing the public health consequences of intoxicated driving.
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma
Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol. PMID:19303761
JONKER, ANNA; KUNTSCHE, EMMANUEL
Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). Results: It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. Discussion and conclusions: This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use. PMID:25592307
Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M
The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans.
Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.
Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631
Jones, Sandra C
Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding 'community-based' interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which 'community' interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few interventions that sought to comprehensively address social norms at a community level. We need to move (research and interventions) beyond narrowly-focused efforts targeting teens and their parents; it is only when we address alcohol consumption at a population level that we will be able to provide an environment for children and adolescents which does not model (excessive) drinking as a normative social behavior.
Gintner, Gary G.; Choate, Laura Hensley
College student binge drinkers incur significant adverse consequences for themselves and others, yet often do not see their drinking as problematic. Counseling interventions should therefore be sensitive to relevant consequences, motivational level, and readiness to change. Article integrates harm-reduction principles, motivational interviewing,…
Sharmin, Sonia; Kypri, Kypros; Khanam, Masuma; Wadolowski, Monika; Bruno, Raimondo; Mattick, Richard P.
Whether parental supply of alcohol affects the likelihood of later adolescent risky drinking remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize findings from longitudinal studies investigating this association. We searched eight electronic databases up to 10 September 2016 for relevant terms and included only original English language peer-reviewed journal articles with a prospective design. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven articles met inclusion criteria, six of which used analytic methods allowing for meta-analysis. In all seven studies, the follow-up period was ≥12 months and attrition ranged from 3% to 15%. Parental supply of alcohol was associated with subsequent risky drinking (odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.72, 2.32); however, there was substantial risk of confounding bias and publication bias. In all studies, measurement of exposure was problematic given the lack of distinction between parental supply of sips of alcohol versus whole drinks. In conclusion, parental supply of alcohol in childhood is associated with an increased likelihood of risky drinking later in adolescence. However, methodological limitations preclude a causal inference. More robust longitudinal studies are needed, with particular attention to distinguishing sips from whole drinks, measurement of likely confounders, and multivariable adjustment. PMID:28282955
de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom
Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.
Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H.; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Maughan, Barbara; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.
Purpose One’s peer group can have a strong impact on depressed mood and harmful drinking in adolescence. It remains unclear whether affiliation with deviant peers explains the link between these traits. Our study aims to: a) explore the developmental relationship between harmful drinking and depressed mood in adolescence; and b) establish to which extent affiliation with deviant peers explains this relationship. Methods 4,863 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed between the ages of 14 and 16. Harmful drinking was established using age-appropriate measures: the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in mid-adolescence (age 14) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in late adolescence (age 16). Depressed mood was measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at both ages. Affiliation with deviant peers was assessed at age 15. Results Harmful drinking at age 14 predicted depressed mood two years later. This association was explained by affiliation with deviant peers and remained present even after adjustment for earlier depressed mood. Depressed mood at age 14 predicted harmful drinking at age 16 via affiliation with deviant peers; however, this indirect effect disappeared when adjusting for adolescents’ earlier harmful alcohol use (age 14). No gender differences were observed. Conclusions Adolescents who engage in early harmful drinking and subsequently become affiliated with a deviant peer group may be at particular risk of later depressed mood. PMID:25620300
Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter
The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant
Kelly, Adrian B; O'Flaherty, Martin; Toumbourou, John W; Homel, Ross; Patton, George C; White, Angela; Williams, Joanne
School connectedness is central to the long term well-being of adolescents, and high quality parent-child relationships facilitate school connectedness. This study examined the extent to which family relationship quality is associated with the school connectedness of pre- and early teenagers, and how this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. The sample consisted of 7,372 10-14 year olds recruited from 231 schools in 30 Australian communities. Participants completed the Communities that Care youth survey. A multi-level model of school connectedness was used, with a random term for school-level variation. Key independent variables included family relationship quality, peer drinking networks, and school grade. Control variables included child gender, sensation seeking, depression, child alcohol use, parent education, and language spoken at home. For grade 6 students, the association of family relationship quality and school connectedness was lower when peer drinking networks were present, and this effect was nonsignificant for older (grade 8) students. Post hoc analyses indicated that the effect for family relationship quality on school connectedness was nonsignificant when adolescents in grade 6 reported that the majority of friends consumed alcohol. The results point to the importance of family-school partnerships in early intervention and prevention.
The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…
Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Collins, W. Andrew
Aims To identify childhood and adolescent factors differentiating heavy alcohol users in early adulthood from more moderate users or abstainers. Design Low-income participants followed from birth to age 28 years. Participants A total of 178 adults (95 males) who were first-born children of low-income mothers recruited in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during their third trimester of pregnancy. Measurements Maternal hostility (24/42 months), externalizing and internalizing behavior problems (9 years), peer acceptance and academic achievement (12 years), maternal alcohol use and participants’ drinking behavior (16 years), quantity of alcohol use per occasion (19, 23 and 26 years), alcohol use disorders (28 years). Findings For men: (i) higher amounts of alcohol consumption at age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to an abstainer (age 19) and a moderate drinker (ages 23 and 26); (ii) lower achievement scores at age 12 and having a mother who drank more when the participant was age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to moderate drinker (age 26). Higher levels of externalizing behavior problems at age 9 and drinking more when the participants were age 16 increased the odds that men would have a current alcohol use disorder at age 28. For women: (i) drinking more at age 16 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to being either an abstainer or a moderate drinker (age 26); (ii) having higher levels of achievement at age 12 increased the odds of being a heavy drinker compared to an abstainer at age 23. Adolescent alcohol use mediated the relation between externalizing behavior at age 9 and alcohol use at age 26 for women. Conclusions Problem drinking may be the result of a long-term developmental process wherein childhood externalizing behavior problems sets a pathway leading to heavy drinking during and after adolescence. PMID:18426538
Forbes, Ashley; Cooze, Jared; Malone, Craig; French, Vanessa; Weber, John T
Ethanol has well described acute effects on motor function, and chronic alcoholism can damage the cerebellum, which is associated with motor coordination, as well as motor learning. Binge drinking is common among preadolescents and adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of periadolsecent/adolescent ethanol exposure on motor function in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. To simulate binge drinking, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of 25% (v/v) ethanol (3 g/kg) on postnatal days (PND) 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37 and 38. On PND 42 and PND 61 animals were tested on their ability to traverse both square and round beams. There were no significant differences in the time to traverse the beams, or the amount of foot slips, between treated and untreated animals. On PND 48 and PND 62, animals were tested using a horizontal ladder walking apparatus. On PND 48 there were no differences in the ability of treated and untreated animals to traverse the ladder. On PND 62, there were no differences in the time to traverse the ladder, but ethanol treated animals had more foot slips than controls. On PND 43, we conducted footprint analysis of control and treated animals, which included measurements of stride length, paw overlap, and angle of foot placement. There was a significant difference in the angle of foot placement between treated and control animals, and this finding was significant for both male and female animals. There was also a significant overall difference in paw overlap between treatment groups. Although this effect was manifested in male animals there was no significant difference in females. These findings suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure can produce long-lasting effects on motor coordination, and that overall, effects are similar in males and females. In a second set of experiments, male rats received i.p. ethanol (3 g/kg) for 7 days (P31
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n = 1,902) that completed surveys at 5-year intervals spanning adolescence and young adulthood. The trajectories of no overeating, overeating, binge eating, and binge eating disorder (BED; recurrent binge eating with associated distress) were characterized using cross-tabulations. Body mass index, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and body satisfaction were examined as risk factors for no overeating, overeating, and binge eating (including BED) 5-years later using multinomial logistic regression. We found that all overeating categories tended to remit to no overeating at 5-year follow-up. Although overeating had the lowest remittance rates at each time-point, binge eating and BED showed higher rates of persistence or worsening of symptoms during the transition from late adolescence/early young adulthood to early/middle young adulthood. Overeating and binge eating had similar risk factors, although for females, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, and self-esteem in late adolescence/early young adulthood differentially predicted binge eating versus overeating in early/middle young adulthood (ps < .05). While overeating with or without LOC tends to remit over time, problematic eating persists for a subset of individuals. Greater psychosocial problems in late adolescence/early young adulthood predicted greater odds of binge eating relative to overeating in early/middle young adulthood among females, indicating that poorer psychosocial functioning in this developmental stage portends more severe eating-related psychopathology later in life.
Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E
Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.
Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865
Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric
Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Ke, Zun-Ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia
Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas.
Hernandez, Lynn; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Graves, Hannah; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the original version of the Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI), and to examine the fit of a series of confirmatory factor analysis models to arrive at an abbreviated version that can be easily administered in settings with limited time for assessment. These aims were examined in a sample of 740 adolescents (Mage=15.26; 58.5% males) who completed the ADI during an emergency department visit. Results suggested that the four-domain design did not fit the data adequately. Results, however, demonstrated good fit for an 8-item adapted version with a four-factor structure: interpersonal, social, psychological, and physical indicators. This abbreviated version was also associated with outcomes such as hangover, alcohol withdrawal, and substance use. Findings from this study provide support for the use of an abbreviated version of the ADI for screening adolescents and referring them to appropriate interventions.
Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094
Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun
Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…
Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Graham, Aislin R; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Dayna L; Allen, Stephanie L; Fitzpatrick, Skye; McGrath, Daniel S
The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive aspect of perfectionism contributing to a cycle of binge eating via 4 binge-eating maintenance variables: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. This test of the reformulated PMOBE involved 200 undergraduate women studied using a 3-wave longitudinal design. As hypothesized, concern over mistakes appears to represent a vulnerability factor for binge eating. Bootstrapped tests of mediation suggested concern over mistakes contributes to binge eating through binge-eating maintenance variables, and results supported the incremental validity of the reformulated PMOBE beyond perfectionistic strivings and neuroticism. The reformulated PMOBE also predicted binge eating, but not binge drinking, supporting the specificity of this model. The reformulated PMOBE offers a framework for understanding how key contributors to binge eating work together to generate and to maintain binge eating.
Bernosky-Smith, Kimberly A.; Shannon, Erin E.; Roth, Alicia J.; Liguori, Anthony
Objective Compared to non-bingers, binge drinkers are more likely to drive while intoxicated. The extent to which binge frequency impacts confidence in driving and subsequent driving impairment is unknown. This study compared the effects of an experimenter-delivered alcohol binge on subjective impairment and simulated driving ability in female High and Low Frequency bingers. Methods Female drinkers were assigned to High Frequency (n=30) or Low Frequency (n=30) binge groups based on their Alcohol Use Questionnaire responses. At 30-minute intervals within a two-hour period, participants received either a placebo drink (n=15 per group) or a 0.2 g/kg dose of alcohol (n=15 per group; cumulative dose 0.8 g/kg). Self-reported impairment, driving confidence, and simulated driving were then measured. Results Self-reported confidence in driving was significantly lower after alcohol than after placebo in Low Frequency but not High Frequency bingers. Self-reported impairment and collisions during simulated driving were significantly greater after alcohol than after placebo in both Low Frequency and High Frequency bingers. Conclusions The impairing effects of a single alcohol binge on driving ability in females are not influenced by binge frequency. However, high binge frequency may be associated with a less cautious approach to post-binge driving. PMID:21542027
Dougherty, Donald M.; Mullen, Jillian; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mathias, Charles W.; Roache, John D.
Background Researchers have suggested that binge drinkers experience disproportionate increases in impulsivity during the initial period of drinking, leading to a loss of control over further drinking, and that serotonergic mechanisms may underlie such effects. Methods We examined the effects of a simulated-alcohol binge and tryptophan depletion on three types of impulsivity: response initiation (IMT task), response inhibition (GoStop task), and delay discounting (SKIP task), and tested whether observed effects were related to “real world” binge drinking. 179 adults with diverse drinking histories completed a within-subject crossover design over 4 experimental days. Each day, participants underwent one of four test conditions: tryptophan depletion/alcohol, tryptophan depletion/placebo, tryptophan balanced control/alcohol, or tryptophan balanced control/placebo. The simulated binge involved consuming 0.3 g/kg of alcohol at 5, 6, and 7 hours after consuming the tryptophan depletion/balanced mixture. Impulsivity was measured before and after each drink. Results Relative to the placebo beverage condition, when alcohol was consumed, impulsive responding was increased at moderate and high levels of intoxication on the IMT and GoStop, but only at high levels of intoxication on the SKIP. Tryptophan depletion had no effect on impulsivity measured under either placebo or alcohol beverage conditions. Effects of alcohol and tryptophan manipulations on impulsivity were unrelated to patterns of binge drinking outside the laboratory. Conclusion The effects of alcohol consumption on impulsivity depend on the component of impulsivity being measured and the dose of alcohol consumed. Such effects do not appear to be a result of reduced serotonin synthesis. Additionally, “real world” binge drinking behaviors were unrelated to behavioral changes observed in the laboratory. PMID:25730415
Saylor, Drew K.
The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…
Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.
Assesses the relative effects of parents and peers on adolescent alcohol use via mechanisms of attachment and opportunity. Results indicated that peers are more influential than parents in shaping adolescents' patterns of alcohol consumption and that unstructured peer interaction is an especially powerful predictor of adolescent alcohol use and…
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P
We previously observed lasting and sex-specific detrimental consequences of early adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE), with male, but not female, rats showing social anxiety-like alterations when tested as adults. The present study used Sprague Dawley rats to assess whether social alterations induced by AIE (3.5g/kg, intragastrically, every other day, between postnatal days [P] 25-45) are further exacerbated by stressors later in life. Another aim was to determine whether AIE alone or in combination with stress influenced intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (Experiment 1) or a sweetened solution ("supersac") alone (Experiment 2) under social circumstances. Animals were exposed to restraint on P66-P70 (90min/day) or left nonstressed, with corticosterone (CORT) levels assessed on day 1 and day 5 in Experiment 2. Social anxiety-like behavior emerged after AIE in non-stressed males, but not females, whereas stress-induced social anxiety was evident only in water-exposed males and females. Adult-typical habituation of the CORT response to repeated restraint was not evident in adult animals after AIE, a lack of habituation reminiscent of that normally evident in adolescents. Neither AIE nor stress affected ethanol intake under social circumstances, although AIE and restraint independently increased adolescent-typical play fighting in males during social drinking. Among males, the combination of AIE and restraint suppressed "supersac" intake; this index of depression-like behavior was not seen in females. The results provide experimental evidence associating adolescent alcohol exposure, later stress, anxiety, and depression, with young adolescent males being particularly vulnerable to long-lasting adverse effects of repeated ethanol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity.
Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross
The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect.
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Wahl, Ana-María González; Aranda, Elizabeth
Do alcohol use and binge drinking among Latina/o adolescents increase in the second and third generation? This study explores generational differences in alcohol use behaviors for three Latina/o ethnic groups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health on 1504 Latina/o adolescents in secondary school, we found that the factors associated with alcohol use behaviors differed across the Latina/o groups. For Mexican and Cuban adolescents, but not Puerto Ricans, immigrant generation was associated with alcohol use. For Mexican, but not Cuban adolescents, acculturation mediated the effect of immigrant generation on alcohol use behaviors. Although generally social capital and a co-ethnic presence were protective factors against alcohol use behaviors, we found that some forms of social capital were actually risk factors for Cubans and Puerto Ricans. Our results provide support for segmented-assimilation theory.
Opinion statement Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight effects are limited and not typically lasting. A number of psychotherapies have been shown to be beneficial, mostly for stopping binge eating, and tend to show little impact on weight loss. Numerous pharmacologic interventions have been developed, with the focus on antidepressants (used for their anti-binge eating effects) and weight loss drugs. Both have been shown to be helpful but again, for antidepressants, bringing about lasting weight loss appears to be difficult. The most effective approach to treating binge eating disorder (if available) is likely psychotherapy combined with medication management as indicated. PMID:26251823
Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Parsai, Monica; Villar, Paula; Garcia, Christina
This study examines how cohesion and parent-adolescent conflict relate to alcohol use among Mexican-heritage adolescents. The sample consists of 120 adolescents (14 to 18) participants from the Southwest sub-sample of the Latino Acculturation and Health Project. Lifetime and recent alcohol use, and binge-drinking were tested. Results from the logistic regressions identified high and low levels of family cohesion as a risk factor for alcohol use compared to medium levels of cohesion; and parent-child conflict predicted lifetime use and binge drinking. Low and high family cohesion levels appear to be especially problematic among Mexican adolescents who are trying to navigate two different cultural worlds. Although, high cohesion is often a characteristic of Mexican families, Mexican-heritage adolescents may view high family cohesion as a hindrance to their own independence. Unresolved conflict seems to be connected to children’s problem behaviors and alcohol misuse could be utilized by youth as a mechanism to reduce emotional distress caused by family tensions. PMID:20057918
Costello, Barbara J.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.
Despite a growing body of literature on the causes of heavy episodic drinking, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in the sociological and criminological literature. This research assesses the extent to which a popular theory of crime and deviance, control theory, can explain heavy episodic drinking. Analysis of data collected from a…
Criado, Jose R; Ehlers, Cindy L
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a model of early onset adolescent ethanol drinking exposure that is followed by an ethanol vapor regimen during late adolescence and young adulthood leads to an increase in drinking in adulthood. In this model, initiation of voluntary ethanol drinking in adolescence, using a sweetened solution, was followed by an 8-wk intermittent ethanol vapor regimen in Wistar rats. A limited-access two-bottle choice paradigm was then used to measure intake of a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution. No differences in water intake (g/kg), total fluid intake (ml/kg) and body weight (g) were observed between air-exposed and ethanol-vapor exposed groups during the pre-vapor and post-vapor phases. The 8 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure was found to produce only a modest, but statistically significant, elevation of ethanol intake during the protracted withdrawal period, compared to air-exposed rats. A significant increase in ethanol preference ratio was also observed in ethanol-vapor exposed rats during the sucrose-fading phase, but not during the protracted withdrawal period. The findings from the present study suggest that in addition to alcohol exposure, environmental variables that impact appetitive as well as consumptive behaviors may be important in developing robust drinking effects that model, in animals, the increased risk for alcohol dependence seen in some human adolescents who begin drinking at an early age.
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.
This booklet presents an overview of teenage drinking and teenagers' knowledge about drinking. Results from a variety of studies are summarized under these topics phrased as questions: (1) What are the consequences of teenage drinking? (2) How many teenagers and college students binge drink? (3) How big is the problem of teenage drinking? (4) What…
Bonar, Erin E.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Polshkova, Svitlana; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.
Emergency Department (ED) visits due to energy drinks rose drastically from 2007 to 2011. Consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks by young people is particularly concerning. Among youth (ages 14–20) in the ED reporting past-year alcohol use, we assessed frequency, reasons, and medical consequences of consuming alcohol and energy drinks in the same beverage or on the same occasion, and relationships with other risk behaviors. The sample included 439 youth (Mage=18.6 years, SD=1.4; 41% male; 73% Caucasian): those who drank alcohol, but not energy drinks (Non-users; 41%, n=178), those who drank alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions (Separate; 23%, n=103), and those who combined alcohol and energy drinks in the same beverage or on the same occasion (Combined; 36%, n=158). Common reasons for combining energy drinks and alcohol were hiding the flavor of alcohol (39%) and liking the taste (36%). Common consequences were feeling jittery (71%) and trouble sleeping (46%). Combined users had the highest rates of risk behaviors (e.g., drug use, sexual risk behaviors, driving after drinking) and alcohol use severity. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that men, those who had sex after substance use, those who had used drugs, and those with higher alcohol severity were more likely to be Combined users than Non-Users. Those with higher alcohol severity were also more likely to be Combined users than Separate users. Combining energy drinks and alcohol is associated with higher rates of other risk behaviors among young drinkers. Future studies are needed to determine longitudinal relationships of energy drink use on substance use problem trajectories. PMID:25528143
Witt, Ellen D
In the past 15 years, both human and animal studies have advanced our understanding of the effects of adolescent alcohol exposure on behavioral and neural development, particularly in the areas of the ontogeny of initial sensitivity and tolerance to alcohol, the consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure on subsequent drinking patterns, as well as cognitive and neural function. Despite these advances, there are still substantial gaps in our understanding of whether heavy adolescent drinking interferes with normal brain development at the cellular and molecular level, and if so, how these changes may translate into patterns of brain connectivity that result in the emergence of alcohol use disorders. This article discusses our current knowledge of the cellular and molecular brain changes that stem from heavy alcohol exposure, including binge patterns, during adolescence. Progress has been made in linking the behavioral effects of adolescent drinking to underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. However, it is suggested that future research on the etiology and consequences of adolescent drinking use an integrative approach to this problem by combining multiple levels, including genetic, cellular and molecular, systems (neuroimaging), and behavioral, with an emphasis on integrating the different levels of analysis.
Astrøm, A N; Rise, J
Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns.
Owens, Judith A; Mindell, Jodi; Baylor, Allison
The increasing availability of highly caffeinated beverages, including energy drinks, in the United States has resulted in a rise in consumption by children and adolescents. In addition, there is mounting evidence that these products are often consumed by youth for their perceived fatigue-mitigating and mood- or performance-enhancing effects. Although such perceptions by children and adolescents about the potential consequences of caffeine consumption are highly likely to influence decision making regarding the use of such products, there is still a relative paucity of studies that focus on the effect of caffeinated beverages on sleep, mood, and performance in the pediatric population. This review summarizes the following aspects of this topic, as derived from the information currently available: 1) the perception, among youth, of caffeine's risks and benefits and the sources of information about caffeine, particularly with regard to sleep, mood, and performance; 2) the bidirectional effect of caffeine on sleep in children and adolescents and the association of caffeine with other sleep-related practices, and 3) the evidence that supports caffeine as a performance and mood enhancer as well as a countermeasure to sleepiness in the pediatric population. Finally, gaps in knowledge are identified, and a direction for future research is outlined.
Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Bolen, Jonathan D.; Chmelka, Mary B.; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Nordström, Tanja; Taanila, Anja
Background Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well-established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). Hypothesis We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse, and peers? Method Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4,644 males from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Results Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Conclusion Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour among behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. PMID:25250918
Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.
Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws not only affects young adults in the short term, but also later in life; for example, individuals who could legally purchase alcohol before age 21 are more likely to suffer from drinking problems as older adults, long after the laws had been changed. However, it is not known how permissive MLDA exposure affects specific drinking behavior. This present study uses changes in MLDA laws during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate the potential impact of permissive MLDA exposure on average alcohol consumption, frequency of drinking, and on patterns of binging and more moderate, non-heavy drinking. Methods Policy exposure data were paired with alcohol use data from the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year drinkers born between 1949 and 1972 (n = 24,088) were included. Average daily intake, overall drinking frequency, and frequency of both binge episodes (5+ drinks) and days without a binge episode (non-heavy drinking) for the previous year at the time of interview were tracked for each respondent. Results Exposure to permissive MLDAs was associated with higher odds to report frequent binging and lower odds to report any moderate drinking; these associations were largely driven by men and those who did not attend college. Overall drinking frequency and average alcohol consumption were not affected by MLDA exposure. Conclusions The ability to legally purchase alcohol before age 21 does not seem to increase overall drinking frequency, but our findings suggest that it is associated with certain types of problematic drinking behaviors that persist into later adulthood: more frequent binge episodes and less frequent non-heavy drinking. We also propose that policymakers and critics should not focus on college drinking when evaluating the effectiveness of MLDAs. PMID
Cheadle, Jacob E.; Whitbeck, Les B.
This study investigated the links between alcohol use trajectories and problem drinking ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition" abuse/dependence) using five waves of data from 727 North American Indigenous adolescents between 10 and 17 years from eight reservations sharing a common language and culture.…
Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience
Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…
Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.
Developmental changes in both alcohol use behaviors and self-reported reasons for alcohol use were investigated. Participants were surveyed every 2 years from ages 18 to 30 as part of the Monitoring the Future national study (analytic weighted sample size N = 9,308; 53% women, 40% college attenders). Latent growth models were used to examine…
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Testa, Maria; Downs, Julie S.
Experimentation with alcohol and sexuality is a normative aspect of adolescent development. Yet, both present distinct risks to adolescent females and are especially problematic when they intersect. Although youth are often cautioned about the dangers associated with having sex and using alcohol, popular entertainment media frequently depict the…
Hoque, Muhammad; Ghuman, Shanaz
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to improve our understanding of adolescents' perceptions of parental practices relating to their (adolescents') alcohol use. A total of 704 students were conveniently selected and completed self-administered questionnaires. More than half (54%) of the adolescents reported that they had consumed alcohol at some time in their life. Parental marital status was significantly associated with whether adolescents ever consumed alcohol or not (p < 0.05). A large number of mothers/female guardians (66.3%) and fathers/male guardians (69.3%) did not allow alcohol use at home. More mothers (54.6%) and fathers (65.3%) were not aware of their adolescents' alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Adolescents were more likely to use alcohol when they reported that they had often seen either their father or mother drunk or both (p < 0.05). There were also significant associations between parents' views against alcohol use and their adolescents' alcohol use (p < 0.05). Prevalence of alcohol uptake was quite high among these adolescents. Compulsory parenting programmes and skills development should be practiced by education, health, cultural and religious groups. Parents should be motivated to delay the age at which their children are initiated into alcohol use and be provided with guidance on how to counteract social pressures.
Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…
Whalen, Carol K.; Jamner, Larry D.; Henker, Barbara; Delfino, Ralph J.; Lozano, Jorie M.
Examined the everyday lives of adolescents with low, middle, or high levels of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as assessed by either parent or teen. Found that adolescents with high ADHD levels recorded more negative moods, lower alertness, more entertaining activities relative to achievement-oriented pursuits, more time with…
In 1991, the pattern of sugar consumption in samples of 172 12-year-old children and 231 15-19-year-old adolescents was studied. Twenty-four hour dietary records of five consecutive days were obtained from each subject. The frequency of total sugary food and drink episodes for children was 3.16 and 3.71 for adolescents. This was mainly accounted for by the consumption of sugary items at meals for both age groups. Students mostly consumed sweetened drinks at meals, especially at breakfast and ate sugary foods between meal times, particularly between lunch and dinner. Sweetened tea and juice were the most popular drinks and confectionery was the most popular snack food.
Bunting, H; Baggett, A; Grigor, J
Understanding consumer attitudes towards foods remains critically important for manufacturers, retailers and governing bodies. Regulation within the food industry should therefore support food choice whilst protecting members of society. There have been concerns regarding beverages marketed as 'energy drinks' and the levels of caffeine in these drinks. Focus groups were used to assess participants' perceptions and understandings of caffeinated energy drinks across three demographic age groups: 16-21, 22-28 and 29-35 year olds with the narrow age range providing a focused investigation of the demographic group specifically targeted by industry. Thematic analysis revealed a number of differences in participants' perceptions of energy drinks between age groups in relation to themes of advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy seeking, gender, sugar, peer influence, product attributes, safety and taste. Future implications for the use of qualitative research within the health promotion industry are discussed.
Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of
Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E
Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752
Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P
Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.
Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.
Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…
He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A
Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (P<0.001), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 100 and 27 g/d in total fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.
Shabani, Shkelzen; Houlton, Sydney K.; Hellmuth, Laura; Mojica, Erika; Mootz, John R. K.; Zhu, Zhen; Reed, Cheryl; Phillips, Tamara J.
Binge/crash cycles of methamphetamine (MA) use are frequently reported by individuals suffering from MA use disorders. A MA binge is self-reported as multiple daily doses that commonly accumulate to 800 mg/day (~10 mg/kg/day for a 170 pound human). A genetic animal model with a similar vulnerability to binge-level MA intake is missing. We used selectively bred MA high drinking (MAHDR) and low drinking (MALDR) mouse lines to determine whether several procedural variations would result in binge-level MA intake. Data were also collected in two progenitor populations of the MA drinking lines, the DBA/2J (D2) strain and the F2 cross of the D2 and C57BL/6J strains. The impact of 3 factors was examined: (1) concentration of MA in the two-bottle choice procedure used for selective breeding; (2) ratio of bottles containing MA vs. water, and (3) length of the withdrawal (or abstinence) period between MA drinking sessions. When MA concentration was progressively increased every 4 days in 20 mg/l amounts from 20 to 140 mg/l, maximum intake in MALDR mice was 1.1 mg/kg, whereas MAHDR mice consumed as much as 14.6 mg/kg. When these concentrations were tested in a multiple bottle choice procedure, the highest ratio of MA to water bottles (3:1) was associated with escalated MA intake of up to 29.1 mg/kg in MAHDR mice and 12.0 mg/kg in F2 mice; MALDR mice did not show a ratio-dependent escalation in MA intake. Finally, MAHDR and D2 mice were offered 3 bottles of MA vs. water at increasing concentrations from 20 to 80 mg/l, and tested under an intermittent 6-h withdrawal period, which was lengthened to 30 h (D2 mice) or to 30 or 78 h (MAHDR). D2 and MAHDR mice initially consumed similar amounts of 14–16 mg/kg MA, but D2 mice reduced their MA intake 3-fold after introduction of 30-h abstinence periods, whereas MAHDR mice retained their high level of intake regardless of withdrawal period. MAHDR mice provide a genetic model of binge-level MA intake appropriate for the study of
Shabani, Shkelzen; Houlton, Sydney K; Hellmuth, Laura; Mojica, Erika; Mootz, John R K; Zhu, Zhen; Reed, Cheryl; Phillips, Tamara J
Binge/crash cycles of methamphetamine (MA) use are frequently reported by individuals suffering from MA use disorders. A MA binge is self-reported as multiple daily doses that commonly accumulate to 800 mg/day (~10 mg/kg/day for a 170 pound human). A genetic animal model with a similar vulnerability to binge-level MA intake is missing. We used selectively bred MA high drinking (MAHDR) and low drinking (MALDR) mouse lines to determine whether several procedural variations would result in binge-level MA intake. Data were also collected in two progenitor populations of the MA drinking lines, the DBA/2J (D2) strain and the F2 cross of the D2 and C57BL/6J strains. The impact of 3 factors was examined: (1) concentration of MA in the two-bottle choice procedure used for selective breeding; (2) ratio of bottles containing MA vs. water, and (3) length of the withdrawal (or abstinence) period between MA drinking sessions. When MA concentration was progressively increased every 4 days in 20 mg/l amounts from 20 to 140 mg/l, maximum intake in MALDR mice was 1.1 mg/kg, whereas MAHDR mice consumed as much as 14.6 mg/kg. When these concentrations were tested in a multiple bottle choice procedure, the highest ratio of MA to water bottles (3:1) was associated with escalated MA intake of up to 29.1 mg/kg in MAHDR mice and 12.0 mg/kg in F2 mice; MALDR mice did not show a ratio-dependent escalation in MA intake. Finally, MAHDR and D2 mice were offered 3 bottles of MA vs. water at increasing concentrations from 20 to 80 mg/l, and tested under an intermittent 6-h withdrawal period, which was lengthened to 30 h (D2 mice) or to 30 or 78 h (MAHDR). D2 and MAHDR mice initially consumed similar amounts of 14-16 mg/kg MA, but D2 mice reduced their MA intake 3-fold after introduction of 30-h abstinence periods, whereas MAHDR mice retained their high level of intake regardless of withdrawal period. MAHDR mice provide a genetic model of binge-level MA intake appropriate for the study of
Spear, Linda Patia
There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing
Cheng, Hui G; Anthony, James C
Background. State-level 'age 21' drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called 'binge drinking'). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a "gender gap" hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006-2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20-30% of females and 35-45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for 'postponer' females; 95% CI [24-30]; 42% for 'postponer' males; 95% CI [38-45]). An estimated 10-18% females and 10-28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for 'postponer' females (95% CI [15-21]) and 28% for 'postponer' males (95% CI [24-31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, 'postponers' have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not observed until after age 14.
Studies show that 40 percent of youth who begin drinking before age 13 are classified as alcohol dependent at some point in their lives. Explores three theories about adolescents' alcohol use, describes a national intervention program, lists warning signs of early drinking, and offers a policy preventing early drinking. (MLF)
Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Caputi, Peter
There is growing evidence that young people own alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and that ownership influences their drinking intentions and behaviours. However, there is a paucity of research on parents' knowledge or attitudes in relation to ownership of ABM. Study 1 (n = 210) identified high levels of ownership of ABM and associations between ABM and drinking attitudes and behaviours. In Study 2, focus groups with Australian parents found that they were aware of ABM-and many had items of ABM in their home-but they had generally not engaged in consideration of the potential impact on their children. They clearly perceived ABM as advertising and, on reflection, acknowledged that this form of marketing may influence children's decisions about drinking. There is a need to raise parental awareness of the effects of ABM and to endeavour to reduce children's exposure to this influential form of alcohol marketing.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514
Allen, Camryn D; Lee, Soon; Koob, George F; Rivier, Catherine
Alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Part of this influence is likely exerted directly at the level of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene, but intermediates may also play a role. Here we review the effect of alcohol on this axis, provide new data on the effects of binge drinking during adolescence, and argue for a role of catecholaminergic circuits. Indeed, acute injection of this drug activates brain stem adrenergic and noradrenergic circuits, and their lesion, or blockade of α1 adrenergic receptors significantly blunts alcohol-induced ACTH release. As alcohol can influence the HPA axis even once discontinued, and alcohol consumption in young people is associated with increased adult drug abuse (a phenomenon possibly mediated by the HPA axis), we determined whether alcohol consumption during adolescence modified this axis. The number of CRF-immunoreactive (ir) cells/section was significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of adolescent self-administering binge-drinking animals, compared to controls. When another group of adolescent binge-drinking rats was administered alcohol in adulthood, the number of colocalized c-fos-ir and PNMT-ir cells/brain stem section in the C3 area was significantly decreased, compared to controls. As the HPA axis response to alcohol is blunted in adult rats exposed to alcohol vapors during adolescence, a phenomenon which was not observed in our model of self-administration, it is possible that the blood alcohol levels achieved in various models play a role in the long-term consequences of exposure to alcohol early in life. Collectively, these results suggest an important role of brain catecholamines in modulating the short- and long-term consequences of alcohol administration.
Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.
This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…
Malone, Stephen M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Background: The maximum number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a single 24-hr period is an alcoholism-related phenotype with both face and empirical validity. It has been associated with severity of withdrawal symptoms and sensitivity to alcohol, genes implicated in alcohol metabolism, and amplitude of a measure of brain activity associated with…
Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie
This study examined ethnic differences in substance use and sexual behavior and whether drinking and drug use constitute risk factors for unsafe sexual practices among Native Hawaiian (NH), Caucasian, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) high school students in Hawaii. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1997 and 1999) using a…
Hampe, Gary D.
The study examined the increase of drinking from 1964 to 1975 among teenagers enrolled in two high schools in different sociocultural rural areas of Mississippi. The sample was composed of students in two high schools located in a "wet" county and a "dry" county. A questionnaire was administered to 525 students in 1964 and 793…
Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds.