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Sample records for adolescent birth rates

  1. Adolescent Birth Rates, Total Homicides, and Income Inequality In Rich Countries

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Kate E.; Mookherjee, Jessica; Wilkinson, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    Income inequality has been associated with both homicides and births to adolescents in the United States and with homicides internationally. We found that adolescent birth rates and general homicide rates were closely correlated with each other internationally (r= 0.95) and within the United States (r = 0.74) and with inequality internationally and within the United States. These results, coupled with no association with absolute income, suggested that violence and births to adolescents may reflect gender-differentiated responses to low social status and could be reduced by reducing income inequality. PMID:15983272

  2. Adolescent birth rates, total homicides, and income inequality in rich countries.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Kate E; Mookherjee, Jessica; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2005-07-01

    Income inequality has been associated with both homicides and births to adolescents in the United States and with homicides internationally. We found that adolescent birth rates and general homicide rates were closely correlated with each other internationally (r= 0.95) and within the United States (r = 0.74) and with inequality internationally and within the United States. These results, coupled with no association with absolute income, suggested that violence and births to adolescents may reflect gender-differentiated responses to low social status and could be reduced by reducing income inequality.

  3. Relation of Birth Weight to Heart Rate in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Hua, Yingxiao; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Chen, Wei; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Li, Shengxu

    2016-09-15

    Low birth weight is associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. However, information is limited regarding its impact on heart rate (HR), an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the hypothesis that birth weight is associated with HR at rest at different ages. The study sample consisted of 6,282 black and white participants enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study, aged 4 to 52 years with a mean age of 19.4 years. HR data at rest were available in 2,344 children (4 to 11 years old), 1,622 adolescents (12 to 19 years old), and 2,316 adults (20 to 52 years old). Birth certificate records, including information on birth weight and gestational age, were obtained from the Louisiana State Office of Public Health. HR showed a significant decreasing trend with increasing age, with blacks having a lower slope than whites. In multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and gestational age, the association between lower birth weight (kg) and increased HR (beats/min) was significant in adults (regression coefficient, β = -1.21, p = 0.006) but not significant in children (β = -0.31, p = 0.461) and adolescents (β = -0.72, p = 0.157). The association did not differ significantly between races. The birth weight-HR association did not change markedly in the models without adjustment for body mass index. In conclusion, these results suggest that the association of prenatal growth retardation with increased cardiovascular disease risk in later life might be partly through its relation with HR at rest. PMID:27453510

  4. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  5. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  6. Possible Factors Associated with High Rates of Out-of-Marriage Births Among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    An exhaustive analytic review of large bodies of research indicates that rates of premarital intercourse among teenagers have risen sharply since 1966. This is particularly true for white females, for whom the rate is probably about three times that of the 1920's thru the mid-1960's; for white males the rate seems to have risen about 50%. By age…

  7. Low resting heart rate is associated with violence in late adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Gregore I; Raine, Adrian; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth violence is a major global public health problem. Three UK and Swedish studies suggest that low resting heart rate predicts male youth violence, but this has not been tested in other social settings nor for females. Methods: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Heart rate was measured using a wrist monitor at ages 11, 15 and 18 years. Violent crime and non-violent crime were measured at age 18 in self-reports and official records (N = 3618). Confounding variables were assessed in the perinatal period and at age 11, in interviews with mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between quartiles of heart rate at each age, and violent and non-violent crime at age 18, separately for males and females. Results: Lower resting heart rate was a robust correlate of violent and non-violent crime for males. Comparing males in the lowest and top quartiles of heart rate at age 15 years, adjusted odds ratios were 1.9 for violent crime [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.7] and 1.7 for non-violent crime (95% CI 1.1–2.6). For females, crime outcomes were associated only with low resting heart rate at age 18. Associations were generally linear across the four heart rate quartiles. There was no evidence that associations differed according to socioeconomic status at age 15. Conclusions: Low resting heart rate predicted violent and non-violent crime for males, and was cross-sectionally associated with crime for females. Biological factors may contribute to individual propensity to commit crime, even in a middle-income setting with high rates of violence. PMID:26822937

  8. Adolescent births in the border region: a descriptive analysis based on US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jill A; Mojarro, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent childbearing adversely affects both mothers and infants. The birth rate for US adolescent women of Hispanic origin is higher than that for US adolescents overall. Birth rates among US Hispanic adolescents in the border region are higher than rates among other US Hispanic adolescents, and rates among Mexican border adolescents are higher than rates among other Mexican adolescents. We used binational birth certificate data for US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent women living inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the US and Mexico overall to compare birth rates and other health indicators among these groups. From 2000 to 2009, birth rates for 15-19 year-olds declined 19-28 % among US Hispanic geographic subgroups and 8-13 % among Mexican geographic subgroups; rates in the border region in 2009 were 73.8/1,000 women ages 15-19 for US Hispanics and 87.2/1,000 for Mexicans and were higher than rates in other US and Mexican subgroups, respectively. Less than one in five US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent mothers in the border region was married. About one in three delivered by cesarean. Late or no prenatal care was more prevalent among US Hispanic (17.6 %) than Mexican (14.3 %) border adolescents. Birth weight and gestational age outcomes were generally poorest in Texas border counties compared with border counties in other US states and in municipios of Mexican states bordering Texas. High birth rates and low prenatal care utilization among adolescents are problems along the US-Mexico border.

  9. Marital and birth expectations of urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Zabin, L S

    1993-09-01

    The formation of attitudes conducive to pregnancy prevention is usually included in the development of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. This research examines the marital and birth expectations among 3646 adolescents enrolled in grades 7-12 in four inner city schools in 1981-82 in the US. The aim is to assess adolescents' perceptions of life experiences in their social environment, which reveal their beliefs about the social acceptability of birth after marriage. Two of the schools had entirely Black student populations, and two for comparison purposes had a mixed student population comprised of 33% Black students. Results reveal that Blacks reported a higher age for marriage and a lower age of first birth than Whites. Blacks had a lower mean ideal age of first birth than for marriage, while White had a lower mean age of marriage than for first birth. 59.1% of Black teenage females and 55% of Black teenage males reported a first birth ideal less than the marriage age, while 20.4% of White teenage females and 21.1% of White teenage males did so. A comparative graph shows Whites having in-wedlock births around 21 years of age and Blacks having in-wedlock births at 26 years of age. The analysis of the best age of marriage regressed on the best age at first birth indicates that the slopes are parallel, and there is no significant difference between Black and White attitudes. Blacks had an ideal marriage age of about two years later than Whites. In the comparison of survey responses to vital statistics data on legitimacy of first births in Baltimore in 1980, it appears that there is a close correspondence between actual out-of-wedlock status of first births and female adolescent attitudes. This study's findings suggest that both Blacks and Whites expect early births to be premarital and later births to be postmarital. Adolescent experiences affect their perceptions, and teenagers' perceptions are fairly realistic. The interpretation of findings is that Black

  10. First-birth outcomes and timing of second births: a statewide case management program for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Sangalang, Bernadette B; Barth, Richard P; Painter, John S

    2006-02-01

    This study examines a case management intervention for first-time pregnant and parenting adolescents. It compares a sample of 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers in the Adolescent Parenting Program (APP) in North Carolina with 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers who did not participate in the program (non-APP). Using birth certificate data, logistic regression and survival analyses were used to compare prenatal care use, birth outcomes, and subsequent births, adjusting for age, race, marital status, and tobacco use during pregnancy. The groups had similar rates of prenatal care use. Participation in APP, however, was associated with an increased likelihood of normal birthweight (more than 2,500 grams [5.5 pounds]) and full-term birth (at or more than 37 weeks). Adolescents ages 12 to 16 in the APP group also delayed second births significantly longer than the non-APP group. Study implications point to case management and direct services provided by social workers and health service professionals as instrumental to helping adolescent mothers achieve favorable birth outcomes and postpone subsequent births during adolescence. PMID:16550848

  11. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzetta, Kerry; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary data for 2003 from the National Center for Health Statistics show the teen birth rate continues to decline, reaching historic lows for teens in each age group. The 2003 rate of 41.7 births per 1,000 females 15-19 was 33 per cent lower than the 1991 peak rate of 61.8. The 2003 birth rate for teens aged 15-17 (22.4) was 42 per cent lower…

  12. Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature you selected is no longer available. In 10 seconds you will be automatically redirected to the CDC. ...

  13. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  14. The effect of marital status at first birth on marital dissolution among adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Billy, J O; Landale, N S; McLaughlin, S D

    1986-08-01

    The sequencing of marriage and first birth was expected to play an important role in the stability of marriage among adolescent mothers. We hypothesized that adolescent women who married prior to conception would have the lowest rates of marital disruption, followed by those who married between conception and birth. Adolescent women who gave birth prior to marriage were expected to suffer the highest rates of marital dissolution. The results provide partial support for our hypotheses. There is little difference in the probability of separation between adolescent mothers who had a postmarital conception and those who had a premarital conception but married before the birth. Having a premarital birth, however, significantly increases the probability of marital dissolution. We also hypothesized that marital status at first birth would have less effect on the probability of marital dissolution for blacks than for whites. This, too, is generally supported by our findings. Among black females, those with a premarital birth are the first to suffer a marital disruption, but by the end of ten years there is little difference in the probability of separation among the three marital status groups. In contrast, among white females, those with a premarital birth are the first to experience a disruption, and this differential persists over all subsequent marriage duration intervals. Thus, the sequencing of marriage relative to birth has similar short term effects for whites and blacks, but the effect for blacks is evident only in the short term. Ten years after the marriage, black adolescent mothers have similar rates of marital stability regardless of the sequencing of marriage. This is consistent with the findings of previous research and with our hypothesis; with the black family pattern of lower rates of marriage, higher rates of illegitimacy and higher divorce rates, the sequencing of marriage has no long lasting consequences on marital stability. Finally, our predicted

  15. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  16. Adolescent Birth Planning and Sexuality: Abstracts of the Literature 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Barbara B.

    This is an annotated bibliography on adolescent birth control and sexuality. Materials cited come from Index Medicus, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Population Index, Psychological Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. The bibliography is divided into six sections by subject: (1) "Adolescent Contraception: Laws and Public Opinion;" (2) "Adolescent…

  17. Teen Birth Rates in Sexually Abused and Neglected Females

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173

  18. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  19. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  20. First-Birth Outcomes and Timing of Second Births: A Statewide Case Management Program for Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangalang, Bernadette B.; Barth, Richard P.; Painter, John S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines a case management intervention for first-time pregnant and parenting adolescents. It compares a sample of 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers in the Adolescent Parenting Program (APP) in North Carolina with 1,260 first-time adolescent mothers who did not participate in the program (non-APP). Using birth certificate data,…

  1. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth complications predispose to externalizing behavior is not well explored. This study aims to assess whether birth complications predispose to early adolescent externalizing behavior and to test whether Intelligence Quotient (IQ) mediates relationships between predictor and outcome variables. We used data from a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort of 1,795 3-year-old boys and girls from Mauritius to test hypotheses. Birth complications were assessed from hospital record data, malnutrition from a pediatric exam at age 3 years, psychosocial adversity from parental interviews at age 3 years, and externalizing behavior problems from parental ratings at age 11 years. We found that babies with birth complications are more likely to develop externalizing behavior problems at age 11. Low IQ was associated with birth complications and was found to mediate the link between early predictors and later externalizing behavior. These prospective, longitudinal findings have potential clinical implications for the identification of early adolescent externalizing behavior and for public health attempts to prevent the occurrence of child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:22485069

  2. Guide to Your Child's Sleep: Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, George J., Ed.

    Because sleep disturbances are common in childhood, almost every parent will have to deal with a child's sleeptime problems at some point. This guide offers information on sleep in children from birth through adolescence. The book answers common questions from parents, and provides advice on preventing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, getting infants…

  3. Adolescents' Communication Styles and Learning about Birth Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pietro, Rocco; Allen, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Identified predictors of birth control knowledge resulting from interactant or noninteractant communication styles in 100 adolescents who read a magazine on human sexuality. Data suggested that the interactant style was most beneficial for new learning. Gender and the presence of siblings in the home were important moderators. (JAC)

  4. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64 g (range 1899–4990 g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (Δ Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and Δ insulin = 10 pmol/L for birth weight <2.5 kg versus >4.5 kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  5. [Premature birth and cognitive functioning in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, O; Weitzman, A; Gilat, I; Tyano, S

    1999-11-01

    Premature infants are considered a high-risk population for developing cognitive dysfunction. Studies have indicated lower cognitive performance among elementary school children born prematurely. We focused on cognitive functioning of such adolescents. This age was chosen because of its critical importance in the development of the individual. 50 adolescents aged 14-16 years born prematurely were compared with 50 born at full-term and matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. All subjects attended regular schools and did not suffer severe neurological disorders. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Bender-Visual Motor Gestalt Test and by 3 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (revised WISC-R test). Results revealed that prematurely born adolescents scored lower than those born at term on all measures of cognitive performance. The results are discussed in terms of their developmental meaning and of therapy for the prematurely born. PMID:11419040

  6. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1993-01-01

    The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates." PMID:12179705

  7. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1993-01-01

    The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates."

  8. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  9. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  10. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  11. Utility of percentage of births to teenagers as a surrogate for the teen birth rate.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, J; Blackwell, T; Heilig, C; Axley, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The teen birth rate is commonly used in comparing regional variation in teen pregnancies, but local teen birth rates are not always available. In this study the percentage of all births that are to teens was evaluated for its utility as a surrogate for the teen birth rate. METHODS: Rank correlation and sensitivity and specificity analyses were used. RESULTS: The Spearman rank correlations between percentage of teen births (PTB) and teen birth rate (TBR) were .995, .906, and .841 for the 3 age groups suggesting that it may be reasonable to employ PTB to prioritize zip codes. Zip codes with upper quartile levels of percentages of teen births identified zip codes with upper quartile levels of TBR with a sensitivity of 83.8%, 68.8%, and 65%; a false-positive rate of 2.1%, 8.6%, and 10%; and a positive predictive value of 89.3%, 67.6%, and 67.5% for the age groups 10 through 14, 15 through 17, and 18 through 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of births to teens is a useful surrogate for teen birth rate in California, especially among younger teenagers. PMID:9618618

  12. Trends in Birth Rates: New York City 1970-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon L.; Elkin, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Examined teen birth rates in New York City health districts over 25 years, noting ethnic variations. Data from Department of Health vital statistics indicated that the decline in the birth rate among New York City teens was most significant in health districts populated predominantly by blacks. There were substantial decreases among older teens…

  13. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    in countries with few cultural, social or economic barriers. Developing world birth rates have fallen since the 1960s from an average of six children to four in the 1990s, but a replacement level of 2.1 is needed to reach balanced growth. PMID:12287203

  14. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  15. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-08-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  16. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW. PMID:23740400

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

  18. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  19. “I Managed It Pretty Good”: Birth Narratives of Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Brown, Margaret; Coley, Sheryl L.; Kelley, Allyson; Mauceri, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand adolescent mothers’ childbirth experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with participants recruited from a community-based program for adolescent mothers. Fourteen mothers described their birth experiences. Using a narrative analytic approach, responses were reconstructed into birth stories. Stories, condensed into poetic form, were compared and contrasted. Four unique categories emerged: connected births, surreal births, disconnected births, and disempowered births. Categories differed by agency, support, and emotional tone. Positive support was found in stories that portrayed high agency and positive affect, whereas problematic support was apparent in stories that conveyed passivity, frustration, and disappointment. This study has implications for tailoring childbirth education for adolescent mothers and can inform health-care professionals working with this population. PMID:24839382

  20. Teen Birth Rate. CTS Facts at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Williams, Stephanie, Comp.; Jager, Justin, Comp.; Jones, Fanette, Comp.

    This fact sheet presents several data tables related to teen pregnancy, birth rates, abortion, contraceptive use, and sexually transmitted diseases. The data reveal that during the 1990s, rates of teen childbearing have declined, returning to the levels reached in the mid-1980s. Declines come from a lower proportion of teens having sex and a…

  1. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…

  2. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (≤ 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

  3. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, NY, USA) was used for descriptive analysis. χ2 test, Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses. Results: The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (χ2 = 45.001, P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%, which is below the Chinese national average level (χ2 = 20.451, P < 0.01). The order of five most common birth defects has changed. The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time, particularly after 2012, it became the most frequent type (rs = 0.808, P < 0.001). Till then, the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (χ2 = 76.254, P < 0.01). The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%, χ2 = 7.919, P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%, χ2 = 32.397, P < 0.01). Maternal age older than 35 years (χ2 = 35.298, P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (χ2 = 7.128, P < 0.01). Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi’an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased. PMID:25563306

  4. Rates of perinatal mortality and low birth weight among 3367 consecutive births in south of Beirut.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Z

    1998-01-01

    3367 consecutive births were reviewed prospectively. Population belongs mainly to a community with relatively underprivileged living conditions. Perinatal mortality was found at a rate of 22.4/1000 B. Early neonatal mortality formed 6.66/1000 B and stillbirth formed 15.83/1000 B. Low birth weight rate was 5.43% of live birth. Analysis of our findings suggests the need to improve follow-up during gestation to avoid complications resulting in macerated stillbirths, and to review the routine of follow-up and care in the immediate period before delivery, during delivery, in the immediate post partum period including resuscitation procedures, and care in the ICN. The aim is to prevent and appropriately treat intrauterine asphyxia, fetal distress, obstetric complications, and in the post partum period to appropriately resuscitate the newborn and improve ICN procedures. These measures are expected to reduce fresh stillbirth and early neonatal mortality and consequently infant mortality. Lowering rate of low birth weight is of less urgent nature in this population as it is relatively not high, but because a larger portion of early neonatal mortality is among low birth weight infants, with weights below 2000 gms, improving ICN care provided to these neonates is expected to sharply reduce neonatal mortality. In Lebanon we have a growing number of ICN units with wide variability of the quality of medical supervision and facilities. Insufficient number of neonatologists and nurses who are specialized in neonatal intensive care is leaving the chance for sick neonates to be attended by general pediatricians and insufficiently trained nurses. Our medical schools are called to encourage pediatricians to specialize in neonatal intensive care and to create more opportunities for this specialty to meet the national requirement. It is suggested, too, to subject ICN units in Lebanon to standardized requirements concerning attendance and facilities before obtaining official recognition

  5. Heart rate and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals at birth.

    PubMed

    Nagel, C; Erber, R; Ille, N; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in foals (n = 13) during the perinatal phase and until 5 months of age. In the fetus, HR decreased from 77 ± 3 beats/min at 120 min before birth to 60 ± 1 beats/min at 5 min before birth (P <0.01). Within 30 min of birth, HR increased to 160 ± 9 beats/min (P <0.01). Salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after birth were 11.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL and within 2 h increased to a maximum of 52.5 ± 12.3 ng/mL (P <0.01). In conclusion, increases in HR and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals are not induced during parturition, but occur immediately after birth.

  6. Adolescent Mothers' Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmens, Donna A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the experiences of adolescent mothers with depression following the birth of their babies. A sample of 20 participants, between the ages of 16 and 18, were asked to reflect upon and describe their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions about being depressed after the birth of their babies. Implications for practice and directions for future…

  7. Birth order and self-concept in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gecas, V; Pasley, K

    1983-12-01

    The effect of birth order on self-concept was examined in a sample of adolescent boys and girls. Based upon self-theory, which suggests that the two main processes of self-concept formation (e.g., reflected appraisals and social comparisons) are affected by the power and role relationships associated with ordinal position in the family, several hypotheses were tested: (1) The self-evaluations of only and oldest children are more positive than those of younger siblings; (2) middle-borns have the lowest self-evaluations; (3) these relationships are affected by the sex and spacing of nearest sibling; and (4) the self-conceptions of oldest and only children are more similar to those of their parents than the self-conceptions of younger siblings and their parents. Using analysis of variance and several different measures of self-evaluation, very little support was found for any of these hypotheses. The strongest support was found for the hypothesis on middle-borns, but even these relationships were not large. Several explanations are offered for these weak and inconsistent findings. PMID:24306449

  8. A comparison of low birth weight among newborns of early adolescents, late adolescents, and adult mothers in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Julia A; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Rahme, Elham; Gagnon, Anita J; Manges, Amee R; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2011-07-01

    To compare low birth weight (LBW: <2,500 g) between infants born to adolescent and adult mothers in Iquitos, Peru. A random sample of 4,467 records of women who delivered at the Hospital Apoyo Iquitos between 2005 and 2007 was collected from hospital birth registries. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to compare LBW in newborns of adolescents (10-14, 15-19 years) and adults (≥20 years) and then for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, adjusting for newborn sex, antenatal care, and location of the mother's residence. A total of 4,384 mothers had had a singleton live birth and 1,501 were primiparous with a normal gestational age. Early and late adolescents had significantly greater odds of having a LBW infant than adults (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.09, 4.78; OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.30, 2.14, respectively). For primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, the same was true only for early adolescents (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.09, 8.61). There were significant differences in mean birth weight between adults (3178.7 g) and both adolescent age groups overall (10-14 years: 2848.9 g; 15-19 years: 2998.3 g) and for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age (10-14 years: 2900.8 g; 15-19 years: 3059.2 g; ≥20 years: 3151.8 g). Results suggest there is an important difference between adolescent and adult mothers in terms of newborn birth weight, especially among early adolescents. Future research on LBW and possibly other adverse birth outcomes should consider early adolescents as a separate sub-group of higher risk. PMID:20535538

  9. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  10. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  11. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Body Composition in Adolescents: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the association between sleep duration trajectories and body composition in adolescents. We used data from participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study who were later followed up at age 18 years (response rate of 81.3%). At the time, 3974 adolescents had complete data on body composition, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Sleep duration was self-reported by participants at ages 11 and 18 years. Analyses were sex-stratified. The mean sleep duration at 11 years was 9.7 (SD 1.4) and 8.4 (SD 1.9) at 18 years. Sleep duration was dichotomized as inadequate (<8 hours/day) or adequate (≥8 hours/day). Mean body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass indices at 18 years were 23.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.5), 6.1 kg/m2 (SD 3.9) and 17.3 kg/m2 (SD 2.5), respectively. Girls who reported inadequate sleep duration at 11 years of age, but adequate sleep duration at 18, on average experienced an increase in body mass index (β = 0.39 z-scores; 95% CI 0.13, 0.65), fat mass index (β = 0.30 z-scores; 95% CI 0.07, 0.53), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.24 z-scores; 95% CI 0.08, 0.39) compared to those who had adequate sleep duration at both time points. The results suggest that changes in sleep duration across adolescence may impact body composition in later adolescence and that this may differ by sex. PMID:27010312

  12. Pre-pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birthweight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/96), II (1996), and IV (2007/08) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (n=558) self-reported infants’ birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age; parent education; age at pregnancy; time between reporting abuse and birth; and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black). Results On average, births occurred two years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birthweight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared to non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birthweight (p<.001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p<0.01) for Black mothers who gave birth two years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Conclusions Reducing physical dating violence in

  13. Preventing Rapid Repeat Births Among Latina Adolescents: The Role of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cherry, Kevin; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Gloppen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Latina adolescent parents are at increased risk for rapid repeat births (second birth ≤ 24 months after the first), sexually transmitted infections, and negative educational and social outcomes. Although several effective parent-based interventions have been developed to prevent Latino youths’ sexual risk taking, little research has explored the development of interventions to prevent repeat births that involve the parents of these adolescents. Existing preventative interventions involving parents suffer from important methodological limitations. Additional research is needed to advance theories of behavior, identify the causal pathways of parental influence, and specify appropriate behavioral targets. Future parent-based interventions to prevent repeat births should target pregnancy intentions, age of partners, contraceptive use, integrated prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, educational attainment, and future orientations. PMID:22897524

  14. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  15. Variations in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991-98: National and State Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Curtin, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-1998 and the percent change from 1991 to 1998. State-specific teenage birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin for 1991 and 1998, and the percent change, 1991 to 1998, are also presented. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the United…

  16. Association of size at birth with adolescent hormone levels, body size and age at menarche: relevance for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, S; Nilsen, T I L; Romundstad, P R; Vanky, E; Carlsen, S M; Vatten, L J

    2008-07-01

    Birth size has been positively associated with age at menarche and height in adolescence and adulthood, but the relevant biological mechanisms remain unclear. Among 262 Norwegian term-born singleton girls, birth size measures (weight, length, ponderal index, head circumference and subscapular skin-fold thickness) were analysed in relation to adolescent hormone levels (oestradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and free testosterone index), age at menarche and adolescent (ages 12.7-15.5 years) and body size (height, weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) using survival analysis and general linear modelling. The results were adjusted for gestational age at birth, age and menarcheal status at measurement in adolescence and maternal age at menarche. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were positively associated with adolescent weight and height, and small birth size was associated with earlier age at menarche. Subscapular skin-fold thickness at birth was not associated with adolescent body size, but low fold-thickness was associated with earlier age at menarche. Measures of birth size were inversely related to circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in adolescence, but there was no clear association with other hormones. These results suggest that physical and sexual development in puberty and adolescence is influenced by prenatal factors, and in combination, these factors may influence health and disease later in life. PMID:18594544

  17. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo Gallo, Erika Alejandra; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Murray, Joseph; Duarte da Silva, Luciana Anselmi; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  18. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Murray, Joseph; Silva, Luciana Anselmi Duarte da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  19. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  20. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  1. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  2. Adolescent Self-control Predicts Midlife Hallucinatory Experiences: 40-Year Follow-up of a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Atsushi; Xu, Kate Man; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Barnett, Jenifer; Richards, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations between self-control in adolescence and adult mental health are unclear in the general population; to our knowledge, no study has investigated self-control in relation to psychotic-like symptoms. Aims: To investigate the relationship between adolescent self-control and the midlife mental health outcomes of anxiety and depression symptoms and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), controlling for the effect of adolescent conduct and emotional problems and for parental occupational social class and childhood cognition. Methods: A population-based sample, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was contacted 23 times between ages 6 weeks and 53 years. Teachers completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviors, from which factors measuring self-control, behavioral, and emotional problems were extracted. At age 53 years, PLEs were self-reported by 2918 participants using 4 items from the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire; symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: After adjustment for the above covariates, poor adolescent self-control was associated with the presence of PLEs in adulthood, specifically hallucinatory experiences at age 53 years, even after adjustment for GHQ-28 scores. Conclusions: Lower self-control in adolescence is a risk factor for hallucinatory experiences in adulthood. PMID:24714378

  3. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  4. Infant mortality, the birth rate, and development in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Field, J O; Ropes, G

    1980-07-01

    This paper is a product of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Cairo University Health Care Delivery Systems Project which has examined the delivery of health services in Egypt in relation to malnutrition, early childhood mortality, and fertility. Egypt's economic progress since the 1952 Revolution has had only limited effect on high mortality among preschool children, infants and a high rate of population growth. This paper uses governorate data and simple analytical methods. 10% of Egyptian children die in the 1st year of life; subsequent mortality is also extensive in the preschool age children. The crude birthrate remains in the high 30s and overall population growth continues unabated. Early childhood mortality reflects the interplay of malnutrition and infection and population growth is caused by the fact that children, especially males, are considered economic assets. High fertility is a reflection of high mortality to a significant degree. 4 dimensions of development in Egypt are: 1) an urban cluster, 2) poverty, 3) the incidence of women in the paid labor force, 4) development in the rural sector, and 5) population density. Agricultural income increases as women enter the paid labor force and agricultural productivity is weakly related to the practice of women working for pay. Infant mortality in Egypt varies with and is most influenced by population pressures on the land, including urban crowdedness and by the proportion of households living below the poverty line. Female employment adds to family income and affects infant mortality indirectly. Policy implications are: 1) the government must deal with the density factor, 2) it must pursue a development strategy that stimulates productivity and raises the resource base of society, and 3) the government must address infant mortality along with malnutrition and morbidity. The author concludes that: 1) variation in the birth rate is less than variation in the infant mortality rate, 2) mortality and

  5. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies.

  6. Physical Activity Attenuates the Effect of Low Birth Weight on Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco B.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Meirhaeghe, Aline; González-Gross, Marcela; Moreno, Luis A.; Molnar, Dénes; Kafatos, Anthony; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Labayen, Idoia; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether physical activity influences the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study comprised adolescents who participated in two cross-sectional studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study (n = 520, mean age = 14.6 years) and the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) (n = 269, mean age = 15.6 years). Participants had valid data on birth weight (parental recall), BMI, sexual maturation, maternal education, breastfeeding, physical activity (accelerometry, counts/minute), fasting glucose, and insulin. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Maternal education level and breastfeeding duration were reported by the mothers. RESULTS There was a significant interaction of physical activity in the association between birth weight and HOMA-IR (logarithmically transformed) in both the HELENA study and the EYHS (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively), after adjusting for sex, age, sexual maturation, BMI, maternal education level, and breastfeeding duration. Stratified analyses by physical activity levels (below/above median) showed a borderline inverse association between birth weight and HOMA-IR in the low-active group (standardized β = −0.094, P = 0.09, and standardized β = −0.156, P = 0.06, for HELENA and EYHS, respectively), whereas no evidence of association was found in the high-active group (standardized β = −0.031, P = 0.62, and standardized β = 0.053, P = 0.55, for HELENA and EYHS, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of physical activity may attenuate the adverse effects of low birth weight on insulin sensitivity in adolescents. More observational data, from larger and more powerful studies, are required to test these findings. PMID:21752955

  7. Could Low Birth Weight be Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Alves, Priscila de Jesus Dos Santos; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Henriques, Ana Ciléia Pinto Teixeira; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa

    2016-04-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown that low birth weight (LBW) is associated with cardiovascular risk in late adulthood. Recent studies in adolescents suggest that modifiable factors may have greater influence on increased cardiovascular risk. This study aims to investigate the association between LBW and changes in anthropometric and biochemical risk factors during adolescence in a population with low average socioeconomic status. Methods In a retrospective double cohort, data of birth weight were extracted from hospital records of children born on the same day between 1992 and 2002. According to the World Health Organization, we classified the children as having LBW or normal birth weight. A total of 172 subjects among children, adolescents and adults were researched. We measured anthropometric and clinical data, lipid profile and glucose after an overnight fasting. The low and normal weight groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fischer exact, Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests. Results Pregnant women with preeclampsia delivered more newborns with LBW (p < 0.001). Anthropometric and clinical parameters were similar between groups. No differences were found in the family history of cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.1), family incomes (p = 0.8) and maternal school education (p = 0.8) between groups. Conclusion In this study, LBW did not increase cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. We observed absence of association between low birth weight and poor health outcomes among adolescents with low socioeconomic status from an urban city in the Brazilian northeast. PMID:27128340

  8. Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of

  9. Preterm Birth is Associated with Higher Uric Acid Levels in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Lisa K.; Nixon, Patricia A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; O’Shea, T. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare serum uric acid levels in adolescents born prematurely and adolescents born at term and to assess the correlation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in those born prematurely. Study design In this observational cohort study, 124 adolescents born prematurely and 44 adolescents born at term were studied at 14 years of age. Multivariate analyses were used to describe the relationship of premature birth to serum uric acid, while adjusting for confounding variables. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between uric acid and systolic blood pressure among those born prematurely. Results Adjusting for race, sex, maternal hypertension and fetal growth, preterm adolescents had higher serum uric acid levels than adolescents born at term [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval: 0.46 (0.10, 0.81) mg/dL, 27.4 (6, 48.2) μmol/L, p=0.012]. Among those born prematurely, uric acid was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure [Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.29 (0.12, 0.44; p= 0.0013). Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are higher in adolescents born prematurely than in those born at term and this difference could contribute to higher blood pressure among individuals born prematurely. PMID:25868431

  10. Addressing the Increased Cesarean Birth Rate in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.

    2006-01-01

    The editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  11. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could provide a less expensive, more effective treatment for women with this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. ...

  12. Parent-child Relationships, Parental Attitudes towards Sex, and Birth Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982

  13. Gene–environment interaction in externalizing problems among adolescents: evidence from the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kieling, Christian; Hutz, Mara H; Genro, Júlia P; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Anselmi, Luciana; Camey, Suzi; Hallal, Pedro C; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Menezes, Ana M B; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of gene–environment interactions (G × E) is one of the most promising strategies to uncover the origins of mental disorders. Replication of initial findings, however, is essential because there is a strong possibility of publication bias in the literature. In addition, there is a scarcity of research on the topic originated from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to replicate G × E hypotheses for externalizing problems among adolescents in a middle-income country. Methods As part of the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study, 5,249 children were enrolled at birth and followed up to the age of 15 years, with an 85.7% retention rate. We sought an interaction between the homozygosity of the 10-repeat allele at the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and prenatal maternal smoking in the development of hyperactivity problems during adolescence assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We also tested for an interaction between the uVNTR polymorphism at the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the experience of childhood maltreatment in the occurrence of conduct problems among adolescent boys. Results Although there was a clear association between prenatal maternal smoking and hyperactivity scores in adolescence (p < 0.001), no main genetic or interaction effects for the DAT1 gene were detected. Similarly, childhood maltreatment showed to be associated with conduct problems among boys (p < 0.001), with no observable main genetic or interaction effects for the MAOA gene. Conclusions In the largest mental health G × E study performed in a LMIC to date, we did not replicate previous positive findings from the literature. Despite the presence of main environmental effects, there was no evidence of effect modification by genotype status. Additional replication efforts to measure G × E are needed to better understand the origins of mental health and illness, especially in LMIC. PMID:23215821

  14. Number of Siblings, Sibling Spacing, Sex, and Birth Order: Their Effects on Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)

  15. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  16. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  17. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  18. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  19. Association between preterm birth and thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Kessey M. B.; Davidson, Josy; Goulart, Ana L.; dos Santos, Amelia M. N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents born prematurely with those born at term and investigate neonatal and post-neonatal variables associated with thoracic alterations. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study with 57 adolescents aged 10-15 years born prematurely and 57 adolescents born at term paired by gender and age. Photographs of the head and thorax in the front, back, and right side views were studied using a computer program. The two groups were compared in regards to: elevation of clavicles, elevation of shoulders, protrusion of the head, and anteroposterior and mediolateral thoracic length. Factor associated with thoracic disorders were evaluated by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The Preterm group had mean gestational age of 32.0±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1462±338 and 3342±430 g for the Preterm and Term adolescents, respectively. Preterm adolescents had higher elevation of the left shoulder (22.7±5.4o vs. 20.6±5.3o;sim, p=0.038) and the right shoulder (22.2±4.4o vs. 18.5±5.7o; p<0.001). Smaller protrusion of the head (27.8±6.1o vs. 32.4±7.9o; p=0.008), mediolateral thoracic length (22.9±2.3 cm vs. 25.1±3.1 cm; p<0.001) and anteroposterior thoracic length (19.7±2.2 cm vs. 21.1±3.4 cm; p<0.001) were found in preterm adolescents. By multiple regression analysis, factors associated with higher shoulder elevation were birth weight <1500 g (p<0.001) and mechanical ventilation during neonatal period >5 days (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Adolescents born prematurely presented greater thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations compared to those born at term. Factors associated with these alterations were: very low birth weight and longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the neonatal unit. PMID:25651130

  20. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth.

  1. Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. Methods The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. Results The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers, this rate was 26.7%, as opposed to 12.7% among the daughters of non adolescent mothers. After adjustments the risk of adolescent childbearing for the 2nd generation was 35% higher for women whose mothers had been pregnant during adolescence – RR = 1.35 (95% CI 1.04-1.74). Conclusion Adolescent childbearing in the 1st generation was a predictor of adolescent childbearing in the 2nd, regardless of socioeconomic factors determined at different points in lifetime. PMID:23855747

  2. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28). PMID:27474526

  3. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28).

  4. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  5. Adolescents' communication styles for learning about birth control from mass media.

    PubMed

    De Pietro, R; Clark, N

    1983-01-01

    This article is an exploratory study to identify discrete factors which predict the way in which adolescents are likely to communicate about birth control after receiving information from a mass medium is described. First, we discuss styles of interacting with others regarding information from mass media which have been described in previous research. Five styles are identified: media-oriented, peer-oriented, home-oriented, professionally-oriented, and multi-source oriented. Next, we discuss categories of factors which theoretically should distinguish among the five communication styles. These factors are drawn from theories and previous research in communication and social learning. Using data collected from a random sample of 100 adolescents, we then test the predictive ability of categories of factors. Discriminant analysis is used to determine which factors within categories are most predictive of style and which best discriminate between styles. Eight factors are identified which predict 75% of all communication styles. The factors are sex, race, giving advice about sex, seeking information about birth control, dating rules regarding where one can go, dating rules regarding behavior on dates, feelings of pride, and feelings of popularity. Finally, we discuss the significance for practitioners of study findings and of predicting adolescents' communication styles.

  6. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    PubMed

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  7. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends.

  8. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  9. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  10. BULLYING OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN: ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS DURING ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Grace; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Forrest, Christopher B; Andreias, Laura; Drotar, Dennis; Youngstrom, Eric; Hack, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm children have many risk factors which may increase their susceptibility to being bullied. AIMS: To examine the prevalence of bullying among extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1kg) and normal birth weight (NBW) adolescents and the associated sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial risk factors and correlates among the ELBW children. METHODS Cohort study of self reports of bullying among 172 ELBW adolescents born 1992-1995 compared to 115 NBW adolescents of similar age, sex and sociodemographic status. Reports of being bullied were documented using the KIDSCREEN-52 Questionnaire which includes three Likert type questions concerning social acceptance and bullying. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic factors were used to examine the correlates of bullying among the ELBW children. RESULTS Group differences revealed a non-significant trend of higher mean bullying scores among ELBW vs. NBW children (1.56 vs. 1.16, p=0.057). ELBW boys had significantly higher bullying scores than NBW boys (1.94 vs. 0.91, p<0.01), whereas ELBW and NBW girls did not differ (1.34 vs. 1.30, p=0.58). Bullying of ELBW children was significantly associated with subnormal IQ, functional limitations, anxiety and ADHD, poor school connectedness, less peer connectedness, less satisfaction with health and comfort, and less risk avoidance. CONCLUSION ELBW boys, but not girls, are more likely to be victims of bullying than NBW boys. School and health professionals need to be aware of the risk of bullying among ELBW male adolescents. PMID:23273487

  11. Tracking of physical activity during adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario Renato; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Arumi, Ignasi; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze physical activity during adolescence in participants of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil. METHODS Data on leisure time physical activity at 11, 15, and 18 years of age were analyzed. At each visit, a cut-off point of 300 min/week was used to classify adolescents as active or inactive. A total of 3,736 participants provided data on physical activity at each of the three age points. RESULTS A significant decline in the proportion of active adolescents was observed from 11 to 18 years of age, particularly among girls (from 32.9% to 21.7%). The proportions of girls and boys who were active at all three age points were 28.0% and 55.1%, respectively. After adjustment for sex, economic status, and skin color, participants who were active at 11 and 15 years of age were 58.0% more likely to be active at 18 years of age compared with those who were inactive at 11 and 15 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity declined during adolescence and inactivity tended to track over time. Our findings reinforce the need to promote physical activity at early stages of life, because active behavior established early tends to be maintained over time. PMID:26039395

  12. Birth Rates Among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics and their Representation in Contemporary Obstetric Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Maike K; De La Torre, Rosa; Racusin, Diana A; Suter, Melissa A; Mastrobattista, Joan M; Ramin, Susan M; Clark, Steven L; Dildy, Gary A; Belfort, Michael A; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-10-01

    Objective Our study aims were to establish whether subjects enrolled in current obstetric clinical trials proportionately reflects the contemporary representation of Hispanic ethnicities and their birth rates in the United States. Methods Using comprehensive source data over a defined interval (January 2011-September 2015) on birth rates by ethnicity from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we evaluated the proportional rate by ethnicity, then analyzed the observed to expected relative ratio of enrolled subjects. Results Hispanic women comprise a significant contribution to births in the United States (23% of all births). Systematic analysis of 90 published obstetric clinical trials showed a correlation between inclusion of Hispanic gravidae and the corresponding state's birth rates (r = 0.501, p < 0.001). While the mean was strongly correlated, individual clinical trials may have relatively over-enrolled (n = 31, or 34%) or under-enrolled (n = 33, or 37%) relative to their regional population. In 48% of obstetric clinical trials the Hispanic proportion of the study population was not reported. Conclusion Hispanic gravidae represent a significant number of contemporary U.S. births, and are generally adequately represented as obstetric subjects in clinical trials. However, this is trial-dependent, with significant trial-specific under- and over-enrollment of Hispanic subjects relative to the regional birth population.

  13. What contributes to disparities in the preterm birth rate in European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In countries with comparable levels of development and healthcare systems, preterm birth rates vary markedly – a range from 5 to 10% among live births in Europe. This review seeks to identify the most likely sources of heterogeneity in preterm birth rates, which could explain differences between European countries. Recent findings Multiple risk factors impact on preterm birth. Recent studies reported on measurement issues, population characteristics, reproductive health policies as well as medical practices, including those related to subfertility treatments and indicated deliveries, which affect preterm birth rates and trends in high-income countries. We showed wide variation in population characteristics, including multiple pregnancies, maternal age, BMI, smoking, and percentage of migrants in European countries. Summary Many potentially modifiable population factors (BMI, smoking, and environmental exposures) as well as health system factors (practices related to indicated preterm deliveries) play a role in determining preterm birth risk. More knowledge about how these factors contribute to low and stable preterm birth rates in some countries is needed for shaping future policy. It is also important to clarify the potential contribution of artifactual differences owing to measurement. PMID:25692506

  14. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  15. Child Mortality Estimation: Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Using Full Birth Histories and Summary Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used. Methods and Findings Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility. Conclusions Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong

  16. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  17. Addressing Immunization Registry Population Inflation in Adolescent Immunization Rates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective While U.S. adolescent immunization rates are available annually at national and state levels, finding pockets of need may require county or sub-county information. Immunization information systems (IISs) are one tool for assessing local immunization rates. However, the presence of IIS records dating back to early childhood and challenges in capturing mobility out of IIS areas typically leads to denominator inflation. We examined the feasibility of weighting adolescent immunization records by length of time since last report to produce more accurate county adolescent counts and immunization rates. Methods We compared weighted and unweighted adolescent denominators from the Oregon ALERT IIS, along with county-level Census Bureau estimates, with school enrollment counts from Oregon's annual review of seventh-grade school immunization compliance for public and private schools. Adolescent immunization rates calculated using weighted data, for the state as a whole, were also checked against comparable National Immunization Survey (NIS) rates. Results Weighting individual records by the length of time since last activity substantially improved the fit of IIS data to county populations for adolescents. A nonlinear logarithmic (ogive) weight produced the best fit to the school count data of all examined estimates. Overall, the ogive weighted results matched NIS adolescent rates for Oregon. Conclusion The problem of mobility-inflated counts of teenagers can be addressed by weighting individual records based on time since last immunization. Well-populated IISs can rely on their own data to produce adolescent immunization rates and find pockets of need. PMID:25729105

  18. Physician-led, hospital-linked, birth care centers can decrease Cesarean section rates without increasing rates of adverse events

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Margaret H.; Frazier, Linda M.; Stembridge, Travis W.; McKay, Robert S.; Mohr, Sandra N.; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study compares outcomes at a hospital-linked, physician-led, birthing center to a traditional hospital labor and delivery service. METHODS Using de-identified electronic medical records, a retrospective cohort design was employed to evaluate 32,174 singleton births during 1998–2005. RESULTS Compared to hospital service, birth care center delivery was associated with a lower rate of cesarean sections (adjusted Relative Risk =0.73, 95 percent confidence interval 0.59–0.91; p<0.001) without an increased rate of operative vaginal delivery (adjusted Relative Risk=1.04, 95 percent confidence interval 0.97–1.13; p=0.25) and a higher initiation of breast feeding (adjusted Relative Risk = 1.28, 95 percent confidence interval 1.25–1.30 (p=<0.001). A maternal length of stay greater than 72 hours occurred less frequently in the birth care center (adjusted Relative Risk =0.60, 95 percent confidence interval 0.55–0.66; p<0.001). Comparing only women without major obstetrical risk factors, the differences in outcomes were reduced but not eliminated. Adverse maternal and infant outcomes were not increased at the birth care center. CONCLUSION A hospital-linked, physician-led, birth care center has the potential to lower rates of cesarean sections without increasing rates of operative vaginal delivery or other adverse maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24635500

  19. Low Birth Weight as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence? The PEP Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Because data in children and adolescents are sparse and controversial, we assessed the association of birth weight with CVD risk factors in German youths. Methods: We categorized 843 urban children and adolescents aged 3-18 years by quintiles of birth weight and measured nine traditional risk factors in terms of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, Non HDL-C and triglycerides (TG). SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values and prevalence of nine anthropometric and lipid risk variables were equally distributed over the five birth weight groups. Though risk factors clustered between 3.0 kg and 4.0 kg of birth weight in both genders we found only one significant correlation of birth weight with TG for males and females and another one for HDL-C in males. The strongest clustering of significant regression coefficients occurred in the 2nd birth weight quintile for SBP (ß 0.018), TC (ß -0.050), LDL-C (ß -0.039), non LDL-C (ß -0.049) and log TG (ß -0.001) in males and females. Conclusions: Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2nd quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors. PMID:26900435

  20. Sibling sex ratio and birth order in early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schagen, Sebastian E E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2012-06-01

    Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents. The probands comprised 94 male-to-female and 95 female-to-male gender dysphoric adolescents. The overwhelming majority of these were homosexual or probably prehomosexual. The control group consisted of 875 boys and 914 girls from the TRAILS study. The sibling sex ratio of the gender dysphoric boys was very high (241 brothers per 100 sisters) compared with the expected ratio (106:100). The excess of brothers was more extreme among the probands' older siblings (300:100) than among their younger siblings (195:100). Between-groups comparisons showed that the gender dysphoric boys had significantly more older brothers, and significantly fewer older sisters and younger sisters, than did the control boys. In contrast, the only notable finding for the female groups was that the gender dysphoric girls had significantly fewer total siblings than did the control girls. The results for the male probands were consistent with prior speculations that a high fraternal birth order (i.e., an excess of older brothers) is found in all homosexual male groups, but an elevated sibling sex ratio (usually caused by an additional, smaller excess of younger brothers) is characteristic of gender dysphoric homosexual males. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unknown.

  1. Live-birth rate associated with repeat in vitro fertilisation treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Tilling, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Importance The likelihood of achieving a live-birth with repeat in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to three or four embryo transfers. Objective To determine the live-birth rate per initiated IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed until June 2012. Main exposure IVF, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Main Outcome(s) Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30% and 100% of women discontinuing due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of zero had they continued. Results In all women the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95%CI: 29.3, 29.7). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth, with 65.3% (64.8, 65.8) of women achieving a live-birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (32.0, 32.5), and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (67.8, 68.9). For women aged 40-42, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95%CI: 11.8, 12.8), with six cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (29.7, 33.3). For women older than 42 years all rates within each cycle were less than 4%. No age differential was observed among women using donor oocytes. Rates were lower in those with untreated male factor infertility compared to those with any other cause, but

  2. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort☆

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  3. Declines in state teen birth rates by race and Hispanic origin.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J; Venture, Stephanie J

    2013-05-01

    Teen birth rates fell steeply in the United States from 2007 through 2011, resuming a decline that began in 1991 but was briefly interrupted in 2006 and 2007. The overall rate declined 25% from 41.5 per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19 in 2007 to 31.3 in 2011--a record low. The number of births to teenagers aged 15-19 also fell from 2007 to 2011, by 26% to 329,797 in 2011. Births to teenagers are at elevated risk of low birthweight, preterm birth, and of dying in infancy compared with infants born to women aged 20 and over, and they are associated with significant public costs, estimated at $10.9 billion annually. Recent trends by state and race and Hispanic origin are illustrated using the most current available data from the National Vital Statistics System.

  4. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    PubMed

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports.

  5. A predator-prey model with generic birth and death rates for the predator.

    PubMed

    Terry, Alan J

    2014-02-01

    We propose and study a predator-prey model in which the predator has a Holling type II functional response and generic per capita birth and death rates. Given that prey consumption provides the energy for predator activity, and that the predator functional response represents the prey consumption rate per predator, we assume that the per capita birth and death rates for the predator are, respectively, increasing and decreasing functions of the predator functional response. These functions are monotonic, but not necessarily strictly monotonic, for all values of the argument. In particular, we allow the possibility that the predator birth rate is zero for all sufficiently small values of the predator functional response, reflecting the idea that a certain level of energy intake is needed before a predator can reproduce. Our analysis reveals that the model exhibits the behaviours typically found in predator-prey models - extinction of the predator population, convergence to a periodic orbit, or convergence to a co-existence fixed point. For a specific example, in which the predator birth and death rates are constant for all sufficiently small or large values of the predator functional response, we corroborate our analysis with numerical simulations. In the unlikely case where these birth and death rates equal the same constant for all sufficiently large values of the predator functional response, the model is capable of structurally unstable behaviour, with a small change in the initial conditions leading to a more pronounced change in the long-term dynamics.

  6. Ratings of Behavior Problems in Adolescents Hospitalized for Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined usefulness of Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale (DAB) for assessing behavior problems in adolescents (n=404) hospitalized in inpatient substance abuse treatment units. From 15 original DAB scales, developed 4 scales measuring acting out behaviors, psychotic behaviors, attention-seeking/expressive behaviors, and inner…

  7. Genome-wide DNA methylation variability in adolescent monozygotic twins followed since birth.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Mélissa L; Casey, Kevin F; Szyf, Moshe; Ismaylova, Elmira; Ly, Victoria; Verner, Marie-Pier; Suderman, Matthew; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2014-10-01

    DNA methylation patterns are characterized by highly conserved developmental programs, but allow for divergent gene expression resulting from stochastic epigenetic drift or divergent environments. Genome-wide methylation studies in monozygotic (MZ) twins are providing insight into the extent of epigenetic variation that occurs, irrespective of genotype. However, little is known about the variability of DNA methylation patterns in adolescence, a period involving significant and rapid physical, emotional, social, and neurodevelopmental change. Here, we assessed genome-wide DNA methylation using the 450 K Illumina BeadChip in a sample of 37 MZ twin pairs followed longitudinally since birth to investigate: 1) the extent of variation in DNA methylation in identical genetic backgrounds in adolescence and; 2) whether these variations are randomly distributed or enriched in particular functional pathways. We also assessed stability of DNA methylation over 3-6 months to distinguish stable trait-like and variable state-like genes. A pathway analysis found high within-pair variability in genes associated with development, cellular mechanisms, tissue and cell morphology, and various disorders. Test-retest analyses performed in a sub-sample of 8 twin pairs demonstrated enrichment in gene pathways involved in organismal development, cellular growth and proliferation, cell signaling, and particular disorders. The variability found in functional gene pathways may plausibly underlie phenotypic differences in this adolescent MZ twin sample. Furthermore, we assessed stability of methylation over 3-6 months and found that some genes were stable while others were unstable, suggesting that the methylome remains dynamic in adolescence and that dynamic sites tend to be organized in certain gene pathways. PMID:25437055

  8. Genome-wide DNA methylation variability in adolescent monozygotic twins followed since birth

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Mélissa L; Casey, Kevin F; Szyf, Moshe; Ismaylova, Elmira; Ly, Victoria; Verner, Marie-Pier; Suderman, Matthew; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns are characterized by highly conserved developmental programs, but allow for divergent gene expression resulting from stochastic epigenetic drift or divergent environments. Genome-wide methylation studies in monozygotic (MZ) twins are providing insight into the extent of epigenetic variation that occurs, irrespective of genotype. However, little is known about the variability of DNA methylation patterns in adolescence, a period involving significant and rapid physical, emotional, social, and neurodevelopmental change. Here, we assessed genome-wide DNA methylation using the 450 K Illumina BeadChip in a sample of 37 MZ twin pairs followed longitudinally since birth to investigate: 1) the extent of variation in DNA methylation in identical genetic backgrounds in adolescence and; 2) whether these variations are randomly distributed or enriched in particular functional pathways. We also assessed stability of DNA methylation over 3–6 months to distinguish stable trait-like and variable state-like genes. A pathway analysis found high within-pair variability in genes associated with development, cellular mechanisms, tissue and cell morphology, and various disorders. Test-retest analyses performed in a sub-sample of 8 twin pairs demonstrated enrichment in gene pathways involved in organismal development, cellular growth and proliferation, cell signaling, and particular disorders. The variability found in functional gene pathways may plausibly underlie phenotypic differences in this adolescent MZ twin sample. Furthermore, we assessed stability of methylation over 3–6 months and found that some genes were stable while others were unstable, suggesting that the methylome remains dynamic in adolescence and that dynamic sites tend to be organized in certain gene pathways. PMID:25437055

  9. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  10. [A preliminary analysis of the high birth rate in India].

    PubMed

    Shao, N

    1981-01-01

    The author first provides some basic demographic data for India and points out that the current annual rate of population growth of 2.45 percent is slightly higher than the annual increase in food production. Problems in the areas of employment, education, housing, and transportation, as well as the general problem of poverty, are seen as a consequence of this imbalance. The lack of success of the national family planning program is attributed primarily to the failure to achieve a satisfactory rate of economic growth. Contributory factors include early marriage, the low status of women, the desire for large families, and administrative problems associated with the family planning program.

  11. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  12. Effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    López, Néstor J; Uribe, Sergio; Martinez, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Preterm birth is a highly complex syndrome that includes distinct clinical subtypes in which many different causes may be involved. The results of epidemiological, molecular, microbiological and animal-model studies support a positive association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth. However, the results of intervention studies carried out to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the risk of preterm birth are controversial. This systematic review critically analyzes the methodological issues of meta-analyses of the studies to determine the effect of periodontal treatment to reduce preterm birth. The quality of the individual randomized clinical trials selected is of highest relevance for a systematic review. This article describes the methodological features that should be identified a priori and assessed individually to determine the quality of a randomized controlled trial performed to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. The AMSTAR and the PRISMA checklist tools were used to assess the quality of the six meta-analyses selected, and the bias domain of the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool was applied to evaluate each of the trials included in the meta-analyses. In addition, the methodological characteristics of each clinical trial were assessed. The majority of the trials included in the meta-analyses have significant methodological flaws that threaten their internal validity. The lack of effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate concluded by four meta-analyses, and the positive effect of treatment for reducing preterm birth risk concluded by the remaining two meta-analyses are not based on consistent scientific evidence. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials using rigorous methodology, including appropriate definition of the exposure, adequate control of confounders for

  13. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    Rombauts, L; Dear, M; Breheny, S; Healy, D L

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) the Kaplan-Meier life table method was used to analyse a patient cohort treated with GIFT between 1991 and 1994. In a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine, 1628 women with a median age of 33 years and various causes of infertility were included to calculate cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates. Age and cause of infertility were main factor variables and the study was based on a total of 2941 consecutive GIFT cycles, leading to a first clinical pregnancy, and 3052 cycles, leading to a first live birth. The cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates were 49.6 and 38.8% respectively, after three initiated cycles and 64.1 and 52.0% respectively, after five initiated cycles. The multiple pregnancy rate was 22.6%. The implantation rate of 13.1% after GIFT demonstrates that the developing embryo benefits from a period of exposure within the environment of the Fallopian tube. The present results indicate that approximately 50% of couples will have at least one live baby after five initiated GIFT cycles. Advancing age was a major negative prognostic factor for the cumulative live birth rate because of higher cancellation rates, lower implantation rates and higher pregnancy failure rates. PMID:9222027

  14. Cohort Profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up visits in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria CF; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana MB

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. PMID:24729426

  15. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight rating scale IV. Overall functioning was scored on the children's global assessment scale. DTI scans were performed for calculation of FA maps and areas of significant differences in mean FA values between subjects and controls were compared with their clinical data. The VLBW children had reduced FA values in the internal and external capsule, corpus callosum and superior, middle superior and inferior fasciculus. Within this group of children, visual motor and visual perceptual deficits were associated with low FA values in the external capsule, posterior part of the internal capsule and in the inferior fasciculus. Children with low IQ had low FA values in the external capsule and inferior and middle superior fasciculus. Fine motor impairment was related to low FA values in the internal and external capsule and superior fasciculus. Eight VLBW children with inattention symptoms or a diagnosis of ADHD had significantly lower FA values in several areas. Mild social deficits correlated with reduced FA values in the external capsule and superior fasciculus. We

  16. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight rating scale IV. Overall functioning was scored on the children's global assessment scale. DTI scans were performed for calculation of FA maps and areas of significant differences in mean FA values between subjects and controls were compared with their clinical data. The VLBW children had reduced FA values in the internal and external capsule, corpus callosum and superior, middle superior and inferior fasciculus. Within this group of children, visual motor and visual perceptual deficits were associated with low FA values in the external capsule, posterior part of the internal capsule and in the inferior fasciculus. Children with low IQ had low FA values in the external capsule and inferior and middle superior fasciculus. Fine motor impairment was related to low FA values in the internal and external capsule and superior fasciculus. Eight VLBW children with inattention symptoms or a diagnosis of ADHD had significantly lower FA values in several areas. Mild social deficits correlated with reduced FA values in the external capsule and superior fasciculus. We

  17. Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.

  18. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Darmon, Sarah K.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. Methods We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). Results During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women <35 years to 56.5% in women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P <0.0001). Exclusion of embryo banking cycles led to inflation of live birth rates in fresh ART cycles, increasing in size in parallel to advancing female age and utilization of embryo banking, reaching 56.3% in women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Conclusions Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Précis Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women. PMID:27159215

  19. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976–2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aims Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time period. Design Combined analysis of nationally-representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the U.S. conducted 1976–2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the U.S. Participants 986,003 adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12 Measurements Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana, and other characteristics. For example, compared to birth cohorts in which most (87–90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where less than half (42–46.9%) disapproved (99% C.I. 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. PMID:21545669

  20. Nonlinear fluctuations-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability of occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov’s ecological model and Lanchester’s model of modern warfare.

  1. Physical activity attenuates the negative effect of low birth weight on leptin levels in European adolescents; the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Labayen, I; Ortega, F B; Moreno, L A; Gonzalez-Gross, M; Jimenez-Pavon, D; Martínez-Gómez, D; Breidenassel, C; Marcos, A; Molnar, D; Manios, Y; Plada, M; Kafatos, A; De Henauw, S; Mauro, B; Zaccaria, M; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether physical activity (PA) influences the association between birth weight and serum leptin in adolescents. The study comprised a total of 538 adolescents (315 girls), aged 12.5-17.49 years, born at term (≥ 37 weeks of gestation). We measured serum leptin levels and time engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) by accelerometry. There was an interaction effect between birth weight and meeting the PA recommendations (60 min/day MVPA) on leptin levels in girls (P = 0.023) but not in boys (P = 0.809). Birth weight was negatively associated with leptin levels in girls not meeting the PA recommendations (i.e. more than 60 min/day of MVPA) (β = -0.096, P = 0.009), whereas no significant association was observed in those meeting the PA recommendations (β = -0.061, P = 0.433). In conclusion, meeting the PA recommendations may attenuate the negative effect of low birth weight on serum leptin levels in European female adolescents.

  2. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  3. Leukocytes as risk markers for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: association with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the number of leukocytes and cardiovascular risks associated with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests. Methods: Cross-sectional study developed with 475 adolescents, born between 1992 and 2001, in the municipality of Viçosa (MG). Maternal medical records were analyzed in the hospital units, and the following was recorded: birth weight and length, head circumference, chest circumference, Apgar score, gestational age. In adolescents, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body composition, blood count, biochemical tests and clinical variables were also assessed. The statistical analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA) with Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Linear Regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFV for studies with human subjects. Results: Weight and birth length, head and chest circumference were higher among boys. In adolescents, the number of leukocytes was higher in individuals with excess weight and body fat and high adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference. Only altered triglycerides showed differences between leukocyte medians. Regardless of the anthropometric variable of the final regression model, the stage of adolescence, number of platelets, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were associated with the increase in leukocytes. Conclusions: The birth variables were not associated with changes in leukocyte numbers, whereas the anthropometric variables were good indicators for a higher leukocyte count, regardless of the stage of adolescence and gender. PMID:26572104

  4. Impact of birth rate, seasonality and transmission rate on minimum levels of coverage needed for rubella vaccination.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Lessler, J; Klepac, P; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2012-12-01

    Childhood rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) with multiple disabilities. Reduction of transmission via universal vaccination can prevent CRS, but inadequate coverage may increase CRS numbers by increasing the average age at infection. Consequently, many countries do not vaccinate against rubella. The World Health Organization recommends that for safe rubella vaccination, at least 80% coverage of each birth cohort should be sustained. The nonlinear relationship between CRS burden and infection dynamics has been much studied; however, how the complex interaction between epidemic and demographic dynamics affects minimum safe levels of coverage has not been quantitatively evaluated across scales necessary for a global assessment. We modelled 30-year CRS burdens across epidemiological and demographic settings, including the effect of local interruption of transmission via stochastic fadeout. Necessary minimum vaccination coverage increases markedly with birth and transmission rates, independent of amplitude of seasonal fluctuations in transmission. Susceptible build-up in older age groups following local stochastic extinction of rubella increased CRS burden, indicating that spatial context is important. In low birth-rate settings, 80% routine coverage is a conservative guideline, particularly if supplemented with campaigns and vaccination of women of childbearing age. Where birth and transmission rates are high, immunization coverage must be well above 80% and campaigns may be needed. Policy-makers should be aware of the potential negative effect of local extinction of rubella, since heterogeneity in vaccination coverage will shape extinction patterns, potentially increasing CRS burdens. PMID:22335852

  5. Impact of birth rate, seasonality and transmission rate on minimum levels of coverage needed for rubella vaccination.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Lessler, J; Klepac, P; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2012-12-01

    Childhood rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) with multiple disabilities. Reduction of transmission via universal vaccination can prevent CRS, but inadequate coverage may increase CRS numbers by increasing the average age at infection. Consequently, many countries do not vaccinate against rubella. The World Health Organization recommends that for safe rubella vaccination, at least 80% coverage of each birth cohort should be sustained. The nonlinear relationship between CRS burden and infection dynamics has been much studied; however, how the complex interaction between epidemic and demographic dynamics affects minimum safe levels of coverage has not been quantitatively evaluated across scales necessary for a global assessment. We modelled 30-year CRS burdens across epidemiological and demographic settings, including the effect of local interruption of transmission via stochastic fadeout. Necessary minimum vaccination coverage increases markedly with birth and transmission rates, independent of amplitude of seasonal fluctuations in transmission. Susceptible build-up in older age groups following local stochastic extinction of rubella increased CRS burden, indicating that spatial context is important. In low birth-rate settings, 80% routine coverage is a conservative guideline, particularly if supplemented with campaigns and vaccination of women of childbearing age. Where birth and transmission rates are high, immunization coverage must be well above 80% and campaigns may be needed. Policy-makers should be aware of the potential negative effect of local extinction of rubella, since heterogeneity in vaccination coverage will shape extinction patterns, potentially increasing CRS burdens.

  6. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  7. Variations in Multiple Birth Rates and Impact on Perinatal Outcomes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Blondel, Béatrice; Klungsøyr, Kari; Verdenik, Ivan; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Velebil, Petr; Sól Ólafsdóttir, Helga; Macfarlane, Alison; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR) exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse perinatal outcomes at a population level. Methods We used national aggregate birth data on multiple pregnancies, maternal age, gestational age (GA), stillbirth and neonatal death collected in the Euro-Peristat project (29 countries in 2010, N = 5 074 643 births). We also used European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) data on assisted conception and single embryo transfer (SET). The impact of MBR on outcomes was studied using meta-analysis techniques with random-effects models to derive pooled risk ratios (pRR) overall and for four groups of country defined by their MBR. We computed population attributable risks (PAR) for these groups. Results In 2010, the average MBR was 16.8 per 1000 women giving birth, ranging from 9.1 (Romania) to 26.5 (Cyprus). Compared to singletons, multiples had a nine-fold increased risk (pRR 9.4, 95% Cl 9.1–9.8) of preterm birth (<37 weeks GA), an almost 12-fold increased risk (pRR 11.7, 95% CI 11.0–12.4) of very preterm birth (<32 weeks GA). Pooled RR were 2.4 (95% Cl 1.5–3.6) for fetal mortality at or after 28 weeks GA and 7.0 (95% Cl 6.1–8.0) for neonatal mortality. PAR of neonatal death and very preterm birth were higher in countries with high MBR compared to low MBR (17.1% (95% CI 13.8–20.2) versus 9.8% (95% Cl 9.6–11.0) for neonatal death and 29.6% (96% CI 28.5–30.6) versus 17.5% (95% CI 15.7–18.3) for very preterm births, respectively). Conclusions Wide variations in MBR and their impact on population outcomes imply that efforts by countries to reduce MBR could improve perinatal outcomes, enabling better long-term child health. PMID:26930069

  8. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  9. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  10. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  11. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century. PMID:23118313

  12. Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques) representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%). Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances, may serve as a starting point for ways to intervene and reduce health disparities for preterm births. PMID:25464130

  13. Association between oocyte number retrieved with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie L.; Brown, Morton B.; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if number of oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birthweight (LBW). Design Retrospective cohort. Setting N/A. Patients Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer utilizing either autologous (n=194,627) or donor (n=37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology 2004–2010. Main outcome measures Live birth rate, birthweight, birth weight z-score, LBW. Interventions None. Results For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of oocytes retrieved paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses performed with all models adjusted for age and prior births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy using autologous oocytes via transfer of 2 embryos, a higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birthweight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of oocyte number retrieved with measures of birthweight. Conclusions A higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of 2 embryos but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. PMID:25638421

  14. Brain volumes in adolescents with very low birth weight: effects on brain structure and associations with neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Filipek, Pauline A; Juranek, Jenifer; Bangert, Barbara; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine abnormalities in brain structure in adolescents and young adults with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) and associations of these abnormalities with neuropsychological outcomes. The sample of 108 participants from 14 to 19 years of age included 37 participants with <750 g birth weight, 35 with 750-1,499 g birth weight, and 36 normal birth weight (NBW) controls. One or both of the VLBW groups had smaller brain volumes, larger lateral ventricles, and a small surface area of the corpus callosum than the NBW controls. Group differences in white matter (WM) structures, subcortical gray matter (GM), and the cerebellum were found even when controlling for whole brain volume (WBV), and were most pronounced in the <750 g group. WM reductions in the two VLBW groups relative to NBW controls were associated with more pervasive cognitive deficits than were reductions in subcortical GM. Associations of cognitive outcomes with structural abnormalities remained when controlling for WBV or neonatal risks. The results are consistent with previous findings of residual brain abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with VLBW and provide new information on their cognitive correlates.

  15. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  16. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  17. Difference in ponderal growth and body composition among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents varies by birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that following pregnancy and 6 months of lactation, adolescents cease linear growth and have reduced fat and lean mass in rural Bangladesh. Here, we examined whether these changes varied by pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. Anthropometric measurements were taken among 12-19-year-old primigravidae (n = 229) in early pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Never-pregnant adolescents (n = 456) matched on age and time since menarche were also measured at the same time. Change in anthropometry among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents was compared by pregnancy outcome adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. Pregnant girls, irrespective of birth outcome, did not gain in stature, while never-pregnant girls increased in height by 0.36 +/- 0.04 cm year(-1) (P < 0.05). Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and % body fat among pregnant adolescents whose infants survived the neonatal period had decreased at 6 months post-partum, whereas those who experienced a fetal loss or neonatal death did not change in any of the measurements. Consequently, the difference in change in ponderal size and body composition measures between pregnant and never-pregnant girls was higher among those whose neonates survived vs. those who experienced a fetal loss/neonatal death (BMI: -0.64 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.16 kg m(-2) year(-1); MUAC: -0.96 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17 cm year(-1), both P < 0.05). LBW and preterm birth did not have a similar effect modification. Linear growth ceased among pregnant girls regardless of birth outcome. Maternal weight loss and depletion of fat and lean mass at 6 months post-partum were more pronounced when the infants survived through the neonatal period. PMID:20055928

  18. Correlating multidimensional fetal heart rate variability analysis with acid-base balance at birth.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Martin G; Xu, Yawen; Stampalija, Tamara; Durosier, Lucien D; Herry, Christophe; Wang, Xiaogang; Casati, Daniela; Seely, Andrew Je; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gao, Xin; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Fetal monitoring during labour currently fails to accurately detect acidemia. We developed a method to assess the multidimensional properties of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) from trans-abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) during labour. We aimed to assess this novel bioinformatics approach for correlation between fHRV and neonatal pH or base excess (BE) at birth.We enrolled a prospective pilot cohort of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at 38-42 weeks' gestation in Milan, Italy, and Liverpool, UK. Fetal monitoring was performed by standard cardiotocography. Simultaneously, with fECG (high sampling frequency) was recorded. To ensure clinician blinding, fECG information was not displayed. Data from the last 60 min preceding onset of second-stage labour were analyzed using clinically validated continuous individualized multiorgan variability analysis (CIMVA) software in 5 min overlapping windows. CIMVA allows simultaneous calculation of 101 fHRV measures across five fHRV signal analysis domains. We validated our mathematical prediction model internally with 80:20 cross-validation split, comparing results to cord pH and BE at birth.The cohort consisted of 60 women with neonatal pH values at birth ranging from 7.44 to 6.99 and BE from -0.3 to -18.7 mmol L(-1). Our model predicted pH from 30 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.001) and BE from 21 fHRV measures (R(2) = 0.77, P < 0.001).Novel bioinformatics approach (CIMVA) applied to fHRV derived from trans-abdominal fECG during labor correlated well with acid-base balance at birth. Further refinement and validation in larger cohorts are needed. These new measurements of fHRV might offer a new opportunity to predict fetal acid-base balance at birth. PMID:25407948

  19. Articulation Rate in Childhood and Adolescence: Hebrew Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Grinfeld, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify articulation rate among Hebrew speaking children and adolescents across a wide age range, and to assess whether age-related differences vary according to metric. One hundred and forty children, in seven age groups, participated in this cross-sectional study. All children were recorded during conversation and a picture…

  20. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  1. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  2. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  3. Change in Population Characteristics and Teen Birth Rates in 77 Community Areas: Chicago, Illinois, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, Shauna; Masinter, Lisa; Kolak, Marynia

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed community area differences in teen births in Chicago, Illinois, from 1999 to 2009. We analyzed the association between changes in teen birth rates and concurrent measures of community area socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods Mean annual changes in teen birth rates in 77 Chicago community areas were correlated with concurrent census-based population changes during the decade. Census measures included changes in race/ethnicity, adult high school dropouts, poverty or higher-income households, crowded housing, unemployment, English proficiency, foreign-born residents, or residents who moved in the last five years. We included non-collinear census measures with a p<0.1 bivariate association with change in teen births in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Results Teen birth rates in Chicago fell faster than the overall birth rates, from 85 births per 1,000 teens in 1999 to 57 births per 1,000 teens in 2009. There were strong positive associations between increases in the percentage of residents who were black and Hispanic, poor, without a high school diploma, and living in crowded housing, and a negative association with an increase in higher-income households. Population changes in poverty, Hispanic population, and high school dropouts were the only significant measures in the final model, explaining almost half of the variance in teen birth rate changes. Conclusion The study provides a model of census-based measures that can be used to evaluate predicted vs. observed rates of change in teen births across communities, offering the potential to more appropriately prioritize public health resources for preventing unintended teen pregnancy. PMID:26345288

  4. Relationship Between Malpractice Litigation Pressure and Rates of Cesarean Section and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y. Tony; Mello, Michelle M.; Subramanian, S. V.; Studdert, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, nationwide rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) have decreased sharply and rates of cesarean section have increased sharply. Both trends are consistent with clinical behavior aimed at reducing obstetricians’ exposure to malpractice litigation. Objective To estimate the effects of malpractice pressure on rates of VBAC and cesarean section. Research Design, Subjects, Measures We used state-level longitudinal mixed-effects regression models to examine data from the Natality Detail File on births in the United States (1991–2003). Malpractice pressure was measured by liability insurance premiums and tort reforms. Outcome measures were rates of VBAC, cesarean section, and primary cesarean section. Results Malpractice premiums were positively associated with rates of cesarean section (β = 0.15, P = 0.02) and primary cesarean section (β = 0.16, P = 0.009), and negatively associated with VBAC rates (β = −0.35, P = 0.01). These estimates imply that a $10,000 decrease in premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists would be associated with an increase of 0.35 percentage points (1.45%) in the VBAC rate and decreases of 0.15 and 0.16 percentage points (0.7% and 1.18%) in the rates of cesarean section and primary cesarean section, respectively; this would correspond to approximately 1600 more VBACs, 6000 fewer cesarean sections, and 3600 fewer primary cesarean sections nationwide in 2003. Two types of tort reform—caps on noneconomic damages and pretrial screening panels—were associated with lower rates of cesarean section and higher rates of VBAC. Conclusions The liability environment influences choice of delivery method in obstetrics. The effects are not large, but reduced litigation pressure would likely lead to decreases in the total number cesarean sections and total delivery costs. PMID:19169125

  5. Changes in seasonality of birth rates in Germany from 1951 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, A; Simoni, M; Nieschlag, E

    1993-11-01

    Annual birth rates have been found to be affected up to 10-20% by seasonal variation. Variations affecting birth patterns are attributed to biological and social factors: annual rhythms of climatic conditions, or the photoperiod and varying sexual activity. A recent study placed greater priority on biological factors as responsible for seasonal variation: annual variations in sperm quality, serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in men, and ovulation variations in women by time of day. Seasonal variations in birth rates were found in Munster, Germany, between 1890-99, 1965-74, and 1981-90. Further examination was made to ascertain whether the variations pertained to the entire country of Germany. Data were obtained on monthly birth rates from 1951 to 1990 from the states of the former West Germany. Annual means were calculated and the monthly deviations from the mean computed (centered moving average with a window size of 13 months), as well as monthly means within 5-year intervals. Yearly cosine functions with 2 harmonics were also fitted to the data. The results showed maximum births in the first half of the year between 1951-75 and later months in the following years until stabilization after 1981. The amplitudes of the rhythms declined from 1972 until stabilizing and increasing after 1978. The annual patterns were smooth and stable with peaks in February and March, and a "shoulder" peak in September, which conforms to long suspected seasonal conceptions in December. The annual rhythms appear to support biologic seasonal variation until 1970. The shift after 1970 to conceptions in the winter months for Germany has also been observed with US data since 1950, and in southern hemisphere countries. The explanation may be environmental changes. The workplace environment has replaced the photoperiod influences and temperature fluctuations, but the shift by 6 months would not support this deseasonalization hypothesis. It is suggested that social reasons

  6. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  7. Gauging Media Influence on Adolescent Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Darren; McCabe, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" published by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that in 2004, suicide was the third leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year olds and accounted for 4,599 deaths. From 2003 to 2004, suicide rates of females age 10-14 years and 15-19 years and males age 15-19 years increased significantly.…

  8. Reproductive effects of sodium borates on male employees: birth rate assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Whorton, M D; Haas, J L; Trent, L; Wong, O

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose of the study was to investigate potential reproductive effects of sodium borates on occupationally exposed male employees at a large mining and production facility in the Mojave Desert of California. METHODS--The standardised birth ratio (SBR) was used to assess fertility of the male employees. Live births were the measured end point, and the rate of female to male offspring was also assessed. Data were collected through a questionnaire after a series of on site introductory and explanatory meetings with the employees. Initial non-responders were followed up by telephone. Medical insurance records were assessed for those who declined to participate. RESULTS--The questionnaire was a good method of ascertainment for live births. There was no evidence of selection bias in the results. There was a highly significant excess of offspring fathered by the male employees. There was no evidence of a relation between exposure and this excess of offspring, nor were there any temporal differences during the period of observation (> 30 years). Also, there was an excess of the percentage of female offspring fathered by these male employees. This excess of female offspring was not significant. There was no evidence of an exposure relation to sodium borates with this excess of female offspring nor were there any temporal differences. CONCLUSION--Under the conditions studied, there were no adverse reproductive effects of high borate doses as reported from oral ingestion studies in animals. PMID:7849854

  9. Learning disability in 10- to 16-year-old adolescents with very low birth weight in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Keiko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Kikuchi, Saya; Murotsuki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, i.e., weight less than 1,500 g) in Japan. However, the effect of VLBW on subsequent behavioral development and mental health remains unknown. Subjects enrolled were 57 individuals (13.4 ± 1.9 years old) with VLBW (VLBW group), including 23 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (i.e., the SGA/VLBW group) and 34 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (the AGA/VLBW group). The control group was 29 individuals born AGA at term. We used the questionnaires, the Pupil Rating Scale Revised (PRS) to screen for learning disabilities and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to examine the presence of depression. The PRS score in the VLBW group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). Suspected learning disabilities (LD, defined by a score below 65 points on the PRS) were found in 6 out of the 56 subjects in the VLBW group (10.7%), whereas none were found in the 29 control subjects (p = 0.074). The frequency of suspected LD children was higher in the SGA/VLBW group (4 out of 22 evaluated infants, 18.2%) than that in the AGA/VLBW group (2/34, 5.9%). The frequency of suspected LD in the non-verbal field was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the SGA/VLBW group (18.2%) than in the AGA/VLBW group (0%). However, CDI score did not significantly differ between groups. These findings suggest that VLBW and fetal growth restriction may pose a risk for LD among adolescents with VLBW. PMID:24477102

  10. Birth Order and Sibling Gender Ratio of a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Abotorabi-Zarchi, Marzie; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether sibling's gender ratio is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examines whether inattentiveness severity and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity are associated with birth order of children with ADHD. Method Participants are a clinical sample of 173 children and adolescents with ADHD and 43 ones without ADHD. Diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders forth edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), diagnostic criteria according to face-to-face interview with the children and their parents. ADHD DSM-IV checklist was used to measure inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores. Results The association of birth order and diagnosis of ADHD was not statistically significant after adjusting for covariate factors. The gender ratio of siblings is not associated with ADHD. Conclusion Birth order and siblings gender ratio are independent of ADHD diagnosis. The results of this study support the fact that genetic factors rather than environmental factor of birth order is associated with ADHD. Moreover, contrary to autism, the current results do not suggest the androgen theory for ADHD. PMID:23139691

  11. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low.

  12. An exploratory study of the variables impacting preterm birth rates in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a substantial health problem that accounts for significant infant morbidity and mortality and poses an economic burden to both individuals and the state of residence. The goal of this study was to identify maternal risk factors for PTB in New Mexico, a poor state with a unique ethnic background, in order to identify populations at increased risk that would benefit from intervention. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective exploratory analysis of 377,770 singleton live births in the state of New Mexico from 1991-2005. Gestational age of less than 37 weeks was defined as PTB. The Kotelchuck Index was used as a measure for level of prenatal care described as inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive. Results Of the live births analyzed, 28,036 of these were preterm (7.4%). Overall the PTB rate rose at a rate of 0.18% per year from 1991-2005. Among patients with medical risk factors, the absence of prenatal care was associated with higher odds for PTB as compared to adequate prenatal care. Other risk factors were unmarried status, education less than high school, tobacco/alcohol use, black, Asian, and white Hispanic ethnicity, and the presence of one or more medical risk factors. Statistically significant protective factors for PTB were age 25-29, education surpassing high school, and Native American race. Conclusions This study identified several factors that correlate with increased PTB in New Mexico, in particular ethnicity and level of prenatal care. The finding that Native American patients have a lower PTB rate compared to other groups, even though this group is traditionally one of low socioeconomic status in New Mexico, signifies that other factors yet to be identified affect PTB. PMID:22720802

  13. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

  14. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  15. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  16. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  17. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  18. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…

  19. Osteoprotegerin in pregnant adolescents differs by race and is related to infant birth weight z-score.

    PubMed

    Essley, B; McNanley, T; Cooper, B; McIntyre, A; Witter, F; Harris, Z; O'Brien, K

    2011-10-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover, but little is known about this protein during pregnancy or among neonates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to identify relationships between OPG, markers of bone turnover and birth outcomes in 155 pregnant adolescents (13-18 years) and their newborns. Maternal blood samples were collected at mid-gestation and at delivery. Cord blood was obtained at delivery. Serum OPG, estradiol and markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (N-telopeptide) were assessed in all samples. Placental OPG expression was assessed in placental tissue obtained at delivery. Bone markers and OPG increased significantly from mid-gestation (26.0 ± 3.4 weeks) to delivery (39.3 ± 2.6 weeks). Neonatal OPG was significantly lower, but bone turnover markers were significantly higher than maternal values at mid-gestation and at parturition (P < 0.001). African-American adolescents had higher concentrations of OPG than Caucasian adolescents at mid-gestation (P = 0.01) and delivery (P = 0.04). Gestational age and estradiol were also predictors of maternal OPG at mid-gestation and delivery. OPG concentrations in cord blood were correlated with maternal OPG concentrations and were negatively associated with infant birth weight z-score (P = 0.02) and ponderal index (P = 0.02). In conclusion, maternal OPG concentrations increased across gestation and were significantly higher than neonatal OPG concentrations. Maternal and neonatal OPG concentrations were not associated with markers of bone turnover or placental OPG expression, but neonatal OPG was inversely associated with neonatal anthropometric measures. Additional research is needed to identify roles of OPG during pregnancy.

  20. [Facial cleft birth rate in former East Germany before and after the reactor accident in Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Zieglowski, V; Hemprich, A

    1999-07-01

    Cleft lip palates (CLP) are caused by a variety of factors. Ionizing radiation is only one of these factors. The meltdown of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, and the subsequent radioactive fallout did not cause any acute radiation sickness in Germany. Nevertheless, in West Berlin a significant increase of trisomy-21 cases was reported in births 9 months after the Chernobyl reactor accident. In our study we analyzed the influence of the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl disaster on the rate and regional distribution of CLP newborns in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In contrast to the Federal Republic of Germany an ongoing malformation register for CLP newborns had existed in the former GDR since 4 July 1967. Environmental data were collected from national and international environmental authorities and atomic energy agencies. Population statistics were taken from the statistical year-book of the former GDR. During a 10-year period from 1980 to 1989, the average number of CLP newborns in the GDR was 1.88 per 1,000 live births. A significant prevalence increase was recorded in 1983, 1987 und 1988. In comparison to the mean rate in the period from 1980 until 1986, 1987 demonstrated an increase of 9.4%. Regional prevalence increases were seen in the three northern districts of Schwerin, Rostock and Neubrandenburg, where the radioactivity measurements in general showed higher levels of the radionuclides caesium-137 und strontium-90 than in other districts. Owing to the comprehensive malformation register for CLP patients in the GDR, this is the first study for Germany, analyzing the CLP rate before and after the fallout in Chernobyl. The results support the allegation of the influence of radiation-induced increase of CLP newborns after the Chernobyl reactor accident.

  1. Clinician-rated mental health in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services: associations with parent, teacher and adolescent ratings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-rated measures are used extensively in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) is a short clinician-rated measure developed for ordinary clinical practice, with increasing use internationally. Several studies have investigated its psychometric properties, but there are few data on its correspondence with other methods, rated by other informants. We compared the HoNOSCA with the well-established Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) questionnaires: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Methods Data on 153 patients aged 6-17 years at seven outpatient CAMHS clinics in Norway were analysed. Clinicians completed the HoNOSCA, whereas parents, teachers, and adolescents filled in the ASEBA forms. HoNOSCA total score and nine of its scales were compared with similar ASEBA scales. With a multiple regression model, we investigated how the ASEBA ratings predicted the clinician-rated HoNOSCA and whether the different informants' scores made any unique contribution to the prediction of the HoNOSCA scales. Results We found moderate correlations between the total problems rated by the clinicians (HoNOSCA) and by the other informants (ASEBA) and good correspondence between eight of the nine HoNOSCA scales and the similar ASEBA scales. The exception was HoNOSCA scale 8 psychosomatic symptoms compared with the ASEBA somatic problems scale. In the regression analyses, the CBCL and TRF total problems scores together explained 27% of the variance in the HoNOSCA total scores (23% for the age group 11-17 years, also including the YSR). The CBCL provided unique information for the prediction of the HoNOSCA total score, HoNOSCA scale 1 aggressive behaviour, HoNOSCA scale 2 overactivity or attention problems, HoNOSCA scale 9 emotional symptoms, and HoNOSCA scale 10 peer problems; the TRF for all

  2. [The prolonged maintenance of a high birth rate in the province of Cadiz: the recent beginning of the secular decline].

    PubMed

    Martin Ruiz, J F

    1982-02-01

    This article describes and analyzes the stages of the demographic transition in Cadiz, a representative province in 1 of the most pronatalist regions of Spain. The prolonged maintenance of birth rates much higher than the Spanish average occurred in a province with a low overall level of development, high illiteracy rates, and very unequal division of income and wealth. The data, from the national statistical institute, are of relatively low quality prior to 1960 or 1970. The high fertility of Cadiz cannot be explained by nuptiality, since the nuptiality rate was lower than the national average from 1911-60. The average age at marriage for woman was slightly higher than the national average through 1970; although declining, it was still a relatively high 24.4 years in 1970-75. The rate of illegitimacy however was about twice the national average until midcentury, and only since about 1970 has declined to the insignificant level of 1.8% in Cadiz. The crude birth rate in 1971-75 was 24.0/1000, almost 5 points above the national average. The crude birth rate however does not exactly measure natality; a higher than average rate of abortions and the fact that births are not counted as live until the infant has survived for 24 hours suggest an even higher level of fertility. Until about 1965, birth rates in Cadiz were as or almost as high as in the 19th century. Beginning in 1965, the rate began an incipient though irreversible process of decline which occurred despite the increasing nuptiality rate and declining age at marriage. The average annual birth rates were 33/1000 in the 1st 3rd of the century, with a slight decline around World War I, and 27/1000 from 1936-65, with declines caused by the Civil War and difficult postwar years. A sustained fertility rate of 27/1000 from 1957-66 was associated with strong nuptiality and a decline of the illegitimacy rate from 9.0% in 1951-55 to 3.4% in 1961-65. The decline of the birth rate to 23/1000 in 1975 indicated the

  3. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  4. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight births (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile at term) and 58 control adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  5. Adolescent self-control behavior predicts body weight through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Hardy, R; Richards, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight gain has become one of the biggest issues for healthy aging in middle- and high-income countries. Self-control of emotional reward cues is an important behavioral factor for regulation of weight gain through voluntary diet control and physical activity. Methods: We tested the associations between teacher-rated self-control at ages 13 and 15 years, and measured body mass index (BMI) between ages 15 and 60–64 years, controlling for confounding factors such as affective symptoms and cognition, using 3873 study members in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. Results: Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for all covariates showed that lower self-control was associated with higher BMI in all measure points (P<0.05). Multilevel modeling using a cubic model showed that there was an association between self-control and BMI at 15 years in females (male: BMI=−0.00 kg m−2 per 1 s.d. on the self-control score (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.12 to 0.11), P =0.94; female: BMI=−0.27 (−0.42 to −0.11), P<0.001). The association became stronger with age in both sexes (BMI=−0.065 (−0.082 to −0.048), P<0.001; BMI=−0.036 (−0.057 to −0.015), P<0.001). By age 60–64 years, the association between self-control and BMI in men had increased to −0.70 (−0.96 to −0.44) and −0.67 (−1.04 to −0.30) in women. Conclusions: Lower adolescent self-control was associated with higher BMI through the life course, and this becomes stronger with age. Investigations to test whether intervention to self-control improves obesity are recommended. PMID:26449420

  6. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  7. [Experiences from a sex-counseling and birth control practice for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ahrendt, H J

    1983-01-01

    The gynecologic department of the Magdeburg Medical Academy has a special clinic where adolescents can come for sex, contraception, and abortion counseling. Current life-style has increased sexual behavior among adolescents; age of menarche comes earlier (12.6 yrs); cohabitation occurs at an earlier age. With increase in heterosexual activities comes increase in unwanted pregnancy and venereal diseases. The clinic engages in personal and group counseling on all aspects of sex life, family life and planning, and contraceptive methods. In the past 10 years 18,000 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17 have been counseled. Of these, 610 subjects were counseled in the contraceptive clinic. Timely use of contraceptives by adolescents is still inadequate: only 12.8% of these girls used contraception before 1st sexual relations (10.5% hormonal, 2.3% diaphragm); 12.6% had a pregnancy before 1st contraceptive use of which 88.3% had an abortion. The question of side effects of oral contraceptives in adolescents concerns: 1) growth suppression - this is not likely because growth after menarche is usually no more than about 6 cm; 1) thromboembolism - there are few predisposing factors in adolescents, except in those who smoke; and 3) endocrinological problems - it is important that a stable biphasic ovulatory cycle exists; the risk of postpill amenorrhea must be considered. The minipill (progestin only) is prescribed to those with menstrual irregularities; sequential contraceptives (Ovosiston) to those with stable biphasic cycles before age 16; combination contraceptives (Minisiston) to those with stable cycles after age 16. With contraindications to the pill, the use of IUDs is considered after careful history taking in relation to earlier endometritis and/or adnexitis. Other methods such as rhythm methods or mechanical barriers are also considered. The most important aspect in contraceptive and sexual counseling of adolescents is an open and individualized approach.

  8. THE BIRTH RATE OF SNe Ia FROM HYBRID CONe WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangcun; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    Considering the uncertainties of the C-burning rate (CBR) and the treatment of convective boundaries, Chen et al. found that there is a regime where it is possible to form hybrid CONe white dwarfs (WDs), i.e., ONe WDs with carbon-rich cores. As these hybrid WDs can be as massive as 1.30 M {sub ☉}, not much mass needs to be accreted for these objects to reach the Chandrasekhar limit and to explode as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We have investigated their contribution to the overall SN Ia birth rate and found that such SNe Ia tend to be relatively young with typical time delays between 0.1 and 1 Gyr, where some may be as young as 30 Myr. SNe Ia from hybrid CONe WDs may contribute several percent to all SNe Ia, depending on the common-envelope ejection efficiency and the CBR. We suggest that these SNe Ia may produce part of the 2002cx-like SN Ia class.

  9. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  10. Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility.

  11. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.) PMID:24381821

  12. Delivery by Cesarean Section is not Associated With Decreased at-Birth Fracture Rates in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Bellur, S; Jain, M; Cuthbertson, D; Krakow, D; Shapiro, JR; Steiner, RD; Smith, PA; Bober, MB; Hart, T; Krischer, J; Mullins, M; Byers, PH; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, FH; Rauch, F; Sutton, VR; Lee, B; Nagamani, SC

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes to recurrent fractures. The moderate-to-severe forms of OI present with antenatal fractures and the mode of delivery that would be safest for the fetus is not known. Methods We conducted systematic analyses on the largest cohort of individuals (n=540) with OI enrolled to-date in the OI Linked Clinical Research Centers. Self-reported at-birth fracture rates were compared in individuals with OI types I, III, and IV. Multivariate analyses utilizing backward-elimination logistic regression model building were performed to assess the effect of multiple covariates including method of delivery on fracture-related outcomes. Results When accounting for other covariates, at-birth fracture rates did not differ based on whether delivery was by vaginal route or by cesarean section (CS). Increased birth weight conferred higher risk for fractures irrespective of the delivery method. In utero fracture, maternal history of OI, and breech presentation were strong predictors for choosing CS for delivery. Conclusion Our study, the largest to analyze the effect of various factors on at-birth fracture rates in OI shows that delivery by CS is not associated with decreased fracture rate. With the limitation that the fracture data were self-reported in this cohort, these results suggest that CS should be performed only for other maternal or fetal indications, but not for the sole purpose of fracture prevention in OI. PMID:26426884

  13. Comparison of Referral Rates for Preschool Children at Risk for Disabilities Using Information Obtained from Birth Certificate Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Scott, Keith G.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of integrating birth certificate record data with an existing disability-tracking database for the purpose of evaluating early identification efforts. The authors examined referral rates of preschool-age children for several known disability risk factors. Low birthweight, low maternal education, and prematurity…

  14. Birth weight and blood lipid levels in Spanish adolescents: Influence of selected APOE, APOC3 and PPARgamma2 gene polymorphisms. The AVENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-2 (PPARγ2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13–18.5 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Results Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE ε3ε4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARγ2 genotypes. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life. PMID:19000312

  15. Postnatal weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and 5 y and body composition in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara; Maccario, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid weight gain in the first years of life is associated with adult obesity. Whether there are critical windows for this long term effect is unclear. Objective To study anthropometry in adolescence by gender according to weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and five years. Design Anthropometric parameters, including fat and fat-free mass by bipodal impedancemetry, were measured in 468 8–17 year old adolescents. We retrospectively collected early infancy data and individually estimated weight and height growth velocities in 69.4% of them using a mathematical model. Associations between birth parameters, growth velocities and anthropometric parameters in adolescence were studied. Results Weight growth velocity at three months was associated with overweight (OR for a 1 SD increase [95% CI]=1.52[1.04–2.22]), fat mass and waist circumference in adolescence in both genders, and with fat-free mass only in boys (r=0.29, P<0.001 versus r=−0.01, ns in girls). Weight growth velocities after 2 years were associated with all anthropometric parameters in adolescence, in both genders. Between 6 months and 2 years, weight growth velocities were significantly associated only with adolescent height in boys; in girls, associations with fat mass in adolescence were weaker. Discussion Our results support the hypothesis of two critical windows in early childhood associated with the later risk of obesity: up to 6 months and from 2 years onwards. The study of the determinants of growth during these two periods is of major importance for the prevention of obesity in adolescence. PMID:18541566

  16. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    PubMed

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  17. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    PubMed

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  18. Laser assisted zona hatching does not improve live birth rate in patients undergoing their first ICSI cycles

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Mohammad Hossein; Halvaei, Iman; Razi, Yasamin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Routine use of assisted hatching (AH) following ICSI is a controversial issue in the literature. There are rare studies regarding the effect of laser assisted hatching (LAH) on live birth rate. Objective: Our main goal was to evaluate the effect of LAH on delivery rate as well as congenital anomaly in patients undergoing their first ICSI cycle. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 patients subjected to ICSI were randomly aliquot into two groups of experiment and control. In experiment group, the embryos were subjected to LAH to open a hole in ZP (about 10-12 µm) while in control group, the transferred embryos were intact with no AH. The patients were followed for clinical pregnancy and delivery rate as well as congenital anomaly. All the patients were infertile due to male factor infertility and LAH and embryo transfer were done on day 2. Results: Laboratory and clinical characteristics of two groups of experiment and control were the same. There were insignificant differences between two groups of experiment and control for clinical pregnancy rate (20% vs. 23.9%, respectively, p=0.3) and live birth rate (11.11% vs. 8.6%, respectively, p=0.6). Also no significant differences were observed between two groups of experiment and control for multiple pregnancy as well as congenital anomaly. Conclusion: Routine use of LAH in first ICSI cycle for male factor patients may have no beneficial effects on clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. PMID:24639729

  19. Adolescent Fertility: National File [Machine-Readable Data File].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    This computer file contains recent cross sectional data on adolescent fertility in the United States for 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980-85. The following variables are included: (1) births; (2) birth rates; (3) abortions; (4) non-marital childbearing; (5) infant mortality; and (6) low birth weight. Data for both teenagers and women aged 20-24 are…

  20. Adolescent Fertility: State File [Machine-Readable Data File].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    This computer file contains recent cross sectional data on adolescent fertility by state for 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980-85. The following variables are included: (1) births; (2) birth rates; (3) abortions; (4) non-marital childbearing; (5) infant mortality; and (6) low birth weight. Data for both teenagers and women aged 20-24 years are…

  1. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  2. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shoff, Carla; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited information is available about teenage pregnancy and childbearing in rural areas, even though approximately 20 percent of the nation’s youth live in rural areas. Identifying whether there are differences in the teenage birth rate (TBR) across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important, because these differences may reflect modifiable ecological-level influences such as education, employment, laws, healthcare infrastructure, and policies that could potentially reduce the TBR. OBJECTIVES The goals of this study are to investigate whether there are spatially varying relationships between the TBR and the independent variables, and if so, whether these associations differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. METHODS We explore the heterogeneity within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county groups separately using geographically weighted regression (GWR), and investigate the difference between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan counties using spatial regime models with spatial errors. These analyses were applied to county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau. RESULTS GWR results suggested that non-stationarity exists in the associations between TBR and determinants within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan groups. The spatial regime analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on TBR significantly varied by the metropolitan status of counties. CONCLUSIONS While the spatially varying relationships between the TBR and independent variables were found within each metropolitan status of counties, only the magnitude of the impact of the socioeconomic disadvantage index is significantly stronger among metropolitan counties than nonmetropolitan counties. Our findings suggested that place-specific policies for the disadvantaged groups in a county could be implemented to reduce TBR in the US. PMID:23144587

  3. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. Methods A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. Results The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1–2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4–4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1–1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Conclusions Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used. PMID:26760299

  4. Impact of vaccination and birth rate on the epidemiology of pertussis: a comparative study in 64 countries.

    PubMed

    Broutin, H; Viboud, C; Grenfell, B T; Miller, M A; Rohani, P

    2010-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis infection remains an important public health problem worldwide despite decades of routine vaccination. A key indicator of the impact of vaccination programmes is the inter-epidemic period, which is expected to increase with vaccine uptake if there is significant herd immunity. Based on empirical data from 64 countries across the five continents over the past 30-70 years, we document the observed relationship between the average inter-epidemic period, birth rate and vaccine coverage. We then use a mathematical model to explore the range of scenarios for duration of immunity and transmission resulting from repeat infections that are consistent with empirical evidence. Estimates of pertussis periodicity ranged between 2 and 4.6 years, with a strong association with susceptible recruitment rate, defined as birth rate × (1 - vaccine coverage). Periodicity increased by 1.27 years on average after the introduction of national vaccination programmes (95% CI: 1.13, 1.41 years), indicative of increased herd immunity. Mathematical models suggest that the observed patterns of pertussis periodicity are equally consistent with loss of immunity that is not as rapid as currently thought, or with negligible transmission generated by repeat infections. We conclude that both vaccine coverage and birth rate drive pertussis periodicity globally and that vaccination induces strong herd immunity effects. A better understanding of the role of repeat infections in pertussis transmission is critical to refine existing control strategies.

  5. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  6. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  7. Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate in British Columbia between 1952 and 1986: stability of rates.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Uh, S H

    1989-01-01

    We examined the birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and of isolated cleft palate in British Columbia between 1952 and 1986 using the data of the BC Health Surveillance Registry. The rates fluctuated over the study period, but linear trend analysis showed no increase or decrease for cleft lip with or without cleft palate; however, there was a significant increase for isolated cleft palate, attributed to improved ascertainment around 1963-66. Given the possible effects of newer agents used in both silviculture and agriculture, as well as the general concern over drugs and other environmental agents, such a long-term monitoring program is important. Furthermore, if significant clustering occurs, good background data are essential for comparison. The general public's perception is that the rates of birth defects are increasing. Our findings should give some reassurance with respect to orofacial clefts. PMID:2713802

  8. Reproductive effects of inorganic borates on male employees: birth rate assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Whorton, D; Haas, J; Trent, L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for reproductive effects of inorganic borate compounds on male employees. The standardized birth ratio (SBR) methodology was used to assess fertility among male employees, using live births as the measured end point. The ratio of female to male births was also assessed. Data were collected via questionnaires and telephone follow-up interviews. Medical insurance records were assessed for nonresponders. Exposures were assessed using three semiquantitative categories. We found a statistically significant increase in fertility as measured by live births among the employees of the inorganic borate facility. There does not appear to be any decrease in fertility due to exposures either as analyzed by the borate exposure categories or over time, which is an indirect measure of exposures. We found a nonstatistically significant increase in the percentage of female offspring. This increase was due, not to a deficiency of male offspring, but rather to a marked increase in the numbers of female offspring. This increase in percentage female offspring does not appear to be related to exposures to inorganic borates. Based on the data, exposures to inorganic borates do not appear to adversely affect fertility in this population. PMID:7889872

  9. Pregnancy Prevention among Latina Adolescents--The Role of Social Capital and Cultural Norms: An Interview with Dr. Claire Brindis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Dr. Brindis and her colleagues compared four communities with high poverty and lower than average birth rates among Latina adolescents, with four communities which also had high poverty but had higher than average birth rates among Latina adolescents. Their goal was to examine the social capital and cultural norms within these…

  10. Child/Pet Maltreatment: Adolescents' Ratings of Parent and Owner Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results from an investigation of 614 adolescents' ratings of forms of child and pet maltreatment indicated that adolescents were highly critical of acts which constitute maltreatment, more critical of abusive than neglectful acts, less tolerant of child abuse than pet abuse, but more tolerant of physical force directed toward a child if they had…

  11. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  12. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  13. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  14. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  15. Postnatal growth rate, but not mild preterm birth, influences airway structure in adult sheep challenged with house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Snibson, Ken; Harding, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The authors recently showed that preterm birth per se, in the absence of assisted ventilation or elevated inhaled oxygen levels, alters the structure of the airway walls in young lambs. The initial aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes persist into adulthood. Preterm (P; n = 7) lambs were delivered 14 days before term and compared with control lambs (C; n = 8) born at term ( approximately 147 days). After weaning, the sheep were kept as a flock with daily exposure to pasture until approximately 1.2 years old. All sheep were sensitized to house dust mite extract and then given aerosol challenges with house dust mite 10 to 12 weeks before autopsy. At autopsy, the right lung was fixed in neutral-buffered formalin at an inflation pressure of 20 cm H(2)O. The architecture of the walls of airway generations 4, 6, and 8 and the bronchioles was assessed by computer-aided image analysis of histological sections of airway walls cut in cross-section. Morphometric analysis showed that preterm birth per se had no significant effect on airway wall structure. Within both groups (preterm and term), we identified animals that grew at different growth rates after birth; a second aim, therefore, was to determine the influence of postnatal growth rates on airway structure at maturity. The 15 sheep were divided into 2 groups based on nonoverlapping growth rates between birth and 200 days of age: slower growing sheep (SG; n = 7) gained 102 +/- 5 g/day and faster growing sheep (FG; n = 8) gained 197 +/- 14 g/day (P < .01). In SG sheep, the pulmonary airways had thinner walls and less smooth muscle in relation to basement membrane perimeter. The airway epithelium was also thinner in the SG sheep. In the bronchiolar epithelium, there were fewer goblet cells and Clara cells in SG compared to FG sheep. We conclude that the early effects of preterm birth on the airway epithelium do not persist to maturity. However, slow growth after birth results in altered airway

  16. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between pregnancy and…

  17. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  18. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and mental health outcomes in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or at an extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Eleni P; Burnett, Alice; Cheong, Jeanie; Thompson, Deanne; Roberts, Gehan; Wood, Stephen; Lee, Katherine; Duff, Julianne; Anderson, Peter J; Pantelis, Christos; Doyle, Lex W; Bartholomeusz, Cali

    2015-03-01

    Extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants are at high risk of aberrant neurodevelopment. Sulcogyral folding patterns of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are determined during the third trimester, however little is known about OFC patterning in EP/ELBW cohorts, for whom this gestational period is disturbed. This study investigated whether the distribution of OFC pattern types and frequency of intermediate and/or posterior orbital sulci (IOS/POS) differed between EP/ELBW and control adolescents. This study also investigated whether OFC pattern type was associated with mental illness or executive function outcome in adolescence. Magnetic resonance images of 194 EP/ELBW and 147 full term (>37 completed weeks) and/or normal birth weight (> 2500 g) adolescents were acquired, from which the OFC pattern of each hemisphere was classified as Type I, II, or III. Compared with controls, more EP/ELBW adolescents possessed a Type II in the left hemisphere (P = 0.019). The EP/ELBW group had fewer IOS (P = 0.024) and more POS (P = 0.021) in the left hemisphere compared with controls. OFC pattern type was not associated with mental illness, however in terms of executive functioning, Type III in the left hemisphere was associated with better parent-reported metacognition scores overall (P = 0.008) and better self-reported behavioral regulation scores in the control group (P = 0.001) compared with Type I. We show, for the first time that EP/ELBW birth is associated with changes in orbitofrontal development, and that specific patterns of OFC folding are associated with executive function at age 18 years in both EP/ELBW and control subjects.

  19. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  20. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  1. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Beef x beef and dairy x beef females mated to Angus and Charolais sires. I. Pregnancy rate, dystocia and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L A; Beavers, G D

    1982-06-01

    Pregnancy rate of 310 females and birth weight, dystocia score and percentage of assisted births among 910 calves born from 1972 through 1977 were examined. Dams were 2 to 7 yr old and of Angus x Hereford (AH), Charolais x Hereford (CH), straightbred Hereford (HH) and Brown Swiss x Hereford (SH) breed types. Females were exposed to A and C bulls. Breed of dam affected (P less than .01) dystocia score (DS), percentage of assisted births and birth weight. When adjusted for birth weight of calf and dam's postcalving weight, CH and SH dams generally differed (P less than .01) from AH and HH dams in percentage of assisted births and DS. The AH and HH dams were not different (P greater than .01) in percentage of assisted births, DS or birth weight of calf. C-sired calves had higher birth weights (P less than .01) and their dams had higher DS (P less than .05). However, there was no difference between C- and A-sired calves in percentage of assisted births when data were adjusted for effects of birth weight of calf and weight of dam. Calf sex affected birth weight (P less than .01) but had little influence on DS or percentage of assisted births when birth weight was held constant. Male calves were 1.7 kg heavier at birth than females. Two-year-old dams had higher (P less than .01) DS and percentage of assisted births than did dams in all other age groups. Age of dam influenced birth weight (P less than .01), with paired comparisons of age classes showing differences between all age groups except 4- and greater than or equal to 5-yr-old cows. Year of birth was a source of variation (P less than .05) for all traits measured. In 1972, there was a higher mean DS and a higher percentage of assisted births (P less than .05) than in any other year. However, all calves born in 1972 were from 2-yr-old cows. Percentage difficulty and DS increased linearly (P less than .01) with birth weight. Each 1-kg increment in birth weight increased percentage difficulty by 2.6 percentage points

  3. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  4. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5). Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly

  5. Interaction of cholesterol ester transfer protein polymorphisms, body mass index, and birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Kelishadi, Roya; Mansourian, Marjan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aims to investigate joint association between cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI) or birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a sub-study of the “school-based nationwide health survey” (CASPIAN-III). We randomly selected 750 samples from the whole blood samples. Real-time PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) analysis were performed to determine Taq1B (rs708272) and A373P (rs5880) polymorphisms. Results: Taq1B polymorphism increased HDL-C, and total cholesterol (TC) as well as decreased triglyceride and LDL-C concentrations. LDL-C and triglyceride levels were significantly higher and HDL-C and TC levels were significantly lower among those with A373P polymorphism. CT/TT genotype in Taq1B polymorphism showed a protective effect on dyslipidemia (OR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.07-0.20). G allele of A373P polymorphism increased the risk of dyslipidemia (OR=4.10, 95% CI: 2.14, 7.83) after adjusting the confounders. We observed interactive effects of CETP gene polymorphisms and BMI or birth weight on dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Findings showed Taq1B polymorphism might have a protective effect and A373P polymorphism had deleterious effect on dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. These associations interacted with BMI and birth weight. PMID:26949494

  6. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  7. Rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos living in Florida: disparities by country/region of birth.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Maddox, Lorene M

    2015-01-01

    HIV incidence in the USA is three times higher for Latinos than for non-Latino whites. Latinos differ in educational attainment, poverty, insurance coverage, and health-care access, factors that affect HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and testing. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in demographics, risk factors, and rate of new HIV diagnoses by birth country/region among Latinos in Florida to guide the targeting of primary and secondary prevention programs. Using Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 2007 to 2011 and the American Community Survey, we compared demographic and risk factors, and calculated annual and five-year age-adjusted rates of new HIV diagnoses for 5801 Latinos by birth country/region. Compared to US-born Latinos, those born in Cuba and South America were significantly more likely to report the HIV transmission mode of MSM; those born in the Dominican Republic (DR) heterosexual transmission; and those born in Puerto Rico injection drug use. Mexican- and Central American-born Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS within a month of HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos declined 33% from 2007 to 2011. HIV diagnoses over time decreased significantly for Latinos born in Mexico and increased nonsignificantly for those born in the DR. Although this study was limited to Latinos living in Florida, results suggest that tailoring HIV primary prevention and testing initiatives to specific Latino groups may be warranted. PMID:25397859

  8. M-Rated Video Games and Aggressive or Problem Behavior among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…

  9. Age and sex differences for anxiety in relation to family size, birth order, and religiosity among Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2002-06-01

    Differences in rated anxiety among 2,453 boys (n= 1,229) and girls (n = 1,224), Kuwaiti secondary school students, were reported for five age groups from 14 to 18 years. For girls at all ages but 14 years, mean rated anxiety was significantly higher than the means for the boys. Mean anxiety scores increased across age groups from 14 to 18 years. Not all comparisons between age groups with the same sex, however, were significant. Analysis showed nonsignificant correlations for anxiety with both family size and number of siblings, but significant and positive correlations for anxiety with birth order were found for boys (r=.10, p<.01) and girls (r=.06, p<.05). The predictive and practical values of these very small correlations are negligible, being significant merely because N is so large. Pearson correlations between anxiety and self-rating of religiosity were -.22 and -.22 (p<.01) for boys and girls, respectively. This result was interpreted in the light of high intrinsic religious orientation among Kuwaitis. In the Islam proper, multiple practices are said to relieve anxiety.

  10. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies.

  11. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued."

  12. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing the Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rundjan, Lily; Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Paramita, Tiara Nien; Oeswadi, Chrissela Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective: To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. Methods: Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results: Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect toward the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011–0.85, p = 0.026). Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227–90.662, p = 0.026). BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group. Conclusion: The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device, and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously. PMID:25853110

  13. The CFTR Met 470 Allele Is Associated with Lower Birth Rates in Fertile Men from a Population Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Kosova, Gülüm; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Kelley, Joanna L.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Abney, Mark; Ober, Carole

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD–associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TG)m and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029). The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency  = 0.51 in HapMap CEU), whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst  = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI). In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of −1.93 in HapMap CEU). The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations. PMID:20532200

  14. Distribution of Glycated Haemoglobin According to Early-Life and Contemporary Characteristics in Adolescents and Adults without Diabetes: The 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M.; Miranda, Jaime J.; Gonçalves, Helen D.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. Methods HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. Results The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. Conclusions We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27626274

  15. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  16. Parental Ratings of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Marnie; Pei, Jacqueline; Leung, Wing Sze Wence; Mackenzie, Michelle; Hicks, Melanie D.; Thurm, Audrey E.; Han, Joan C.; Haqq, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated executive functioning in 25 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Significant deficits emerged, with mean scores on all but two scales reaching levels of clinical significance (T score = 65). Older children tended to have higher scores than younger…

  17. Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Dallongeville, Jean; Widhalm, Kurt; Ferrari, Marika; Buyken, Annete; Kersting, Mathilde; Moschonis, George; Turck, Dominique; Gómez, Sonia; Sjostrom, Michael; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-05-01

    The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.

  18. Pregnancy rate and birth outcomes among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poda, Armel; Hema, Arsène; Konaté, Aina; Kaboré, Firmin; Zoungrana, Jacques; Kamboulé, Euloges; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Meda, Nicolas; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies reported pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This survey aims to estimate the incidence and outcomes of pregnancy in a cohort of HIV positive women initiating ART in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study. We selected women in childbearing age initiating ART and followed up in Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. The incidence of pregnancies during follow-up was calculated. Childbirth was defined by the expulsion of a fetus after 22 weeks of amenorrhea. Before this term, it is an abortion. Childbirth is said premature if it occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, to term if it occurs between the 38th and the 42nd week. The annual age-standardized fertility rates were calculated using the baseline population from the 2010 demographic and health survey (DHS) in Burkina Faso. Results A total of 1,763 women of childbearing age under ART were included in the study. They ranged between 18 and 48 years old with a median of 35 years old. A total of 222 pregnancies were observed during 4639 women-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence density of 5 pregnancies for 100 women-years (95% CI: 4.2-5.5). Among the 222 pregnancies recorded, 9(4.0%) ended with abortion, 205(92.4%) with childbirth (including 15 premature childbirths); the outcome of 8(3.6%) pregnancies were unknown abortion. Live birth and stillborn rates were 94.0% (193/205) and 6.0% respectively. The standard fertility rate in our cohort was 45 live births for 1,000 women-years. The general decrease in fertility rates was 66.0% among women infected with HIV compared to the overall population Conclusion This study shows a low pregnancy incidence among women initiating ART as compared to their peers from the general population. Pregnancies that occurred during ART generally end with live births. Care packages for HIV infected women of

  19. Sports, smoking, and overweight during adolescence as predictors of sciatica in adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study of a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rivinoja, Anni E; Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Solovieva, Svetlana; Okuloff, Annaleena; Zitting, Paavo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2011-04-15

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and level of physical activity predict low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. The authors investigated whether participating in sports, smoking, and being overweight or obese at 14 years of age predicted hospitalizations due to LBP or sciatica in adulthood. In 1980, at the age of 14 years, a total of 11,399 members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort returned the postal questionnaire. Patients from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who were hospitalized because of LBP or sciatica were followed to the end of 2008 through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards multistate model with the Markov clock forward time scale. During follow-up, 119 females (2.7%) and 254 males (5.6%) had been hospitalized at least once because of LBP or sciatica. Among females, overweight was associated with an increased risk of second-time hospitalization for surgical treatment for sciatica (hazard ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 34.4). Among males, smoking was associated with an increased risk of first-time nonsurgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.7) and second-time surgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 8.2). The authors found potentially modifiable risk factors in adolescence that predicted hospital treatments for low back disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.

  20. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  1. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population's overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i) to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii) to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii) to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999–2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams) in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality. PMID:21589834

  2. Association of socioeconomic status change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in South African young adults: Birth to Twenty Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S; Pisa, Pedro T; Griffiths, Paula L; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social epidemiology models suggest that socioeconomic status (SES) mobility across the life course affects blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in young adults, and the impact of early growth on this relationship. Setting Data for this study were obtained from a ‘Birth to Twenty’ cohort in Soweto, Johannesburg, in South Africa. Participants The study included 838 Black participants aged 18 years who had household SES measures in infancy and at adolescence, anthropometry at 0, 2, 4 and 18 years of age and blood pressure at the age of 18 years. Methods We computed SES change using asset-based household SES in infancy and during adolescence as an exposure variable, and blood pressure and hypertension status as outcomes. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations between SES change from infancy to adolescence, and age, height and sex-specific blood pressure and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for confounders. Results Compared to a persistent low SES, an upward SES change from low to high SES tertile between infancy and adolescence was significantly associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the age of 18 years (β=−4.85; 95% CI −8.22 to −1.48; p<0.01; r2=0.1804) after adjusting for SES in infancy, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and weight gain. Associations between SES change and SBP were partly explained by weight gain between birth and the age of 18 years. There was no association between SES mobility and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure or hypertension status. Conclusions Our study confirms that upward SES change has a protective effect on SBP by the time participants reach young adulthood. Socioeconomic policies and interventions that address inequality may have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease burden related to BP in later life. PMID

  3. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  4. The effect of embryo catheter loading technique on the live birth rate

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Marjan; Halvaei, Iman; Mangoli, Esmat; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Embryo loading (EL) is a major step in embryo transfer (ET) and affect on the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to compare the effect of two different EL techniques on the rates of pregnancy and delivery in IVF/ET cycles. Methods 207 fresh ET and 194 Frozen-thawed ET (FET) cycles were included in this retrospective study. Two groups (A and B) were defined based on the EL technique used. In group A, the entire catheter was flushed with Ham's F-10 medium. The embryos were then drawn into the catheter using one air bracket. In group B, 70 µL of air was aspirated into the syringe and the catheter was flushed using Ham's F10 medium. The medium, air, embryos, air, and finally another layer of medium were then sequentially drawn into the catheter. The main outcome measures were the pregnancy and delivery rates. Results The groups did not differ with respect to the etiology of infertility, the source of spermatozoa, the quality of the embryos, the type of EL catheter, and the ease of transfer. The pregnancy rate was similar between two groups. In fresh ET cycles, a higher delivery rate was observed in group B than it group A (78.1% vs. 60%, p=0.1). In FET cycles, the rate of delivery was significantly higher in group B than in group A to a nonsignificant extent (88.9% vs. 58.8%, p=0.06). Conclusion EL techniques did not have a significant impact on the delivery rate in either fresh or FET cycles. PMID:26815646

  5. Lower marriage and divorce rates among twins than among singletons in Danish birth cohorts 1940-1964.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Martinussen, Torben; McGue, Matthew; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined differences of civil status of twins and singletons and the conclusions are contradictory. In the present study, based on a linkage between the Danish Twin Register, a random 5% sample of the total Danish population, and administrative register databases, the authors compare rates of marriage and divorce in a sample of 35,975 twins and 81,803 singletons born 1940-1964. Cox-regressions are used in order to control for potential confounders. We find that compared with singletons twins have significantly lower marriage rates: (males: 15-19 years: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.66 (95%CI: 0.58-0.76); 20-24 years: 0.85 (0.82-0.88); 25 years or more: 0.96 (0.93-0.98) and females: 15-19 years: 0.70 (0.67-0.75); 20-24 years: 0.83 (0.80-0.85); 25 years or more: 0.94 (0.91-0.97)). There is no difference in divorce rates for males, but a significantly lower divorce rate for female twins compared with singletons (HR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.83-0.90). These differences offset each other, thus 57% of both populations remain in their first marriage until censoring. The interpretation may be that since twins have a partner from birth, they do not have the same need for marriage as singletons but have more experience in maintaining a relationship if they do marry.

  6. Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Cha, Jeong-Ho; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seul-Ki; Cha, Hye-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Young; Pak, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Ji-Sung; Park, Seo-Young; Park, Choon-keun

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN2) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton. PMID:27796003

  7. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    PubMed

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  9. Rate of telomere shortening and cardiovascular damage: a longitudinal study in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Stefano; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Kahn, Tauseef; Wong, Andrew; Ghosh, Arjun K.; Whincup, Peter; Kuh, Diana; Hughes, Alan; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Hardy, Rebecca; Deanfield, John Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cross-sectional studies reported associations between short leucocyte telomere length (LTL) and measures of vascular and cardiac damage. However, the contribution of LTL dynamics to the age-related process of cardiovascular (CV) remodelling remains unknown. In this study, we explored whether the rate of LTL shortening can predict CV phenotypes over 10-year follow-up and the influence of established CV risk factors on this relationship. Methods and results All the participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) with measures of LTL and traditional CV risk factors at 53 and 60–64 years and common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), cardiac mass and left ventricular function at 60–64 years were included. LTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and available at both time points in 1033 individuals. While LTL at 53 years was not linked with any CV phenotype at 60–64 years, a negative association was found between LTL and cIMT at 60–64 years (β = −0.017, P = 0.015). However, the strongest association was found between rate of telomere shortening between 53 and 60–64 years and values of cIMT at 60–64 years (β = −0.020, P = 0.006). This association was not affected by adjustment for traditional CV risk factors. Cardiac measurements were not associated with cross-sectional or longitudinal measures of LTL. Conclusion These findings suggest that the rate of progression of cellular ageing in late midlife (reflected by the rate of LTL attrition) relates to vascular damage, independently from contribution of CV risk factor exposure. PMID:24957070

  10. The rise in caesarean birth rate in Sagamu, Nigeria: reflection of changes in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, O T; Sotunsa, J O; Sule-Odu, A O

    2004-06-01

    A retrospective and comparative study of women delivered by caesarean section over two different 3-year periods was conducted at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. The caesarean section rate (CSR) increased from 10.3% in 1989-1991 to 23.1% in 2000-2003. The most frequent indication in both periods was different: prolonged/obstructed labour (20.0%) in 1989-1991 and antepartum haemorrhage (14.9%) in 2000-2003. Malpresentation, antepartum haemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were responsible for 51.7% of the difference in the CSR recorded between both periods. The CSR rose from 13.3% to 25.0% while the instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) rate decreased significantly by 11.4% among the nulliparous women between the periods. Increase in CSR can be attributed mainly to reduction in IVD rate and alteration in the management of labour complications and induction policy. Strategies to reduce the CSR should cut across all indications and focus on encouraging instrumental vaginal deliveries, especially among nulliparous women. PMID:15203575

  11. Rates and Correlates of Violent Behaviors among Adolescents Treated in an Urban ED

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Goldstein, Abby L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc; Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Stanley, Rachel; Blow, Frederic C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Violence is a leading cause of death for adolescents in inner-city settings. This paper describes violent behaviors in relation to other risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) among adolescents screened in an urban ED. Methods Patients ages 14–18 were approached to self-administer a computerized survey assessing violent behaviors (i.e., physical aggression), substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana), and weapon carriage. Results 1128 adolescents (83.8% participation rate; 45.9% male; 58.0% African-American) were surveyed. In the past year, 75.3% of adolescents reported peer violence, 27.6% reported dating violence, and 23.5% carried a weapon. In the past year, 28.0% drank alcohol, 14.4% binge drank, 5.7% reported alcohol-related fighting, and 36.9% smoked marijuana. Logistic regression analyses predicting violent behaviors were significant. Teens reporting peer violence were more likely to be younger, African-American, on public assistance, carry a weapon, binge drink, and smoke marijuana. Teens reporting dating violence were more likely to be female, African-American, carry a weapon, binge drink, screen positive for alcohol problems, and smoke marijuana. Teens reporting alcohol-related fighting were more likely to carry a weapon, binge drink, screen positive for alcohol problems, and smoke marijuana. Conclusions Adolescents presenting to an urban ED have elevated rates of violent behaviors. Substance use (i.e., binge drinking and smoking marijuana) is an important risk factor for violent behaviors among urban adolescents. Universal screening and intervention protocols to address multiple risk behaviors, including violent behaviors and substance use, may be useful to prevent injury among adolescents presenting to the urban ED. PMID:19541253

  12. Long-term outcomes in adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 and followed up since birth in the French perinatal cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10).

    PubMed

    Dollfus, C; Le Chenadec, J; Faye, A; Blanche, S; Briand, N; Rouzioux, C; Warszawski, J

    2010-07-15

    BACKGROUND. Increasing numbers of children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reaching adolescence, largely because of advances in treatment over the past 10 years, but little is known about their current health status. We describe here the living conditions and clinical and immunovirologic outcomes at last evaluation among this pioneering generation of adolescents who were born before the introduction of prophylaxis for vertical transmission and whose infections were diagnosed at a time when treatment options were limited. METHODS. The eligible population consisted of HIV-1-infected children who were born before December 1993 and who were included at birth in the prospective national French Perinatal Cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10). RESULTS. Of the 348 eligible children, 210 (60%; median age, 15 years) were still alive and regularly followed up. Current treatment was highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 77% and 2 nucleoside analogues in 5.0%; 16% had stopped treatment, and 2% had never been treated. The median CD4 cell count was 557 cells/microL, and 200 cells/microL was exceeded in 94% of patients. The median viral load was 200 copies/mL. Viral load was undetectable in 43% of the adolescents and in 54.5% of those receiving HAART. Median height, weight, and body mass index were similar to French reference values for age, and school achievement was similar to nationwide statistics. Better immunologic status was associated with being younger and with having begun HAART earlier. Undetectable viral load was associated with maternal geographic origin and current HAART. CONCLUSIONS. Given the limited therapeutic options available during the early years of these patients' lives and the challenge presented by treatment adherence during adolescence, the long-term outcomes among this population are encouraging. PMID:20536367

  13. Can Heart Rate Variability be used to Estimate Gas Exchange Threshold in Obese Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, F; Seabra, A; Montenegro, R; Cunha, F; Bouskela, E; Farinatti, P

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the agreement and reliability of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2 R), heart rate (HR) and power output at intensities corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in obese and eutrophic adolescents. A further aim was to establish whether the HRVT was able to detect changes in cardio-respiratory fitness in obese adolescents after 3 months of recreational soccer practice. First, 25 obese and 10 eutrophic adolescents (ages 12-17) visited the laboratory twice to perform cycling CPET to test the reliability of CPET outcomes at GET and HRVT. Furthermore, the level of agreement between GET and HRVT was determined for a subgroup of 10 obese adolescents after performing a 3-month recreational soccer program. No significant difference was found for V̇O2, %V̇O2 R, HR and power output at the GET and HRVT (P>0.05), which were equally able to detect improvements in aerobic fitness after the soccer intervention. Correlations between GET and HRVT for V̇O2 and %V̇O2 R ranged from 0.89 to 0.95 (P<0.001) and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 (P<0.006). Overall, HRVT seems to be a reliable alternative for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity in obese adolescents.

  14. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    PubMed Central

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc

  15. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Robin; Das, Banani; Das, Arpana; Ahmed, Mansur; Bawri, Sonika; Rai, Suditi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03), preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03). Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478), low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g), and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417) were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover, contraceptive knowledge and its use were found to be poor among adolescent mothers. Conclusion With quality antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care, the obstetric risk of childbirth in adolescent mothers

  16. Sustained Reduction in Adolescent Pregnancy Rates through School and Community-Based Education, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Murray; Drane, J. Wanzer; Joshi, Praphul; Shankarnarayan, Saikiran; Nimmons, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The resident population of Bamberg County, SC, has been exposed to multiples of public health information and education interventions since October 1982 with the intent to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. Data analyses were conducted to compare 20 years of pregnancy rates among girls aged 14-17 years for…

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Borg and OMNI Rating of Perceived Exertion Scales in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Pivarnik, James M.; Womack, Christopher J.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Malina, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and validity of the Borg and OMNI rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales in adolescent girls during treadmill exercise. Girls were randomly assigned to one of the RPE scales during various treadmill exercise conditions. Results indicated that the OMNI cycle pictorial scale was reliable and valid for use with…

  18. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  19. The Effects of Goal Setting on the Manual Performance Rates of Moderately Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dennis A.; Mills, William Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Investigated effects of goal setting on the performance of five moderately retarded adolescents on each of four relatively complex manual tasks. Concluded that feedback tends to increase performance rate over that obtained without feedback, and feedback plus goal setting tends to be superior to feedback alone in some tasks and superior to no…

  20. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  1. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  2. Explaining disproportionately high rates of adverse birth outcomes among African Americans: the impact of stress, racism, and related factors in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci

    2005-09-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors and socioeconomic status; (b) higher levels of stress in African American women; (c) greater susceptibility to stress in African Americans; (d) the impact of racism acting either as a contributor to stress or as a factor that exacerbates stress effects; and (e) ethnic differences in stress-related neuroendocrine, vascular, and immunological processes. The review of literature indicates that each explanation has some merit, although none is sufficient to explain ethnic disparities in adverse birth outcomes. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of such factors jointly and interactively. Recommendations and cautions for future research are offered.

  3. Differing first year mortality rates of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American US-born and foreign-born mothers.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Soskolne, Gayle R; Rankin, Kristin M; Bennett, Amanda C

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether maternal nativity (US-born versus foreign-born) is associated with the first year mortality rates of term births. Stratified and multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics linked live birth-infant death cohort files. Only term (37-42 weeks) infants with non-Latina White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers were studied. The infant mortality rate (<365 days, IMR) of births to US-born non-Latina White mothers (n = 3,684,569) exceeded that of births to foreign-born White mothers (n = 226,621): 2.4/1,000 versus 1.3/1,000, respectively; relative risk (RR) = 1.8 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.0]. The IMR of births to US-born African-American mothers (n = 787,452) exceeded that of births to foreign-born African-American mothers (n = 118,246): 4.1/1,000 versus 2.2/1,000, respectively; RR = 1.8 (1.6-2.1). The IMR of births to US-born Mexican-American mothers (n = 338,337) exceeded that of births to Mexican-born mothers (n = 719,837): 2.4/1,000 versus 1.8/1,000, respectively; RR = 1.3 (1.2-1.4). These disparities were not limited to a singular cause of death and were widest among deaths due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. In multivariable binomial regression models, the adjusted RR of infant mortality for non-LBW, term births to US-born (compared to foreign-born) for White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers equaled 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.7 (1.5-2.1) and 1.6 (1.4-1.8), respectively. The IMR of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers exceeds that of their counterparts with foreign-born mothers independent of traditional individual level risk factors.

  4. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  5. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  6. Response rate in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents – ERICA

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the response rate and characteristics of people who either took part or not in from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) , according to information subsets. METHODS ERICA is a school-based, nation-wide investigation with a representative sample of 12 to 17-year-old adolescents attending public or private schools in municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil. Response rate of eligible subjects were calculated according to macro-regions, sex, age, and type of school (public or private). We also calculated the percentages of replacement schools in comparison with the ones originally selected as per the sample design, according to the types of schools in the macro-regions. The subjects and non-subjects were compared according to sex, age, and average body mass indices (kg/m2). RESULTS We had 102,327 eligible adolescents enrolled in the groups drawn. The highest percentage of complete information was obtained for the subset of the questionnaire (72.9%). Complete information regarding anthropometric measurements and the ones from the questionnaire were obtained for 72.0% of the adolescents, and the combination of these data with the 24-hour dietary recall were obtained for 70.3% of the adolescents. Complete information from the questionnaire plus biochemical blood evaluation data were obtained for 52.5% of the morning session adolescents (selected for blood tests). The response percentage in private schools was higher than the one in public schools for most of the combination of information. The ratio of older and male adolescents non-participants was higher than the ratio among participants. CONCLUSIONS The response rate for non-invasive procedures was high. The response rate for blood collection – an invasive procedure that requires a 12-hour fasting period and the informed consent form from legal guardians – was lower. The response rate observed in public schools was lower than in the private ones, and

  7. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  8. Why Is the Teen Birth Rate in the United States so High and Why Does It Matter? NBER Working Paper No. 17965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Melissa Schettini; Levine, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of teen childbearing in the United States. First, it reviews and synthesizes the evidence on the reasons why teen birth rates are so uniquely high in the United States and especially in some states. Second, it considers why and how it matters. We argue that economists' typical explanations are unable to account for…

  9. Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups. NCHS Data Brief. Number 89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Teen childbearing has been generally on a long-term decline in the United States since the late 1950s. In spite of these declines, the U.S. teen birth rate remains one of the highest among other industrialized countries. Moreover, childbearing by teenagers continues to be a matter of public concern because of the elevated health risks for teen…

  10. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andres E.; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M.; Baker, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. PMID:26049136

  11. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

  12. Births: Final Data for 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... women aged 30–44. The total fertility rate (estimated number of births over a woman’s lifetime) declined ... place of residence. Birth rates per 1,000 estimated female population aged 15–19. Population estimated as ...

  13. Birth Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... but your partner. previous continue More Birthing Options Atmosphere during labor and delivery. Many hospitals and birthing ... allow women to make some choices about the atmosphere in which they give birth. Do you want ...

  14. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present ...

  15. Influence of female body images in printed advertising on self-ratings of physical attractiveness by adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Crouch, A; Degelman, D

    1998-10-01

    In contrast to earlier studies suggesting that self-concept is stable by late adolescence and therefore resistant to change, this study found that adolescent girls' ratings of self-attractiveness were significantly higher following exposure to printed advertisements employing attractive models who were overweight compared to those exposed to models who were not overweight. Implications for further research are discussed.

  16. [Population biology of northern Germany. 3. Secular changes in the seasonal variation of birth rates in Bremen (from 1826 to 1979)].

    PubMed

    Gilbert, K; Danker-Hopfe, H

    1982-09-01

    The question, whether the seasonal variation of the birth frequencies are changing with the increase of birthcontrol practice in the population is subject of the present study. The changes of the relevant demographic parameters in this context are discussed first. The study is based on the official monthly records of live- and stillbirths from 1826 to 1979 in Land Bremen (an urban district of northern Germany). For analysis, the material is standardized to equal month length. Trend effects were eliminated using the mean curve. To eliminate stochastic effects, the material is summarized using intervals formed analog to the changes in the birth rate. The means of these intervals illustrate two typical figures; the first is characteristic for the period prior to 1905, the second is characteristic for the years following (excluding the periods from 1915 to 1922 and from 1973 to 1978). The transition of these figures occurred at the change of the century. It is regarded in context with the beginning reduction of birth rate at this time. Whereas for the 19th Century, the seasonal changes, particularly from winter to spring, are regarded as a main cause of physiologic adaptation followed by stimulation of the gonadal gland, "sociologic factors" are taken into account for the seasonality of the birth rates in the 20th Century.

  17. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  18. Vaccination Rates among Adolescents in Minnesota as Compared with the United States: Not "Above Average".

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; Rogacki, Brianna; Thompson, David M; Roberts, James R; Margolis, Benyamin; Darden, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Because adolescents make relatively few visits to clinics for preventive care, their vaccination rates suffer. We examined rates among Minnesota youths to see how they compared with those among teens throughout the United States. We used National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) data to estimate vaccination rates for 13- to 17-year-olds in Minnesota from 2008 through 2013 and compared them to national rates for MCV4, Tdap and HPV vaccines. We also examined rates of provider recommendation for each of the three vaccines and rates of parental intention to vaccinate against HPV. We found rates for all three vaccinations increased between 2008 and 2013, but they continue to be low for both MCV4 (69%) and HPV (38% of females and 9% of males completed the three-dose series in 2013). Fortunately, the percentage of Minnesota clinicians recommending those vaccines is increasing (the percentage recommending HPV vaccination for females increased from 55% in 2008 to 74% in 2013; however, only 44% recommended it for males in 2013). The percentage of parents in Minnesota reporting intent to vaccinate their female children against HPV rose from 52% in 2008 to 58% in 2013; the percentage intending to vaccinate their male children rose from 16% in 2010 to 47% in 2013. Clinicians and public health officials must address how we can improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents.

  19. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  20. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  1. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  2. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF CLOSE DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: EVOLUTIONARY CHANNELS, BIRTH RATES, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jinzhong; Han Zhanwen; Zhang Fenghui; Zhang Yu

    2010-08-20

    Close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) are believed to dominate the Galactic gravitational wave (GW) radiation in the frequency range 10{sup -4} to 0.1 Hz, which will be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) detector. The aim of this detector is to detect GW radiation from astrophysical sources in the universe and to help improve our understanding of the origin of the sources and their physical properties (masses and orbital periods). In this paper, we study the probable candidate sources in the Galaxy for the LISA detector: CDWDs. We use the binary population synthesis approach of CDWDs together with the latest findings of the synthesis models from Han, who proposed three evolutionary channels: (1) stable Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (RLOF+CE), (2) CE+CE, and (3) exposed core plus CE. As a result, we systematically investigate the detailed physical properties (the distributions of masses, orbital periods, and chirp masses) of the CDWD sources for the LISA detector, examine the importance of the three evolutionary channels for the formation of CDWDs, and carry out Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that RLOF+CE and CE+CE are the main evolutionary scenarios leading to the formation of CDWDs. For the LISA detectable sources, we also explore and discuss the importance of these three evolutionary channels. Using the calculated birth rate, we compare our results to the LISA sensitivity curve and the foreground noise floor of CDWDs. We find that our estimate for the number of CDWD sources that can be detected by the LISA detector is greater than 10,000. We also find that the detectable CDWDs are produced via the CE+CE channel and we analyze the fraction of the detectable CDWDs that are double helium (He+He), or carbon-oxygen plus helium (CO+He) WD binary systems.

  4. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  5. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.

  6. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  7. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether acupuncture improves rates of pregnancy and live birth when used as an adjuvant treatment to embryo transfer in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Cochrane Central, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Database, hand searched abstracts, and reference lists. Review methods Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within one day of embryo transfer with sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment, with reported outcomes of at least one of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, or live birth. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility; assessed methodological quality; and extracted outcome data. For all trials, investigators contributed additional data not included in the original publication (such as live births). Meta-analyses included all randomised patients. Data synthesis Seven trials with 1366 women undergoing in vitro fertilisation were included in the meta-analyses. There was little clinical heterogeneity. Trials with sham acupuncture and no adjuvant treatment as controls were pooled for the primary analysis. Complementing the embryo transfer process with acupuncture was associated with significant and clinically relevant improvements in clinical pregnancy (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.14; number needed to treat (NNT) 10 (7 to 17); seven trials), ongoing pregnancy (1.87, 1.40 to 2.49; NNT 9 (6 to 15); five trials), and live birth (1.91, 1.39 to 2.64; NNT 9 (6 to 17); four trials). Because we were unable to obtain outcome data on live births for three of the included trials, the pooled odds ratio for clinical pregnancy more accurately represents the true combined effect from these trials rather than the odds ratio for live birth. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses on study validity variables. A prespecified subgroup analysis restricted to the three trials with the higher rates

  8. Growth and metabolic outcome in adolescents born preterm (GROWMORE): follow-up protocol for the Newcastle preterm birth growth study (PTBGS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm infants represent up to 10% of births worldwide and have an increased risk of adverse metabolic outcomes in later life. Early life exposures are key factors in determining later health but current lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity are also extremely important and provide an opportunity for targeted intervention. Methods/Design This current study, GROWMORE, is the fourth phase of the Newcastle Preterm Birth Growth Study (PTBGS), which was formed from two randomised controlled trials of nutrition in early life in preterm (24–34 weeks gestation) and low birthweight infants. 247 infants were recruited prior to hospital discharge. Infant follow-up included detailed measures of growth, nutritional intake, morbidities and body composition (Dual X Ray Absorptiometry, DXA) along with demographic data until 2 years corrected age. Developmental assessment was performed at 18 months corrected age, and cognitive assessment at 9–10 years of age. Growth, body composition (DXA), blood pressure and metabolic function (insulin resistance and lipid profile) were assessed at 9–13 years of age, and samples obtained for epigenetic analysis. In GROWMORE, we will follow up a representative cohort using established techniques and novel metabolic biomarkers and correlate these with current lifestyle factors including physical activity and dietary intake. We will assess auxology, body composition (BODPOD™), insulin resistance, daily activity levels using Actigraph™ software and use 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess mitochondrial function and intra-hepatic lipid content. Discussion The Newcastle PTBGS is a unique cohort of children born preterm in the late 1990’s. The major strengths are the high level of detail of early nutritional and growth exposures, and the comprehensive assessment over time. This study aims to examine the associations between early life exposures in preterm infants and metabolic outcomes in

  9. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone and morphological changes in the growth of captive agile gibbons ( Hylobates agilis) from birth to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Juri; Kato, Akino; Maeda, Norihiko; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Uchikoshi, Makiko; Mizutani, Toshiaki; Doke, Chisato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-07-01

    We examined growth changes in concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and testosterone, and somatometric parameters in two captive male agile gibbons from birth to about 4 years of age, to examine the evolution of growth patterns in primates. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in agile gibbons generally increased with age with values ranging from 200 to 1100 ng/ml. The growth profiles in plasma IGF-1 in the gibbons were similar to those reported for chimpanzees. The highest concentrations of plasma testosterone (230 and 296 ng/dl) were observed within the first 0.3 years from birth, then the concentrations rapidly decreased and fluctuated below 100 ng/dl. Continuously higher IGF-1 concentrations were observed after 2.6 and 3.5 years of age. The profiles of plasma testosterone in these gibbons also resembled those of other primates including humans. However, their plasma testosterone levels in both neonate and adult stages (60 ng/dl) were lower than those reported for macaques and chimpanzees of respective stages. The obtained growth profiles of plasma IGF-1 and testosterone suggest that the adolescent phase starts around 2.6 or 3.5 years of age in male agile gibbons. The growth trend in many morphological parameters including body weight showed a linear increase without a significant growth spurt at approximately the onset of puberty. Head length and first digit length had reached a plateau during the study period. Brachial index, which indicates the relative length of forearm to upper arm, significantly increased gradually through the growth period. This result indicates that forearm becomes relatively longer than the upper arm with growth, which may be an evolutionary adaptation for brachiation.

  10. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  11. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  12. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  13. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as "Fair" (29.4%), "Good" (52.1%), or "Very Good" (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as "Fair" (24.9%), "Good" (43.1%), or "Very Good" (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they "Never" or just "Occasionally" participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they "Never" or "Occasionally" have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly.

  14. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  15. What Works for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Publication #2014-64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Heather; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristen Anderson; Mass, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest teen birth rates in the developed world, and adolescent rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also high. These factors highlight the need to identify effective evidence-based programs to improve adolescent reproductive health. This brief synthesizes findings from 118 experimental…

  16. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  17. A determination of the space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the Galactic plane, based on the UVEX survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Kars; Groot, Paul J.; Nelemans, Gijs; Scaringi, Simone; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Drew, Janet E.; Steeghs, Danny; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Irwin, Mike J.; Knigge, Christian; Wright, Nicholas J.; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2013-10-01

    We present a determination of the average space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs within a radius of 1 kpc around the Sun, based on an observational sample of 360 candidate white dwarfs with g < 19.5 and (g - r) < 0.4, selected from the UV-Excess (UVEX) survey of the northern Galactic plane, in combination with a theoretical white dwarf population that has been constructed to simulate the observations, including the effects of reddening and observational selection effects. The main uncertainty in the derivation of the white dwarf space density and current birth rate lies in the absolute photometric calibration and the photometric scatter of the observational data, which influences the classification method on colours, the completeness and the pollution. Corrections for these effects are applied. We derive an average space density of DA white dwarfs with Teff > 10 000 K (MV < 12.2) of (3.8 ± 1.1) × 10-4 pc-3, and an average DA white dwarf birth rate over the last 7×107 yr of (5.4 ± 1.5) × 10-13 pc-3 yr-1. Additionally, we show that many estimates of the white dwarf space density from different studies are consistent with each other, and with our determination here.

  18. The association between characteristics of fathering in infancy and depressive symptoms in adolescence: A UK birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Culpin, Iryna; Gunnell, David; Dale, Caroline; Joinson, Carol; Heron, Jon; Collin, Simon M

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the quality of fathers' parenting has an impact on psychological outcomes during adolescence, but less is known about which aspects of fathering have the strongest effects. This study, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), considers which paternal attitudes towards and experiences of child care in infancy are most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, and whether father effects are independent of maternal influence and other risk factors. Primary exposures were fathers' attitudes to and experiences of child care at 8 weeks, 8 months and 21 months coded as continuous scores; the primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms at 16 years (Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire score ≥11). Multivariable logistic regression models showed reasonably strong evidence that parental reports indicating potential paternal abuse when children were toddlers were associated with a 22% increased odds of depressive symptoms at age 16 (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.11, 1.34] per SD). There was some evidence for an interaction with social class (p=0.04): for children living in higher social class households (professional, managerial and technical classes), an increase in the potential abuse scale increased the odds of depressive symptoms by 31% (OR 1.31 [1.13, 1.53] per SD), whereas there was no effect in the lower social class categories. The potential paternal abuse measure needs to be validated and research is needed on what circumstances predict anger and frustration with child care. Effective interventions are needed to help fathers cope better with parenting stress. PMID:27376651

  19. The association between characteristics of fathering in infancy and depressive symptoms in adolescence: A UK birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Culpin, Iryna; Gunnell, David; Dale, Caroline; Joinson, Carol; Heron, Jon; Collin, Simon M

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the quality of fathers' parenting has an impact on psychological outcomes during adolescence, but less is known about which aspects of fathering have the strongest effects. This study, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), considers which paternal attitudes towards and experiences of child care in infancy are most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, and whether father effects are independent of maternal influence and other risk factors. Primary exposures were fathers' attitudes to and experiences of child care at 8 weeks, 8 months and 21 months coded as continuous scores; the primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms at 16 years (Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire score ≥11). Multivariable logistic regression models showed reasonably strong evidence that parental reports indicating potential paternal abuse when children were toddlers were associated with a 22% increased odds of depressive symptoms at age 16 (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.11, 1.34] per SD). There was some evidence for an interaction with social class (p=0.04): for children living in higher social class households (professional, managerial and technical classes), an increase in the potential abuse scale increased the odds of depressive symptoms by 31% (OR 1.31 [1.13, 1.53] per SD), whereas there was no effect in the lower social class categories. The potential paternal abuse measure needs to be validated and research is needed on what circumstances predict anger and frustration with child care. Effective interventions are needed to help fathers cope better with parenting stress.

  20. Social capital and self-rated health among adolescents in Brazil: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social capital may influence health and the patterns of association differ according its dimension such as cognitive, behavioral, bridging or bonding. There is a few numbers of studies in Latin America which comprise these aspects of social capital and health. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and self-rated health among youth, and distinguish between the different forms of social capital - cognitive versus behavioral, and bonding versus bridging. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample comprised 363 individuals and data were collected using a validated structured questionnaire. The outcome, self-rated health, was measured as a dichotomous variable (poor/good health) and fourteen social capital indicators were investigated (cognitive, behavioral and bonding/bridging). Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Cognitive (social support and trust), behavioral (civic participation) and bridging social capital were associated with good self-rated health after adjustment of all the other social capital indicators and confounders (sex, age, skin color and educational background). Conclusions Social capital was associated with self-rated health and the patterns of association differed according its specific dimensions. Cognitive, behavioral and bridging social capitals were protective for adolescents health living in a developing country context.. PMID:21162730

  1. After plastic surgery: adolescent-reported appearance ratings and appearance-related burdens in patient and general population groups.

    PubMed

    Simis, Kuni J; Hovius, Steven E R; de Beaufort, Inez D; Verhulst, Frank C; Koot, Hans M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of appearance-related surgery on psychosocial functioning during adolescence. To this end, changes in bodily attitudes and appearance-related burdens in adolescents undergoing corrective (for aesthetic deformities) and reconstructive (for congenital or acquired deformities) surgery were compared with those in a general population sample.A group of 184 adolescent plastic surgery patients (corrective, n = 100; reconstructive, n = 84), and a comparison group of 83 adolescents at random selected from three municipalities (corrective, n = 67; reconstructive, n = 16), aged 12 to 22 years, were studied at two time points with a 6-month interval. The plastic surgical patients were studied presurgically and postsurgically. Using fully structured telephone interviews and postal questionnaires, adolescents' ratings of their appearance, bodily satisfaction and attitudes, and appearance-related burdens were obtained. All patients reported a significant decrease in burdens after surgery compared with the comparison group, indicating a much more prominent improvement in the patient sample compared with the developmental changes that may be expected to occur in adolescence. The corrective patient group reported least burdens after the operation. More specifically, the "breasts" group benefited most from the operation, indicating that breast corrections are rewarding interventions. The findings of this study imply that adolescents can be regarded as good candidates for plastic surgery. They gain bodily satisfaction, and they are relieved of many appearance-related burdens. Physical, social, and psychological burdens related to appearance satisfaction improve considerably in both corrective and reconstructive adolescent patients.

  2. Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, Eva; Olsson, Erik M G; Serlachius, Eva; Ericson, Mats; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) versus lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population of healthy adolescents. HRV is as an index of tonic autonomic activity and in adults HRV is related to lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but it is not known if this is the case in adolescents. HRV was registered for 4 min in sitting position in 99 healthy adolescents (age range 15 years 11 months-17 years 7 months) and repeated after 6 months. On both occasions there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between physical activity and HRV, with respective r values: high frequency (HF) 0.26, 0.30; low frequency power (LF) 0.35, 0.29 and the standard deviation of inter-beat intervals (SDNN) 0.28, 0.37. There was no significant interaction between first and second measurements. In contrast, there were no correlations to sleeping patterns, eating habits and smoking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease [body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/length in m(2)), systolic blood pressure and p-glucose] did not show any repeatable significant correlations to HRV. Multiple regression models showed that physical activity was a predictor for HF, LF and SDNN in both measurements. In conclusion HF, LF and SDNN were reproducible after 6 months and were related to physical activity on both occasions.

  3. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof.

  4. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof. PMID:25643132

  5. Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Klein, N K; Taylor, H G

    1995-01-01

    Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in the increased survival of infants at lower and lower birth weight. While these medical success stories highlight the power of medical technology to save many of the tiniest infants at birth, serious questions remain about how these infants will develop and whether they will have normal, productive lives. Low birth weight children can be born at term or before term and have varying degrees of social and medical risk. Because low birth weight children are not a homogeneous group, they have a broad spectrum of growth, health, and developmental outcomes. While the vast majority of low birth weight children have normal outcomes, as a group they generally have higher rates of subnormal growth, illnesses, and neurodevelopmental problems. These problems increase as the child's birth weight decreases. With the exception of a small minority of low birth weight children with mental retardation and/or cerebral palsy, the developmental sequelae for most low birth weight infants include mild problems in cognition, attention, and neuromotor functioning. Long-term follow-up studies conducted on children born in the 1960s indicated that the adverse consequences of being born low birth weight were still apparent in adolescence. Adverse sociodemographic factors negatively affect developmental outcomes across the continuum of low birth weight and appear to have far greater effects on long-term cognitive outcomes than most of the biological risk factors. In addition, the cognitive defects associated with social or environmental risks become more pronounced as the child ages. Enrichment programs for low birth weight children seem to be most effective for the moderately low birth weight child who comes from a lower socioeconomic group. Continued research and attempts to decrease the rate of low birth weight and associated perinatal medical sequelae are of primary importance. Ongoing documentation of the long-term outcome of low birth weight

  6. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  7. Brief report: cross-informant ratings of self- and other-regulation at career transitions in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Bärbel

    2011-10-01

    Individual initiative is required to successfully master career transitions in adolescence, and also parents play an important role in this process. Past research largely omitted co-agency in transition-related activities between adolescents and their parents, which could be described in terms of self- and other-regulation. The present pilot study examined adolescents' and mothers' career-specific regulatory behaviors as perceived from both agents' perspectives. 38 German adolescents rated importance and engagement in one transition-related personal goal and reported on intensity of career exploration activities. Furthermore, they reported on their perceptions of mothers' career-related behaviors and confidence in their offspring's transition management. All measures were also assessed from the mothers' point of view. Results revealed associations within and across family members' ratings that showed similarities as well as differences in perceptions of how behaviors associate. Partial correlation analyses showed that specific maternal behavior not contingent upon her general warmth associated with child behavior. PMID:20646755

  8. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth control Could I get pregnant ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ask about keeping the information ...

  9. Contraceptive care for the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in rates of teen pregnancy, abortion, birth,and contraceptive use, effective contraceptive counseling for adolescents should be a high priority for the primary care provider in the office setting. Adolescent psychosocial risk screening and appropriate counseling about sexual decision-making is necessary. Contraceptive services visits include, relevant history, limited physical examination, provision of information, anticipatory guidance about sexual behaviors, and the provision of contraceptive methods. Teens should always be encouraged to use a male condom during sex to reduce STI risk. A variety of barrier and hormonal contraceptive methods are available for the adolescent population. Education about and provision of EC is effective in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. Contraceptive care for adolescents is a rewarding experience for primary care providers.

  10. Do Physical Activity Patterns Across the Lifecourse Impact Birth Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Flory, Sara; Sun, Haichun; DeBate, Rita; Bleck, Jennifer; Thompson, Erika; Merrell, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<5.5 pounds). Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy. PMID:25874877

  11. Do Physical Activity Patterns Across the Lifecourse Impact Birth Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Flory, Sara; Sun, Haichun; DeBate, Rita; Bleck, Jennifer; Thompson, Erika; Merrell, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<5.5 pounds). Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy.

  12. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  13. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  14. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  15. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  16. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  17. The word-graphic rating scale as a measure of children's and adolescents' pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Tesler, M D; Savedra, M C; Holzemer, W L; Wilkie, D J; Ward, J A; Paul, S M

    1991-10-01

    A program of studies was designed to select and test a pain intensity scale for inclusion in a multidimensional pain assessment tool for children and adolescents. The focus was on determining each scale's validity, reliability, ease of use, preference, and the lack of age, gender, and ethnic biases. Five pain scales were evaluated in four separate studies: a word-graphic rating scale, a visual analogue scale, a graded-graphic rating scale, a magnitude estimation scale (0 to 10), and a color scale. Subjects (N = 1,223) were 8 to 17 years of age and, in three of the studies, were hospitalized and judged to be in pain. In Study 1, well children used the scales to assess pain in an analogue situation selecting the color scale easiest to use and best liked. Convergent validity for the five scales was supported. In Study 2, hospitalized children, who were experiencing pain, overwhelmingly selected the word-graphic rating scale as their choice. A pilot version of a multidimensional pain assessment tool incorporating the word-graphic rating scale was tested in Study 3 using a repeated measures design. The scale demonstrated sensitivity to changes in postoperative pain intensity over time. In Study 4, convergent validity of the five scales and test-retest reliability of the word-graphic rating scale were supported. The series of four studies provides strong evidence to support use of the word-graphic rating scale to measure pain intensity in pediatric populations.

  18. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  19. Influence of growth rate on nitrogen balance in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Hauspie, Ronald; Clarys, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg-1 day-1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg-1 day-1 in girls and 1.35 g kg-1 day-1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg-1 day-1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

  20. Neural Mechanisms of the Influence of Popularity on Adolescent Ratings of Music

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Capra, C. Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12–17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-second clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants’ likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants’ rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one’s evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one’s own preferences and others’. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers. PMID:19879365

  1. Neural mechanisms of the influence of popularity on adolescent ratings of music.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Capra, C Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2010-02-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants' likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants' rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one's evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one's own preferences and others'. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers.

  2. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  3. Preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic treatment, bed rest, beta-mimetics, calcium channel blockers, elective caesarean, enhanced antenatal care programmes, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban), progesterone

  4. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity.

  5. Risky business: trauma exposure and rate of posttraumatic stress disorder in African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristin L; Martens, Patricia M; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2011-06-01

    Demographics, parental risk factors, and experiencing interpersonal trauma (domestic violence, community violence, and physical and sexual abuse) are related to childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these factors and the risk of PTSD in African American children. This study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and gender, age, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, and interpersonal trauma in African American children. Participants were 257 children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years (M = 11.7, SD = 2.5), who received outpatient mental health treatment. Being female and witnessing domestic violence was associated with more PTSD symptoms. Exposure to community violence and physical abuse increased the odds of clinically significant PTSD symptomatology by more than 2 times. The rate of PTSD (16%) was lower in the current study than in other same-age study populations (25%-40%). Risk factors and identification strategies for PTSD are discussed.

  6. Mutation rates for unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome. Evidence for a temporal change in New York State live births 1968--1977.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Albright, S G

    1981-01-01

    The mutation rate for translocation Down syndrome was investigated for New York State live births for each of the years 1968--1977 using data from the New York State Chromosome Registry. The overall rate was 2.5 X 10(-5) per gamete (1.4 X 10(-5) for G/21 and 1.0 X 10(-5) for D/21 rearrangements), about 20% higher than rates previously reported by two other studies. For the first 5-year period, 1968--1972, the rate was 1.8 X 10(-5), and for the second 5-year period, 3.1 X 10(-5); there was an abrupt change in 1973 and 1974 to rates more than twice that in the 3 preceding years. These rates were derived by applying completeness estimates for all cases of Down syndrome, mostly 47,trisomy 21, in the jurisdiction to cases with translocation Down syndrome mutations. If completeness corrections are ignored and only the minimum boundaries of rates are considered, however, the increase in 1973 and 1974 was even greater compared with the previous 3 years. The trends, if not attributable to an undetected artifact, may have been caused by an increased frequency of mutant zygotes and/or enhanced intrauterine survival of mutant translocations. PMID:6454341

  7. Redemptive birth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  8. Are Intensified Physical Education Sessions Able to Elicit Heart Rate at a Sufficient Level To Promote Aerobic Fitness in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baquet, Georges; Berthoin, Serge; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    Determined the effects of intensified physical education sessions on adolescents divided into two groups: high intensity running group (HIRG) and high intensity jumping group (HIJG). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during sessions. There was no significant difference between mean HR for HIRG and HIJG. Mean HR was significantly lower for the control…

  9. Adolescent pregnancy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine V

    2002-01-01

    The rates of adolescent pregnancies and births in the United States are higher than those in most industrialized nations. Fortunately, the rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births have declined in the last few years. Contraceptive use has increased and the induced abortion rate and ratio have also declined. The decrease in sexual activity and the increase in contraceptive use are usually attributed, at least in part, to fear of contracting HIV/AIDS. Other contributing factors may be health education programs, a changing moral climate, new contraceptives, and the improved economy. The decrease in sexual activity and increase in contraceptive use have led to the decline in the pregnancy and birth rates. The decline in induced abortions is probably due to legislation restricting access to abortion for minors, harassment of abortion facilities, and violence against abortion providers. Programs to prevent adolescent pregnancies and births have traditionally focused on health education and provision of contraceptive services. Recently there has been increased emphasis, supported by federal funds, on teaching about the value of abstinence. Another new approach has been youth development programs that provide adolescents with opportunities to interact with caring adults outside of their families and to build self-esteem, a sense of self-worth, and skills. PMID:12467178

  10. Maternal plasma progesterone and estradiol concentrations prior to farrowing are not associated with either birth intervals or stillbirth rates in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged birth intervals are associated with stillbirth in pigs. Average birth intervals decrease as litter size increases, suggesting a cumulative negative effect of fetuses, placentas or both on average birth interval. Late gestation maternal plasma estrogen concentrations increase with litter si...

  11. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  12. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  13. Concordance of parent-, teacher- and self-report ratings on the Conners 3 in adolescent survivors of cancer.

    PubMed

    Willard, Victoria W; Conklin, Heather M; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Kahalley, Lisa S

    2016-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for attention problems. The objectives of this study were to assess concordance between parent-, teacher-, and self-report ratings on a measure of attention (Conners Rating Scales, 3rd ed.; Conners, 2008) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and to examine associations with a performance-based task. The was completed by 80 survivors of pediatric cancer (39 brain tumor, 41 acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ages 12-17; at least 1 year posttreatment; 51.3% male) as well as their parents and 1 teacher. In addition, survivors completed a continuous performance test. Parents and teachers demonstrated moderate agreement on most subscales; however, agreement was weaker than would be expected based on the normative sample. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings was more variable. The strongest associations for all raters were observed on the Learning Problems subscale. There were significant mean differences between parent and teacher ratings, with parents reporting more problems across subscales. Only self-ratings of Inattention were significantly associated with the continuous performance test (omission errors). Agreement across raters in assessment of attentional functioning in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer is modest. Findings support the need to obtain multiple ratings of behavior, including both proxy- and self-report, when assessing youth with cancer, particularly adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Concordance of parent-, teacher- and self-report ratings on the Conners 3 in adolescent survivors of cancer.

    PubMed

    Willard, Victoria W; Conklin, Heather M; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Kahalley, Lisa S

    2016-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for attention problems. The objectives of this study were to assess concordance between parent-, teacher-, and self-report ratings on a measure of attention (Conners Rating Scales, 3rd ed.; Conners, 2008) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and to examine associations with a performance-based task. The was completed by 80 survivors of pediatric cancer (39 brain tumor, 41 acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ages 12-17; at least 1 year posttreatment; 51.3% male) as well as their parents and 1 teacher. In addition, survivors completed a continuous performance test. Parents and teachers demonstrated moderate agreement on most subscales; however, agreement was weaker than would be expected based on the normative sample. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings was more variable. The strongest associations for all raters were observed on the Learning Problems subscale. There were significant mean differences between parent and teacher ratings, with parents reporting more problems across subscales. Only self-ratings of Inattention were significantly associated with the continuous performance test (omission errors). Agreement across raters in assessment of attentional functioning in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer is modest. Findings support the need to obtain multiple ratings of behavior, including both proxy- and self-report, when assessing youth with cancer, particularly adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537005

  15. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  16. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the ... abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Infections during pregnancy can also result in birth defects. For most ...

  17. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources In This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) First Few Days After Birth (Video) Meconium ... Tap here for the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge The decision to have a ...

  18. Reduction in diarrheal rates through interventions that prevent unnecessary antibiotic exposure early in life in an observational birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep; Westreich, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment early in life is often not needed and has been associated with increased rates of subsequent diarrhea. We estimated the impact of realistic interventions, which would prevent unnecessary antibiotic exposures before 6 months of age, on reducing childhood diarrheal rates. Methods In data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted in Vellore, India, we used the parametric g-formula to model diarrheal incidence rate differences contrasting the observed incidence of diarrhea to the incidence expected under hypothetical interventions. The interventions prevented unnecessary antibiotic treatments for non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and upper respiratory infections before 6 months of age. We also modeled targeted interventions, in which unnecessary antibiotic use was prevented only among children who had already stopped exclusive breastfeeding. Results More than half of all antibiotic exposures before 6 months (58.9%) were likely unnecessary. The incidence rate difference associated with removing unnecessary antibiotic use before 6 months of age was -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.46, -0.08) episodes per 30 child-months. This implies that preventing unnecessary antibiotic exposures in just 4 children would reduce the incidence of diarrhea by one from 6 months to 3 years of age. Conclusions Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use among young children could result in an important reduction in diarrheal rates. This work provides an example application of statistical methods which can further the aim of presenting epidemiologic findings that are relevant to public health practice. PMID:26621194

  19. Impact of Maternal Country of Birth on Type-1-Diabetes Therapy and Outcome in 27,643 Children and Adolescents from the DPV Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Christina; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Hahn, Eva; Icks, Andrea; Ludwig, Karl-Heinz; Mönkemöller, Kirsten; Razum, Oliver; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of maternal country of birth on type-1-diabetes (T1D) therapy and outcome. Study Design and Methods 27,643 T1D patients aged ≤20 years with documented maternal country of birth from the multicenter German/Austrian diabetes patient registry (DPV) were analyzed. Patients were categorized based on their mother’s origin: Germany/Austria (reference), Turkey, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe. To compare BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), diabetes therapy and outcome between groups, multivariable regression was applied with adjustments for age, sex and duration of diabetes. Based on observed marginal frequencies, adjusted estimates were calculated. Linear regression was used for continuous data, logistic regression for binary data and Poisson regression for count data. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.4. Significance was set at a two-tailed p<0.05. Results 83.3% of patients were offspring of native mothers. A Turkish, Southern or Eastern European background was documented in 2.4%, 1.7% and 4.3% of individuals. After demographic adjustment, patients with migration background had a higher mean BMI-SDS (Turkey, Southern Europe or Eastern Europe vs. Germany/Austria: 0.58±0.03, 0.40±0.04, or 0.37±0.02 vs. 0.31±0.01; ±SE) and a lower use of insulin pumps (26.8%, 27.9%, or 32.6% vs. 37.9%) compared to offspring of native mothers. Mean HbA1c was worst in individuals of Turkish mothers (Turkey vs. Germany/Austria: 69.7±0.7 vs. 66.6±0.1 mmol/mol; ±SE). Patients of Eastern European descent had an increased rate of severe hypoglycemia (22.09±0.13 vs. 16.13±0.02 events per 100 patient-years) and ketoacidosis was more prevalent in offspring of Turkish or Southern European mothers (7.50±0.10, or 7.13±0.11 vs. 6.54±0.02 events per 100 patient-years). Patients of Turkish descent were more often hospitalized (57.2±2.7 vs. 48.5±0.4 per 100 patient-years). All differences were significant. Conclusion The differences

  20. State Variation in Rates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Blumenthal, Connie; Sugland, Barbara W.; Hyatt, Byoung-gi; Snyder, Nancy O.; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Recent declines in funding for contraceptive services have led to questions regarding the role of contraceptive services and social policy in shaping adolescent reproductive behavior. This 2-year study examined the impact of state-level policies on adolescent pregnancy and fertility. Data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the…

  1. Accelerated Growth Rate Induced by Neonatal High-Protein Milk Formula Is Not Supported by Increased Tissue Protein Synthesis in Low-Birth-Weight Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jamin, Agnès; Sève, Bernard; Thibault, Jean-Noël; Floc'h, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates are routinely fed a high-protein formula to promote catch-up growth and antibiotics are usually associated to prevent infection. Yet the effects of such practices on tissue protein metabolism are unknown. Baby pigs were fed from age 2 to 7 or 28 d with high protein formula with or without amoxicillin supplementation, in parallel with normal protein formula, to determine tissue protein metabolism modifications. Feeding high protein formula increased growth rate between 2 and 28 days of age when antibiotic was administered early in the first week of life. This could be explained by the occurrence of diarrhea when piglets were fed the high protein formula alone. Higher growth rate was associated with higher feed conversion and reduced protein synthesis rate in the small intestine, muscle and carcass, whereas proteolytic enzyme activities measured in these tissues were unchanged. In conclusion, accelerated growth rate caused by high protein formula and antibiotics was not supported by increased protein synthesis in muscle and carcass. PMID:22315674

  2. Rates of Femicide in Women of Different Races, Ethnicities, and Places of Birth: Massachusetts, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the…

  3. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  4. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income) from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population. PMID:22607324

  5. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  6. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors.

  7. The effect of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of late-onset bloodstream infections in very low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Linda; Saslow, Judy; Shah, Sahil; Bhat, Vishwanath; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Brandon, Emma; Kemble, Nicole; Pyon, Kee; Stahl, Gary; Aghai, Zubair H

    2011-03-01

    Late-onset bloodstream infection (LOBI) is a significant problem in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and can lead to increased mortality and morbidity. The incidence of LOBI in VLBW infants in our unit was >35% before 2004, much higher than 20% reported in other studies. A comprehensive infection control measure was introduced in our unit in 2005. Here we report the effects of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants. Infants in the preintervention group (born 2001 to 2004) were compared with the intervention group (born 2005 to 2008) for baseline demographics, risk factors for infection, and the rate of LOBI. LOBI was defined as a positive blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture after 3 days of life. Three hundred thirty-four VLBW infants were admitted to our unit during the preintervention period and 303 during the intervention period. There was no significant difference in baseline demographics and risk factors for LOBI between the two groups. The incidence of LOBI was significantly reduced from 38% before intervention to 23% after intervention ( P < 0.001). Comprehensive infection control measures significantly reduced the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants.

  8. Adjunct low-molecular-weight heparin to improve live birth rate after recurrent implantation failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Neelam; Gelbaya, Tarek A; Konje, Justin C; Nardo, Luciano G

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor fertility outcomes in women with recurrent implantation failure (≥ RIF) present significant challenges in assisted reproduction, and various adjuncts, including heparin, are used for potential improvement in pregnancy rates. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on live birth rates (LBRs) and implantation rates (IRs) in women with RIF and undergoing IVF. METHODS Studies comparing LMWH versus control/placebo in women with RIF were searched for on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, conference proceedings and databases for registered and ongoing trials (1980-2012). Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.1. The main outcome measure was LBR per woman. RESULTS Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one quasi-randomized trial met the inclusion criteria. One study included women with at least one thrombophilia ( Qublan et al., 2008) and two studies included women with unexplained RIF ( Urman et al., 2009; Berker et al., 2011). Pooled risk ratios in women with ≥ 3 RIF (N = 245) showed a significant improvement in the LBR (risk ratio (RR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.90, P = 0.02) and a reduction in the miscarriage rate (RR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06-0.78, P = 0.02) with LMWH compared with controls. The IR for ≥ 3 RIF (N = 674) showed a non-significant trend toward improvement (RR = 1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.03, P = 0.06) with LMWH. However, the beneficial effect of LMWH was not significant when only studies with unexplained RIF were pooled. The summary analysis for the numbers needed to be treated with LMWH showed that approximately eight women would require treatment to achieve one extra live birth. CONCLUSIONS In women with ≥3 RIF, the use of adjunct LMWH significantly improves LBR by 79% compared with the control group; however, this is to be considered with caution, since the overall number of participants in the studies was small. Further

  9. [Semiautomatic procedure for the investigation of synchronized activity of EEG and heart rate--examination of preterm births].

    PubMed

    Dax, Josef F; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Pfurtscheller, Klaus; Urlesberger, Berndt; Müller, Wilhelm; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of the heart rate variability (HRV) of preterm neonates can give important information on the actual state of the nervous system. Both signals, EEG and HRV, are affected by parameters such as gestational age, stage of maturation and behavioral state. This work describes a method for automatic detection of slow wave EEG-bursts and a tool to average changes in the EEG and the corresponding heart rate. The detection is based on the hjorth activity (HA), calculated from the EEG. HA spikes (HAS) are identified by the determination of the beginning and end of existing spikes. HAS maxima and the time between two consecutive HAS are the basis for the triggering of the bursts. EEG power and time synchronized HR changes are averaged with a time window length of 20 s. Resultant, HR increase and duration are determined. These parameters, obtained by the automatic detection, proved to be comparable to the results of an expert. PMID:15792197

  10. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Adolescent Childbearing in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Theodore J.; Mocan, Naci H.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates impact of liberalization of New York State abortion law in 1970 on adolescent childbearing in New York City. Analyzes monthly data on number of births to White and Black adolescents from 1963-87. Findings indicate that level of births to Black adolescents fell 18.7 percent and births to White adolescents fell 14.1 percent after the law…

  11. [Adolescent Fertility]. Facts-at-a-Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.

    This fact sheet reports the most recent information available on adolescent fertility in the United States. The following information is included: (1) the number of births to all adolescents, except those 14 years old and younger, has declined between 1980 and 1986; (2) the smaller number of births is due to a smaller number of adolescents and a…

  12. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  13. Fewer Birth Defects for Older Moms Who Have Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Older Moms Who Have Fertility Treatments In vitro fertilization cut the rate in half for women over ... 000 naturally conceived births, 2,200 in vitro fertilization (IVF) births and nearly 1,400 births from ...

  14. Rates of DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders Among Adolescents in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2009-01-01

    We present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area in the U.S. and the association of DSM-IV diagnoses to functional impairment and selected demographic correlates. We sampled 4,175 youths aged 11–17 years from households enrolled in large health maintenance organizations. Data were collected using questionnaires and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Impairment was measured using the Child Global Assessment Scale and diagnostic specific impairment in the DISC-IV. 17.1% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for one or more disorders in the past year; 11% when only DISC impairment was considered and 5.3% only using the CGAS. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety (6.9%), disruptive (6.5%), and substance use (5.3%) disorders. The most prevalent specific disorders were agoraphobia, conduct and marijuana abuse/dependence, then alcohol use and oppositional defiant disorder. Younger youths and females had lower odds for any disorder, as did youths from two parent homes. There was increased odds associated with lower family income. Females had greater odds of mood and anxiety disorders, males of disruptive and substance use disorders. There were greater odds of mood and disruptive disorders for older youths. Prevalences were highly comparable to recent studies using similar methods in diverse non-metropolitan populations. We found associations with age, gender, and to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status reported in previous studies. The inclusion of both diagnosis-specific impairment and global impairment reduced prevalence rates significantly. Our results suggest commonality of prevalences and associated factors in diverse study settings, including urban and rural areas. PMID:17107689

  15. Births of Hispanic Parentage, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981, information on births of Hispanic parentage was available for 22 States. The completeness of reporting of Hispanic origin continued to increase, with somewhat greater improvements measured for origin of the mother than of the father. The fertility rate of the Hispanic population continued to be very high: 97.5 births per 1,000 women, aged…

  16. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  17. Correlates of Child Maltreatment Among Adolescent Mothers With Young Children.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment and teen pregnancy are serious social problems facing America today. In 2010, 3.3 million referrals of child abuse and neglect resulted in approximately 461,297 confirmed victims. Teen pregnancy has similarly been a cause of serious political and social concern. Although the teen birth rate has declined overall during the last half century, the United States still has a higher teen birth rate than other industrialized countries. Young maternal age is generally considered a risk factor for child maltreatment. What is not known is what separates adolescent mothers who maltreat their children and those who do not. This study compares the ecological correlates of adolescent mothers who maltreat their children to adolescent mothers who do not maltreat. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  18. Relations between adolescent ratings of Rothbart's temperament questionnaire and the HEXACO personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ann H; Brook, Christina; Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, individual differences have been assessed using temperament measures for infants and children, and personality measures for adults. We chose to explore both temperament and personality to see whether a convergence exists specifically during adolescence. A sample of 225 adolescents completed Rothbart's Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R), a 4-factor temperament scale, and the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO PI-R), a 6-factor personality scale. As hypothesized, we found significant relations between the 2 measures. However, there were some important differences between the 2 measures regarding Honesty-Humility, Openness, and Frustration that highlight the unique contributions of both instruments to understanding and measuring adolescent individual differences. As there is a relatively scant history of measuring temperament or personality in adolescence, it is sometimes difficult for researchers to decide which instrument is most appropriate. The results reported here suggest that either the EATQ-R or the HEXACO PI-R could be appropriate, depending on the specific research questions being asked.

  19. The Interactive Role of Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Birth Weight on Trajectories of Body Mass Index Growth in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…

  20. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  1. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso’s subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. Results. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19–1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21–1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09–1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11–1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02–1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06–1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3–24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4–25%) at 2 years. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policymaking in Burkina Faso and other

  2. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further.

  3. Transfer of cryopreserved - thawed embryos in hCG induced natural or clomiphene citrate cycles yields similar live birth rates in normo-ovulatory women

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Human M.; Blockeel, Christophe; Stoop, Dominic; Albuarki, H.; Verheyen, Greta; Devroey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to compare the efficiency of hCG-induced natural and Clomiphene citrate (CC) cycles in normovulatory patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET). Materials and methods It was retrospectively conducted in the Dutchspeaking Free University of Brussels and covered the period from April 2003 to August 2006. In particular, 428 day-three FET cycles belonging to the two comparative groups were recruited. Of these FET cycles, 261 were hCG-induced natural and 167 clomiphene citrate-induced cycles. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in live birth rate between CC and natural group (22.2% versus 22.6%), respectively (P = 0.708). Except for the number of embryos transferred (1.72 ± 0.46 for CC group versus 1.63 ± 0.48 for natural group, P = 0.045), no other parameters seem to influence the outcome. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate which of the above mentioned regimens is optimal for normo-ovulatory women in FET cycles. A similar delivery outcome was observed for hCG–induced natural and CC-induced cycles used for endometrial preparation in FET. PMID:20703796

  4. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  5. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P < .01), with weaker associations with Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganization, parent-rated Negative Symptoms (r = .12–.20; P < .01), Grandiosity (r = .04; P < .05), and Anhedonia (r = .00, n.s.). Bivariate twin model-fitting demonstrated that bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  6. Trait Emotional Intelligence, Psychological Well-Being and Peer-Rated Social Competence in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Rieffe, Carolien; Bakker, Femke

    2007-01-01

    The trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) framework provides comprehensive coverage of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between trait EI and four distinct socioemotional criteria on a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 282; 136 girls, 146 boys; mean…

  7. [Music and heart rate variability. Study of the effect of music on heart rate variability in healthy adolescents].

    PubMed

    Escher, J; Evéquoz, D

    1999-05-20

    The effect of trophotropic (relaxing) music on heart rate and heart rate variability has been investigated in 23 healthy young individuals by means of 24-hour Holter-ECG. Relaxing music (Bach, Vivaldi, Mozart) resulted in significant reduction of heart rate and also significant reduction of heart rate variability. The significance of these results for the use of music in coronary heart disease is discussed.

  8. [Perinatal factors which affect low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bissot, A; Villera, K; Solano, H; Bethancourt, L; Lawson, A

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of low-birth weight babies in the Santo Tomás maternity ward was 9% between the first of August of 1992 and the 31 of July of 1993. We found a higher risk of having low birth weight babies if the mother was toxemic, without prenatal care of low socioeconomic status and if she was single. We did not find an association with adolescence, short mother's height, low educational status and primi- or multiparity of 5 or more.

  9. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  10. What Works for Adolescent Reproductive Health: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Victoria; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive health of American adolescents has been, and continues to be, a matter of serious concern. America's teen birth rate--already the highest among developed nations--is again on the rise, and rates of sexually transmitted diseases among American teens are very high. As such, the development and identification of effective…

  11. The rate of acquisition of formal operational schemata in adolescence: A secondary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Shulamith G.; Shemesh, Michal

    A theoretical model of cognitive development is applied to the study of the acquisition of formal operational schemata by adolescents. The model predicts that the proportion of adolescents who have not yet acquired the ability to perform a a specific Piagetian-like task is an exponentially decreasing function of age. The model has been used to analyze the data of two large-scale studies performed in the United States and in Israel. The functional dependence upon age was found to be the same in both countries for tasks which are used to assess the following formal operations: proportional reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlations, and combinatorial analysis. Different functional dependence was found for tasks assessing conservation, control of variables, and prepositional logic. These results give support to the unity hypothesis of cognitive development, that is, the hypothesis that the various schemata of formal thought appear simultaneously.

  12. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  13. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  14. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  15. A National Study of HPV Vaccination of Adolescent Girls: Rates, Predictors, and Reasons for Non-vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Laura M; Zimet, Gregory D; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Kahn, Jessica A.; Shew, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations in the U.S. for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent girls since 2006, rates of vaccination continue to be low. Purpose This study reports vaccination uptake, factors associated with vaccine uptake and reasons for non-vaccination within a national sample of adolescent females during 2010. Methods Using a computer administered survey of a national sample of 501 mothers of daughters 14-17 years old we assessed maternal reports of HPV vaccination as well as socio-demographical factors, maternal HPV exposures and reasons chosen for non-vaccination. Results Reported HPV vaccination rates were slightly over 50% (51.1%), with 38.3% reporting completion of all 3 doses. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were not associated with vaccination initiation; however, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to complete vaccination. The most common reasons for non-vaccination were concerns about vaccine safety, danger to daughter, and provider non-recommendation. Conclusions Relatively poor HPV vaccine initiation and only modest 3-dose completion continues to be a major public health concern that requires continued efforts to address identified predictors and reasons for non-vaccination. PMID:22729660

  16. The association of graduated driver licensing with miles driven and fatal crash rates per miles driven among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Cummings, Peter; Zhao, Songzhu; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Smith, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws are associated with reduced crash rates per person-year among adolescents. It is unknown whether adolescents crash less per miles driven or drive less under GDL policies. Methods We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1995–1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009. We compared adolescents subject to GDL laws with those not, by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios for being a driver in a crash with a death per person-year (aIRRpy) and per miles driven (aIRRm), and adjusted miles driven ratios (aMR) controlling for changes in rates over time. Results Comparing persons subject to GDL policies with those not, 16-year-olds had fewer fatal crashes per person-year (aIRRpy 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.91), drove fewer miles (aMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 0.98), and had lower crash rates per miles driven (aIRRm 0.83, 95% CI 0.65, 1.06). For age 17, the aIRRpy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.60, 1.17), the aMR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63, 1.03), and the aIRRm 1.03 (95% CI 0.80, 1.35). For age 18, the aIRRpy was 0.93 (95% CI 0.72, 1.19), the aMR 0.92 (95% CI 0.77, 1.09), and the aIRRm 1.01 (95% CI 0.84, 1.23). Conclusions If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced crashes per person-year by about one-third among 16-year-olds; half the reduction was due to fewer crashes per miles driven and half to less driving. For ages 17 and 18, there was no evidence of reduced crash rates per miles driven. PMID:24525908

  17. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    PubMed

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. PMID:26625087

  18. No Time for Complacency: Teen Births in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Norman A.; Nevarez, Carmen R.

    California's recent investment in teen pregnancy prevention has contributed to the largest decline in teen birth rates and the second largest percentage reduction of all 50 states. California's annual teen birth rate is now similar to the national rate. This occurred while the highest teen birth rate group, Latinas, increased as a proportion of…

  19. Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J D

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.

  20. Birth patterns: are the Chinese in Guangzhou City different?

    PubMed

    Wang, Z J; Avard, D; Abernathy, T; Nimrod, C

    1988-08-01

    Diurnal birth patterns in the City of Guangzhou, China and the City of Calgary in Canada were compared. Chinese data were abstracted from the labor room log book of one large general hospital located in the Hai Zhu district of Guangzhou. Calgary birth data were abstracted from birth notification forms submitted to Calgary Health Services. Information included day of birth, time of delivery, type of delivery and parity. Calgary births are concentrated on Tuesdays to Fridays whereas in Guangzhou weekly patterns varied tremendously according to whether it was assisted or unassisted. Calgary births are below average at night and during evening shift. The time of birth in Guangzhou varied substantially with above average rates for non-assisted births noted at 0800-2400 h, and above average rates for assisted births noted at 0800-1700 h. Differences in hour of birth appeared to be related to obstetric intervention practices. Knowledge of birthing patterns are useful for effective hospital management.

  1. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p < .001). Participants on higher calories had faster weight gain (.46 [±.04] vs. .26 [±.03] %MBMI/day, p < .001), greater daily calorie advances (122 [±8] vs. 98 [±6], p = .024), shorter hospital stay (11.9 [±1.0] vs. 17.6 [±1.2] days, p < .001), and a greater tendency to receive phosphate supplementation (12 vs. 8 participants, p = .273). Conclusions Higher calorie diets produced faster weight gain in hospitalized adolescents with AN as compared with the currently recommended lower calorie diets. No cases of the refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  2. New predictive equations for estimation of basal metabolic rates of adolescents: tropics versus temperate.

    PubMed

    Noor, M I; Poh, B K; Zawiah, H; Henry, C J K

    2003-01-01

    The energy and nutritional requirements of adolescents are influenced primarily by the growth spurt that occurs at puberty, and also by the need to maintain adequate levels of physical activity. Predictions of BMR have gained attention since the publication of the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) expert consultation report, which adopted the principle of relying on energy expenditure rather than energy intake to derive requirement of individuals. While the report predicts BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climate, they are said to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations living in the tropics. The collation of worldwide data on basal metabolism indicated that, relative to adults, there was a paucity of data in other age groups including the adolescents. Although several BMR studies among children had been reported in the 90's, the data in normal weight children are almost exclusively from small control groups in obesity studies. Furthermore, we know little as to whether BMR of children differs in differing climatic conditions. This paper presents predictive equations for estimating BMR from a two-centre study, Bangi (Malaysia) and Oxford (UK) and to compare the results with the currently used predictive equations. PMID:15806886

  3. Turning the tide for birth.

    PubMed

    Budin, Wendy C

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices.

  4. Birth Order and Participation in School Sports and Other Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Lopez, Elizabeth; Averett, Susan L.; Argys, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Argys, L.M., Rees, D.I., Averett S.L., & Witoonchart, B. (2006). Birth order and risky adolescent behavior. "Economic Inquiry", 44(2), 215-233 demonstrated that a strong link exists between birth order and adolescent risky behavior. Using data on 10th graders from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we extend the work of Argys et…

  5. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... evaluation of the Essure System Essure is a permanent birth control method for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  6. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  7. Nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescence: Prospective rates and risk factors in a 2 ½ year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about which risk factors longitudinally predict non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) during adolescence, a period when these self-injurious behaviors become alarmingly prevalent. We prospectively studied the rates, course, and longitudinal prediction of NSSI from early through middle adolescence with a community sample of 103 youth (ages 11–14) who were assessed for NSSI at baseline and 2 ½ years later (94% retention; final N=97). Multiple risk factors (temperament, cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities, stressors; youths’ and mothers’ depression) were examined as prospective predictors of NSSI over the 2½ year follow-up. Analyses showed that 18% of youth engaged in NSSI over the 2½-year follow-up; 14% for the first time. Distal risks (assessed at baseline) that differentiated youth who engaged in NSSI from those who did not included negative cognitive style and mothers’ prior depression. Proximal factors (assessed 2 years after baseline) that differentiated NSSI from non-NSSI youth included stressors, depressive symptoms, poor relationship quality, excessive reassurance seeking, and mothers’ onset of depression. Several of these factors predicted new engagement of NSSI over 2½ years. PMID:20807667

  8. Birth defects monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Klingberg, M.A.; Papier, C.M.; Hart, J.

    1983-01-01

    Population monitoring of birth defects provides a means for detecting relative changes in their frequency. Many varied systems have been developed throughout the world since the thalidomide tragedy of the early 1960s. Although it is difficult to pinpoint specific teratogenic agents based on rises in rates of a particular defect or a constellation of defects, monitoring systems can provide clues for hypothesis testing in epidemiological investigations. International coordination of efforts in this area resulted in the founding of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) in 1974. In this paper we will describe the functions and basic requirements of monitoring systems in general, and look at the development and activities of the ICBDMS. A review of known and suspected environmental teratogenic agents (eg, chemical, habitual, biological, physical, and nutritional) is also presented.

  9. Variable profile of individual heart rate responses to cold water immersion apnea in healthy late adolescent men.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Tomasz H; Musiał, Paweł; Cwikałowska, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Holding breath combined with immersion of face in cool water induces diving reflex consisting in bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and preferential redistribution of blood to the vital organs. The individual responses are variable, highly expressed in young children to weaken with age. Detailed assessment of the cardiac response to diving in late adolescents who are mostly prone to unexpected diving experiments and related complications are of practical importance. The study was performed to the investigate the heart rate (HR) response to controlled breath-hold diving in cold water in young healthy late adolescents aged 17.5 - 20.4. Twenty volunteers performed a procedure consisting in immersion of face in cold water during possibly long breath-holding. Beat-to-beat HR was assessed from the continuous ECG recording. Average diving time (tD) was 77.5±10.5 s, ranging from 61.7 to 95.4 s. Apnea and face immersion induced a biphasic response: an increase in HR was followed by its gradual decrease to reach a final limit of the response 47.7±9.0 beats/min at 55.2±16.1 s of dive. Within a variable time course of the evoked responses, two patterns of the HR decrease were distinguished: monoexponential decay functions fitted best for 8 (40%) subjects with a constant rate τ 31.3±11.4 s-1, whereas the 60% majority displayed a two phase negative chronotropic effect with constant rates: τ1 10.3±4.2 s-1 and τ1 25.5±10.1 s-1. The initial, anticipatory excitation influenced the HR response: the higher was the initial HR increase, the more pronounced was bradycardia. Disturbances of heart rhythm were observed in majority of subjects: supraventricular ectopic beats (40%), ventricular beats (20%), I-degree AV block (30%), II-degree Mobitz I block (15%), junctional rhythm (60%). In one case pair of ventricular ectopic beats looked severe and the trial was rapidly terminated. In conclusion, the unquestionable potency of late adolescents towards diving challenges

  10. Assessing Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Meghan; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Ball, Victoria N.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive health of American adolescents has been, and continues to be, a matter of serious concern. America's teen birth rate--already one of the highest among developed nations--is again on the rise. Also, rates of sexually-transmitted infection (STI) among teens remain disconcertingly high, with one-quarter of the 19 million new cases of…

  11. The Relationship between Heart Rate Reserve and Oxygen Uptake Reserve in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Chan, Janus Wan-sze

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]) and heart rate (HR) responses during rest and exercise in Chinese children and youth and to evaluate the relationships between maximal heart rate (%HRmax), heart rate reserve (%HRR), peak oxygen uptake (%VO[subscript 2]peak), and oxygen uptake…

  12. iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood of Caucasian children and adolescent: the absolute iNKT cell count is stable from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bienemann, K; Iouannidou, K; Schoenberg, K; Krux, F; Reuther, S; Feyen, O; Bienemann, K; Schuster, F; Uhrberg, M; Laws, H-J; Borkhardt, A

    2011-10-01

    Human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariantly rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) and are involved in a variety of immunoregulatory processes. We assessed the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells in 64 healthy Caucasian children from 7 months to 18 years of age and five cord blood samples by flow cytometry. iNKT cells were measured as CD3(+) cells co-expressing TCRVα24 and TCRVβ11 and using the monoclonal antibody 6B11, which recognizes specifically their invariant TCR rearrangement. The absolute number of iNKT cells ranged from 86 to 10,499 (CD3(+) /TCRVα24(+) / TCRVβ11(+)) and 233 to 11,167 (CD3(+) /6B11(+)) iNKT cells per millilitre of blood. This range is stable from birth to adulthood. The relative iNKT cell count was found to be 0.003-0.71% (CD3(+) /TCRVα24/TCRVβ11) and 0.019-0.776% (CD3/6B11) of peripheral blood T cells and shows only a slight increase with age.

  13. Seasonality of births in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Polasek, Ozren; Kolcić, Ivana; Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Kern, Josipa; Rudan, Igor

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate seasonal fluctuations of the number of births in Croatia. Vital registration data from the years 1970-2002 was used for analysis of the quarterly data (from the years 1970-1997), and monthly data (from the years 1998-2002). Both data sets were smoothed, using seasonal variation removal for quarterly data, and T4253H smoothing for monthly data. Edwards test and Ratchet circular scan tests were used in analysis. The results showed an increase in the summer birth proportion and decrease in the spring birth proportion, distorted during the wartime period (1991-1995). Monthly analysis reveals highest birth proportion in Croatia during July-September period, with peak date moving towards the end of summer, and reaching stability in the beginning of September during the years 2000-2002. This presumes highest conception rate during the beginning of the Christmas holiday season. Secondary peak in January was found in some years, which presumably sets second period of increased conception rate into the Easter holiday season, supporting the observation of the holiday-related birth peaks. Both quarterly and monthly data indicate a birth pattern that does not resemble either "European", or "American" seasonal pattern. Regional analysis showed lack of seasonality in the capital city of Zagreb and either intermittent or stable seasonality pattern in the rest of the country.

  14. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  15. Cesarean Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect an abnormal heart rate. • Problems with the placenta • A large baby • Breech presentation • Maternal infections, such ... umbilical cord will be cut, and then the placenta will be removed. The uterus will be closed ...

  16. Self-Rated Mental Health, School Adjustment, and Substance Use in Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Boström, Margareta Lindén; Berglund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    This survey, “Life and Health—Young People 2005,” included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Örebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) “hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities,” 93 (3.1%) students who were “just HH,” 282 (9.7%) students with some “other disability than HH,” and 2,488 (85.2%) students with “no disability.” “HH with multiple disabilities” reported considerably higher scores for mental symptoms, substance use, and school problems than the “no disability” group. Those with “just HH” and those with “other disability than HH” had more mental symptoms and school problems than the “no disability” group but no significant differences in substance use. In conclusion, the combination of a hearing loss and some other disability strongly increases the risk for mental symptoms, school problems, and substance use. This group, thus, is an important target for preventive measures. PMID:18083703

  17. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  18. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls.

  19. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. PMID:20627370

  20. Heart Rate Level and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jame; Raine, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether antisocial children are characterized by low heart rate. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 45 independent effect sizes of the resting heart rate-antisocial behavior relationship obtained from 40 studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted between 1971 to 2002 using a total of 5,868…

  1. Public policy and adolescent pregnancy: a reexamination of the issues.

    PubMed

    Montessoro, A C; Blixen, C E

    1996-01-01

    In the United States 45% of female adolescents engage in premarital sex; 40% will become pregnant before reaching the age of 20; and 4/5 of these pregnancies will be unintended. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased health risks for both the mother and the child. Only 6 in 10 adolescents will graduate from high school compared with 9 in 10 of their peers who delayed parenthood. The increasing number of single-parent families has contributed significantly to the increase in child poverty rates from 15% in 1960 to 20.3% in 1988. Further, such families cost billions of dollars to taxpayers because of public assistance and medical care. From a historical viewpoint the number of teen childbearing reached a peak in 1957 with 97.3 births per 1000 women 15-17 years old; it declined to 52.8/1000 by 1977 and to 51.8/1000 by the 1980s. The legalization of abortion in 1973 had a major impact on the resolution of adolescent pregnancies. Since the 1960s there has been a faster increase in early sexual activity, pregnancy, and birth among White adolescents than among minority groups. The United States has higher rates than western European countries, while it is also more ambivalent on sexuality issues. Tremendous change did take place in the 1960s in American culture as regards the family, and social and sexual relationships. Yet there is still a double standard with respect to female morality, and adolescents get a conflicting message about sexuality. Teenage mothers and their infants face an uncertain economic future because the much maligned welfare system is undergoing an overhaul and the market is shrinking for unskilled workers. Although increasing numbers of pregnant adolescents remained in school after amendments were passed to the education act, adolescent pregnancy has not been tackled at its very footing, its socioeconomic causes.

  2. The Use of Stunkard’s Figure Rating Scale to Identify Underweight and Overweight in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare the performance of Stunkard’s current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard’s figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index. Principal Findings Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups. Conclusions/Significance CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available. PMID:23189177

  3. Effects of In-Water Passive Recovery on Sprint Swimming Performance and Heart Rate in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Rafael A.; Martínez-López, Emilio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Ruiz-Cazalilla, Irene; Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that sprint swimming performance is enhanced by in-water passive recovery (IN) after sprint swimming bouts in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Using a randomized crossover study design, twelve well-trained adolescent swimmers performed two tests at the swimming pool after preliminary testing. They performed 5 bouts of 100m all-out swimming separated by 5 minutes of passive rest. Their individual in- or out-of-water passive recovery condition was randomized on the first day. In their second visit to the swimming pool the opposite recovery condition was indicated. More than 60% of the subjects which rested in-water were faster in the 5th bout when compared to the OUT group. However, no significant differences were found in blood lactate when IN and OUT were compared. After the first bout peak heart rate (HR peak) was lower in subsequent bouts for IN recovery when compared with OUT (p < 0.001). Thus, coaches and researchers should take into account that IN passive recovery may decrease loss of performance and diminish HR peak during sprint swimming bouts. This is particularly important given the use that many coaches give to HR as a tool in daily training. Key points In-water passive recovery minimizes the loss of performance during high intensity swimming Maximal HR is significantly reduced by in-water recovery Coaches should take this information into account when using HR to control swimming intensity Future research should study long-term effects induced by in-water passive recovery PMID:25435791

  4. Effects of in-water passive recovery on sprint swimming performance and heart rate in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-López, Emilio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Ruiz-Cazalilla, Irene; Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that sprint swimming performance is enhanced by in-water passive recovery (IN) after sprint swimming bouts in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Using a randomized crossover study design, twelve well-trained adolescent swimmers performed two tests at the swimming pool after preliminary testing. They performed 5 bouts of 100m all-out swimming separated by 5 minutes of passive rest. Their individual in- or out-of-water passive recovery condition was randomized on the first day. In their second visit to the swimming pool the opposite recovery condition was indicated. More than 60% of the subjects which rested in-water were faster in the 5th bout when compared to the OUT group. However, no significant differences were found in blood lactate when IN and OUT were compared. After the first bout peak heart rate (HR peak) was lower in subsequent bouts for IN recovery when compared with OUT (p < 0.001). Thus, coaches and researchers should take into account that IN passive recovery may decrease loss of performance and diminish HR peak during sprint swimming bouts. This is particularly important given the use that many coaches give to HR as a tool in daily training. Key pointsIn-water passive recovery minimizes the loss of performance during high intensity swimmingMaximal HR is significantly reduced by in-water recoveryCoaches should take this information into account when using HR to control swimming intensityFuture research should study long-term effects induced by in-water passive recovery.

  5. Effects of in-water passive recovery on sprint swimming performance and heart rate in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-López, Emilio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Ruiz-Cazalilla, Irene; Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that sprint swimming performance is enhanced by in-water passive recovery (IN) after sprint swimming bouts in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Using a randomized crossover study design, twelve well-trained adolescent swimmers performed two tests at the swimming pool after preliminary testing. They performed 5 bouts of 100m all-out swimming separated by 5 minutes of passive rest. Their individual in- or out-of-water passive recovery condition was randomized on the first day. In their second visit to the swimming pool the opposite recovery condition was indicated. More than 60% of the subjects which rested in-water were faster in the 5th bout when compared to the OUT group. However, no significant differences were found in blood lactate when IN and OUT were compared. After the first bout peak heart rate (HR peak) was lower in subsequent bouts for IN recovery when compared with OUT (p < 0.001). Thus, coaches and researchers should take into account that IN passive recovery may decrease loss of performance and diminish HR peak during sprint swimming bouts. This is particularly important given the use that many coaches give to HR as a tool in daily training. Key pointsIn-water passive recovery minimizes the loss of performance during high intensity swimmingMaximal HR is significantly reduced by in-water recoveryCoaches should take this information into account when using HR to control swimming intensityFuture research should study long-term effects induced by in-water passive recovery. PMID:25435791

  6. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years give birth to around 16 million babies each year, around 11% of births worldwide. We sought to determine whether adolescent mothers are at higher risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes compared with mothers aged 20–24 years in a prospective, population-based observational study of newborn outcomes in low resource settings. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in six low-middle income countries (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). The study population for this analysis was restricted to women aged 24 years or less, who gave birth to infants of at least 20 weeks’ gestation and 500g or more. We compared adverse pregnancy maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents 15-19 years, <15 years, and adults 20-24 years. Results A total of 269,273 women were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2013. Of all pregnancies 11.9% (32,097/269,273) were in adolescents 15-19 years, while 0.14% (370/269,273) occurred among girls <15 years. Pregnancy among adolescents 15-19 years ranged from 2% in Pakistan to 26% in Argentina, and adolescent pregnancies <15 year were only observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Compared to adults, adolescents did not show increased risk of maternal adverse outcomes. Risks of preterm birth and LBW were significantly higher among both early and older adolescents, with the highest risks observed in the <15 years group. Neonatal and perinatal mortality followed a similar trend in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, with the highest risk in early adolescents, although the differences in this age group were not significant. However, in South Asia the risks of neonatal and perinatal death were not different among adolescents 15-19 years compared to adults. Conclusions This study suggests that pregnancy among adolescents is not associated

  7. A Behavior Genetic Investigation of Adolescent Motherhood and Offspring Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed. PMID:18020715

  8. Bullying in adolescence: psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS).

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465

  9. Torsion chronique d'une rate baladeuse chez un adolescent: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    La rate baladeuse ou errante est une anomalie rare, qui est le plus souvent décrite chez l'enfant. Ses complications parmi lesquelles figure la torsion de son pédicule sont fréquentes et peuvent engager le pronostic vital du patient. Nous rapportons un cas de torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse chez un patient de 17 ans, au long passé de douleurs épigastriques. Le tableau clinique était marqué par une masse épigastrique spontanément douloureuse, évoluant depuis 48 heures. L’échographie abdominale objectivait une rate ectopique hétérogène, hypertrophiée, en position épigastrique et un hématome sous capsulaire. Au doppler, on notait une torsion du pédicule splénique à deux tours de spires et un petit flux sur l'artère splénique. La tomodensitométrie abdominale avec injection de produit de contraste montrait un défaut de rehaussement parenchymateux d'une grosse rate ectopique épigastrique et un hématome sous capsulaire. Le diagnostic de torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse, compliquée de nécrose et d'hématome sous capsulaire était retenu. Il a été réalisé une splénectomie. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. Nous discutons l'apport de l’échographie et de la TDM dans le diagnostic de la torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse. PMID:27583079

  10. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Martins, M E

    1996-03-01

    The rate of vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery continues to rise due to both national organization recommendations and trials spanning 10 years of experience demonstrating its effectiveness and general safety. Broadening eligibility criteria and investigation of the clinical and nonclinical factors influencing this rate should place us on the glide path to reduction of the overall cesarean rate by the year 2000. Remaining controversies and management strategy will be discussed.

  11. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  12. Evaluating the Prediction of Maximal Heart Rate in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Lee, Jonah D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Hanna, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compared measured maximal heart rate (HRmax) to two different HRmax prediction equations [220-age and 208-0.7(age)] in 52 children ages 7-17 years. We determined the relationship of chronological age, maturational age, and resting HR to measured HRmax and assessed seated resting HR and HRmax during a graded exercise test.…

  13. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  14. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  15. Adolescent Reproductive Behaviour: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Population Div.

    A general overview of the literature on adolescent fertility and closely related issues is provided in this annotated bibliography. Material on the following topics is included: (1) programs related to adolescent pregnancy, contraception, abortion, and births; (2) studies relating socioeconomic characteristics of pregnant adolescents to their…

  16. Brief Report: Cross-Informant Ratings of Self- and Other-Regulation at Career Transitions in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Barbel

    2011-01-01

    Individual initiative is required to successfully master career transitions in adolescence, and also parents play an important role in this process. Past research largely omitted co-agency in transition-related activities between adolescents and their parents, which could be described in terms of self- and other-regulation. The present pilot study…

  17. The Validity and Structure of Culture-Level Personality Scores: Data From Ratings of Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; Gelfand, Michele J.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; de Lima, Margarida P.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N = 5,109) aged 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to national character stereotypes. Trait profiles also showed cross-study agreement within most cultures, eight of which had not previously been studied. Multidimensional scaling showed that Western and non-Western cultures clustered along a dimension related to Extraversion. A culture-level factor analysis replicated earlier findings of a broad Extraversion factor, but generally resembled the factor structure found in individuals. Continued analysis of aggregate personality scores is warranted. PMID:20573127

  18. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  19. Birth Planning Values and Decisions: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    The values and processes which underlie people's birth planning decisions were studied via decision theory. Sixty-three married couples including 23 with no children, 33 with one child, and 27 with two children were presented with a large set of personal values related to birth planning decisions. Individuals rated the importance or utility of…

  20. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  1. Efficacy of a secondary adolescent pregnancy prevention program: an ecological study before, during and after implementation of the Second Chance Club.

    PubMed

    Key, Janice D; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Judy, Natalie; McKinnon, Sarah A

    Teen mothers are at increased risk of subsequent adolescent births. Interventions to reduce secondary teen pregnancies are expensive and difficult to evaluate. An ecological evaluation compared change in the repeat teen birth rate in an intervention community in Charleston, South Carolina over time to state birth certificate data to determine the efficacy of a school-based pregnancy prevention program. Evaluation included comparison of birth rates for multigravida teens in the program's school catchment area (intervention zip codes) to selected state and community data before, during and after program implementation. The intervention community demonstrated a decrease in repeat teen births during the intervention period of the program with a rebound after it was discontinued. This trend differed from a 50% linear decrease across these time periods in the state. This low cost evaluation method may be useful for evaluation of teen pregnancy prevention programs with limited resources for program evaluation.

  2. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ole; Clausen, Jette A

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998. Objectives To assess the effects of planned hospital birth compared with planned home birth in selected low-risk women, assisted by an experienced midwife with collaborative medical back up in case transfer should be necessary. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 March 2012) and contacted editors and authors involved with possible trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing planned hospital birth with planned home birth in low-risk women as described in the objectives. Data collection and analysis The two review authors as independently as possible assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results Two trials met the inclusion criteria but only one trial involving 11 women provided some outcome data and was included. The evidence from this trial was of moderate quality and too small to allow conclusions to be drawn. Authors’ conclusions There is no strong evidence from randomised trials to favour either planned hospital birth or planned home birth for low-risk pregnant women. However, the trials show that women living in areas where they are not well informed about home birth may welcome ethically well-designed trials that would ensure an informed choice. As the quality of evidence in favour of home birth from observational studies seems to be steadily increasing, it might be as important to prepare a regularly updated systematic review including observational studies as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions as to attempt to set up new randomised controlled trials. PMID:22972043

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lyons Usher, Amy M; Leon, Scott C; Stanford, Lisa D; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Bryant, Fred B

    2016-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) is a parent report measure designed to assess executive skills in everyday life. The present study employed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate three alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF. Given the executive functioning difficulties that commonly co-occur with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the participants included 181 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD. The results indicated that an oblique two-factor model, in which the Monitor subscale loaded on both factors (i.e., Behavioral Regulation, Metacognition) and measurement errors for the Monitor and Inhibit subscales were allowed to correlate, provided an acceptable goodness-of-fit to the data. This two-factor model is consistent with previous research indicating that the Monitor subscale reflects two dimensions (i.e., monitoring of task-related activities and monitoring of personal behavioral activities) and thus loads on multiple factors. These findings support the clinical relevance of the BRIEF in children with ADHD, as well as the multidimensional nature of executive functioning.

  4. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, Jason A; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M

    2016-05-10

    Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers (n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline-to value students' perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an empathic response to misbehavior would sustain students' (n = 302) respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to adopt an empathic mindset about discipline. Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts (Nteachers = 31; Nstudents = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers. Teachers' mindsets about discipline directly affect the quality of teacher-student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention.

  5. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... use another birth control method (condom, diaphragm, or sponge) for the next 7 days. This is called ... of birth control, such as condom, diaphragm, or sponge if: You miss 1 or more pills. You ...

  6. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  7. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  8. Facilitating home birth.

    PubMed

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised. PMID:26320334

  9. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  10. Accredited Birth Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Center Accredited 624 Smith Avenue St. Paul, MN 55107 651-689-3988 Accredited since April 2015 ... Birth Center Accredited 1901 44th Avenue North Minneapolis, MN 55343 612-338-2784 Accredited since November 2015 ...

  11. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  12. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  13. Birth to Three Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Lesley; Langston, Ann

    2004-01-01

    "Birth to Three Matters" is essential for all those involved in developing policy and providing care and education for children between birth and three. It carefully examines the structure and content of the recently published Birth to Three Matters materials and explores a range of "matters" that impact on the development of quality in early…

  14. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  15. Facts about Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  16. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC About Birth Control Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? ... You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? How Can I Get the Pill if I ...

  17. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  18. Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age

    PubMed Central

    Rozzi, Fernando V. Ramirez; Koudou, Yves; Froment, Alain; Le Bouc, Yves; Botton, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution. PMID:26218408

  19. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  20. Teen Births: A County-By-County Factbook. For Children for Ohio's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan

    This Factbook provides state- and county-level statistical information on teen births in Ohio and discusses statewide trends from 1992 to 1996. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators: (1) number of infants born to teens; (2) teen birth rate; (3) repeat teen birth rate; (4) percentage of teen births to unmarried teens; (5) percentage of…

  1. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  2. The use of the RESPeRATE device to lower blood pressure in inner city obese adolescents and children: a pilot feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Geissler, Jillian D; Stokes, Christina W; Heyman, Melvin B; Tran, C T

    2013-06-01

    The RESPeRATE device was tested for feasibility of use in a population of overweight and obese children and adolescents (n = 10) in San Francisco, CA. After a 2-week and then a 2-month period, participants were interviewed on their frequency of use and attitudes towards the device. A high percentage stated that they enjoyed using the device at 2 months (90%) and 80% stated that they would recommend use to a friend or relative. Future studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the RESPeRATE device in lowering blood pressure and helping with weight loss/weight management in obese and overweight children.

  3. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  4. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  5. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  6. The Relationship between Behavior Ratings and Concurrent and Subsequent Mental and Motor Performance in Toddlers Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Daniel; Lambert, Brittany; Bauer, Charles R.; Bann, Carla M.; Hamlin-Smith, Kasey; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    When predicting child developmental outcomes, reliance on children's scores on measures of developmental functioning alone might mask more subtle behavioral difficulties, especially in children with developmental risk factors. The current study examined predictors and stability of examiner behavior ratings and their association with concurrent and…

  7. Why do Mexican Americans give birth to few low-birth-weight infants?

    PubMed

    Buekens, P; Notzon, F; Kotelchuck, M; Wilcox, A

    2000-08-15

    There are relatively few low-weight births among Mexican Americans, despite their socioeconomic disadvantages. Fewer low-birth-weight (LBW) births result when babies are heavier at term or when there are fewer preterm deliveries. The authors used 1994 US singleton livebirth birth certificates to compare Mexican Americans with non-Hispanic Whites. They found that the lower LBW rate among Mexican Americans (5.8%) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (6.1%) occurred because fewer small, preterm babies were born to Mexican Americans (3.4% vs. 3.9%). This result was obscured by two findings. First, the mean birth weight of Mexican American babies (3,343 g) was lower than that of non-Hispanic White babies (3,393 g). This finding again showed the independence of mean birth weight and LBW. Second, the overall preterm birth rate was higher among Mexican Americans (10.6%) than non-Hispanic Whites (9.3%). Our hypothesis is that this finding reflects errors in recorded gestational age, as illustrated by a strongly bimodal birth-weight distribution at young gestational ages for Mexican Americans. Further studies on the LBW paradox among Mexican Americans should thus focus on gestational age more than on birth weight.

  8. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    PubMed

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  9. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  10. Kiddie-SADS Reveals High Rates of DSM-IV Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjevik, Elen; Eldevik, Sigmund; Fjaeran-Granum, Torill; Sponheim, Eili

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of current comorbid DSM-IV disorders was assessed in a special school population of children and adolescents with ASD (N = 71, age 6.0-17.9 years), representing all cognitive levels and main ASD subgroups. Symptoms were assessed through parent interview and association to child characteristics was explored. Seventy-two percent was…

  11. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  12. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  13. Thermal responses and heart rates of low-birth-weight premature babies during daily care on a heated, water-filled mattress.

    PubMed

    Sarman, I

    1992-01-01

    Body temperatures, heart rates and resting oxygen consumptions were examined during routine nursing care in 12 premature babies treated alternately in incubators or on a heated, water-filled mattress (HWM). The mean temperatures were significantly higher in the axilla (0.3 degree C; p less than or equal to 0.05) and the foot (1.4 degrees C; p less than 0.001) during HWM care. The degree of maximal fall in various body temperatures during routine nursing procedures was the same for both treatments, whereas the time taken for the foot temperature to fall was 13 min shorter during HWM care (p less than 0.001). The proportion of heart rates below 160 bpm when the babies were not disturbed was 7.4% greater during HWM treatment (p less than 0.01). The resting oxygen consumption in babies treated on HWM was slightly lower (6.2 +/- 0.4 vs 6.4 +/- 0.5 ml/kg/min; p less than 0.05). Treatment on the HWM seems to promote calm and comfort, since it reduces the amount of thermal stress and prolongs quiet resting periods.

  14. The Correlation of Different Cotinine Levels With Questionnaire Results: A Comparative Study for Different Measurement Methods of the Adolescent Smoking Rate in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Bae; Nam, Eun Woo; Lee, Seon Kui; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ranabhat, Chhabi

    2015-07-01

    This study compares the results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Self-Reported; KNHANEs [SR]) survey with urine-cotinine concentration (UCC) and the official index issued by the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). We established standard cutoffs of 20 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL to compare the results of UCC testing with those of self-reporting methods. The KYRBS demonstrated an overall current smoking rate of 12.25%, while the KNHANEs measured an overall rate of 9.63%. The UCC20 reported the highest current smoking rate at 25.6% overall. Methods that detected a lower prevalence of current smoking, in declining order, were the UCC30, UCC50, UCC100, online survey, and the KNHANEs (SR). The results of this study show that online surveys on smoking administered to adolescents have fewer false responses compared with the KNHANEs (SR). However, compared with UCC testing, online surveys still significantly underreport adolescent smoking rates.

  15. GROWTH FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD AND PEAK BONE MASS AND DENSITY DATA FROM THE NEW DELHI BIRTH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, N; Fall, CHD; Osmond, C; Sachdev, HPS; Prabhakaran, D; Ramakrishnan, L; Dey Biswas, SK; Ramji, S; Khalil, A; Gera, T; Reddy, KS; Barker, DJP; Cooper, C; Bhargava, SK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship of height and body mass index (BMI) during childhood with adult bone mineral content (BMC), areal density (aBMD) and apparent density (BMAD, estimated volumetric density). Methods Participants were 565 men and women aged 33-39 years from the New Delhi Birth Cohort, India, whose weight and height were recorded at birth and annually during infancy (0-2 years), childhood (2-11 years) and adolescence (11 years-adult). Lumbar spine, femoral neck and forearm BMC and aBMD were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry; lumbar spine and femoral neck BMAD were calculated. Results Birth length, and height and height gain during infancy, childhood and adolescence were positively correlated with adult BMC (p≤0.01 all sites except birth length with femoral neck). Correlations increased with height from birth-6 years, then remained constant for later height measurements. There were no associations with BMAD. BMI at birth, and during childhood and adolescence was also positively correlated with BMC (p<0.01 all sites). BMI at 11 years, and BMI gain in childhood and adolescence, were correlated with aBMD and BMAD (p<0.001 for all); these correlations strengthened with increasing age of BMI measurement. The associations with height and BMI in early life became non-significant after adjustment for adult height and BMI. Conclusions Greater skeletal growth and BMI gain in utero and during infancy are associated with higher peak BMC, and greater BMI gain in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher peak aBMD and BMAD. These associations are mediated by the attainment of adult height and BMI respectively. PMID:22237812

  16. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 12 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  17. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  18. Birth Control Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a year after they stop getting the birth control shot. However, the shot does not cause permanent loss of fertility and most women can get pregnant once they stop getting the shot. previous continue Who Uses It? Every method of birth control should be considered in light of what works ...

  19. METHODS OF PROJECTING BIRTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OKADA, TETSUO

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES AND CRITICIZES THE VARIOUS METHODS CURRENTLY IN USE FOR PROJECTING BIRTHS--(1) COHORT-FERTILITY, (2) AGE-SPECIFIC, (3) COHORT-FERTILITY (SCRIPPS), AND (4) MARRIAGE-PARITY-PROGRESSION. VARIABLES USED IN THE VARIOUS METHODS ARE AGE OF MOTHER, COMPLETED FERTILITY, MARRIAGE STATUS, TIME SINCE MARRIAGE, PARITY, AND BIRTH INTERVAL.…

  20. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  1. Teen Births: Examining the Recent Increase. Research Brief. Publication #2009-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    After a 14-year decline, the teen birth rate increased in 2006, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Between 2005 and 2006, the teen birth rate rose 3.5 percent, from 40.5 to 41.9 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19. The number of teen births rose by 20,843, from 414,593 to 435,436 births, the largest annual increase…

  2. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  3. Beliefs about birth rank and their reflection in reality.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Nicholas C; Zajonc, R B; Wieczorkowska, Grazyna; Cichomski, Bogdan

    2003-07-01

    Beliefs about birth rank reflect what the society regards as social reality, and they may also influence that reality. Three studies found that people believe those with different birth ranks differ in their personalities, that higher birth ranks are likely to attain higher occupational prestige, and that the personality characteristics attributed to the various birth ranks favor the actual attainment of higher occupational prestige. In one example of such beliefs, firstborns were rated as most intelligent but least creative whereas the opposite was true of last-borns. The 4th study found that those with higher birth ranks in fact attain more prestigious occupations and actually do complete more years of schooling.

  4. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... first pill, use another birth control method (condom, diaphragm, or sponge). This is called backup birth control. ... method of birth control, such as a condom, diaphragm, or sponge, if: You take a pill 3 ...

  5. [Periodontal disease and preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (PB) is a primary public health challenge in both developed and underdeveloped nations. Despite improvements in obstetric care, rates of preterm birth have not decreased during the last 10 years. The etiological role of maternal infection, either in the genital tract or elsewhere, on preterm delivery remains unclear. Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. This type of infection is caused primarily by Gram-negative anaerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria that colonize the subgingival area and produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 6, prostaglandin E2, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha. PD may therefore influence PB through an indirect mechanism involving inflammatory mediators or through a direct bacterial assault on the amnion. PMID:24294762

  6. Neural Correlates of Impaired Vision in Adolescents Born Extremely Preterm and/or Extremely Low Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Claire E.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Molloy, Carly; Anderson, Peter J.; Lee, Katherine J.; Burnett, Alice C.; Connelly, Alan; Doyle, Lex W.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g) experience high rates of visual impairments, however the potential neural correlates of visual impairments in EP/ELBW adolescents require further investigation. This study aimed to: 1) compare optic radiation and primary visual cortical structure between EP/ELBW adolescents and normal birthweight controls; 2) investigate associations between perinatal factors and optic radiation and primary visual cortical structure in EP/ELBW adolescents; 3) investigate associations between optic radiation and primary visual cortical structure in EP/ELBW adolescents and the odds of impaired vision. Methods 196 EP/ELBW adolescents and 143 controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging at a mean age of 18 years. Optic radiations were delineated using constrained spherical deconvolution based probabilistic tractography. Primary visual cortices were segmented using FreeSurfer software. Diffusion tensor variables and tract volume of the optic radiations, as well as volume, surface area and thickness of the primary visual cortices, were estimated. Results Axial, radial and mean diffusivities within the optic radiations, and primary visual cortical thickness, were higher in the EP/ELBW adolescents than controls. Within EP/ELBW adolescents, postnatal corticosteroid exposure was associated with altered optic radiation diffusion values and lower tract volume, while decreasing gestational age at birth was associated with increased primary visual cortical volume, area and thickness. Furthermore, decreasing optic radiation fractional anisotropy and tract volume, and increasing optic radiation diffusivity in EP/ELBW adolescents were associated with increased odds of impaired vision, whereas primary visual cortical measures were not associated with the odds of impaired vision. Conclusions Optic radiation and primary visual cortical structure are altered in EP/ELBW adolescents

  7. Adolescent Pregnancy in an Urban Environment: Issues, Programs, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Janet B.; Zabin, Laurie Schwab

    An in-depth discussion of national and local statistics regarding teenage and adolescent pregnancy and the developmental issues involved opens this analysis. Problems and adverse consequences of adolescent pregnancy in an urban setting are explored using a city-wide random sample of adolescent births. A model pregnancy and parenting program and…

  8. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  9. Committee Opinion No. 669: Planned Home Birth.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes. These factors include the appropriate selection of candidates for home birth; the availability of a certified nurse-midwife, certified midwife or midwife whose education and licensure meet International Confederation of Midwives' Global Standards for Midwifery Education, or physician practicing obstetrics within an integrated and regulated health system; ready access to consultation; and access to safe and timely transport to nearby hospitals. The Committee on Obstetric Practice considers fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, or prior cesarean delivery to be an absolute contraindication to planned home birth. PMID:27454733

  10. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  11. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth. PMID:27383340

  12. [The pregnant adolescent].

    PubMed

    Grenon-Plante, D

    1982-03-01

    According to the Canadian Association of Family Planning 85% of adolescents are unprotected at their 1st intercourse, and 16% become pregnant; only 20% of those having a regular sex life use contraception. Women below 20 contributed to 17% of births in 1976 in Canada; in the same year 41.5% of all new mothers were unmarried, and only 27.5% of new fathers accepted responsibility for their paternity. These figures give an idea of the extent of the problem of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, a problem shared by all Western countries. The adolescent mother is too young to know what she wants, not to mention to accept responsibility for the caring of an infant. Risk of maternal mortality is twice as great among teenage mothers, and so is risk of infant death, mostly due to prematurity. Nurses can play a very important role in helping adolescent mothers, and they must never project their moral values on their young patients.

  13. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea. PMID:22253639

  14. The frequency of undescended testis from birth to adulthood: a review.

    PubMed

    Sijstermans, K; Hack, W W M; Meijer, R W; van der Voort-Doedens, L M

    2008-02-01

    We performed a systematic review and critique of the literature on the frequency of undescended testis (UDT) among boys from birth to adolescence. Special attention was given to whether previous testicular position was taken into account to distinguish between congenital and acquired UDT. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library. Any study reporting on the frequency of UDT was included. Study population age, number of boys studied, period of examination, primary examiner, area of study, study design, ethnicity, definitions used and previous testicular position were analysed. A total of 46 studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three of the 46 (50%) studies involved newborns. Definitions were described in half of the studies; however, the definitions used were heterogeneous. Previous testis position was described in 11% (5/46) of the studies. At birth, in term and/or birth weight >2.5 kg infants, the UDT rate ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%, and in premature and/or birth weight <2.5 kg infants from 1.1 to 45.3%. At the age of 1 year UDT in term and/or birth weight >2.5 kg infants was seen in 1.0-1.5%, at 6 years in 0.0-2.6%, at 11 years in 0.0-6.6% and at 15 years in 1.6-2.2% of boys. The frequency of UDT shows variable figures in the literature. The actual frequency of acquired UDT essentially remains unclear because of the shortage of studies performed at an older age, and of studies reporting on previous testicular position.

  15. The effect of socioeconomic indicators and macronutrient intake rate on body composition in adolescents 12 to 16 years old in Merida, Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Andrade Olalde, Ana Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Intake pattern of macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) and socioeconomic status (SES) are major causes of high child and adolescent overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico. An evaluation was done of the relationship between body mass index (BMI)-based nutritional status and body composition (BC), macronutrient intake rates (MIR) and SES indicators in 127 boys and 156 girls aged 12 to 16 years attending schools in Merida, Mexico. Anthropometric variables included height, weight, and BMI. The BC (body fat mass, fat-free mass, dry lean mass) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (Bodystat 1500 MDD). The MIR were estimated following FAO/WHO/UNO standard (1985). Proxy socioeconomic indicators included parents' age (as a maturity indicator) and education, fathers' occupation, school type and monthly household food expenditure per capita. Excess weight (overweight + obesity) assessed by BMI, was higher in boys (40.16 %) than in girls (33.97 %). Boys had higher BMI, less fat mass and higher fat-free mass than girls. The MIR did not vary significantly in response to age, sex, BC or SES. Participants with higher SES were taller and heavier, had higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass. In the studied adolescents, anthropometric and BC values, and overweight and obesity rates were more associated with SES than MIR.

  16. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  17. Adolescent mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    McAnarney, E R; Lawrence, R A; Aten, M J; Iker, H P

    1984-03-01

    It is unclear why children of adolescent mothers experience more developmental problems than children of adult mothers. There has been minimal systematic investigation of whether there is a relationship between the young age of the mother and her mothering behaviors. Our data fail to demonstrate any relationship between adolescent maternal age and the counts of maternal behaviors three days following birth. Seventy-five normal primiparous mothers less than 20 years old were videotaped with their normal infants for ten minutes in a standardized laboratory setting during the three days following birth. The frequency of maternal behaviors was counted from the videotapes by trained observers. Future studies of primiparous adolescent mothers should consider the effects of maternal race/culture and socioeconomic status on their mothering behaviors. The relationship between adolescent maternal age and the vocalizations expressed by the mother to her infant should also be explored further.

  18. Impact of Obstetrician/Gynecologist Hospitalists on Quality of Obstetric Care (Cesarean Delivery Rates, Trial of Labor After Cesarean/Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Rates, and Neonatal Adverse Events).

    PubMed

    Iriye, Brian K

    2015-09-01

    Care via obstetric hospitalists continues to expand, quickly becoming an integral part of labor and delivery management in urban and suburban areas. Overall lower cesarean delivery rates have been found with obstetric hospitalist care. Continuous 24-hour coverage of labor units has displayed lower rates of neonatal adverse events and likely reduces time in decision to delivery. Further study is needed on maternal and neonatal outcomes to corroborate earlier observations, and to closely examine the type of obstetric hospitalist model being observed to aid in planning the ideal deployment of providers in this workforce of the future. PMID:26333637

  19. Impact of Obstetrician/Gynecologist Hospitalists on Quality of Obstetric Care (Cesarean Delivery Rates, Trial of Labor After Cesarean/Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Rates, and Neonatal Adverse Events).

    PubMed

    Iriye, Brian K

    2015-09-01

    Care via obstetric hospitalists continues to expand, quickly becoming an integral part of labor and delivery management in urban and suburban areas. Overall lower cesarean delivery rates have been found with obstetric hospitalist care. Continuous 24-hour coverage of labor units has displayed lower rates of neonatal adverse events and likely reduces time in decision to delivery. Further study is needed on maternal and neonatal outcomes to corroborate earlier observations, and to closely examine the type of obstetric hospitalist model being observed to aid in planning the ideal deployment of providers in this workforce of the future.

  20. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  1. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  2. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  3. Birth control after 1984.

    PubMed

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-01

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  4. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  5. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosomal disorder or heart defect in the baby. Second Trimester Screening Second trimester screening tests are completed between weeks 15 ... look for certain birth defects in the baby. Second trimester screening tests include a maternal serum screen ...

  6. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... defects. Clefting can be surgically repaired after birth. Cerebral palsy usually isn't found until weeks to months ...

  7. Birth Control Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... control the functioning of the body's organs. How Does It Work? The combination of the hormones progesterone ... absorbed by the skin.) previous continue How Well Does It Work? Ongoing studies suggest the birth control ...

  8. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine (e.g., upright or side-lying) positions for birth, and no separation of mother and baby with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding. PMID:17273389

  9. [Childbirth and live newborns of adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição O; Santos, Carlos A T; Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes N; Freitas, Juliana O; Ferreira, Karine A S Leão; Silva, Melissa A; Paula, Priscila L B

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the literature indicate that adolescents may be overrepresented in the prevalence of maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications. This study focused on childbirth and live newborns among adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia, identifying risk factors for morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in the municipality in 1998, totaling 5,279 live births among adolescent (10 to 19 years) and young adult mothers (20 to 24 years). Variables were age, schooling, prenatal care, gestational care, form of delivery, and birthweight. The authors measured the association between maternal age and the child's birthweight, while controlling potential confounders. Some 21.6% of live births were to adolescent mothers, 51.2% of whom had not finished primary school; there was an association between the 10 to 16-year age bracket and incomplete primary schooling, lack of prenatal care, and low and insufficient birthweight as compared to the other age brackets; there was also a high rate of underrecording in the SINASC. The results suggest the need for specific measures focusing on the reproductive health of adolescents in the municipality.

  10. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  11. Basal Metabolic Rate of Adolescent Modern Pentathlon Athletes: Agreement between Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations and the Correlation with Body Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Lannes; Fonseca, Sidnei; Castro, Natalia Gomes Casanova de Oliveira e; dos Passos, Renata Baratta; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The accurate estimative of energy needs is crucial for an optimal physical performance among athletes and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations often are not well adjusted for adolescent athletes requiring the use of specific methods, such as the golden standard indirect calorimetry (IC). Therefore, we had the aim to analyse the agreement between the BMR of adolescents pentathletes measured by IC and estimated by commonly used predictive equations. Methods Twenty-eight athletes (17 males and 11 females) were evaluated for BMR, using IC and the predictive equations Harris and Benedict (HB), Cunningham (CUN), Henry and Rees (HR) and FAO/WHO/UNU (FAO). Body composition was obtained using DXA and sexual maturity data were retrieved through validated questionnaires. The correlations among anthropometric variables an IC were analysed by T-student test and ICC, while the agreement between IC and the predictive equations was analysed according to Bland and Altman and by survival-agreement plotting. Results The whole sample average BMR measured by IC was significantly different from the estimated by FAO (p<0.05). Adjusting data by gender FAO and HR equations were statistically different from IC (p <0.05) among males, while female differed only for the HR equation (p <0.05). Conclusion The FAO equation underestimated athletes’ BMR when compared with IC (T Test). When compared to the golden standard IC, using Bland and Altman, ICC and Survival-Agreement, the equations underestimated the energy needs of adolescent pentathlon athletes up to 300kcal/day. Therefore, they should be used with caution when estimating individual energy requirements in such populations. PMID:26569101

  12. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  13. Adolescent health issues: what is our role?

    PubMed

    Elders, M J

    1991-05-01

    The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.

  14. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  15. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  16. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary.

  17. Doula Care, Birth Outcomes, and Costs Among Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel R.; Attanasio, Laura B.; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; O’Brien, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared childbirth-related outcomes for Medicaid recipients who received prenatal education and childbirth support from trained doulas with outcomes from a national sample of similar women and estimated potential cost savings. Methods. We calculated descriptive statistics for Medicaid-funded births nationally (from the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample; n = 279 008) and births supported by doula care (n = 1079) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 2010 to 2012; used multivariate regression to estimate impacts of doula care; and modeled potential cost savings associated with reductions in cesarean delivery for doula-supported births. Results. The cesarean rate was 22.3% among doula-supported births and 31.5% among Medicaid beneficiaries nationally. The corresponding preterm birth rates were 6.1% and 7.3%, respectively. After control for clinical and sociodemographic factors, odds of cesarean delivery were 40.9% lower for doula-supported births (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; P < .001). Potential cost savings to Medicaid programs associated with such cesarean rate reductions are substantial but depend on states’ reimbursement rates, birth volume, and current cesarean rates. Conclusions. State Medicaid programs should consider offering coverage for birth doulas to realize potential cost savings associated with reduced cesarean rates. PMID:23409910

  18. Smoke in the Looking Glass: Effects of Discordance between Self- and Peer Rated Crowd Affiliation on Adolescent Anxiety, Depression and Self-Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Von Bank, Heather; Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Peer crowds serve as an identity marker for adolescents, indicating their image and status among peers; but adolescents do not always endorse peer appraisals of crowd affiliation. We report on two studies--one with 924 adolescents in grades 7-12 and a second with a more diverse population of 2,728 students in grades 9-11, followed for 2…

  19. Prediction of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Borg, F; Gravino, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-06-01

    Preterm delivery is birth occurring before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially if this occurs before 34 weeks of gestation. If preterm birth could be predicted and treated accordingly, this would greatly reduce mortality, morbidity and associated costs. There have been many attempts to develop an accurate and efficient method to predict preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm labor that leads to spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). However, the initial signs and symptoms are most often mild and may even occur in normal pregnancies, making early detection rather difficult. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current methods employed in predicting preterm birth occurring due to preterm labor and PPROM. Among these methods are risk scoring systems, cervical/vaginal screening for fetal fibronectin, cervical assessment by ultrasonography, uterine activity monitoring, biomarkers such as endocrine factors, cytokines and enzymes, fetal DNA and genetic polymorphism. SPB is multifactorial, and so it is highly unlikely that a single test can accurately predict SPB. A combination of biological markers is also reviewed in the estimation of the risk of preterm delivery.

  20. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  1. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  2. The adolescent and contraception.

    PubMed

    Bonar, R W; Mcculla, D

    1981-08-01

    Coital activity is often initiated during adolescence, and adolescents, like many adults, do not behave in purely rational ways and frequently fail to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Public attention is focused on adolescent pregnancies because of their increasing number and because the consequences are usually catastrophic. Unplanned pregnancies can have physical, psychosocial, and prenatal effects. It is important from both the individual and societal perspective that high priority be given to the task of preventing adolescent pregnancy. The health care provider, to gain the trust of the adolescent, must be open, honest, and willing to consider the young person's feelings and motivations. In addition to historical data and physical examination, the choice of a contraceptive method is based on individual preferences involving personal, familial, religious, and societal beliefs as well as sexual practice. A decision involving birth control for the adolescent can be complicated by parental influence and involvement. The teenage years are frequently a time of embarrassment about the physical maturation and biological functioning of the body. Birth control methods which require a person to touch himself/herself or to be used at the time of sexual intercourse may be unacceptable to the teenager. Fertility awareness techniques, such as basal body temperature, rhythm, and cervical mucus methods are inexpensive but call for a high degree of personal motivation. The use of a diaphragm requires an office visit and a pelvic examination for fitting and prescription. Contraceptive foam, suppositories, and condoms can be easily obtained over-the-counter for a minimal cost, and a moderate degree of personal motivation is needed for their effective use. Though effective, abortions should not be recommended indiscriminately. Permanent contraceptive methods are not recommended for the adolescent. The IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) are recommended for adolescents

  3. Genomics of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J

    2015-02-02

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms.

  4. Births and cohort size.

    PubMed

    de Beer, J

    1991-01-01

    Ahlburg (1983, 1986) tested a simple version of Easterlin's relative-cohort-size model of fertility on the basis of U.S. and Canadian post-war data. His conclusion was that the Easterlin model fits the data very well and can therefore be used for calculating forecasts. However, the model he estimated is oversimplified. In this paper an alternative specification is presented. The model is applied to Dutch fertility data. The Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-85, but a declining long-term trend in average family size proves far more important in explaining post-war births. The model forecasts a rise of births until 2000.

  5. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  6. Twinning rates in Tamilnadu.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P S; Inbaraj, S G; Muthurathnam, S

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study of human reproduction was conducted in Tamilnadu State, South India, from 1969 to 1975. This paper reports twinning rates and relates these to maternal age, parity, and consanguinity. Birth weights and other dimensions at birth and infant mortality are also studied. The overall twinning rate was 1 in 115 births. Dizygotic twinning rates increased significantly with maternal age and parity. The measurements at birth for like-sexed twin pairs were lower than that of unlike-sexed, but the mortalities did not differ significantly. Twins, in general, had a several fold increase in mortality as compared with singletons. PMID:6886580

  7. Unsanctioned births in China.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  8. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  9. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life. PMID:24482849

  10. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life.

  11. Developmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007

  12. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. Methods. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. Results. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use. PMID:27689502

  13. Comparing European and U.S. approaches to adolescent sexual health.

    PubMed

    Mcgee, M

    1998-12-01

    European countries have significantly lower incidences of teen pregnancy, births, abortions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To determine why some countries have so much better success helping adolescents develop into sexually healthy adults, Advocates for Youth and the University of North Carolina developed a European study tour on adolescent sexual behavior and responsibility during summer 1998. The specific goal was to explore which factors contribute to better sexual health among adolescents in the Netherlands, Germany, and France. The differences between countries are exemplified in the recent age-specific birth data; for every 1000 girls aged 15-19 years, the birth rate is 64 in the US, 13 in Germany, 9 in France, and 7 in the Netherlands. Evidence was found during the trip that the promotion of sexual health and responsible choices can be as effective in the US as it is in Europe. Promoting contraceptives and making them available to teens are the norm in the countries studied, and such ready availability of contraceptives and explicit sexual education has not increased teens' levels of sexual activity. In fact, the median age at first intercourse is 16.4 years in the US, 17 in Germany, 17.4 in France, and 17.8 in the Netherlands. Politics have unfortunately polarized and frustrated sexuality education in the US. PMID:12322060

  14. Risk factors for low birth weight in New York state counties.

    PubMed

    Darling, Rosa D; Atav, A Serdar

    2012-02-01

    The rate of low birth weight (LBW) is a national concern. In New York counties in 2009, the LBW rate was 8.2%. Reducing LBW has significant humanitarian and economic implications. At an average cost of $51,600 per infant, care for infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and health service factors that contribute to LBW among counties in New York. Analyses of data indicated that the number of MOMs providers and teen pregnancy rate were the strongest predictors for LBW. These findings reinforce the fact that LBW is a correctable phenomenon that can be addressed through public policy. With increasing budget cuts, provision of health services and implementation of programs that address teen pregnancy have become challenging. Public policy decisions and stewardship that support programs that increase the number of providers for the uninsured, underinsured, and economic underclass and maintain programs for the pregnant adolescent will help New York counties in their fight against LBW. PMID:22585673

  15. Risk factors for low birth weight in New York state counties.

    PubMed

    Darling, Rosa D; Atav, A Serdar

    2012-02-01

    The rate of low birth weight (LBW) is a national concern. In New York counties in 2009, the LBW rate was 8.2%. Reducing LBW has significant humanitarian and economic implications. At an average cost of $51,600 per infant, care for infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and health service factors that contribute to LBW among counties in New York. Analyses of data indicated that the number of MOMs providers and teen pregnancy rate were the strongest predictors for LBW. These findings reinforce the fact that LBW is a correctable phenomenon that can be addressed through public policy. With increasing budget cuts, provision of health services and implementation of programs that address teen pregnancy have become challenging. Public policy decisions and stewardship that support programs that increase the number of providers for the uninsured, underinsured, and economic underclass and maintain programs for the pregnant adolescent will help New York counties in their fight against LBW.

  16. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    PubMed

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. PMID:22620274

  17. Birth control techniques in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, B; Wang, M

    1983-12-01

    This article describes the major birth control techniques in use in China, based on data from a contraceptive prevalence study conducted in September, 1982. 118 million of the 170 million married women of child bearing age use birth control. IUD insertion accounts for 50.2% of birth control methods used, tubal ligation accounts for 25.4%, vas deferens ligation 10.0% oral contraceptives (OCs) 8.2%, and condoms 2.0%. A table of clinical data on 9 China made IUDs reveals that pregnancy rates range from 0 (V Cu-300 model) to 5.83% (mixed ring model). A method of IUD insertion immediately after delivery has been researched and adopted, using a silastic Delta IUD with barium added to reduce the high postpartum expulsion rate. fixing the IUD by sutures during Cesarean section has also been developed. Electronmicroscopic studies of the endometrium of women who have used a stainless steel IUD for more than 20 years showes no tendency towards malignancy, nor negative effects on the endocrine functions of the ovaries. 28 million Chinese women have accepted sterilization as of June, 1982. Local anesthesia and the use of acupuncture have reduced complications due to general anesthesia seen previously. Sterilization by means of chemically induced adhesion of Fallopian tube tissue has also been performed successfully; however, this method makes later anastomosis difficult, and is not suitable for young women with only 1 child. Fallopian tube occlusion by means of a silver clip has been performed in 1,128 cases, with a pregnancy rate of only .85%. 10.62 million men have accepted sterilization. While most of the procedures are val ligations, 300,000 men have been sterilized by direct injection of an adhesive agent throuh the skin of the scrotum. No increase in auto immune or vascular disease has been found. 3 low-dose OCs, used since 1969, have proven to be reliable and freer of side effects than higher-dose compounds. In addition, longterm OCs containing quinestrol have been used

  18. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  19. Neurobehavioral Assessment before Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.

    2005-01-01

    The complexities of neurobehavioral assessment of the fetus, which can be neither directly viewed nor manipulated, cannot be understated. Impetus to develop methods for measuring fetal neurobehavioral development has been provided by the recognition that individual differences in neurobehavioral functioning do not originate with birth and…

  20. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…