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Sample records for adolescent black males

  1. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  2. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  3. Culturally Responsive Social Skills Instruction for Adolescent Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…

  4. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  5. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  6. Cocaine selling among urban black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Dembo, R; Williams, L; Schmeidler, J

    1994-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of juvenile detainees are used to examine the relationships between cocaine selling, substance use, and other delinquency among the Black and White males in the study. A descriptive comparison of rates of cocaine selling among the youths is followed by a descriptive comparison of prevalence of substance use and other delinquency across four subgroups: White and Black males indicating they sold and did not sell cocaine. These comparisons are followed by analyses of variance examining the relationships between involvement in substance use and other delinquency, and ethnicity, cocaine selling, and the interaction of ethnicity and cocaine selling. Important ethnicity and cocaine-selling effects are found, but not ethnicity by cocaine-selling interactions. The implications of our findings for theory and service provision are drawn.

  7. Family Structure, Parental Strictness, and Sexual Behavior among Inner-City Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Jemmott, John B., III

    1992-01-01

    Family structure, parental strictness, and sexual behavior were examined among black male adolescents (n=200). Those living with both parents used condoms more frequently. Those who believed that their mothers were more strict than others reported less frequent coitus with fewer women, while those perceiving their father to be more strict used…

  8. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory.

  9. A Comparison of the Family Environments of Black Male and Female Adolescent Alcohol Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.

    1991-01-01

    Examined African-American adolescents' use of alcohol and their perceptions of their family environments. Alcohol-using adolescents (n=71) completed Family Environment Scale (FES). Analyses of data revealed that females differed significantly from males on 4 of 10 FES subscales. Findings support view that alcohol affects perception of family…

  10. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM.

  11. "I Have Goals to Prove All Those People Wrong and Not Fit into Any One of Those Boxes": Paths of Resistance to Stereotypes among Black Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Way, Niobe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents form their identities by both accommodating (endorsing) and resisting (challenging) cultural stereotypes. Most research on Black males focuses on how they accommodate to negative stereotypes (e.g., delinquency, aggression), but a growing literature emphasizes how youth resist stereotypes. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed to…

  12. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  13. Internal/External Locus of Control and Parental Verbal Interaction of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger, John M.; And Others

    In response to concerns about the academic and discipline problems of young black male students in a small southern town, the Positive Impact Program (PIP) was developed for at-risk black males. Two possible at-risk factors, locus of control and the quality of parental verbal interaction, were studied for participants in the PIP. Locus of control…

  14. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  15. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  16. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  17. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  18. Young, Black, and Male In America: An Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor, Ed.; And Others

    This book evolved out of a presentation on the psychosocial problems of black adolescents and youth at a colloquium jointly sponsored by the Bay Area Black United Fund and the School of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley in the Spring of 1982. The problems of black inner-city males are so severe that society tends to ignore…

  19. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  20. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males…

  1. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  2. Adolescent Male Responsibility in African-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    Young black males account for almost half of all unwed fathers. The average black adolescent unwed father is 17 years old at the birth of his first child, comes from an unusually large family, began having sex at an earlier age than other black men, and has had slightly positive educational and employment experiences. Most also exhibit a high…

  3. Personality Characteristics of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    Four hundred and forty-six poor black urban and rural adolescents ages 15-18 enrolled in a summer poverty-work program are administered Gough's Adjective Checklist (ACL) and Holland's Vocatonal Preference Inventory (VPI) to determine their personality profile, to ascertain differences between this gorup and blacks attending colleges, and to study…

  4. Personality Characteristics of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    1977-01-01

    This research attempted to determine 1) the personality profiles of disadvantaged Black adolescents on Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Gough's Adjective Checklist (ACL), 2) if this group differed significantly on the VPI from Blacks attending college, and 3) what implications for programming and planning could be determined…

  5. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Performance of Black Adolescent Males with Reading Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Lauren Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of school psychology currently calls upon practitioners to implement evidence-based interventions to address reading deficits, the literature base is limited and inconclusive when it comes to effectiveness of reading interventions at the high school level, especially with older adolescents with reading disabilities. The current…

  6. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  7. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  8. Black Males in College: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S.; And Others

    Because relatively few black males successfully complete college, this study sought to determine how black male freshmen at a predominantly white university differed from other freshmen in their values, aspirations, and assumptions about college life. In the fall of 1989, the ACT Entering Student Survey, plus 30 locally developed questions, was…

  9. Adolescent Male Attitudes about Singing in Choir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…

  10. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. PMID:24753532

  11. Gender Influencers on Work Values of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Shields, Leslie C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined work values and key influencers of a sample of black male and female adolescents (N=145). Indicated that boys and girls valued both the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of work; however, girls reported slighter stronger extrinsic values than did boys. In addition, the sexes reported differences in the importance of specific work values.…

  12. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  13. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  14. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  15. The Political Economy of Black Male Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a framework which merges economic and sociological insights for studying the increasing suicide rate among Black males. Preliminary empirical analysis of the model indicated that a purely economic model must incorporate extra-economic influences to increase its explanatory power. (MK)

  16. City's Black Males Stay in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders in Baltimore have mounted an offensive over the past three years to keep more students in school and on track. Last month, news came that the effort has produced a welcome dividend: Black male students are driving a marked increase in the district's graduation rate and a decrease in its dropout rate, and showing improvement at a…

  17. Stress and Identity among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon R.

    Twenty Black American males' reactions to slides depicting interracial climate and/or racial oppression were investigated by recording physiological responses, specifically, galvanic skin potential (GSP) and heart rate (HR). Participants were also given the Myers/Stokes Identity Scale (MSIS) to ascertain their reaction to oppression and, based on…

  18. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  19. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  20. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  1. Black Male Perspectives on Their Educational Experiences in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Marcia Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the zero-tolerance policies on Black males' educational experiences and outcomes. Individual interviews were conducted with Black males who dropped out of high school. Using counter-storytelling within a critical race theory framework, Black males discussed the influence of the zero-tolerance policies on their…

  2. Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    This investigation focused on sex and ethnic differences in mathematics achievement among and between black and Mexican-American adolescents. One hundred twelve subjects were chosen; the selection included 61 blacks and 51 Mexican-Americans. The sample included 42 males and 70 females. All pupils attended the same school, with most from homes low…

  3. A Culturally Sensitive Approach to the Interpretation of Performance of Black Adolescents on Selected Neuropsychological Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuckle, Essie P.

    Normal black adolescents were given neuropsychological tests of brain damage, and the interpretation of these tests was reviewed with respect to culturally relevant data. Subjects were 50 male and 50 female black students, aged 12-13, with no history of central nervous system trauma, and average scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  4. Separate Schooling for Black Adolescent Mathematics Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamekye, Farhaana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a 1.5 year study of black adolescent mathematics students attending an African-centered school in the US are used to highlight the benefits of separate schooling for this population of students. Critical race theory is used to frame a dialogue surrounding the ways in which this type of school environment and embedded racialized…

  5. Black Adolescents and the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Black and White students' news acquisition habits and knowledge of current events on the State, national, and international levels. Among 8th graders, Blacks ranked lower than Whites in knowledge, but no significant differences between groups were found among 11th graders. All students were deficient in their knowledge of State news. (GC)

  6. A Demographic Analysis of Suicide among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    Although statistical patterns associated with suicide suggest that blacks should be the least likely to commit suicide, black men between the ages of 18-25 do not conform to this pattern. The suicide rate for black males in this age group, which approximates and sometimes surpasses the rate for their white male cohorts, is more than three times…

  7. Nurturing Young Black Males. Challenges to Agencies, Programs, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    This fundamentally encouraging book describes programs that offer young Black males from high-risk environments the same nurturing opportunities that other young people have to develop the competencies needed for adulthood. Chapters and their authors are (1) "Introduction" (Ronald B. Mincy); (2) "Adolescent Development"…

  8. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  9. Toward a Relational Perspective on Young Black and Latino Males: The Contextual Patterns of Disclosure as Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, David J. Knight investigates where and when Black and Latino male adolescents engage in self-disclosure--sharing their emotions, thoughts, and social perceptions--with their peers. Building from asset-based research and ecological theories of development, Knight analyzes in-depth interviews and finds that these adolescents may…

  10. The HAWK Federation and the Development of Black Adolescent Males: Toward a Solution to the Crises of America's Young Black Men. Testimony before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families. Congressional Hearings on America's Young Black Men: Isolated and in Trouble (Washington, D.C., July 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade W.

    Sources of the crises faced by young black men lie not in the young men, but in society which portrays them as stereotypes. Social conditions are at the root of the following problems of black males: (1) lowered life expectancy; (2) risk of criminality; (3) poor economic conditions; (4) inadequate education; (5) drugs and gang violence; and (6)…

  11. Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R

    1984-03-01

    The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.

  12. Smoking Trajectories Among Monoracial and Biracial Black Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Coman, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking trajectories were assessed among monorace Blacks, Black-American Indians, Black-Asians, Black-Hispanics, and Black-Whites. Method We used a subsample of nationally representative data obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample consisted of adolescents who were in Grades 7 – 12 in 1994, and followed across four waves of data collection into adulthood. Wave 4 data were collected in 2007–2008 when most respondents were between 24 and 32 years old. Respondents could report more than one race/ethnicity. Poisson regression was used to analyze the data. Results We found distinct smoking trajectories among monorace and biracial/ethnic Blacks, with all groups eventually equaling or surpassing trajectories of Whites. The age of cross-over varied by gender for some subgroups, with Black-American Indian males catching up earlier than Black-American Indian females. Black-White females smoked on more days than monorace Black females until age 26 and also smoked more than Black-White males between ages 11 and 29 years. Black-Hispanic males smoked on more days than Black-Hispanic females from ages 11 to 14. The results of the interaction tests also indicated different smoking trajectories across SES levels among White, Black, and Black-White respondents. Conclusion Significant heterogeneity was observed regarding smoking trajectories between monoracel and biracial/ethnic Blacks. Knowledge of cigarette smoking patterns among monorace and biracial/ethnic Black youth and young adults extends our understanding of the etiology of tobacco use and may inform interventions. PMID:28344360

  13. Informal and Formal Help Seeking Among Older Black Male Foster Care Youth and Alumni.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lionel D; McMillen, J Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2015-02-01

    Using the behavioral model for vulnerable populations as a framework, this study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to seeking help from formal and informal sources among older Black male foster youth and alumni. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that emotional control, a predisposing variable, was related to help-seeking. Specifically, greater adherence to the norm of emotional control was related to lower likelihood of using informal or formal sources of help. These results support the literature on males, in general, and Black males, in particular, that posits that inhibitions to express emotions are a barrier to their help seeking. Implications for help seeking among vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult Black males are discussed.

  14. "Styled by Their Perceptions": Black Adolescent Girls Interpret Representations of Black Females in Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.

    2015-01-01

    Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…

  15. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  16. Where Are All the Black Male Special Education Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, LaRon A.

    2016-01-01

    The under-representation of Black male teachers in special education has significant consequences. Historically, Black males account for the disproportionately high number of children served in K-12 special education programs (Talbert-Johnson, 2001). Often, the children are evaluated using racially-biased assessments (Cartledge & Duke, 2008).…

  17. Modeling Manhood: Reimagining Black Male Identities in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Jarvis R.; Nasir, Na'ilah; ross, kihana; de Royston, Maxine McKinney

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which stereotypical mainstream representations of black males (as hard, as anti-school, and as disconnected from the domestic sphere) were reimagined in all-black, all-male manhood development classes for 9th graders in urban public high schools. Findings show that instructors debunked stereotypes and created new…

  18. How to Reach--and Teach--Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emdin, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plenty of reports and research have documented the achievement gap between black males and other students. But few have acknowledged that current structures and practices have contributed to that gap. To address the low achievement of black males, schools must be willing to accept that there are ways of looking at the world, modes of…

  19. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  20. The third world health status of black American males.

    PubMed Central

    Gadson, Sandra L.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to their white counterparts, black men in the United States live sicker and die younger. This longstanding phenomenon is sharply reflected in the poor international health status of black males. The NMA president discusses major health issues facing black males and posits a multidimensional strategy for addressing racial disparities in men's health, with a national focus on health promotion and disease prevention, improving healthcare quality and access, and eliminating structural inequities. PMID:16623060

  1. Engaging Black Males on Their Own Terms: What Schools Can Learn from Black Males Who Produce Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Petchauer, Emery; Kirkland, David

    2013-01-01

    Education scholars and practitioners have much to learn about engagement and motivation of Black males by directing their inquiries to more organic sites of hip-hop cultural production outside of schools. One such site is the hip-hop's informal labor economy where Black males engage in earning money through hip-hop cultural production. Labor…

  2. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  3. The Institutional Decimation of Black American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.; Scott, Joseph W.

    1978-01-01

    In 1970, there were 85 Black men for every 100 Black women in major American cities. Factors which produced this imbalance in the sex ratio of Blacks include educational, health care, public assistance, and penal correction systems, labor market mechanisms, and the military. (Author/MC)

  4. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  5. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  6. Gender influencers on work values of black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V G; Shields, L C

    1987-01-01

    Work values and key influencers of a sample of black male and female adolescents were examined. Results indicated that boys and girls valued both the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of work; however, girls reported slighter stronger extrinsic values than did boys. In addition, the sexes reported differences in the importance of specific work values such as "making lots of money," and "doing important things." When naming a key influencer, respondents tended to cite a same-sex and race individual. Sex of one's key influencer was related to certain work values, with subjects reporting a male key influencer valuing "trying out one's own ideas" and "having a secure future" more than those reporting a female key influencer. The interaction of sex of subject and sex of key influencer was significant on one of the work value outcomes. Implications of these findings are considered.

  7. Update on adolescent pregnancy in the Black community.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kellie D

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a social issue that severely jeopardizes the quality of life for young parents and their children. It is estimated that if fertility rates remain unchanged, the United States will see a 26% increase in the number of adolescent pregnancies and births due to an increase in the adolescent population (Henshaw, 1996). With a disproportional rate of Black adolescents becoming pregnant, there is a need to examine factors related to the high adolescent pregnancy rate among the Black community. Black adolescent mothers and their children face additional adverse psychosocial effects due to healthcare disparities, a higher incidence of health problems, and an increase risk of financial hardship (Hogan, Astone, & Kitagawa, 1985; J. V. Horn, 1998; Morgan, Chapar, & Fisher, 1995). Although the teenage pregnancy rate has declined, it is important for practitioners to continue to implement interventions that promote abstinence and increase contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents.

  8. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth incarcerated for serious offenses. We examined several risk factors for substance use and delinquency (i.e., early and frequent substance use, prior history of arrests, school expulsion, Black ethnicity), as well as the association between aggression and polysubstance use. Methods Data were collected via questionnaires from 373 serious male juvenile offenders upon intake into a secure locked facility. Youth were on average 16 years old, and minority youth were overrepresented (28.1% Black, 53.1% Latino). Poisson regressions were used to assess the associations between the risk factors, aggression, and polysubstance use. Results Consistent with the literature, Black youth reported less polysubstance use and later age of drug use onset than White and Latino youth. Findings suggest that Latino juvenile offenders and those with an early and problematic pattern of substance use are at heightened risk for polysubstance use. Aggression was not significantly related to polysubstance use, over and above the risk factors. Conclusions Given that Latino youth experience low rates of treatment for substance use, the development of culturally-sensitive interventions for these youth is needed. Interventions should also be multifaceted to address the multitude of risk factors associated with polysubstance use among juvenile offenders. PMID:26997851

  9. The Mathematical Experiences of Black Males in a Predominantly Black Urban Middle School and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julius

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the mathematical experiences of Black males in the United States of America. This research has emerged to challenge the dominant narrative in mathematics education focused on Black males' low performance on international, national, and state standardized tests. There is very little research that has…

  10. Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    Achieving manhood has historically been a complex and challenging task for the Black male in America. Therefore Black manhood must be carefully fostered from an early age by major socializing agents and institutions. This book provides school counselors and related professionals with important information about the development of young Black…

  11. Positive Impact Program (PIP) for At-Risk Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbs, Charles R.; McCallum, Odell

    To address the needs of at-risk black males the Positive Impact Program (PIP) was organized. Teachers and parents were asked to refer black boys in kindergarten through eighth grade who exhibited low self-esteem; lack of motivation; poor academic record; chronic disciplinary problems; poor school attendance; poor hygiene and personal care habits;…

  12. World without Work. Causes and Consequences of Black Male Joblessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, Washington, DC.

    This document examines the causes and consequences of Black male joblessness. First, key insights and recommendations of a 1993 policy roundtable on labor force participation and family formation are summarized. Discussed next are the following issues related to the economic and social alienation of Black men: joblessness and absence from the…

  13. Investigating Black Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences in Campus Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.; Mullins, Taris G.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the challenges that Black gay male undergraduates confront in campus residence halls and the supports that enabled their success in facing them. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 29 participants, we found that Black gay men report varied encounters with subtle and overt forms of racism among White…

  14. Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inbar, O; Bar-Or, O

    1986-06-01

    Only sparse information has been published on the effects of growth, development, and maturation on the ability to perform high intensity, short-term "anaerobic" tasks. Cross-sectional studies on Italian, African, British, and American females and males have indicated an age-related progression in the performance of the Margaria step-running test. Children had a distinctly lower mechanical power output than adolescents and young adults, both in absolute terms and when divided by body weight, or by fat-free mass. Data are presented on some 300 10- to 45-yr-old Israeli males who performed the Wingate anaerobic test by cycling or by arm cranking. Both the peak power at any 5-s period and the mean power throughout the test were lowest in the children, whether expressed in absolute power units or corrected for body weight. Performance progressed with age and reached the highest values at the end of the third decade for cycling and at the end of the second decade for arm cranking. This pattern is unlike that described for maximal O2 uptake per kg body weight which, in males, remains virtually unchanged from childhood to young adulthood. In females, maximal O2 uptake per kg is even higher in children than among adolescents or adults. Biochemical correlates of such a low anaerobic performance in children are their lower maximal lactate concentration in muscle and blood, lower rate of anaerobic glycolysis, and lower levels of acidosis at maximal exercise. The mechanisms for the relatively deficient anaerobic characteristics of children are not clear.

  15. Black Male Youth: Their Employment Problems and Training Programs. Background Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Robinson G.

    Employment problems of black males remain substantial. The unemployment rate for black males is 2.3 times that of white males. Less than one-third of 16- 19-year-old black males were employed in 1988. The most important policies affecting the employment of black males are monetary and fiscal policies. No employment and training policies can come…

  16. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  17. Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and Latino adolescents (42% male, 34% Black, 66% Latino). Consistent with developmental theory, individual growth modeling identified an average quadratic trajectory of ethnic identity exploration characterized by decelerating levels of exploration after 10th grade. However, ethnicity and perceived discrimination by peers moderated this pattern. No uniform growth pattern in affirmation was found and Black and Latino adolescents displayed equally high levels of affirmation over time.

  18. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  19. Helping Black and Latino Males Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Growing up in a poor, dysfunctional family in a violent inner-city neighborhood, Jackson faced daily challenges even getting to the bus stop without being attacked by gang members. When he was bused to a white suburban school in 5th grade, things got even worse. Every black student who was bused in from his neighborhood was placed in remedial…

  20. The role of the experience and expression of anger and anxiety in elevated blood pressure among black and white adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between black and white adolescents in the experience and expression of anger and anxiety, traditional risk factors for hypertension, and blood pressure were examined among adolescents enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Relationships between blood pressure and anger/anxiety and traditional risk factors were also examined. Black adolescents of both genders experienced feelings of anxiety more frequently and with greater intensity than did their white counterparts. Although black and white adolescents did not differ in their ability to experience anger, blacks experienced more intense reactions in situations involving unfair criticism and time pressure. More importantly, black males and females suppressed the expression of their anger more often than did their white counterparts. The blood pressure of black adolescent males and females was found to be significantly higher than their white counterparts. Blacks were also more likely to have a family history of hypertension, but were less likely to smoke cigarettes. Racial differences on other risk factors were found only among black females who were heavier and consumed more salty junk foods than white females. Although a number of the personality and risk factor measures were significantly correlated with blood pressure, measures of suppressed anger were more strongly correlated with blood pressure for both black and white adolescents. Findings from the multiple regression analyses showed that suppressed anger was the best independent predictor of blood pressure for all groups except white females. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that adolescents with elevated blood pressure can be identified by emotional/psychological factors, which are predictive of high blood pressure for both blacks and whites. PMID:2746680

  1. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  2. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  3. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  4. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  5. Baseline Religion Involvement Predicts Subsequent Salivary Cortisol Levels Among Male But not Female Black Youth

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared to Whites, Blacks are exposed to higher levels of chronic stress in the United States. As a result, major Black-White differences exist in the baseline and response of cortisol. Yet, the potential association between baseline religiosity and subsequent cortisol levels of Blacks are not known. Objectives: In the current study we aimed to determine the association between baseline religious behaviors and daytime salivary cortisol level among male and female Black youth. Materials and Methods: With a longitudinal design, data came from wave 1 (1994) and wave 6 (2000) of a cohort from an urban area in the Midwest of the United States. The study followed 227 Black adolescents (109 males and 118 females) for six years. Socio-demographics and religious behaviors (frequency of participation in religious activities) were measured at baseline. Base morning cortisol level at wave 6 was the outcome. We fitted a linear regression model to test the association between baseline religiosity at wave 1 and cortisol level at wave 6, while baseline age, socio-economics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. Results: In the pooled sample, frequency of participation in religious activities at baseline was negatively associated with mean cortisol level at follow up (r = -0.29, P > 0.01) among all, males (r = -0.38, P > 0.01), but not females (r = -.20, P > 0.05). Frequency of participation in religious activities remained a significant predictor of subsequent cortisol level (b = -0.283, 95% CI = -.107 - -0.022) while the effect of age, socioeconomics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. We could only find such an association among male Black youth (b = -0.368, 95% CI = -0.148 - -0.024) but not female Black youth (b = -0.229, 95% CI = -.113 - 0.011). Conclusions: Religiosity has been used as a coping mechanism among Blacks. Religiosity may also be related to stress regulation among Black youth. Future studies need to test complex associations between

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Body Change Strategies among Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors predicting body change strategies to increase weight and muscle mass among adolescent males over an 8-month period. Results for 435 adolescent boys show that extreme body change strategies are predicted by the adoption of more normative body change strategies at an earlier time, and that body change strategies are affected by…

  7. Survival and movements of molting male black ducks in Labrador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, T.D.; Longcore, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    We marked 26 flightless male American black ducks with transmitters during the post-nuptial molt in northern Labrabor to determine survival and movements. Twelve ducks remained in the watershed where marked and 11 ducks moved to different watersheds. The period survival rate (PSR) for these flightless males was 0.89 using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Only 2 ducks were killed by predators. Death of these 2 ducks might have been influenced by our disturbance, thus we considered the PSR minimal.

  8. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  9. Spiritual Borderlands: A Black Gay Male College Student's Spiritual Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the spiritual journey and spaces of one Black gay male college student. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, field observations, and photovoice. Findings indicate that the student experienced tension during his spiritual journey because of his racial and sexual orientation identities but was able to…

  10. Deindustrialization, Disadvantage and Suicide among Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubrin, Charis Elizabeth; Wadsworth, Thomas P.; DiPietro, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Wilson's deindustrialization thesis has been the focus of much recent research. This study is the first to empirically test his thesis as it relates to suicide among young black males, which has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Using 1998-2001 Mortality Multiple Cause-of-Death Records and 2000 census data, we examine the influence…

  11. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  12. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  13. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  14. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Intake in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lárraga, Armando; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Use of alcohol and tobacco, the two most concurrently abused drugs, typically first occurs during adolescence. Yet, there have been no systematic analyses of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) interactions during adolescence. Recent animal studies report that kappa-opioid (KOR) receptor activation mediates age differences in drug reinforcement. Our hypothesis is that concurrent self-administration of EtOH and Nic will be greater in adolescent rats because of age differences in KOR function. Furthermore, exposure to alcohol and nicotine during adolescence has been reported to increase EtOH intake in adulthood. We performed a longitudinal animal study and hypothesized adolescent rats allowed to self-administer nicotine would drink more alcohol as adults. Methods: Adolescent, postnatal day (P)32, and adult (P90) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer EtOH, Nic, or a combination of both, EtOH+Nic, in an intravenous self-administration paradigm. The role of KOR was pharmacologically evaluated with the KOR antagonist, norbinaltorphamine (norBNI) and with the KOR agonist, U50,488H. Alcohol drinking was subsequently evaluated with male rats in a drinking in the dark (DID), 2-bottle choice test. Results: Concurrent Nic increased EtOH intake in adolescent males, but not in adults or females. Pharmacological blockade of KOR with norBNI robustly increased EtOH+Nic self-administration in adult male rats, but had no effect with female rats. Lastly, in our longitudinal study with male rats, we found prior self-administration of Nic or EtOH+Nic during adolescence increased subsequent oral EtOH intake, whereas prior self-administration of EtOH alone in adults increased subsequent EtOH drinking. Conclusions: There are major age- and sex-differences in the reinforcing effects of EtOH+Nic. Adolescent males are sensitive to the reinforcing interactions of the two drugs, whereas this effect is inhibited by KOR activation in male adults. Nicotine

  15. "The Discipline Stop": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Urban School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Calls for the recruitment and retention of more Black male teachers have unfolded amid popular depictions of Black men as patriarchal disciplinarians. Against that backdrop, this article investigates how 11 Black male teachers were positioned as disciplinary agents in a predominantly Black urban school district on the east coast of the United…

  16. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  17. All "Degreed" Up and Nowhere To Go: Black Males and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need to reconceptualize literacies in the lives of black males. Suggests there is a need to create environments where black males are encouraged to search for meaning in their lives and construct their visibility. Contends that teacher educators must reconstruct their representation of black males so that they are accurate and…

  18. Minority Initiatives and the Engagement Experiences of Black Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Charika L.

    2016-01-01

    Black males complete college at a lower rate than do all ethnic minority groups in the United States. Many universities have developed programs to improve educational outcomes for Black males, yet graduation rates remain low. The purpose of this study was to explore the engagement experiences of Black male college graduates who participated in the…

  19. A Qualitative Study/A Narrative Analysis of a Black Male Looking to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The nation decries the scantiness of Black male teachers in classrooms. The paucity of Black males in the classroom is not a recent phenomenon (Daniels, 2010; Bell, 2011, 2010a, 2010b). The absence of Black male teachers from classrooms can also be attributed to many factors; however, the prevailing ones appear to be other career…

  20. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  1. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  2. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  3. Always, never, or sometimes: examining variation in condom-use decision making among Black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H; Dozier, Ann

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers' decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children's fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The "baby daddy" was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children's biological fathers.

  4. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment.

  5. Gonadectomy increases neurogenesis in the male adolescent rhesus macaque hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Allen, K M; Fung, S J; Rothmond, D A; Noble, P L; Weickert, C Shannon

    2014-02-01

    New neurons are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of the adult hippocampus and can modulate hippocampal plasticity across life. Adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes in sex hormone levels, and social and emotional behaviors. It is also an age for increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, which may involve altered hippocampal neurogenesis. The extent to which testosterone and other testicular hormones modulate hippocampal neurogenesis and adolescent behavioral development is unclear. This study aimed to determine if removal of testicular hormones during adolescence alters neurogenesis in the male rhesus macaque hippocampus. We used stereology to examine levels of cell proliferation, cell survival and neuronal differentiation in late adolescent male rhesus macaques (4.6-yrs old) that had previously been gonadectomized or sham operated prior to puberty (2.4-yrs old). While the absence of adolescent testicular hormones had no effect on cell proliferation, cell survival was increased by 65% and indices of immature neuronal differentiation were increased by 56% in gonadectomized monkeys compared to intact monkeys. We show for the first time that presence of circulating testicular hormones, including testosterone, may decrease neuronal survival in the primate hippocampus during adolescence. Our findings are in contrast to existing studies in adults where testosterone tends to be a pro-survival factor and demonstrate that testicular hormones may reduce hippocampal neurogenesis during the age typical of schizophrenia onset.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  7. Turn the Wheel: Integral School Counseling for Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David

    2003-01-01

    This article formulates an overarching, inclusive model of integral counseling that enables school counselors to help male adolescents challenge the norm of conventional masculinity. The model draws from 3 areas: transpersonal counseling, holistic education, and mindful social action. The aim is to move the students' level of self-development and…

  8. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  9. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  10. The Effects of Family Disruption on Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Elisa J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)

  11. The Reading Life Histories of Three Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Billye J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…

  12. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  13. Inbreeding depression and male fitness in black grouse.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Jacob; Piertney, Stuart B; Alatalo, Rauno V; Lindell, Johan; Lundberg, Arne; Rintamäki, Pekka T

    2002-04-07

    The male lifetime lekking performance was studied, and related to inbreeding-outbreeding in a wild population of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in central Finland between 1989 and 1995. Inbreeding was measured as the mean heterozygosity and mean d(2) of 15 microsatellite loci. We found a significantly positive relationship between mean d(2) and lifetime copulation success (LCS), while the relationship between heterozygosity and LCS was close to significant. We also found that males that never obtained a lek territory had significantly lower mean heterozygosity than males that were observed on a territory at least during one mating season in their life. Furthermore, among males that were successful in obtaining a lek territory, LCS and mean d(2) were highest for those males that held central territories. We suggest that inbred males have a disadvantage (or outbred males have an advantage) in the competition for territories that may explain the relationships with LCS and inbreeding. Furthermore, the fact that mean d(2) was positively correlated with LCS whereas heterozygosity was not when we restricted the analysis to territorial males, suggests that mean d(2) provides more information about levels of inbreeding-outbreeding than heterozygosity alone, and potentially highlights the effects of heterosis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that measures of inbreeding and lifetime fitness have been linked in a non-isolated population. This is important in establishing that the relationships found in previous studies are not artefacts of low gene flow created by limited dispersal but a general feature of wild vertebrate populations.

  14. Inbreeding depression and male fitness in black grouse.

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, Jacob; Piertney, Stuart B; Alatalo, Rauno V; Lindell, Johan; Lundberg, Arne; Rintamäki, Pekka T

    2002-01-01

    The male lifetime lekking performance was studied, and related to inbreeding-outbreeding in a wild population of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in central Finland between 1989 and 1995. Inbreeding was measured as the mean heterozygosity and mean d(2) of 15 microsatellite loci. We found a significantly positive relationship between mean d(2) and lifetime copulation success (LCS), while the relationship between heterozygosity and LCS was close to significant. We also found that males that never obtained a lek territory had significantly lower mean heterozygosity than males that were observed on a territory at least during one mating season in their life. Furthermore, among males that were successful in obtaining a lek territory, LCS and mean d(2) were highest for those males that held central territories. We suggest that inbred males have a disadvantage (or outbred males have an advantage) in the competition for territories that may explain the relationships with LCS and inbreeding. Furthermore, the fact that mean d(2) was positively correlated with LCS whereas heterozygosity was not when we restricted the analysis to territorial males, suggests that mean d(2) provides more information about levels of inbreeding-outbreeding than heterozygosity alone, and potentially highlights the effects of heterosis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that measures of inbreeding and lifetime fitness have been linked in a non-isolated population. This is important in establishing that the relationships found in previous studies are not artefacts of low gene flow created by limited dispersal but a general feature of wild vertebrate populations. PMID:11934362

  15. Mentoring urban Black Middle-School Male Students: Implications for Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, African American middle school students’ academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent. The Benjamin E. Mays Institute (BEMI) builds on the ideals of mentoring to counter the effects academic underachievement among adolescent Black males by building a model that is Afro-centric, uses pro-social modeling, and emphasizes cultural strengths and pride, and single-sex instruction in a dual-sex educational environment. Sixty-one middle-school Black males were enrolled (BEMI: n=29; Comparison: n=32) in this study. Results revealed that students in the BEMI program had significantly greater academic attachment scores and academic success than their non-mentored peers. Additionally, racial identity attitudes of immersion/emersion and internalization and identification with academics were also significantly associated with standardized achievement tests and GPA. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:20379371

  16. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  17. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  18. Touchdowns and Honor Societies: Expanding the Focus of Black Male Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerome E.; Adeyemo, Adeoye O.

    2012-01-01

    The athletic/academic paradox for black males is historically rooted in rank-and-file notions of black people primarily as workers rather than thinkers. Policymakers, educators, and administrators should think more deeply about how societal perceptions of black males as "natural" athletes, rather than intelligent students adversely influences how…

  19. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    This study, based on cultural stereotypes, seeks to determine the demographic characteristics which differentiate among young people and correlate with their levels of alienation. A preliminary version of an experimental scale, designed to determine the existence and extent of alienation manifested by in-school adolescents, was developed in a…

  20. Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the link between psychological distress and altered cortisol level has been already shown; very limited information exists about this association among Black youth. Objectives: We tested sex differences in predictive role of symptoms of anxiety during adolescence on annual decline in morning salivary cortisol levels in early adulthood among Black youth. Patients and Methods: Data came from wave 1 (year 1994), wave 6 (year 2000), and wave 7 (year 2001) of the Flint adolescent study. In this study 176 Black youth (85 males and 91 females) were followed for 7 years from mean age of 15 at baseline to 22 at the end of follow up. Linear regression was used for data analysis with change in salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 as the dependent variable, symptoms of anxiety, at 1994 as independent variable, age, number of employed parents, depressive symptoms and alcohol use at 1994 as controls, and sex as the moderator. Results: Higher level of anxiety symptoms at 1994 was predictive of a higher decline in morning salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 for all youths, while the effects of baseline socio-economics, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use were controlled. Among female participants, anxiety symptoms at 1994 were predictive of a greater decline in morning salivary cortisol level from 2000 to 2001. The association was not found among males. Conclusions: Our findings suggest sex differences in the predictive role of anxiety symptoms during adolescence on the annual decline in cortisol level during early adulthood. While most research on this topic is among White middle class individuals, our findings shed more light on the longitudinal links between psychological distress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function among Black youth. PMID:26633980

  1. Sexual Partner Type Taxonomy Use Among Black Adolescent Mothers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on sexual-partner type focuses mostly on “main” and “casual” partner categories. The literature indicates that adolescent girls are less likely to use condoms with main partners, and more likely to use condoms with casual partners. Adolescent mothers may have different types of sexual partners than other adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the range of male sexual partner types reported by Black adolescent mothers. Design and Sample This study was a qualitative description of the perspectives of Black, predominantly African-American, mothers (n=31). Data were generated using focus groups and interviews. The participants' ages ranged from 15–19 years. Measures A semi-structured qualitative questioning guide was used to stimulate focused discussions. Transcribed data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The range of sexual partner types of the women were reflected in three themes (1) All main partners are not created equal; (2) They're not casual partners because there are strings attached; (3) “Wham, bam, thank you ma'am:” No strings attached. Nine partner types were identified under these three themes, including a “baby daddy” partner. Conclusion The partner-types of Black adolescent mothers are more robust than the “main” and “casual” partner categories typically referenced in the research literature. The range of sex partners includes the birth fathers of their children. Clinicians and researchers must consider how co-parenthood status is used in the construction of the “baby daddy” partner and what implications this unique sexual partner type may have on risk reduction behaviors such as condom use. PMID:25382990

  2. Opportunity and Equity: Enrollment and Outcomes of Black and Latino Males in Boston Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Helena P.; Mokhtar, Christina; Tung, Rosann; Ward, Ray; French, Dan; McAlister, Sara; Marshall, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This research study aims to better understand the diversity of experiences and backgrounds among Black and Latino male students in Boston Public Schools (BPS) by examining enrollment and outcomes of Black and Latino males relative to their female peers and their male peers from other racial backgrounds. Specifically, the authors designed this…

  3. Reciprocal Love: Mentoring Black and Latino Males through an Ethos of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Iesha; Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda; Watson, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Although mentoring programs can produce positive outcomes for youth, more research is needed that offers an account of how Black and Latino male mentors and mentees experience mentoring. This phenomenological study highlights the voices of a mentor and 14 Black and Latino males who are part of the Umoja Network for Young Men (UMOJA) an all-male,…

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623

  5. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them.

  6. Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link.

  7. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  8. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  9. On the decrease in the life expentancy of black males in Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Gorwitz, K; Dennis, R

    1976-01-01

    The 1970 census reported that there were slightly more than 1 million nonwhites among Michigan's 8,875,000 residents. Ninety-five percent of these nonwhites are black, and 75 percent live within the city limits of Detroit, compared with 10 percent of the State's white residents. Between 1959-61 and 1969-71, life expectancy at birth increased about 1 year for black and white females, essentially remained unchanged for white males, and decreased more than 3 years for black males. In 1969-71, life expectancy was 61 years for black males, 68 years for white males, 69 years for black females, and 75 years for white females. Much of this growing disparity noted resulted from a dramatic rise in deaths of black males in the 15-44 year age group. Two-thirds of this increase was caused by a major rise in mortality from two causes--accidents and homicides. While death rates for black males decreased for a number of other leading causes, these generally remained higher than similar figures for each of the other three race-sex groups. Given current rates, one of eight black males in Michigan ultimately will die from an accident or from homicide. This probability is 1 of 17 for white males, 1 of 30 for white females, and 1 of 26 for nonwhite females. Homicides reduced the life expectancy of black males by 2.3 years, compared with 0.2 year for white males, less than 0.005 year for white females, and 0.5 year for black females. More than three-quarters of all homicides of black males in Michigan in 1973 were caused by handguns. PMID:822463

  10. Ectopic hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent male rats following alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Morris, Stephanie A; Marshall, S Alexander; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The adolescent hippocampus is highly vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage, which could contribute to their increased susceptibility to alcohol use disorder. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents one potential mechanism by which alcohol (ethanol) affects hippocampal function. Based on the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to alcohol-induced damage, and prior reports of long-term alcohol-induced effects on adult neurogenesis, we predicted adverse effects on adult neurogenesis in the adolescent brain following abstinence from alcohol dependence. Thus, we examined neurogenesis in adolescent male rats during abstinence following a 4-day binge model of alcohol dependence. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed a 2.2-fold increase in subgranular zone cell proliferation after 7 days of abstinence. Increased proliferation was followed by a 75% increase in doublecortin expression and a 56% increase in surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells 14 and 35 days post-ethanol exposure, respectively. The majority of newborn cells in ethanol and control groups co-localized with NeuN, indicating a neuronal phenotype and therefore a 1.6-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence. Although these results mirror the magnitude of reactive neurogenesis described in adult rat studies, ectopic bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin positive cells were detected in the molecular layer and hilus of adolescent rats displaying severe withdrawal symptoms, an effect that has not been described in adults. The presence of ectopic neuroblasts suggests that a potential defect exists in the functional incorporation of new neurons into the existing hippocampal circuitry for a subset of rats. Age-related differences in functional incorporation could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to ethanol.

  11. Young Black Males: Resilience and the Use of Capital to Transform School "Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cecile; Maylor, Uvanney; Becker, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the idea of "failure" of young black males with respect to schooling. Perceptions of black masculinity are often linked to "underperformance" in the context of school academic achievement. This article addresses how young black men, by great personal effort, recover from school "failure". It…

  12. Boyz in the 'Burbs: Parental Negotiation of Race and Class in Raising Black Males in Suburbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the outlooks of black parents raising sons in a suburban school setting in a town that I call Rolling Acres. Dominant narratives about black males center on urban environments where hazards of violence, failing schools, and socially disorganized neighborhoods are prevalent. However, black parents in suburban settings are not…

  13. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous.

  14. We Were There Too: Learning from Black Male Teachers in Mississippi about Successful Teaching of Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cleveland; Juarez, Brenda; Escoffrey-Runnels, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Applying culturally relevant and social justice-oriented notions of teaching and learning and a critical race theory (CRT) analysis of teacher preparation in the United States, this study examines the oral life histories of two Black male teachers recognized for their successful teaching of Black students. These histories provide us with a venue…

  15. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  16. An Anti-Deficit Perspective on Black Male Student Athletes' Educational Experiences at a Historically Black College/University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key institutional characteristics and practices at a historically black college/university (HBCU) that contributed to positive educational experiences for black male student athletes. This mixed methods exploratory study involved the use of a 79-item Student Athlete College Experiences Questionnaire…

  17. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  18. An Analysis of Two Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report for a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed adolescent fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and 27 in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  19. Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Francis; Miller, Aletha R.; Foster, Kenneth; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether a relationship exists between anger among Black adolescents that has been provoked by racial discrimination, and alcohol consumption. Participants consisted of 134 Black adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age, residing in northeast Texas. All participants were administered a questionnaire measuring whether and the…

  20. Examining the Pathologic Adaptation Model of Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color

    PubMed Central

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968

  1. New Directions for Gifted Black Males Suffering from Bystander Effects: A Call for Upstanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2011-01-01

    An educational crisis in Black male representation in gifted programs exists, requiring a new lens through which to view problems and find solutions. Though many people observe that Black males face extraordinary barriers to successful participation in gifted programs, many stand by, watching as they are overlooked for or drop out of gifted…

  2. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  3. Research Concerns, Cautions and Considerations on Black Males in a "Post-Racial" Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Flennaugh, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Black males continue to be one of the most academically marginalized groups of students in US schools, and undoubtedly the role of race and racism has largely influenced these experiences. The paradox of the underperformance of Black males has been the election of President Obama in 2008. The Obama election has led some to question whether or not…

  4. The Influence of Faculty and Staff Messaging on Black Male Community College and Transfer Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Kara Lyn

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory research in this dissertation examined the need for faculty and staff to take additional measures to support and encourage Black males utilizing their services and learning in their classrooms. The focus is on messaging that can come from these campus leaders, and how it can influence Black male community college and transfer…

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors That Influence Black Males to Attend Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, narrative study was to explore the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivated Black males to attend institutions of higher education. The Self-determination theory and the Integrated Model for Educational Choice formed the theoretical framework for this study. Eight Black males who were between the ages of 18…

  6. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  7. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  8. The Same... But Different: Examining Background Characteristics among Black Males in Public Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined background characteristics among Black males in public two-year and four-year institutions. This study sought to uncover whether significant differences existed among this sub-group by institutional type. Data were derived from 533 Black male students participating in the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study. The…

  9. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  10. Masculinity Identity Development and Its Relevance to Supporting Talented Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a brief introduction to Black male masculine identity development and relate it to the field of gifted education. It will begin with information related to identity development that is applicable to Black males. Next, the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST) will be explored and…

  11. Transitioning from Elementary School to Middle School: The Ecology of Black Males' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Alma Christienne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study is to explain the ecology Black males experience as they transition from elementary school to middle school in terms of behavior. The Black male graduation rate is well below 50% nationally (Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004; Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Graduating from high school…

  12. Countering the Narrative: A Layered Perspective on Supporting Black Males in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.; Smith, Aaron; Harris, Daniel; Wilson, Tanneshala; Lancaster, Demetrius

    2015-01-01

    The challenges facing Black males throughout the educational pipeline have been discussed by researchers in detail. However, missing from this research are discussions from the perspective of researchers, educators, and community members united on how to better support Black males. The purpose of this reflective piece is twofold. First, we address…

  13. Still Flies in Buttermilk: Black Male Faculty, Critical Race Theory, and Composite Counterstorytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…

  14. The Role of Neighborhood in Urban Black Adolescent Marijuana Use*

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Green, Kerry M.; Milam, Adam J.; Furr-Holden, Debra M.; Johnson, Renee M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined the influence of neighborhood factors on transitions in marijuana involvement during adolescence in a sample of primarily low-income, urban Black youth. Methods 556 Black adolescents were interviewed annually beginning in first grade as part of a longitudinal study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine stages of marijuana involvement from 6th to 9th grades. The influence of neighborhood disorder, drug activity, violent crime, safety and disadvantage on transitions in marijuana involvement was tested using latent transition analysis (LTA). Results There was evidence for three stages of involvement: no involvement, offered, and use and problems. Involvement increased steadily during adolescence with a slightly greater risk to transition from offers to use between 6th and 7th grades. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.04, CI=1.00, 1.08), drug activity (AOR=1.12, CI=1.02, 1.22) and disadvantage (AOR=1.44, CI=1.10, 1.92) were associated with the transition from marijuana offers to use and problems. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.07, CI=1.02, 1.11), drug activity (AOR=1.19, CI=1.10, 1.29) and violent crime (AOR=1.17, CI=1.03, 1.32) were associated with transitioning rapidly from no involvement to use and problems. Conclusions Understanding how neighborhoods could be organized and provided with supports to discourage marijuana use and promote non-drug using behaviors should be an important goal of any prevention program in low-income, urban Black neighborhoods. Enhancing citizen participation and mobilization to address the social processes of neighborhood disorder has the potential to reduce marijuana involvement in these neighborhoods. PMID:26162651

  15. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement.

  16. Power output in the jump squat in adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Dayne, Andrea M; McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared; Burr, Alan

    2011-03-01

    The load that maximizes power output in the jump squat (JS) in college-aged athletic males has been reported to be 0% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat strength) or in other words body mass. No data exist concerning adolescent athletic males. In addition, strength levels have been theorized to possibly affect the load that maximizes power output in the JS. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the load that maximizes power output in the JS in adolescent athletic men, and concurrently describe their strength level and its effect on the load that maximizes power output. Eleven high-school male athletes were tested on 2 occasions, first determining their 1RM in the squat (1RM = 141.14 ± 28.08 kg; squat 1RM-to-body mass ratio = 1.76 ± 0.15) and then performing JS testing at loads equal to 0% (body mass), 20, 40, 60, and 80% of squat 1RM. Peak power (PP), peak force, peak velocity (PV), and peak displacement were measured at each load. Jump squat at the 0% load produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher PP, PV, and peak displacement in comparison with the 40, 60, and 80% loading conditions. It was concluded that the load that maximizes power output in the JS is 0% of 1RM in adolescent athletic men, the same as found in college-aged athletic men. In addition, strength level relative to body mass did not affect the load that maximized power output. Practically, when devising a training program to increase PP, it is important to include JSs at body mass along with traditional strength training at heavier loads to increase power output across the entire loading spectrum.

  17. The (End)Angered Black Male Swimming against the Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the sociohistorical and deeply embedded myths and stereotypes that have dominated narratives about Black men and how these shape the educational and professional experiences of Black men.

  18. Some Social and Psychological Factors Associated with Black Unmarried Adolescent Fatherhood: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    Preliminary findings are presented to address the issue of the extent to which measures of external locus of control, contraception use, educational achievement, and religiosity discriminate between black unmarried adolescent fathers and nonfathers. Forty-eight unmarried adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried adolescent nonfathers were identified by…

  19. The ontogeny of exploratory behavior in male and female adolescent rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Lynn, Debra A; Brown, Gillian R

    2009-09-01

    During adolescence, rats gain independence from their mothers and disperse from the natal burrow, with males typically dispersing further than females. We predicted that, if dispersal patterns are associated with responsiveness to novelty, exploratory behavior in novel environments would increase across adolescence, and males would explore more than females. Alternatively, females might explore more than males, if females are more motivated than males to learn about the immediate environment or if females have poorer spatial abilities than males. Twenty-five male and 21 female rats were exposed to two novel environments (open field and elevated plus-maze) during early, mid-, or late adolescence. Total locomotion and amount of exploration directed towards aversive areas increased across adolescence, even when body weight was included as a covariate. Female adolescents locomoted more and spent more time exploring aversive areas than males. Developmental changes in neural function potentially underlie age and sex differences in exploratory behavior.

  20. Dissatisfaction and acne vulgaris in male adolescents and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Isaacsson, Viviane Christina Siena; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has high prevalence, disturbing quality of life during adolescence. OBJECTIVES To measure dissastifaction and acne in 18-year-old male individuals and its associated factors. METHODS A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers to all boys during selection for the military service. Dissatisfaction and acne was evaluated using a self-administered face scale. Facial, prestrernal and dorsal acne were evaluated separately. RESULTS A total of 2,200 adolescents, aged 18 years, were interviewed. Among these, 1,678 had acne on the face and 974 (54.05%) showed some degree of dissatisfaction. Regarding the impact of acne located on the chest, 326 out of 686 adolescents (47.52%) reported dissatisfaction. For acne located on the back, 568 out of 1,103 affected individuals (51.50%) showed dissatisfaction. Facial / dorsal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically associated with lower income, lower education levels and with non-whites. Presternal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically asssociated with lower income and lower education levels. CONCLUSION This population-based study found a high prevalence of acne on the face, back and chest, with high rates of dissatisfaction. PMID:25054743

  1. From "brute" to "thug:" the demonization and criminalization of unarmed Black male victims in America.

    PubMed

    Smiley, CalvinJohn; Fakunle, David

    The synonymy of Blackness with criminality is not a new phenomenon in America. Documented historical accounts have shown how myths, stereotypes, and racist ideologies led to discriminatory policies and court rulings that fueled racial violence in a post-Reconstruction era and has culminated in the exponential increase of Black male incarceration today. Misconceptions and prejudices manufactured and disseminated through various channels such as the media included references to a "brute" image of Black males. In the 21(st) century, this negative imagery of Black males has frequently utilized the negative connotation of the terminology "thug." In recent years, law enforcement agencies have unreasonably used deadly force on Black males allegedly considered to be "suspects" or "persons of interest." The exploitation of these often-targeted victims' criminal records, physical appearances, or misperceived attributes has been used to justify their unlawful deaths. Despite the connection between disproportionate criminality and Black masculinity, little research has been done on how unarmed Black male victims, particularly but not exclusively at the hands of law enforcement, have been posthumously criminalized. This paper investigates the historical criminalization of Black males and its connection to contemporary unarmed victims of law enforcement. Action research methodology in the data collection process is utilized to interpret how Black male victims are portrayed by traditional mass media, particularly through the use of language, in ways that marginalize and de-victimize these individuals. This study also aims to elucidate a contemporary understanding of race relations, racism, and the plight of the Black male in a 21-century "post-racial" America.

  2. Correlates of male cohabiting partner's involvement in child-rearing tasks in low-income urban Black stepfamilies.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-06-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in child rearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of child rearing assessed (daily child-related tasks and setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in child-rearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP's involvement in both domains of child rearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in child rearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks.

  3. Correlates of Male Cohabiting Partner’s Involvement in Childrearing Tasks in Low-Income Urban Black Stepfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in childrearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of childrearing assessed (Daily Child-Related Tasks and Setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in childrearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP’s involvement in both domains of childrearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in childrearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks. PMID:24749653

  4. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  5. Socioeconomic and Racial-ethnic Disparities in Prosocial Health Attitudes: The Case of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination for Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Polonijo, Andrea N; Carpiano, Richard M; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-09-01

    Research on prosocial attitudes, social networks, social capital, and social stratification suggest that lower-socioeconomic status (SES), Hispanic, and nonwhite individuals will be more likely than their higher-SES and non-Hispanic white counterparts to engage in health behaviors that serve a social good. Analyzing data from the University of North Carolina Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunization in Sons Study, we test whether SES and race-ethnicity are associated with willingness to vaccinate via prosocial attitudes toward HPV vaccination among adolescent males (n = 401) and parents (n = 518). Analyses revealed that (a) parents with lower education and (b) black and Hispanic parents and adolescent males reported higher prosocial vaccination attitudes, but only some attitudes were associated with higher willingness to vaccinate. We discuss these findings in terms of how prosocial attitudes may motivate certain health behaviors and serve as countervailing mechanisms in the (re)production of health disparities and promising targets of future public health interventions.

  6. Moral Judgment among Black Adolescents and White Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Edward D.; Hambright, Jerold E.

    1984-01-01

    Major findings were (1) White subjects and males in this investigation were reared in an ideologically nondirectional situation, making them relativistic in their moral judgments; (2) Black subjects and females followed a directional process resulting in a moral realistic orientation; and (3) socioeconomic factors did not bear strongly on the type…

  7. "You Ain't My Daddy!": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Surrogate Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship on male teachers across several national contexts has investigated the dilemmas of hegemonic masculinity for male educators while only recently beginning to examine race as a mediator of masculinity politics in teaching. Conversely, an emergent body of work on Black male teachers has centred analyses of race and culture, but has…

  8. The Effect of a Dropout Prevention Program for Black High School Males in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Renee T.

    2012-01-01

    There is a new endangered species in this country--the black male. The education of the black male in the United States has recently garnered much-needed national attention. Two national reports in 2010 have heightened the awareness of the fact that the black male student is not successfully navigating our public school systems, often dropping…

  9. Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair; Lindhorst, Taryn P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from male participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are used to examine childhood predictors of late adolescent and early adulthood sexually coercive behavior and adolescent mediators of these relationships. A path analysis shows that experiencing sexual abuse as a child has a direct effect on perpetrating…

  10. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Gregoire

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  11. Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)

  12. Suicidal Behavior and Gay-Related Stress among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to attempted suicide rates of 9-12% among adolescents in community-based studies, attempted suicide was reported by 39% of 138 self-identified gay and bisexual adolescent males presenting in a social service agency for lesbian and gay adolescents. Findings suggest that gay youths are at increased risk for attempting suicide. (TJQ)

  13. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  14. "The Dog Theory": Black Male/Female Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Examines Black women's use of the negative epithet of the dog in describing men who fail to fulfill their prescribed ideal role of breadwinner, companion, husband, and father. Suggests that use of the dog stereotype impedes effective communication between Black men and women. (Author/MJL)

  15. Factors limiting anaerobic performance in adolescent males with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Boas, S R; Joswiak, M L; Nixon, P A; Fulton, J A; Orenstein, D M

    1996-03-01

    Forty-one adolescent males (11.1-18.3 yr) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 37 healthy adolescent males (11.1-17.9 yr) performed a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). The group with CF was subdivided by sexual maturity, nutritional status, and degree of airway obstruction. The subjects with CF had lower absolute power outputs than the healthy controls [mean power in Watts (mean +/- SD): 350.2 +/- 135.9 vs 424.5 +/- 120.4, P < 0.001; peak power: 525.2 +/- 178.4 vs 665.9 +/- 191.3, P < 0.001). When absolute power was corrected for lean body mass, the subjects with CF had lower power outputs than the healthy controls (mean power in W.kg-1: 8.9 +/- 1.7 vs 9.6 +/- 0.9, P < 0.05; peak power: 13.4 +/- 2.1 vs 15.0 +/- 1.6, P < 0.05). The subgroup with CF with a higher body mass index (BMI > 17.5 kg.m-2) had higher peak and mean power output than subjects with CF with a lower BMI in both absolute power and when power was expressed per lean body mass. When sexual maturation was considered, subjects with CF with salivary testosterone greater than 4.0 ng.dl-1 had a higher mean and peak power in both absolute terms and relative to lean body mass than subjects with CF with salivary testosterone less than 4.0 ng.dl-1. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the nutritional factor accounted for 70%-80% of the variability in power output in the subjects with CF, while testosterone accounted for 10% of the variability. Pulmonary function was not a significant independent correlate of anaerobic power. Our results suggest that nutritional status, and to a lesser extent maturational factors, may play a more important role than pulmonary function in determining anaerobic fitness in male adolescents with CF.

  16. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury.

  17. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes.

  18. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  19. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  20. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards asking them what they are doing when hanging out (e.g., in the park or playground or on the street corner). Results showed that such stressors made a unique and significant contribution to the experience of somatic symptoms. Future research directions and implications for addressing the larger societal perceptions of young Black males are discussed. PMID:27134517

  1. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  2. Academic and Career Advancement for Black Male Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ashley R.; Hawkins, Billy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the structural arrangements and challenges many Black male athletes encounter as a result of their use of sport for upward social mobility. Recommendations to enhance their preparation and advancement are provided.

  3. A case of acute psychosis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Babar, Ghufran; Alemzadeh, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disorder of calcium homeostasis. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent male, who presented with an acute psychosis coinciding with severe hypercalcemia and markedly elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level and low vitamin D level. A Sestamibi scan showed a positive signal inferior to the left lobe of the thyroid gland. He had only a partial response to the initial medical and psychiatric management. The enlarged parathyroid gland was resected surgically and postoperatively serum calcium and iPTH levels normalized. The histopathology was compatible with a benign adenoma. Patient's acute psychotic symptoms resolved gradually after surgery; however he remained under psychiatric care for the behavioral issues for about 6 months after surgery. While psychosis is a rare clinical manifestation of hypercalcemia secondary to PHPT in pediatric population, it should be considered as a clinical clue in an otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patient.

  4. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.

  5. Factors and Characteristics Influencing the College Enrollment, Retention, and Graduation of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilborn, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, Black male students have been enrolling in college in growing numbers. They have also been dropping out of college, prior to graduation, in high numbers. These trends have generated concern among educators and policymakers about the economic future of the Black community. Despite these concerns, most of the research on this…

  6. Meditating Gunrunner Speaking, Part I: A Black Male Journey Teaching in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer my own decolonizing counterstory of teaching as a Black American man in a teacher education program in South Korea, to purport how I was both a colonizer and the colonized, inside and outside of the classroom and the curriculum (Asher, 2010; Baszile, 2008, 2009, 2010). To further complicate matters, my Black male body did…

  7. Emasculation Blues: Black Male Teachers' Perspectives on Gender and Power in the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past decade, a growing chorus of educational stakeholders has called for the recruitment of more Black men into the American teaching profession, casting these men as ideal surrogate father figures for Black youth who may lack adult male role models in their families or communities. Although a small body of scholarly…

  8. The Impact of an Institutional Black Male Leadership Initiative on Engagement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Marco J.; Avery, Jared C.

    2012-01-01

    While there has been growing research that explores the impact of race- and cultural-specific student organizations or spaces on Black students and particularly Black males (Dancy, 2011; Harper & Quaye, 2007; McClure, 2006; Museus, 2008; L. Patton, 2006), there have been fewer studies (Ellis, 2009) examining emerging, institutionalized Black…

  9. Predicting Educational Risks among Court-Involved Black Males: Family, Peers, and Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Russell, Christiana M.; Khurana, Atika

    2009-01-01

    Disproportionately large numbers of Black youth experience repeated encounters with the juvenile justice system, and often these same youth present with a variety of school-related difficulties. Data from a sample of 842 Black males, assessed in five Ohio juvenile courts using the Global Risk Assessment Device (GRAD), are used to describe the…

  10. New Possibilities: (Re)Engaging Black Male Youth within Community-Based Educational Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Bianca J.; Hill, Marc Lamont; Davis, James Earl

    2011-01-01

    Despite the assertion that due to an Obama presidency America has become a post-racial society, Black males still face a unique social crisis. In this article, we hold that both race and gender continue to work in tandem to produce a certain set of social outcomes for young Black men in America despite this assertion. The educational, economic,…

  11. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly

  12. Adolescent males' abortion attitudes: data from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Marsiglio, W; Shehan, C L

    1993-01-01

    Roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,880 15-19-year-old males approve of abortion in each of eight circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapprove in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable range as high as 85-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, is related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes is the importance of religion to the respondent. Abortion attitudes vary little by race after other social background factors are controlled. Those with more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and those who perceive that they would be upset if they became a father in the immediate future are particularly likely to express acceptance of abortion. Roughly 61% of adolescent males do not feel that it would be all right for a woman to have an abortion if her partner objects, indicating a possible "gender conflict of interest" over the abortion issue.

  13. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  14. Perceptions of Parental Support and Depressive Symptomatology among Black and White Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonucci, Toni C.; Jackson, James S.; Wolford, Monica L.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    1997-01-01

    Parental support and conflictive relationships in 48 black and white adolescent mothers (ages 14-19) were examined when their babies were 3 months old. Self-esteem and supportive relationships with fathers were negatively associated with depressive symptomatology among adolescent mothers. Differences in parental relationships and racial…

  15. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  16. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  17. The Two Worlds of School: Differences in the Photographs of Black and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Sandra Bowman

    This paper presents a study conducted to document adolescents' visual perceptions of school. Specifically, an attempt was made to determine whether black and white adolescents, when given cameras, an entire school day, and complete freedom from class assignments, would select different physical and social aspects of their school environment to…

  18. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…

  19. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  20. Toward a New Narrative on Black Males, Education, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.; Donnor, Jamel K.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Black male crisis thesis promulgated by the social science literature, public policy, and mainstream discourse, respectively. The authors contend that the stock-story that the majority of African American males are "at-risk" for engaging in self-destructive behavior or on the verge of extinction perpetuates a discourse of…

  1. Lifting Up Our Kings: Developing Black Males in a Positive and Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatmon, Chris; Gray, Richard

    2015-01-01

    African American males are three times more likely than their White male counterparts to be suspended or expelled in public schools. Changing these odds requires not only addressing disparities in discipline practices, but also lifting up a new narrative of hope, possibility, and brilliance so that young Black men can see and realize their…

  2. Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Early Attainment of Black Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Edgar G.; Jackson, Kenneth W.

    The effects of school factors on occupational attainment of black students were studied based on data from the 1972 National Longitudinal Study (NLS) and its 1980 followup and the 1980 High School and Beyond (HSB) study and its 1982 followup. The sample sizes were as follows: 319 NLS females, 167 NLS males, 324 HSB females, and 259 HSB males.…

  3. Combating “I Hate This Stupid Book!”: Black Males and Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Summer; Jocius, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Too often, instruction designed to improve literacy achievement for black male readers and writers focuses on skill-based learning, ignoring cultural, social, and personal development. This article calls for the use of critical literacy strategies with African American male students, which can raise expectations for academic achievement by…

  4. Substance Use Attitudes among Urban Black Adolescents: The Role of Parent, Peer, and Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…

  5. Teaching Black Theatre and Adolescence: The Stifling Mother in Three Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Glenda

    To engage students' interest and help them appreciate black drama, teachers may have their classes discuss and dramatize three plays that deal with adolescence and the stifling mother: James Baldwin's "The Amen Corner," Louis Peterson's "Take a Giant Step," and J.E. Franklin's "Black Girl." This paper shows how the…

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Three Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report of a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 27 fathers in Chicago, Illinois, and 48 fathers and…

  7. Ghetto Fabulous: Reading Black Adolescent Femininity in Contemporary Urban Street Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth; Staples, Jeanine; Gibson, Simone

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors provide a general overview of the controversies associated with urban street fiction, a brief introduction to the genre and an introduction to the complex representations of Black adolescent femininity within two contemporary titles, "Black and Ugly" (Styles, 2006) and "Bitch" (King, 2006). The authors provide a…

  8. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  9. Social and hormonal mechanisms underlying male reproductive strategies in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Van Belle, S; Estrada, A; Ziegler, T E; Strier, K B

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the social and hormonal mechanisms underlying male reproductive strategies in two multimale-multifemale groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) during a 14-month study in Palenque National Park, Mexico. Fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) and androgen (fA) levels were analyzed for 343 fecal samples collected from 14 males during their presence in the study groups. Neither immigrating males nor resident males that remained in the group had elevated fGC and fA levels during 11 observed male migration events, suggesting that competition over group membership was not associated with variation in the fecal hormonal levels of males. Instead, fGC and fA levels were significantly higher in males who maintained a central position in the group and had almost exclusive access to fertile females than in other resident males. These "central" males were responsible for maintaining close spatial associations and cultivating strong affiliative relationships with cycling, sexually active females but not with noncycling, sexually inactive females. "Noncentral" males did not form strong social relationships with either cycling or noncycling females and had no or very few mating opportunities. Our findings suggest that male black howler monkeys compete nonaggressively by fostering relationships with cycling females and that the elevated fGC levels of central males may be indicative of the social challenges involved in their indirect competition.

  10. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  11. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  12. Black and blue: Exploring racial bias and law enforcement in the killings of unarmed black male civilians.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alison V; Hall, Erika V; Perry, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology. To isolate some of the key mechanisms at play, we disentangle racial bias (e.g., stereotyping processes) from common characteristics of law enforcement agents (e.g., social dominance orientation), while also addressing the interaction between racial bias and policing. By separating the moving parts of the phenomenon, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the factors that may have contributed to the killings. In doing so, we endeavor to more effectively identify and develop solutions to eradicate excessive use of force during interactions between "Black" (unarmed Black male civilians) and "Blue" (law enforcement).

  13. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  14. The Impact of an Intensive Learning Program (ILP) on Black Male Football Student-Athlete Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIll, Emmett L., Jr.; Farrington, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate degree is critical to a student-athlete's transition into life after sports; however, Black male student-athletes are not seizing the opportunities associated with college graduation. Black male student athletes' graduation rates are consistently and substantially lower than those of their White male student-athlete counterparts.…

  15. Predicting ambulatory blood pressure during school: effectiveness of social and nonsocial reactivity tasks in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ewart, C K; Kolodner, K B

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated a newly developed stress task, the Social Competence Interview, and three nonsocial tasks (video game, mirror drawing, mental arithmetic) for ability to predict ambulatory blood pressure in 237 black and white adolescents. Blood pressure was measured in laboratory, classroom, and transition (between-class) settings. A resting laboratory baseline explained 10-49% of the variance in ambulatory blood pressure levels; the ability of the stress tasks to explain additional variance was assessed in multiple regression analyses. Only the blood pressure response to the interview enhanced prediction of classroom and transition systolic and diastolic pressures in the total sample and in blacks, whites, females, and males--even when the interview data were entered into a hierarchical regression model after those for the other three tasks were entered. Mirror drawing improved prediction of transition systolic blood pressure in the total sample, and mental arithmetic plus the interview improved prediction of classroom diastolic pressure in black males; however, video game failed to enter any predictive equation. Racial subgroup analyses disclosed that the interview data predicted systolic pressure in whites but predicted diastolic pressure in blacks, indicating biological differences in blood pressure regulation. An interview that elicits characteristic thoughts and social behaviors appears to represent a promising approach to examining environmental influences on blood pressure.

  16. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  17. The effect of physical attractiveness of models on advertising effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  18. The Loss and Search for the Puer, A Consideration of Inferiority Feelings in Certain Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    A sense of inferiority in adolescent males can result from a split senex-puer archetype, a Jungian construct focused on the individual's identification with and/or repression of psychic age and youth. Adolescents experience healing of the split senex-puer archetype to the degrees to which they involve themselves in the eros and power of their life…

  19. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  20. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…

  2. Self-Regulated Learning and Executive Function: Exploring the Relationships in a Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…

  3. The sodium-22 influx in erythrocytes from black males and females

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Gambhir, K.K.; Parui, R. )

    1990-08-01

    In order to establish a standard for sodium influx in erythrocytes for the black population, {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was measured in 29 normotensive black volunteers. Nineteen males and 10 females during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle were studied. In the males, cell concentrations ranging from 0.64 to 2.0 X 10(9)/ml showed an influx of 0.42 to 1.34% of the total {sup 22}Na{sup +} added, and in the females, using the same erythrocyte concentrations, the {sup 22}Na{sup +} influx ranged from 0.37 to 1.1%; these differences were not significant. Intraassay variation of the {sup 22}Na{sup +} data was 4.8%. Interassay variations have been explained elsewhere. These data provided a range of observed values for {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in erythrocytes from a subpopulation of normotensive black males and females for comparison with hypertensive patients.

  4. Group size and composition influence male and female reproductive success in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro

    2008-06-01

    It has been argued that grouping patterns might influence the reproductive performance of individuals. Increasing group size results in greater travel costs and competition over depletable food resources, which could lead to reduced individual reproductive success. However, in groups with an increasing number of males, female reproductive success is predicted to augment because larger male groups might better protect immatures from infanticidal attacks. In contrast, male reproductive success is predicted to decrease with number of males in a group because fertilization cannot be shared between males. In this paper, we test these predictions on the Mesoamerican black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) with data on group size and composition for 120 groups from eight populations of black howler monkeys existing in eight protected forests in Mexico and Guatemala. Male and female reproductive success were calculated as a deviation of the observed number of infants (or immatures) from the expected number of infants (or immatures), relative to the number of males and females in a group. Results indicate that both male and female reproductive success decreased with group size. Male reproductive success decreased with an increasing number of males in a group and with increasing proportion of males relative to females in a group. Decreased female reproductive success was associated with increasing number of females in a group, and female reproductive success had a tendency to increase with increasing number of males in a group. These results suggest that in black howler monkeys, living in larger groups might negatively affect the reproductive success of each member. Our findings are similar to those reported for a population of a sister species, Alouatta palliata, living in larger groups.

  5. Some African American Males' Perspectives on the Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Rufus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents views of Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, and James Hal Cone (African-American male leaders) toward African-American women in the United States. Discusses the role of African-American men in addressing and eradicating sexism in African-American churches and the African-American community. (SLD)

  6. Black Male Masculinity and Same-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…

  7. Rap Music by Black Male Artists: A Psychotheological Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Provides a psychotheological interpretation of rap music by African-American male artists and of its audience, examining the music and its social context. Common themes include despair over acute psychosocial and physical needs, intensity and violence as a means of personal integration, ontological insecurity, and desire for transformation and…

  8. Black Males' Structural Conditions, Achievement Patterns, Normative Needs, and "Opportunities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dena Phillips; Cunningham, Michael; Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations between normative developmental transitions, contextual influences, and life-stage outcomes, such as academic achievement, for African American males. Data from a longitudinal study in a large southeastern U.S. city indicated that negative stereotyping and tracking from early experience in educational settings affected black…

  9. Social modulation of testosterone levels in male black howlers (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Dias, Pedro A D; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    The influence of social factors on the modulation of male testosterone levels has been demonstrated among several vertebrate species. In addition to sexual activity, parental care and reproductive competition affect testosterone secretion. We examined variations in testosterone levels among male black howlers (Alouatta pigra) in various social contexts. Fecal samples were collected from nine males living in five different groups in the Mexican state of Campeche. The potential for intragroup and extragroup competition varied among the groups. The number of resident males living in the groups was the only variable that significantly explained variations in testosterone levels. Males living in unimale groups had higher testosterone levels; the highest testosterone levels were recorded for males that had experienced a shift from multimale to unimale group compositions. In this species, the probability of being challenged by extragroup males and evicted from the group during immigration events increases when males live in unimale groups. Therefore, our results suggest that male black howlers respond to competition for group membership by increasing their testosterone levels. In this context, testosterone secretion represents an anticipatory response to reproductive conflicts. Therefore, although males living in unimale groups have exclusive access to females, they face higher physiological costs associated with sustaining high testosterone levels for extended time periods.

  10. The importance of novelty: male-female interactions among blue-black grassquits in captivity.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raphael I; Oliveira, Rui F; Podos, Jeffrey; Macedo, Regina H

    2014-03-01

    Mate choice is a primary mechanism driving the evolution of sexually selected traits such as elaborate displays and ornaments. In a majority of taxa studied to date, females are seen to actively sample and evaluate multiple males, presumably to optimize mating opportunities. During this process females may encounter males both familiar and novel, a distinction that might influence how mate choice proceeds. Using a socially monogamous passerine, the blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina), we studied how females respond to novel versus familiar ("paired") males, and how encounters with novel males influence subsequent interactions with their paired males. Additionally, we measured the hormonal response of males after visualizing their paired females interacting with novel males. We found that females were attentive to novel males irrespective of these males' phenotypic attributes, suggesting that in these interactions novelty is highly relevant. After exposure to novel males, females tended to respond aggressively towards their paired males; by contrast, the behaviour of males towards their paired females did not change. Moreover, we did not detect any hormonal responses of males to viewing their paired females interacting with novel males. Together these results suggest that the distinction between familiarity and novelty may hold special relevance for females in mate choice, a finding that bears upon our understanding of the evolution of extra-pair paternity and reproductive behaviour.

  11. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  12. Comparison of maximal oxygen consumption between obese black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Andreacci, Joseph L; Robertson, Robert J; Dubé, John J; Aaron, Deborah J; Dixon, Curt B; Arslanian, Silva A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) differed between clinically obese black and white children and if a difference existed to determine whether it was related to hematological profiles and/or physical activity/inactivity levels. Twenty-three black and 21 white adolescents were matched for age, BMI, and Tanner stage (II-V). Body composition was determined by DEXA and CT scan. Daily physical activity/inactivity was assessed by questionnaire. VO2max was assessed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Black participants had significantly lower VO2max and VO2maxFFM values when compared with white adolescents (26.1 +/- 4.2 versus 29.9 +/- 3.1 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1); 48.3 +/- 8.8 versus 55.6 +/- 5.2 mL . kgFFM(-1) . min(-1), respectively). Black adolescents also had significantly lower Hb concentrations ([Hb]) than white children (12.7 +/- 1.3 versus 13.4 +/- 0.7 g/dL). Black adolescents were more physically inactive than their white peers. VO2max correlated with [Hb] for the combined groups. Obese black adolescents had lower VO2max compared with white children and this difference was explained, in part, by the lower [Hb] observed in the black participants. Further investigations should study Hb flow rate (a function of [Hb] . maximal cardiac output) and physical activity/inactivity patterns in obese black and white children as it relates to VO2max.

  13. Peer passenger influences on male adolescent drivers’ visual scanning behavior during simulated driving

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Anuj K.; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Shope, Jean T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a higher likelihood of crashes and fatalities when an adolescent drives with peer passengers, especially for male drivers and male passengers. Simulated driving of male adolescent drivers with male peer passengers was studied to examine passenger influences on distraction and inattention. Methods Male adolescents drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator with a male confederate who posed either as a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Drivers’ eye-movements were recorded. The visual scanning behavior of the drivers was compared when driving alone versus when driving with a passenger, and when driving with a risk-accepting versus a risk-averse passenger. Results The visual scanning of a driver significantly narrowed horizontally and vertically when driving with a peer passenger. There were no significant differences in the times the drivers’ eyes were off the forward roadway when driving with a passenger versus when driving alone. Some significant correlations were found between personality characteristics and the outcome measures. Conclusions The presence of a male peer passenger was associated with a reduction in the visual scanning range of male adolescent drivers. This reduction could be a result of potential cognitive load imposed on the driver due to the presence of a passenger and the real or perceived normative influences or expectations from the passenger. Implications and contribution The presence of male peer passengers was associated with deficient visual scanning in male adolescent drivers. Such reduced scanning behavior is evident in drivers with high cognitive load. Further investigation of passenger influences on adolescent drivers should include examination of distraction and inattention aspects of passenger influence. PMID:24759440

  14. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  15. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  16. Implementing Self-Advocacy Training within a Brief Psychoeducational Group to Improve the Academic Motivation of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2009-01-01

    Black adolescents are confronted with ongoing social barriers that affect their academic motivation. School counselors can improve the educational landscape for Black adolescents by employing advocacy competencies in their schools. In this article I describe a brief psychoeducational group that can be used to teach self-advocacy skills to Black…

  17. Using Our Voices, Losing Our Bodies: Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, and the Spirit Murders of Black Male Professors in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lamar; Bryan, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    The recent deaths of Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, and other Black males have generated new civil rights urgencies in Black communities and spirited academic discourses in higher education regarding the educational and social plight of Black males in America. Connecting the deaths of Black males to our lived experiences in the academy, we use a…

  18. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  19. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  20. Male reproductive strategies in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Oklander, Luciana I; Kowalewski, Martin; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and demographic factors such as group size, social structure, dispersal patterns, and mating systems affect male reproductive success. In the present study, we analyze the relationship between social structure, genetic relatedness of adult males and offspring paternity in one population of Alouatta caraya inhabiting a continuous forest in Northern Argentina. After 14 months of behavioral studies and genotyping 11 microsatellites, we found that dominant or central males achieved greater mating success and fathered all the offspring conceived during our study in two multimale-multifemale groups (both including three adult males). Although skewed toward the dominant males, females copulated with almost all resident males and with extra group males. We found significantly fewer agonistic interactions between adult males in the group with fewer females and where males were more genetically related to each other (average relatedness r = 0.237; 0.015 int/ind/hr vs. r = 0.02; 0.029 int/ind/hr). Paternity was also analyzed in two other neighboring groups which also showed strong skew to one male over a 2-year period. These results reveal that even though female black and gold howlers mate with many males, infants are typically fathered by one dominant male.

  1. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  2. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  3. "You're So Gay!:" Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…

  4. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  5. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  6. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  7. Black Male Graduation Rates in Community Colleges: Do Institutional Characteristics Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Urias, Marissa; Wood, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Black male graduation rates in public two-year, degree-granting institutions. Specifically, the researchers were interested in determining the influence (if any) of select institutional characteristics (e.g., attendance intensity, degree of urbanization, geographic region, institutional size) on…

  8. Scripted Curriculum: What Movies Teach about Dis/ability and Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Tropes of dis/ability in the movies and master-narratives of Black males in education and society are typically treated in isolation. Furthermore, education research on Hollywood movies has typically focused on portrayals of schools, principals, and teachers even though education professionals are exposed to a broader range of…

  9. "What Works": Recommendations on Improving Academic Experiences and Outcomes for Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Douglas, Ty-Ron, M. O.; Warren, Chezare A.

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents the most significant recommendations based on a review of key findings from research presented in this special issue. The authors offer what they believe to be the most important considerations of what works for improving Black male school achievement in the domains of research, practice, and policy.

  10. Black Male Retention Initiatives: Exploring Students' Experiences and Program Effectiveness at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Leger, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Recent initiatives in higher education have been designed to increase Black undergraduate male collegiate retention and persistence through graduation for this historically underrepresented population. Although institutional leaders in higher education have focused on creating more inclusive campuses, designing and implementing programs to retain…

  11. (Un)Doing Hegemony in Education: Disrupting School-to-Prison Pipelines for Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancy, T. Elon, II

    2014-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline refers to the disturbing national trend in which children are funneled out of public schools and into juvenile and criminal justice systems. The purpose of this article is to theorize how this pipeline fulfills societal commitments to black male over-incarceration. First, the author reviews the troublesome perceptions…

  12. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates between Black and White Male Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to…

  13. The Case for Community Based Programs that Inform and Motivate Black Male Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.

    A case is made for establishing more community-based socialization programs for 10- to 15-year-old black males from disadvantaged families in poor neighborhoods. It is argued that effectively run neighborhood-based programs can accomplish the following: (1) establish caring and nurturing relationships that earn youths' attention and trust; (2)…

  14. The Impact of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy on Black Deaf Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amissah, Kojo

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study purposed to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample of20 Black Deaf male students and alumni in postsecondary in Washington, District of Columbia to determine if the self-fulfilling prophecy theory contributed to their pedagogy. A qualitative survey was administered and the data was analyzed with Excel.…

  15. Black Male Teachers as Role Models: Resisting the Homogenizing Impulse of Gender and Racial Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Martino, Wayne J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research with one Black male elementary school teacher in Toronto and draws on feminist, queer, and antiracist analytic perspectives to raise important questions about the discourse of teachers as role models. The voice of this teacher is used to challenge discourses about role modeling in their capacity to address…

  16. After-School Programs: A Resource for Young Black Males and Other Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Malcolm H.

    2016-01-01

    While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…

  17. Black Male Students and the Algebra Project: Mathematics Identity as Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Melva R.; Crompton, Helen; Ford, Deana J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the mathematics identity development of six Black male students over the course of a 4-year The Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) initiative. Mathematics identity here is defined as participation through interactions and positioning of self and others. Data collection included nearly 450 minutes of video…

  18. Mapping Me: Mapping Identity among Academically High-Performing Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flennaugh, Terry K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars have argued that far too little research has examined the complex processes that many Black males undertake in constructing identities that function in schools (Howard & Flennaugh, 2011; Howard, Flennaugh, & Terry, 2012; Terry, Flennaugh, Blackmon, & Howard, 2014). Some have highlighted the perpetuation of a false…

  19. Risk and Protective Factors in Mathematically Talented Black Male Students: Snapshots from Kindergarten through Eighth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.; Pearman, F. Alvin, II

    2014-01-01

    Within urban elementary schools are Black students who continue to challenge the normative deficit characterization of the educational opportunities of students like them. This study attempts to provide a more holistic picture of the scholarly trajectories of 13 African American males who are particularly talented in mathematics and who attended…

  20. College Success and the Black Male. San Jose City College, San Jose, California. Research Report #128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Percy; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at San Jose City College (SJCC) and Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to examine the fourth semester persistence rates of black male students and to investigate the effect of SJCC athletic and athlete academic support programs on persistence. Study findings included the following: (1) new full-time (NFT)…

  1. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  2. The Forms of Capital and the Developed Achievement of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association of the various forms of capital on the developed achievement of Black males. As one of the richest longitudinal family economic data sets, the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics is used to estimate multilevel growth models of the math and reading achievement of Black…

  3. Mentoring Urban Black Middle School Male Students: Implications for Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, Black middle school students' academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent.…

  4. Creativity and Equity: The Legacy of E. Paul Torrance as an Upstander for Gifted Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, Black males are more under-represented in gifted programs than all other groups (United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, Civil rights data collection. Author, Washington, DC, 2006, 2009); at no time in the history of gifted education can data be found to indicate otherwise (Ford in "Multicultural gifted…

  5. Hemodynamic Responses Associated with Post-exercise Hypotension in Normotensive Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Samuel A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the hemodynamic responses during recovery from moderate intensity exercise in young Black normotensive males. Nineteen normotensive men (age 24-26 years) walked continuously on a treadmill for 40 minutes at 50-60 percent heart rate reserve. Following exercise, blood pressure (by auscultation) and…

  6. Delinquency and Reputational Orientations of Adolescent At-Risk and Not-at-Risk Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…

  7. Disentangling the Effects of Parental Drinking, Family Management, and Parental Alcohol Norms on Current Drinking by Black and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Peggy L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 450 adolescents and their parents, begun when the adolescents were ages 12 to 13, found that parental drinking frequency was a predictor of alcohol use at ages 14 to 15 for both black and white adolescents. Good family management practices and proscriptions against involving children in other family members' alcohol use…

  8. Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links with HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdova, David; Heinze, Justin E.; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.64, Range =…

  9. What Can We Do? A Critical Multicultural Response to the College Experiences of Black Males at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Daymond

    2009-01-01

    Studies on Black males at various types of colleges have been conducted; however, there has been little research on Black males at private, predominantly White institutions of higher education in the Pacific Northwest. Given this, we know little about their status and experiences in these environments. This study focused on the experiences of…

  10. Being Black, Male, and Gifted in Miami: Prevalence and Predictors of Placement in Elementary School Gifted Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Gupta Karkhanis, Deepti; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Levitt, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that Black male students are underrepresented in gifted educational programs in the United States, due to a scarcity of longitudinal prospective research, little is known about the protective factors at the child, family, and school level that increase the probability of Black male students being identified as…

  11. Dirt on My Record: Rethinking Disciplinary Practices in an All-Black, All-Male Alternative Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'Ilah Suad; Ross, Kihana Miraya; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; Givens, Jarvis; Bryant, Jalessa N.

    2013-01-01

    In this empirical study, the authors draw on classroom observations and interviews with twenty-three Black male ninth graders in an urban district to focus on the nature of disciplinary practices in an all-Black, all-male manhood development class. While scholars have identified the "discipline gap" as a salient aspect of the experience…

  12. Making Something of It: The Untold Stories of Promising Black Males at a Predominately White Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Michael Sean

    2012-01-01

    Promising Black males are an understudied and underserved population in the field of higher education. The purpose of this study was to understand how promising Black males define academic success and to identify the factors that affect academic success at a large predominately White public institutions of higher education located in the…

  13. "I'm None of the Above": Exploring Themes of Heteropatriarchy in the Life Histories of Black Male Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Ashley N.; Pabon, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Black male teachers are consistently positioned in teacher recruitment and teacher education discourse as the potential solution to a myriad of social and educational problems. However, the expectations of Black male performance are at times predicated on limiting and oppressive assumptions. In this qualitative study, the authors use the Black…

  14. Lift Ev'ry Voice: The Resounding Experiences of Black Male Student-Athletes at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Black male student-athletes are entering the California community college (CCC) system at an unprecedented rate. CCCs have become a repository for Black males that have aspirations of competing in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I member institutions. This historically disenfranchised subgroup of students is required…

  15. Knee extension strength in obese and nonobese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula, Achref; Martin, Vincent; Bouchant, Antoine; Walrand, Stéphane; Lavet, Cédric; Taillardat, Michel; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Boisseau, Nathalie; Duché, Pascale; Ratel, Sébastien

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare "absolute" and "relative" knee extension strength between obese and nonobese adolescents. Ten nonobese and 12 severely obese adolescent boys of similar chronological age, maturity status, and height were compared. Total body and regional soft tissue composition were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Knee extensors maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque was measured using an isometric dynamometer at a knee angle of 60° (0° is full extension). Absolute MVC torque was significantly higher in obese adolescents than in controls. However, although MVC torque expressed per unit of body mass was found to be significantly lower in obese adolescent boys, no significant difference in MVC torque was found between groups when normalized to fat-free mass. Conversely, when correcting for thigh lean mass and estimated thigh muscle mass, MVC torque was significantly higher in the obese group (17.9% and 22.2%, respectively; P <0.05). To conclude, our sample of obese adolescent boys had higher absolute and relative knee extension strength than our nonobese controls. However, further studies are required to ascertain whether or not relative strength, measured with more accurate in vivo methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, is higher in obese adolescents than in nonobese controls.

  16. Examining the Reasons Black Male Youths Give for Committing Crime with Reference to Inner City Areas of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mini research carried out by the Focus Learning Support (FLS) team on reasons why young black males in the community commit crime. Knife and gun crime is seen as a serious problem in the black community involving black males in the inner London city areas--many of whom are both victims and offenders of knife and gun crime.…

  17. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  18. Factors that adolescent males take into account in decisions about an unplanned pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Corkindale, Carolyn J; Condon, John T; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a larger study with teenage males [Condon, J. T., Corkindale, C. J., Russell, A., & Quinlivan, J. A. (2006). Processes and factors underlying adolescent males' attitudes and decision-making in relation to an unplanned pregnancy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 447-458], and extends the findings of that study. Using a 25-item scale embedded in an electronic role-play, data were obtained from 330 male Australian school students on their priorities and concerns in relation to possible outcomes of a partner's pregnancy. Common factors taken into account by almost the entire adolescent sample related to the negative effects of becoming a teenage father. The differences between participants were identified using cluster analysis, which produced three groupings. The majority group was characterised as 'well-balanced' (80.6%), and the two minority groups as 'unwilling/unready' (10.9%) and 'family-centred' (8.5%). Group membership was strongly predictive of the males' final decision regarding the hypothetical pregnancy outcome. Understanding adolescent attitudes and beliefs when faced with this decision may assist practitioners in their guidance of the young couple and help prevent negative psychological sequelae.

  19. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  20. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  1. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  2. Self-Regulation and External Reinforcement in Problem-Solving Strategies of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Trevor E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among self-regulatory behaviors, perceptions of social reinforcement from significant persons, and problem-solving performance of Black adolescents (N=33). Components of self-regulatory processes--self-reinforcement, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring--were interrelated highly. Perceptions of neither positive nor negative…

  3. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  4. Self-Motivation and Physical Activity among Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Felton, Gwen; Pate, Russell R.

    2003-01-01

    Established the psychometric properties of the Self-Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C) using tests of factorial validity, factorial invariance, latent mean structure, and predictive validity. Two cohorts of black and white adolescent girls completed the SMI-C and various physical activity measures. The single-factor, positively worded,…

  5. Unmarried Black Adolescent Fathers and Their Controls: The Washington, D.C. Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report of a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers and matched counterparts designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their methods for solving the problems. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 38 fathers and 35 non-fathers in Washington, D.C. Data were…

  6. Black Female Adolescents' Career Aspirations and Expectations: Rising to the Challenge of the American Occupational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherlon P.

    Career and life planning, while a complex task for people of all races and ages, is often compounded for black adolescent females. Social and economic traditions such as racism, poverty, and oppression have often retarded their employment perceptions, aspirations, expectations, and realities. This article explores the relationship between black…

  7. Alcohol Use and Delinquency among Black, White and Hispanic Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…

  8. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  9. Indoor Tanning Use among Adolescent Males: The Role of Perceived Weight and Bullying

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Traeger, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Background Appearance motives predict indoor tanning use in adolescents; however, research has primarily focused on females. Salient social factors, such as bullying victimization have yet to be explored in the context of indoor tanning. Purpose To examine the role of perceived weight and bullying victimization in indoor tanning use among adolescent males. Methods Data on perceived weight, bullying victimization, and frequency of indoor tanning were obtained from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey—a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Results The association of perceived weight status with indoor tanning use significantly varied by bullying victimization, such that perceiving oneself as being very underweight or very overweight was associated with increased indoor tanning, particularly for those males who were victims of bullying. Conclusions Bullying victimization may be a risk factor for indoor tanning use among adolescent males who perceive their weight as extreme. PMID:23494291

  10. Emotion Recognition and Perspective Taking: A Comparison between Typical and Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Zaharia, Alexandra; Brosch, Tobias; Eliez, Stephan; Bateman, Anthony; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that antisocial individuals present impairment in social cognitive processing, more specifically in emotion recognition (ER) and perspective taking (PT). The first aim of the present study was to investigate the recognition of a wide range of emotional expressions and visual PT capacities in a group of incarcerated male adolescents in comparison to a matched group of community adolescents. Secondly, we sought to explore the relationship between these two mechanisms in relation to psychopathic traits. Methods Forty-five male adolescents (22 incarcerated adolescents (Mage = 16.52, SD = 0.96) and 23 community adolescents (Mage = 16.43, SD = 1.41)) participated in the study. ER abilities were measured using a dynamic and multimodal task that requires the participants to watch short videos in which trained actors express 14 emotions. PT capacities were examined using a task recognized and proven to be sensitive to adolescent development, where participants had to follow the directions of another person whilst taking into consideration his perspective. Results We found a main effect of group on emotion recognition scores. In comparison to the community adolescents, the incarcerated adolescents presented lower recognition of three emotions: interest, anxiety and amusement. Analyses also revealed significant impairments in PT capacities in incarcerated adolescents. In addition, incarcerated adolescents’ PT scores were uniquely correlated to their scores on recognition of interest. Conclusions The results corroborate previously reported impairments in ER and PT capacities, in the incarcerated adolescents. The study also indicates an association between impairments in the recognition of interest and impairments in PT. PMID:28122048

  11. Academic Self-Concept in Black Adolescents: Do Race and Gender Stereotypes Matter?

    PubMed

    Evans, Ashley B; Copping, Kristi; Rowley, Stephanie J; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2011-04-01

    We examined the relation between race- and gender-group competence ratings and academic self-concept in 252 Black seventh- and eighth-graders. On average, youth reported traditional race stereotypes, whereas gender stereotypes were traditional about verbal abilities and were nontraditional regarding math/science abilities. Among boys, in-group gender and in-group race-based competence ratings (i.e. ratings of boys and Blacks) were related to math/science and verbal self-concepts. However, only gender-based ratings (i.e. ratings of girls' abilities for reading/writing) were related to girls' self-concepts. These findings suggest that the influence of race stereotypes on Black adolescents' academic self-concepts is different for girls than boys. Whereas self-relevant gender groups were associated with both Black girls' and boys' academic self-concept, race-based competence ratings were only relevant for the academic self-views of Black boys.

  12. Survival, cause-specific mortality, and harvesting of male black-tailed deer in washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schirato, G.A.; Spencer, R.D.; McAllister, K.R.; Murphie, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined survival rates, causes of mortality, and documented impacts of harvest on ???1.5-year-old male (hereafter, male) Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 2 Washington, USA, game management units (GMUs; Skookumchuck and Snoqualmie) characterized by different hunting-season structures. We monitored 66 males (n = 28 and 38 annually) in Skookumchuck and 58 males (n = 26 and 32 annually) in Snoqualmie, September 1999-September 2001. Annual survival rates were 0.498 (SE = 0.066) in Skookumchuck and 0.519 (SE = 0.067) in Snoqualmie. Survival rates derived from population age structure did not differ from rates derived from radiotelemetry. Harvest was the primary mortality factor for each population, accounting for 67% (SE = 7; Skookumchuck) to 44% (SE = 9; Snoqualmie) of total annual mortality. Annual harvest-specific mortality rates were 0.317 (SE = 0.032) in Skookumchuck and 0.211 (SE = 0.021) in Snoqualmie, likely due to longer hunting seasons and greater hunter effort in Skookumchuck. Following the elimination of a late buck season centered on the rut in Snoqualmie, male harvest declined 56% and annual survival increased 60%, indicating that male harvest was largely additive to other mortality. Our results indicated that harvest was the primary influence on male black-tailed deer populations in Washington, was additive, and that the effect of harvest varied with hunting-season structure and hunter effort. Managers should not assume that harvesting removes a constant proportion of the male population annually, and management models that assume compensatory mortality in adult harvest may result in over-harvest of male populations.

  13. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  14. Anticipatory Socialization and Male Catholic Adolescent Socio-Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, James M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Merton and Kitts' thesis of anticipatory socialization is supported. The importance of the class of destination, as opposed to the class of origin is underscored implying that anticipatory socialization is a primary explanation for differential attitudes formulated before adolescents have undergone mobility or achieved status positions equal to…

  15. Development of Male Proactive and Reactive Physical Aggression during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Vitaro, Frank; Lacourse, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different developmental courses have been postulated for proactive and reactive aggression. Objective: Investigated the developmental course of proactive and reactive aggression in a large sample of adolescent boys from low socioeconomic areas. Method: A dual group-based joint trajectory method was used to identify distinct…

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  17. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth…

  18. Sensory Integration and Ego Development in a Schizophrenic Adolescent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Karen A.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study compared hours spent by a schizophrenic adolescent in "time out" before and after initiation of treatment. The study evaluated the effects of sensory integrative treatment on the ability to handle anger and frustration. Results demonstrate the utility of statistical analysis versus visual comparison to validate effectiveness…

  19. Reducing the Risk of Postoperative Genital Complications in Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossanova, ?ssem; Lozovoy, Vasiliy; Wood, Dan; ??nekenova, ?enzhekyz; Botabayeva, ?igul; Dossanov, Bolatbek; Lozovaya, Yelena; ?marov, ?algat

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive system of adolescents is exposed to a high risk of anomalies. In spite of the successes of surgical correction, the percentage of postoperative complications remains high. Special attention should be paid to circumcision, which is regarded as a religious tradition in many countries and carried out with sanitary violations. This…

  20. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  1. The persistence of Black males in the STEM fields at Texas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Beverly Woodson

    For the past five years, enrollment in the College of Science and Engineering by first-time undergraduate students has steadily increased. However, retaining the students through their first-year and their persistence to their second year of college and beyond has been problematic. The purpose of this study is to add to the knowledge of why Black students, specifically Black men, are not persisting at Texas State University in the STEM majors. It will also determine if specific factors like the SAT scores, parent's education, high school rank, college GPA, college science and math courses (physics, math, biology and chemistry), college credits earned and average GPA in all science and math college courses predict college preparation and college performance for all students and for Black male students.

  2. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. From “brute” to “thug:” the demonization and criminalization of unarmed Black male victims in America

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, CalvinJohn; Fakunle, David

    2016-01-01

    The synonymy of Blackness with criminality is not a new phenomenon in America. Documented historical accounts have shown how myths, stereotypes, and racist ideologies led to discriminatory policies and court rulings that fueled racial violence in a post-Reconstruction era and has culminated in the exponential increase of Black male incarceration today. Misconceptions and prejudices manufactured and disseminated through various channels such as the media included references to a “brute” image of Black males. In the 21st century, this negative imagery of Black males has frequently utilized the negative connotation of the terminology “thug.” In recent years, law enforcement agencies have unreasonably used deadly force on Black males allegedly considered to be “suspects” or “persons of interest.” The exploitation of these often-targeted victims' criminal records, physical appearances, or misperceived attributes has been used to justify their unlawful deaths. Despite the connection between disproportionate criminality and Black masculinity, little research has been done on how unarmed Black male victims, particularly but not exclusively at the hands of law enforcement, have been posthumously criminalized. This paper investigates the historical criminalization of Black males and its connection to contemporary unarmed victims of law enforcement. Action research methodology in the data collection process is utilized to interpret how Black male victims are portrayed by traditional mass media, particularly through the use of language, in ways that marginalize and de-victimize these individuals. This study also aims to elucidate a contemporary understanding of race relations, racism, and the plight of the Black male in a 21-century “post-racial” America. PMID:27594778

  4. Female choice selects for lifetime lekking performance in black grouse males

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, H.; ki, P. T. Rintam; Alatalo, R. V.; glund, J. H; Karvonen, E.; Lundberg, A.

    1999-01-01

    'Good genes' models assume that females can use a signal such as mating effort to assess a male's lifetime fitness. Inferring long-term performance from short-term behavioural observations can be unreliable, and repeated sampling may be needed for more accurate assessment of males. Additionally, if sexual advertisement is viewed as a life-history trait subject to trade-offs, reliable comparison of mates should yield information on all life-history components rather than on one trait value in one season. We show that in the lekking black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a male's success is best explained by assuming that females are informed of the past history of males up to the beginning of the study (eight years). Much of this extremely lasting 'memory' can be attributed to females observing long-term outcomes of male–male competition: current territory position is the only momentarily observable variable that has high power in predicting female choice, and it correlates to a male's past lekking effort on a cumulative lifetime scale. We conclude that females can use territory position as a signal that conveys information of a male's lifetime performance that combines lekking effort and longevity. Females may thus overcome the problem of male allocations varying in time, without the need to pay costs associated with repeated sampling.

  5. Anorexia Nervosa: A Misdiagnosis of the Adolescent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…

  6. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  7. Contextual Predictors of Injection Drug Use Among Black Adolescents and Adults in US Metropolitan Areas, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke; Linton, Sabriya; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Stall, Ron; Wolfe, Mary E.; Williams, Leslie; Hall, H. Irene; Cleland, Charles; Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether contextual factors shape injection drug use among Black adolescents and adults. Methods. For this longitudinal study of 95 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), we drew annual MSA-specific estimates of the prevalence of injection drug use (IDU) among Black adolescents and adults in 1993 through 2007 from 3 surveillance databases. We used existing administrative data to measure MSA-level socioeconomic status; criminal justice activities; expenditures on social welfare, health, and policing; and histories of Black uprisings (1960–1969) and urban renewal funding (1949–1974). We regressed Black IDU prevalence on these predictors by using hierarchical linear models. Results. Black IDU prevalence was lower in MSAs with declining Black high-school dropout rates, a history of Black uprisings, higher percentages of Black residents, and, in MSAs where 1992 White income was high, higher 1992 Black income. Incarceration rates were unrelated. Conclusions. Contextual factors shape patterns of drug use among Black individuals. Structural interventions, especially those that improve Black socioeconomic security and political strength, may help reduce IDU among Black adolescents and adults. PMID:26691126

  8. Out of the Black Box: Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents and the Antidepressant Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Clarke, Gregory; Keller, Martin; Emslie, Graham J.; Ryan, Neal; Porta, Giovanna; Iyengar, Satish; Ritz, Louise; Zelanzny, Jamie; Onorato, Matthew; Brent, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this article is to describe the effects of the pediatric antidepressant controversy on the Treatment of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method Adolescents, ages 12–18 years, with SSRI resistant depression were randomized to one of four treatments for a 12 week trial: Switch to different SSRI, switch to an alternate antidepressant (venlafaxine), switch to an alternate SSRI plus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), or switch to venlafaxine plus CBT. Results The health advisories and “black box” warnings regarding suicidality and antidepressants in adolescents occurred during the course of the TORDIA trial. Revisions to the protocol, multiple-consent form changes, and re-consenting of patients were necessary. Recruitment of participants was adversely affected. Conclusion Despite a cascade of unforeseen events that delayed the completion of the study, the TORDIA trial resulted in clinically important information about treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. PMID:22251022

  9. Importance of race and ethnicity: an exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and multiracial adolescent identity.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M

    2010-04-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups.

  10. Anaerobic performance and metabolism in boys and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beneke, Ralph; Hütler, Matthias; Leithäuser, Renate M

    2007-12-01

    Short-term maximum intensity performance, absolute and related to body mass, is lower in children than adolescents. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. We analysed Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) performance and metabolism in ten boys (mean (SD); age 11.8 (0.5) years, height 1.51 (0.05) m, body mass 36.9 (2.5) kg, muscle mass 13.0 (1.0) kg) and 10 adolescents (16.3 (0.7) years, 1.81 (0.05) m, 67.3 (4.1) kg, 28.2 (1.7) kg). Related to body mass, power of flywheel acceleration (6.0 (1.6) vs. 8.1 (1.1) W kg(-1)), peak power (10.8 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (0.6) W kg(-1)), average power (7.9 (0.5) vs. 8.9 (0.7) W kg(-1)), minimum power (6.1 (0.7) vs. 6.9 (0.9) W kg(-1)) and anaerobic lactic energy (687.6 (75.6) vs. 798.2 (43.0) J kg(-1)) were lower (P < 0.05) in boys than in adolescents. Related to muscle mass the change in lactate (0.69 (0.08) vs. 0.69 (0.04) mmol kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)) and PCr (0.60 (0.17) vs. 0.52 (0.10) mmol kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)) were not different. The corresponding oxygen uptake (1.34 (0.13) vs. 1.09 (0.13) ml kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)), total metabolic rate (132.4 (12.6) vs. 119.7 (8.5) W kg (MM) (-1) ) and PP (30.5 (2.6) vs. 27.5 (1.7 W) kg (MM) (-1) ) were higher (P < 0.01) in boys than in adolescents. The results reflect a lower relative muscle mass combined with no differences in muscular anaerobic but fascilitated aerobic metabolism in boys. Compared with adolescents, boys' performance seemed to be significantly impaired by flywheel inertia but supported by identical brake force related to body mass.

  11. Bullying Victimisation and Social Support of Adolescent Male Dance Students: An Analysis of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This analysis (n?=?33), drawn from the findings of the author's larger mixed method research study, investigated bullying and harassment of adolescent male students (ages 13-18) pursuing dance study at the pre-professional level in the United States. Procedures for this analysis included review of primary and secondary sources from the…

  12. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  13. Adolescent Males, Impulsive/Aggressive Behavior, and Alcohol Abuse: Biological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matykiewicz, Lynn; La Grange, Linda; Reyes, Edward; Vance, Peter; Wang, Mu

    1997-01-01

    Compared adjudicated male adolescents (N=37) to middle school students on measures of glucose nadir and urinary 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a serotonin metabolite. Results show that adjudicated youth had significantly lower levels of both substances, supporting previous studies linking low glucose and 5-HIAA levels to impulsivity,…

  14. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  15. Developing Argument Skills in Severely Disadvantaged Adolescent Males in a Residential Correctional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fuccio, MaryAnne; Kuhn, Deanna; Udell, Wadiya; Callender, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the intervention designed by Kuhn and Udell (2003) to develop argument skills could be implemented productively among adolescent males in a residential juvenile detention facility--boys who were educationally disengaged and severely disadvantaged academically as well as socially. Compared to a control group from the same…

  16. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  17. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  18. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

  20. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  1. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  2. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  3. Three Avid Adolescent Male Writers' Experiences at a Residential Summer Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruday, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This study explored three purposefully-sampled avid adolescent male writers' experiences at a residential summer writing workshop program. It investigated how the social context of the program influenced the writing of the focal students, the ways that they identified themselves as writers, and the risks that they took in their works. It also…

  4. Factors Related to the Self-Concept of Institutionalized, White, Male, Adolescent Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Barbara; Griffing, Penelope

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors related to the self-concept of institutionalized male drug abusers (N=140). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, a family questionnaire, and an interview were administered. Results yielded several predictors of self-concept, including parent-adolescent relationship, number of prior status offenses, and preference for nondepressant…

  5. The Experience of Male Adolescent Refugees during Their Transfer and Adaptation to a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the…

  6. Reading Problems, Attentional Deficits, and Current Mental Health Status in Adjudicated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…

  7. Privilege of Whiteness: Adolescent Male Students' Resistance to Racism in an Australian Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchell, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In this article I explore links between racism and 'whiteness' within hegemonic masculine discourses. I examine ways in which adolescent male students construct their own identities within a privileged white position. I acknowledge whiteness as a racial issue and interrogate different forms of whiteness through students' narratives. Adolescent…

  8. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  9. Spiritual Identity in Israeli Religious Male Adolescents: Observations and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2002-01-01

    Based on Herbert's (1987) theory of ego identity development and on interviews of hundreds of Israeli religious male adolescents and young adults who were raised and educated in religious society and later left the fold, this article presents a model of development of religious identity. Three levels of religious identity development--healthy,…

  10. Enhancing Writing Achievement through a Digital Learning Environment: Case Studies of Three Struggling Adolescent Male Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruden, Manning; Kerkhoff, Shea N.; Spires, Hiller A.; Lester, James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how "Narrative Theatre," a narrative-centered digital learning environment, supported the writing processes of 3 struggling adolescent male writers. We utilized a multicase study approach to capture 3 sixth-grade participants' experiences with the digital learning environment before, during, and after…

  11. Factors that Adolescent Males Take into Account in Decisions about an Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…

  12. Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain structure and psychopathic traits in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents, and to examine whether the associations between brain volumes in paralimbic and limbic regions and psychopathic traits observed in incarcerated adult men extend to an independent sample of incarcerated male…

  13. Lack of recent condom use among detained adolescent males: a multilevel investigation

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, R; Salazar, L; DiClemente, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate multiple levels of influence with respect to the lack of recent condom use among a high risk sample of adolescent males recruited from short term detention facilities. Methods: A cross sectional survey of 231 adolescent males serving, predominantly, short term detention sentences. Assessments were conducted using audiocomputer assisted self interviewing. Condom use during the most recent sexual event was assessed as well as 20 potential correlates of not using condoms. Correlates were assessed within five levels of causation: personal, relational, peer affiliation, family, and societal. Results: Nine correlates achieved bivariate significance (p<0.05). Of these, the personal level correlates were particularly important in a multivariate model. The motivation subscale from the Condom Barriers Scale was the strongest multivariate correlate of recent condom use. Adolescents scoring below the median were about 3.4 times more likely to report lack of recent condom use (p = 0.0006). Adolescents indicating they had ever caused a pregnancy were about 2.5 times more likely to report lack of condom use (p = 0.02). Finally, those reporting their peers did not use condoms were about twice as likely to report lack of use (p = 0.048). Conclusion: Upon investigating multiple levels of potential influence on condom use, the multivariate findings suggest that personal level factors may be the most important determinant of non-use among adolescent males in short term detention facilities. Although structural changes may be needed to influence some forms of safer sex behaviour, direct intervention with adolescent males may be justified to favourably alter determinants of condom use. PMID:15572607

  14. Relationships between Black Males and Females in Rhythm and Blues Music of the 1960s and 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the functions of rhythm and blues music in Black culture, specifically its treatment of male-female relationships and family formation. A change is noted from the idealism of the 1960s to more realistic images. (RLV)

  15. Comparisons of trabecular and cortical bone in late adolescent black and white females.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Taylor, Ruth G; Baile, Clifton A; Hamrick, Mark W; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Few childhood studies have investigated racial differences in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and bone strength indices measured by three-dimensional bone imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular and cortical bone parameters at the radius and tibia between late adolescent white and black females using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). White (n = 25) and black females (n = 25), 18-19 years of age, were pair-matched for age, height, and fat-free soft tissue mass. Peripheral QCT scans were obtained at the 4% (trabecular bone), 20% (cortical bone), and 66% [muscle cross-sectional area (CSA)] sites from the distal metaphyses. Bone strength was determined from vBMD and bone geometry to calculate bone strength index (BSI; trabecular site) and polar strength-strain index (SSI; cortical site). Radial SSI was not different between groups; however, blacks had greater radial BSI (P = 0.02) than whites. After adjustment for the longer forearm in blacks, the greater radial BSI in blacks no longer remained. At the tibia, blacks versus whites had greater bone strength at the trabecular and cortical bone sites (BSI, P = 0.03; SSI, P = 0.04, respectively). When controlling for differences in tibial length and muscle CSA, the higher estimates of bone strength persisted in blacks versus whites (BSI, P = 0.01; SSI, P = 0.02). Our data suggest that when differences in body size are considered, late adolescent black versus white females have a stronger bone profile, due to greater bone geometry and vBMD, at the trabecular and cortical regions of the tibia but not at the radius.

  16. The Writing on the Wall: Enacting Place Pedagogies in Order to Reimagine Schooling for Black Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Latrise P.

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines how Black educators at an urban middle school enacted critical place pedagogies in order to create a sense of community--that is, a sense of belonging to the place of school--and mutual nurturing between people and space in an attempt to transform how their Black males experienced school. Educators at Starks…

  17. The Most Blessed Room in the City: The Influence of a Youth Development Program on Three Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Malcolm H.; Martin, Justin F.; Hill, R. LeRoi; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The social and educational life risks associated with being a Black male in the United States are not novel concerns. However, researchers, policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders have yet to consistently identify programs and interventions that can mediate the inequities that confront young Black men. Some researchers have indicated that…

  18. Range Is Everything! Success with the Adolescent Male Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The changing male voice has long been a challenge, not only for students but also for directors who need to find just the right music to help students feel most successful. This article presents the key elements for success in selecting boys' literature: (1) Know the students' voices; (2) Range is everything; (3) Avoid pitches below A for tenors;…

  19. Resiliency in Adolescent Males in a Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Baartman, Jyl; Buboltz, Michelle; Sonnichsen, Kim; Solomon, Rebekka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to establish the existing positive factors in the lives of 18 juvenile males living in a low-security correctional facility in order to determine approaches which foster resiliency. Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, an approach to understanding human development within the context of the…

  20. Color Vision Deficiency and Functional Disorders Among Israeli Male Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Maymon, Dror; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-09-01

    Color vision deficiency has been associated with educational difficulties among male children, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association of color vision deficiency with functional conditions, including ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis and somatoform disorders, in a large population of male adolescents. We included all Israeli male adolescents that underwent medical and cognitive examinations during conscription between the years 2007 and 2013. The prevalence of ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was compared to a control group. The study included 305 964 males aging 17 ± 0.6, of which 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency. Using a multivariable analysis, the probability for irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was increased by 1.41, 1.94, and 3.87, respectively (P < .05). No significant association was found between ADHD and color vision deficiency. Color vision abnormalities are associated with functional disorders in male adolescents, including irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders.

  1. Nurse practice issues regarding sperm banking in adolescent male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reebals, Jeri F; Brown, Richard; Buckner, Ellen B

    2006-01-01

    The impressive increase in the survival rate of childhood cancer patients has produced increased interest in quality of life issues. This research addresses nurse practice issues in determining whether the newly diagnosed adolescent male patient is offered the option of sperm banking before undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Questionnaires were distributed to nurses and nurse practitioners on 3 inpatient and outpatient units who care for adolescent male cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, during chemotherapy, and during follow-up care. Findings indicate that 96.3% of respondents agreed that all male patients undergoing cancer treatment with infertility as a potential side effect should be offered sperm banking. Respondents viewed oncologists and nurse practitioners as appropriate professionals to discuss the option. Lack of knowledge regarding sperm banking could be limiting nurses' willingness to introduce the topic, and education regarding cryopreservation may improve their knowledge and practice.

  2. Understanding the Different Realities, Experience, and Use of Self-Esteem between Black and White Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Portia E.

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent females possess higher self-esteem than any other racial or ethnic adolescent female group. This article tests two popular empirically supported explanations for Black high self-esteem: "contingency of self-esteem theory" and the "locus of control model". This article builds on past research to illustrate the specific…

  3. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  4. Factor structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: youth version in German female and male detainees and community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S; Krischer, Maya K

    2009-03-01

    Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male adolescents in the United States and the United Kingdom, only one published study has addressed the factor structure of PCL:YV psychopathy in female adolescents, and no prior studies have addressed it outside of these countries. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying PCL:YV scores in 314 incarcerated (143 male, 171 female) and 193 in-school (99 male, 94 female) adolescents, ages 14 to 19 years. The 2-factor model provided adequate fit only for incarcerated male adolescents and the 4-factor model was problematic in all samples, but the 3-factor solution provided an adequate model in incarcerated and community male adolescents. None of the models provided consistently acceptable fit among female adolescents. Current findings provide evidence for the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathy in incarcerated and community male adolescent samples but raise doubts about the applicability of this model to female adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Determinants of Smoking Status of Black Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fick, Ana Correa; Thomas, Sarah Moody

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control orientation and adoption of cigarette smoking among ninth grade urban black Southern students. It sought to identify this relationship and determine if school-setting (junior or senior high school) or gender-related differences exist. The following information was used to assess…

  6. Think manager--think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.

    PubMed

    García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.

  7. Physiological profiles of male and female taekwon-do (ITF) black belts.

    PubMed

    Heller, J; Peric, T; Dlouhá, R; Kohlíková, E; Melichna, J; Nováková, H

    1998-04-01

    Baseline physiological and kinanthropometric data were collected for 11 male and 12 female elite taekwon-do athletes from the Czech national team for evaluation of anthropometry, aerobic and anaerobic capacities, strength, visual reaction time, pulmonary function, flexibility and explosive power of the lower limbs (vertical jump). Both male and female taekwon-do black belts demonstrated low adiposity (8.2 and 15.4% fat, BMI 21.9 and 22.0 kg m(-2), respectively), normal reactivity and pulmonary function, above average muscular strength, PWC-170 (3.4 vs 2.7 W kg(-1)) and aerobic power (54 vs 42 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), and a high flexibility (37 and 38 cm) and anaerobic performance (peak power output from a 30 s Wingate test=14.7 and 10.1 W kg(-1); anaerobic capacity=334 and 242 J kg(-1), in males and females, respectively). In male athletes, competitive performance was significantly related to maximum power output and upper limb reaction time only, whereas in females, performance was related to maximum power output and ventilatory threshold level. These variables accounted for 66 and 67% of the performance rank in males and females, respectively. Time-motion analysis of competition taekwon-do fighting (two times 2 min) revealed 3-5 s bouts of maximum exercise alternating with low-intensity periods. This elicits high heart rates (100% HRmax) and lactate responses (11.4 mmol l(-1) = 81% LAmax), which agrees well with the physiological characteristics of taekwon-do black belts measured in laboratory exercise tests.

  8. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  9. Achievement goal profiles among adolescent males and females.

    PubMed

    Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J S; McInerney, Dennis M

    2017-04-01

    Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple goals perspective based on personal investment theory, this longitudinal study investigated whether males and females shared similar goal profiles, and whether the predictors (facilitating conditions) and outcomes (learning processes, task perseverance, and future aspirations) of these profiles were equivalent across genders. Profiles were extracted from 8 types of academic goals, based on a large sample of Hong Kong high school students (N = 7,848). Findings revealed 5 distinctive profiles for both males and females. Although the relative size of these profiles differed across samples of male and female students, the results show that 4 of these profiles were mostly equivalent across genders. Predictors of membership into these profiles were also equivalent across genders, whereas their relative outcomes were specific to gender. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.

  11. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    PubMed Central

    Harbili, Erbil; Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key points The results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. PMID:24790499

  12. Unfair treatment, discrimination, and ambulatory blood pressure in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Salomon, Kristen; Kenyon, Karen; Zhou, Fan

    2005-05-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that unfair treatment and its attribution to race, physical appearance, and peer group were related to elevated ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). During 2 school days, 207 Black and White adolescents wore an ABP monitor and answered questions about mood, posture, location, and activity level at the time of the ABP assessment. At a separate session, in-clinic resting blood pressure and perceptions of unfair treatment were measured. Multilevel mixed models showed that unfair treatment and its attribution to race were not associated with ABP. However, adolescents who indicated that the primary reason for unfair treatment was their physical appearance had elevated ABP. Feeling unfairly treated because of physical appearance may impact blood pressure uniquely during the adolescent transition.

  13. SLEEP DURATION AND AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE IN BLACK AND WHITE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Mezick, Elizabeth J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Self-reported short sleep duration is linked to higher blood pressure and incident hypertension in adults. Few studies have examined sleep and blood pressure in younger samples. We evaluated the associations between actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep and ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Participants were 246 black and white adolescents (mean age = 15.7) who were free from cardiovascular or kidney disease and were not taking sleep, cardiovascular, or psychiatric medications. Sleep duration and efficiency were assessed with in-home wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries across one week; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used to obtain 24-hour, sleep, wake blood pressure, and sleep-wake blood pressure ratios across two full days and nights. Results showed that shorter actigraphy-assessed sleep across one week was related to higher 48-hour blood pressure and higher nighttime blood pressure. Shorter sleep was also related to a higher systolic blood pressure sleep-wake ratio. These results were independent of age, race, sex, and body mass index. Follow-up analyses by race revealed that associations between sleep duration and blood pressure were largely present in white, but not black, adolescents. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the cardiovascular consequences of short sleep may begin as early as adolescence. PMID:22275538

  14. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911

  15. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Mills, Kathryn L; Lenroot, Rhoshel K

    2012-08-21

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence - a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum - all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  16. Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F

    1995-02-01

    Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.

  17. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  18. Examining Struggling Male Adolescent Readers' Responses to Graphic Novels: A Multiple Case Study of Four, Eighth-Grade Males in a Graphic Novel Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen W.

    2010-01-01

    Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…

  19. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  20. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy - Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) Upon Behaviorally Challenged Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287

  1. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  2. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions Regarding Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethnicity (43%), followed by age (17%), physical appearance (16.5%) and gender (7.5%) and there were no ethnic, gender or age differences regarding discrimination attributions. Key findings suggest that the association between perceived discrimination and psychological did not vary according to discrimination attribution, which implies that discrimination is harmful for Black youth regardless of the attribution.

  3. "STEMulating" success factors: An investigation of the academic talents of successful Black male college graduates from STEM programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Jill T.

    This phenomenological research study explored the contributing factors experienced by Black males that epitomized their academic success in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) area of study. During this investigative project, eleven Black male students were interviewed to determine how they were able to successfully navigate and complete a STEM degree. The data was collected through a qualitative inquiry, which involved interviewing students and collecting the data and organizing their perspectives into common themes. The principal findings in this study suggest that Black males can excel when primary influential people establish high expectations and believe and encourage Black males to succeed by providing the essential educational support models requisite to warrant success; the Black male maintains and affirms a self-assured self-worth in himself; the Black male is exposed to these fields and professions early on in their educational quest to enable them to witness first hand powerful and productive opportunities and pathways to academic success; exposure to other Black successful male role models who can mentor and show positive proof that with effort, these fields can become a reality; increase in academic motivation and recommendations from educators and counselors who direct and guide students into and away from these rigorous career fields. An analysis of the students' individual stories gave a revealing look into the pathways of their consciousness, emotional growth, and perspectives about being a successful STEM major. This kind of insight can be a constructive diagnostic tool for students, educators, counselors, and administrators who want to motivate and influence future students to major in STEM fields of study.

  4. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis mimicking infective endocarditis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Sebire, Neil; Christov, Georgi; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare but serious small vessel vasculitis with heterogeneous clinical presentation ranging from mainly localised disease with a chronic course, to a florid, acute small vessel vasculitic form characterised by severe pulmonary haemorrhage and/or rapidly progressive vasculitis or other severe systemic vasculitic manifestations. Cardiac involvement is, however, uncommon in the paediatric population. We report a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with peripheral gangrene and vegetation with unusual location on the supporting apparatus of the tricuspid valve, initially considered to have infective endocarditis but ultimately diagnosed with GPA. We provide an overview of the limited literature relating to cardiac involvement in GPA, and the diagnostic challenge relating to infective endocarditis in this context, especially focusing on the interpretation of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and the characteristic clinical features to identify in order to promptly recognise GPA, since timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for this potentially life-threatening condition.

  5. Masculinity-femininity in fathers of creative male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grant, T N; Domino, G

    1976-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship of paternal masculinity-femininity to filial creativity in a sample of high school students and their fathers. Thirty-one male high school students were identified as creative on the basis of teacher nominations and scores on the Remote Associates Test. An equal size control group of students matched on sex, educational level, grade point average, and geographical residence was formed. Fathers of both experimental and control students were administered a battery of tests which included a variety of masculinity-femininity measures. The results seem to support the general hypothesis that creativity is related to parental identification as a function of a less conventional sex-role stereotype, and the more specific hypothesis that there is a relation between paternal masculinity-femininity and filial creativity.

  6. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.

  7. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  8. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  9. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults.

  10. Motivation, Social Reinforcement, and Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Trevor; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)

  11. Sexual behavior across ovarian cycles in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): male mate guarding and female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2009-02-01

    We studied two multimale-multifemale groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) during a 14-month study (June 2006-July 2007) in Palenque National Park, Mexico to evaluate the ways in which their sexual behavior changes across ovarian cycles. We analyzed 231 fecal samples, collected every 2.2+/-1.4 days from five females. For four females, estradiol and progesterone profiles revealed an average (+/-SE) cycle length of 18.3+/-1.4 days. Copulations occurred significantly more frequently during the periovulatory period (POP), defined as the estimated day of ovulation +/-3 days (N=18). This was largely the result of cycling females soliciting sexual interactions during their POPs. Females directed their solicitations significantly more often toward "central" males of their group, who had close spatial associations with females at other times, compared with "noncentral" males, who did not associate closely with females. Central males rarely solicited sexual interactions, but instead monitored the females' reproductive status by sniffing their genitals, and maintained significantly closer proximity to females during their POPs, suggesting male mate guarding when conceptions are most likely to occur. Our findings indicate that the reproductive strategies of black howler central males and females coincide, highly skewing mating opportunities toward central males. Black howler females, however, occasionally choose to copulate with noncentral resident males or extra-group males during their POPs, undermining the ability of central males to monopolize all reproductive opportunities.

  12. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  13. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence.

  14. Negotiating dominant masculinity ideology: strategies used by gay, bisexual and questioning male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15-23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents' management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs.

  15. School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.

  16. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  17. Lower lateral orbitofrontal cortex density associated with more frequent exposure to television and movie violence in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J; Openshaw, Anne E; Zamboni, Giovanna; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens' Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density--a possible risk factor for altered socioemotional functioning.

  18. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (< 55% carbohydrates, < 40% fats). Plasma glucose levels, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  19. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  20. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  1. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Allendorf, Fred W; Saab, Victoria; Drapeau, Pierre; Schwartz, Michael K

    2010-05-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers.

  2. Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001) Conclusion: According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents. PMID:27713893

  3. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites.

  4. Bone properties in child and adolescent male hockey and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Braid, Sarah; Moore, Michael; Yao, Matthew; Sullivan, Phil; Klentrou, Nota

    2010-07-01

    Children and adolescents who train extensively in high-impact, weight-bearing activities have enhanced bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone strength, as reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Sunlight Omniscence), of child (10-12 yrs old) and adolescent (14-16 yrs old) male soccer and hockey players in comparison with age-matched controls. The groups included 30 child (CH) and 31 adolescent (AH) hockey players, 26 child (CS) and 30 adolescent (AS) soccer players, as well as 34 child (CC) and 31 adolescent (AC) healthy, non-athletic, age-matched controls. All athletes trained at an elite level year-round, with no difference in training volume between groups. Ultrasound speed of sound (SOS) was measured at the distal-radius and mid-tibia. In both age groups, hockey players were the heaviest and had the highest fat-free mass. No differences were found among groups in total energy intake, calcium or vitamin D intake. Radial and tibial SOS increased with age. Hockey players had higher radial SOS in both age groups (children: CH:3763+/-74, CS:3736+/-77, CC:3721+/-88 m/s; adolescents: AH:3809+/-105, AS:3767+/-85, AC:3760+/-94 m/s). Tibial SOS was higher in soccer players compared with controls. In spite of the higher body mass and fat-free mass in hockey players, their tibial SOS was similar to the non-athletes in both age groups. These findings support previous suggestions of sport-specific effects on bone strength. However, they need to be corroborated with longitudinal or prospective intervention studies.

  5. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  6. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7

  7. Thiamine deficiency in black male hostel-dwellers. The need for thiamine supplementation of sorghum beer.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuyzen, J; Davis, R E; Icke, G C; Metz, J

    1987-02-21

    Some indices of nutrition have been examined in hostel- and non-hostel-dwelling groups of industrially employed black males. Hostel-dwellers in the large metropolitan areas have to prepare their own food and many are accustomed to excessive alcohol intake, especially of sorghum beer. In the two groups studied, blood levels of vitamin B12, folate, pyridoxal and albumin were similar, but erythrocyte thiamine levels were significantly lower in the hostel-dwellers. Although the proportion of subjects with elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase, an index of alcoholic liver disease, was similar in the two groups, thiamine-deficient hostel-dwellers had a greater proportion of elevated values suggesting that thiamine deficiency was related to both inadequate diet and excessive alcohol consumption. Fortification of sorghum beer with thiamine might prevent or reduce thiamine deficiency in this group. The cost would not materially affect the price of the beer.

  8. Patterns of HIV Treatment Adherence do not Differ Between Male and Female Adolescents in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Kimon L H; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that longer and more frequent dosing gaps among boys in Botswana taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to girls could account for previously seen gender-specific differences in outcomes. We monitored 154 male and 134 female adolescents for 2 years with medication event monitoring systems (MEMS). Median adherence was 95.6 % for males and 95.7 % for females (p = 0.40). There were no significant gender differences in the number of ≥7 day (p = 0.55) and ≥14 day (p = 0.48) dosing gaps. The median maximal gap was 7.7 days for males and 8.0 days for females (p = 0.47). These findings are not consistent with clinically meaningful gender differences in adherence.

  9. The traits of the great calls in the juvenile and adolescent gibbon males Nomascus gabriellae

    PubMed Central

    Bolechová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about vocal ontogeny and vocal plasticity during ontogeny in primate species is central to understanding the evolution of human speech. Vocalizations in gibbons (Hominoidea) are very interesting and contain complex species- and sex-specific patterns. However, ontogeny of gibbon songs is little studied. Here, we document regular production and ontogenetic changes of female-specific “great call” in 4 immature (2 juvenile—c.a. 3 years old; and 2 adolescent—c.a. 5 years old) males of southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (N. gabriellae) over nine months. None of the males produced fully developed adult-like “great call” and little ontogenetic changes to “great calls” occurred. “Great calls” of sons were shorter, started higher and ended lower than those of their mothers. Regular production of twitter part of great call likely appears around 4th year as it was observed in adolescent but not in juvenile males. PMID:28296969

  10. Smokeless Tobacco Decision-Making Among Rural Adolescent Males in California.

    PubMed

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2016-10-28

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) use among US high school males living in rural areas exceeds national levels. Subgroups at heightened risk of ST use have been identified, but less is known regarding ST decision-making within high-risk groups. The study objective was to describe rural adolescent males' perceived ST acceptability, health risks, and social implications and how those perceptions differ between ST users and never-users. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 55 male students (32 ST ever-users) at three rural California high schools. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Investigators collaboratively developed a codebook based on thematic content and then independently coded transcripts, reconvening frequently to achieve consensus. Coded text was systematically organized into themes following a general inductive approach. ST users and non-users shared multiple ST-related perceptions, including: that ST is a common, normative way of life in rural "country" culture among certain groups; that ST use conveys oral health risks; and that the decision to use (or not to use) is rooted in personal choice. ST users' and never-users' perceptions differed regarding the immediacy, severity, and inevitability of health risks, particularly relative to cigarette smoking. Other differences included perceived parental permissiveness and the expected social benefits of ST use, such as peer acceptance and conveying maturity. Within this population of rural male adolescents, ST users emphasized the social benefits of ST use, while acknowledging but discounting health risks. Differences and similarities in tobacco perceptions among adolescents living in similar environments may inform effective health communication.

  11. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  12. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics.

  13. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  14. Abnormal response to emotional stimulus in male adolescents with violent behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Xie, Bin; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study is to explore the characteristics of emotional stimulus in adolescents with violent behavior and to identify the correlated dysfunctional regions of the brain. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained while the participants passively viewed pictures with neutral or negative affective valence. 15 male adolescents with violent behavior, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old, and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. While looking at neutral pictures, several brain regions were activated more intensely in the violent group than the control one. After digitally subtracting the control group, these areas included the bilateral amygdala, left orbital gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and left visual cortex. While passively viewing negative pictures, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus were less activated in the violent group than the control group. Male adolescents with violent behaviors have some dysfunctions during the processing and evaluation of information from external emotional stimulus. These individuals are inclined to interpret neutral information as threatening stimulus.

  15. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  16. Obesity and Bronchodilator Response in Black and Hispanic Children and Adolescents With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Elizabeth; Thakur, Neeta; Oh, Sam S.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon M.; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, increased asthma morbidity, and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that obesity would be associated with decreased bronchodilator responsiveness in children and adolescents with asthma. In addition, we hypothesized that subjects who were obese and unresponsive to bronchodilator would have worse asthma control and would require more asthma controller medications. METHODS: In the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study, two identical, parallel, case-control studies of asthma, we examined the association between obesity and bronchodilator response in 2,963 black and Latino subjects enrolled from 2008 to 2013 using multivariable logistic regression. Using bronchodilator responsiveness, we compared asthma symptoms, controller medication usage, and asthma exacerbations between nonobese (< 95th% BMI) and obese (≥ 95th% BMI) subjects. RESULTS: The odds of being bronchodilator unresponsive were 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49) higher among obese children and adolescents compared with their not obese counterparts after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, recruitment site, baseline lung function (FEV1/FVC), and controller medication. Bronchodilator-unresponsive obese subjects were more likely to report wheezing (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70), being awakened at night (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65), using leukotriene receptor inhibitors (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70), and using inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting β2-agonist (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78) than were their nonobese counterpart. These associations were not seen in the bronchodilator-responsive group. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with bronchodilator unresponsiveness among black and Latino children and adolescents with asthma. The findings on obesity and bronchodilator unresponsiveness represent a unique

  17. Short photoperiod condition increases susceptibility to stress in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Li-Jing; Yuan, Ming; Li, Su-Xia; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ju-Lian; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence.

  18. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.

  19. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  20. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    PubMed

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  1. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.

  2. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNFα expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250μg/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and IκBα in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and IκBα expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in IκBα than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and IκBα expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS

  3. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  4. Association between Alcohol Screening Scores and Mortality in Black, Hispanic, and White Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily C.; Bradley, Katharine A.; Gupta, Shalini; Harris, Alex H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores are associated with mortality, but whether or how associations vary across race/ethnicity is unknown. Methods Self-reported black (n=13,068), Hispanic (n=9,466), and white (n=182,688) male VA outpatients completed the AUDIT-C via mailed survey. Logistic regression models evaluated whether race/ethnicity modified the association between AUDIT-C scores (0, 1–4, 5–8, and 9–12) and mortality after 24 months, adjusting for demographics, smoking, and comorbidity. Results Adjusted mortality rates were 0.036, 0.033, and 0.054, for black, Hispanic, and white patients with AUDIT-C scores of 1–4, respectively. Race/ethnicity modified the association between AUDIT-C scores and mortality (p=0.0022). Hispanic and white patients with scores of 0, 5–8, and 9–12 had significantly increased risk of death compared to those with scores of 1–4; Hispanic ORs: 1.93, 95% CI 1.50–2.49; 1.57, 1.07–2.30; 1.82, 1.04–3.17, respectively; white ORs: 1.34, 95% CI 1.29–1.40; 1.12, 1.03–1.21; 1.81, 1.59–2.07, respectively. Black patients with scores of 0 and 5–8 had increased risk relative to scores of 1–4 (ORs 1.28, 1.06–1.56 and 1.50, 1.13–1.99), but there was no significant increased risk for scores of 9–12 (ORs 1.27, 0.77–2.09). Post-hoc exploratory analyses suggested an interaction between smoking and AUDIT-C scores might account for some of the observed differences across race/ethnicity. Conclusions Among male VA outpatients, associations between alcohol screening scores and mortality varied significantly depending on race/ethnicity. Findings could be integrated into systems with automated risk calculators to provide demographically-tailored feedback regarding medical consequences of drinking. PMID:22676340

  5. A case of severe anal injury in an adolescent male due to bestial sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Roger O

    2009-10-01

    This report delineates a case of anal injury in a 12-year-old boy who gave a detailed history of bestial behavior with a male bulldog. The child described how he had seen this behavior modeled on the internet and subsequently initiated contact with his own dog, causing the dog to penetrate him anally. This type of juvenile bestial behavior with injury has only been reported once previously in the medical literature. Zoophilia, along with a number of other paraphilias, frequently has its onset in the adolescent age group. Adolescents evidencing paraphilic behaviors require thorough psychological evaluation. Spontaneous sexual assault of a human by a canine has never been described in the human or veterinary medical literature, nor is such a thing likely. A clinician involved in evaluating serious ano-genital injury in a child reportedly due to spontaneous canine sexual assault must consider other possible traumatic etiologies including sexual abuse. Investigation in any such case is essential.

  6. Male Adolescent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eme, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, one-third of male adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD) also have an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This strongly suggests that ADHD is a major risk factor for the development of SUD which practitioners must address if they are to provide adequate treatment for adolescents with SUD/ADHD. This paper supports a causal role for ADHD in the development of SUD and examines the developmental mechanisms whereby ADHD increases risk for SUD. These mechanisms include increased risk for conduct disorder, academic failure, deviant peer affiliation, engaging in risk behaviors, and self-medication. Assessment and treatment recommendations for those comorbid for SUD/ADHD are provided. PMID:25969828

  7. Atypical major depressive episode as initial presentation of intracranial germinoma in a male adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Su, Kuan-Pin; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old adolescent boy presented with atypical major depressive episode (MDE) without specific focal neurological signs for 6 months. He had a diagnosis of intra-cranial germinoma, and the atypical MDE symptoms subsided after the operation. However, he had a relapse of atypical MDE 7 months after the first surgery. His mood and binge eating symptoms subsided, but intractable body weight gain only partially improved after treatment. When encountering manifestations of depression with atypical features, especially with binge eating symptoms in male children and adolescents, with early onset age, no family history, and prolonged depressive episodes, clinicians should consider not only mood disorders including bipolar spectrum disorders but also organic brain lesions such as intracranial germinoma. PMID:28053535

  8. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  9. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  10. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.

  11. Co-segregation of sex chromosomes in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae).

    PubMed

    Ault, Jeffrey G; Felt, Kristen D; Doan, Ryan N; Nedo, Alexander O; Ellison, Cassondra A; Paliulis, Leocadia V

    2017-02-23

    During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario. We found that male L. mactans has two distinct X chromosomes, X1 and X2. The X chromosomes join together to form a connection that is present in prometaphase I but is lost during metaphase I, before the autosomes disjoin at anaphase I. We found that both X chromosomes form stable unipolar orientations to the same pole that assure their co-segregation at anaphase I. Using micromanipulation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we studied this unusual chromosome behavior to explain how it may fit the current dogma of chromosome distribution during cell division.

  12. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  13. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  14. Negotiating Dominant Masculinity Ideology: Strategies Used by Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bianca D. M.; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15–23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents’ management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238

  15. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  16. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  17. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  18. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in context: Examining trauma responses to violent exposures and homicide death among Black males in urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jocelyn R; Patton, Desmond U

    2016-03-01

    Concentrated disadvantage in urban communities places young Black men at disproportionate risk for exposure to violence and trauma. Homicide, a health disparity, positions Black males vulnerable to premature violent death and traumatic loss, particularly when peers are murdered. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been demonstrated as a health consequence for middle-income and White homicide survivors; however, understandings of traumatic stress among young Black men situated in contexts of chronic violence exposure remains limited. Guided by phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST), the current study used in-depth qualitative interviews (average length: 90 min) to examine the presence and expression of traumatic stress symptoms among 37 young Black men (18-24) in Baltimore who experienced the homicide death of a loved one. Participants were recruited over 18 months through fieldwork at a large organization that serves Baltimore youth and young adults. Confidential participant interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti. Pseudonyms were assigned to all participants. More than 70% of participants reported experiencing 2 or more Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V)-defined posttraumatic stress symptoms. Hypervigilance was most frequently experienced and expressed as being on point. Findings identify the prevalence of traumatic stress symptoms among young Black men in urban contexts; identify contextually specific expressions of traumatic stress; and, present implications for the mental health and clinical treatment of Black males living in environments where no "post" exists. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  20. Student Engagement and Achievement of Middle School Black Males in Single-Gender and Co-Educational Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Christopher Lee

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an historical overview of the systematic educational limitations that have been faced by African-American's in the United States and then considers issues facing contemporary educational leaders in the context of current educational policy and institutional inequality. A portrait of the Black male in the United…

  1. They (Don't) Care about Education: A Counternarrative on Black Male Students' Responses to Inequitable Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Davis, Charles H. F., III

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about Black male students who graduate from high school, enroll in college, aspire to earn degrees beyond the baccalaureate, and espouse commitments to various career pathways in the field of education (teaching, school administration, education research, the professoriate, education policy, and so forth). What compels these men to…

  2. Dancing between Two Worlds: A Portrait of the Life of a Black Male Teacher in South Central LA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a portrait of a young black male teacher in an urban school in South Central Los Angeles. In the portrait, the words of the subject are intertwined with the thoughts and reactions of the researcher as a way in which to capture his life history narrative and offer his reading of the world. The article discusses the participant's…

  3. Between a Ball and a Harsh Place: A Study of Black Male Community College Student-Athletes and Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined to what extent differences exist in pre-college characteristics and academic performance between Black male student-athletes and their student-athlete peers. Method: Data provided by the Florida Department of Education's PK-20 Education Data Warehouse (EDW) were analyzed as a function of group membership (gender and…

  4. A Grounded Theory of the College Experiences of African American Males in Black Greek-Letter Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, David Julius, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that involvement in a student organization can improve the academic and psychosocial outcomes of African American male students (Harper, 2006b; Robertson & Mason, 2008; Williams & Justice, 2010). Further, Harper, Byars, and Jelke (2005) stated that African American fraternities and sororities (i.e., Black Greek-letter…

  5. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  6. Demonized No More: The Spiritual Journeys and Spaces of Black Gay Male College Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.

    2014-01-01

    Spirituality plays a significant role in the lives of college students (Astin, Astin, & Lindholm, 2011; Bryant, Choi, & Yasuno, 2003; Chickering, 2006; Parks, 2000). However, Black gay males are uniquely positioned with regards to spirituality given how race, gender, and sexual orientation are generally perceived and experienced in the…

  7. The Impact of Student-Faculty Interaction on Academic Achievement and College Satisfaction for Black Males Attending Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Lamar R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student-faculty interactions on academic achievement and college satisfaction among Black males at predominately White institutions. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine if there was a difference in levels of academic achievement and college satisfaction based on how often Black…

  8. An Examination of Advanced Placement Scores for Black Male Students from Connecticut, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which differences in student performance were present between Black males in Connecticut, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Texas on selected AP examinations from the 2001 through the 2012 exam years. Specific AP exams included in this study were the English Language and…

  9. Social Success Skills: Black Male High School Students' Perspectives on Society and Their Media Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degand, Darnel

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation's purpose was to better understand how messages received through different cultural mediums influences the development of social success skills. Black male students were chosen as the focal participants for this year-long study because they are included among the groups whose social success skills development are thought to…

  10. From Liverpool to New York City: Behind the Veil of a Black British Male Scholar inside Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper speaks to the experience of Black British male experience in academia, with emphasis on UK and US colleges and universities. It is an autoethnographic study in terms of relating, witnessing, and noting both learning and teaching experiences within the confines of higher education in the UK and US. The idea behind this paper is to…

  11. The Effect of College Selection Factors on Persistence: An Examination of Black and Latino Males in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship (if any) between college selection factors and persistence for Black and Latino males in the community college. Using data derived from the Educational Longitudinal Study, backwards stepwise logistic regression models were developed for both groups. Findings are contextualized in light…

  12. "I 'See' Trayvon Martin": What Teachers Can Learn from the Tragic Death of a Young Black Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bettina L.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the racially hostile environment of U.S. public schooling towards Black males. Drawing on the work of Foucault ("Discipline and punish. The birth of the prison," Penguin Books, London, 1977; "Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics," The Harvester Press, Brighton, 1982)…

  13. In Their Own Words: Erasing Deficits and Exploring What Works to Improve K-12 and Postsecondary Black Male School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chezare A.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the imperative for strengths-based research to counter deficit perceptions and perspectives of Black males in contemporary discussions of their school achievement in the United States. The importance of young men of color in shaping research agendas, practice, and public policy is argued followed by a brief overview of the…

  14. “…And Then There was the Down Low”: Introduction to Black and Latino Male Bisexualities

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Dodge, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Although a recent proliferation of mass media has drawn attention to “the new Down Low phenomenon” (presumably “secretive” homosexuality among married Black men), relatively little research has explored bisexual behavior and identity among ethnic minority men in the United States or elsewhere. Although the study of bisexuality in Black and Latino men is significant in its own right, disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among these men make the current dearth of scientific information even more urgent and concerning. In this special section, we have compiled a diverse array of empirical and theoretical perspectives on Black and Latino male bisexualities. A wide range of information on the individual, social, and sexual lives of these men, and potential relations to risk behavior, are presented. This article introduces this new body of work and offers suggestions for future research directions for culturally appropriate interventions for Black and Latino bisexual men. PMID:18506614

  15. Spirituality as a Viable Resource in Responding to Racial Microaggressions: An Exploratory Study of Black Males Who Attended a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lloyd Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Upon entering college, Black males must negotiate a system that assumes they are in need of academic remediation and are lacking in higher-order critical thinking skills (Washington, 1996; Brown II, 2002; Harper, 2012). The low enrollment levels of Black males in college and their disenchantment with their college experiences has increased the…

  16. "I Do This for All of the Reasons America Doesn't Want Me To": The Organic Pedagogies of Black Male Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ross, kihana miraya; Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Givens, Jarvis R.; de Royston, Maxine McKinney; Vakil, Sepehr; Madkins, Tia C.; Philoxene, David

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the teaching philosophies of Black male teachers of Black male students in manhood development classes in a district-wide program in Oakland, California. Drawing on observations and instructor interview data, we explore the teachers' histories, teaching philosophies, and the trajectory of their racial-educational…

  17. How Does It Feel to Be a Problem? Black Male Students, Schools, and Learning in Enhancing the Knowledge Base to Disrupt Deficit Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    A close examination of a number of political, social, and economic indicators reveals the ongoing challenges of what it means to be Black and male in the United States. Many of these challenges begin at birth and persist over time. The complex, yet complicated picture of life for Black males in the United States remains a topic of study and…

  18. Popular Visual Images and the (Mis)Reading of Black Male Youth: A Case for Racial Literacy in Urban Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda; Greene, Perry

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of public schools across the nation, Black male youth are undergoing what can be deemed as "educational genocide"--the killing off of any chances for an equitable education. This dramatically decreases opportunities for Black male youth to develop into fully participating citizens in a democratic society. In many ways,…

  19. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  20. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  1. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forssberg, Hans; Fernell, Elisabeth; Waters, Susanna; Waters, Nicholas; Tedroff, Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD. PMID:17144907

  2. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  3. Bringing Evidence-Based Sexual Health Programs to Adolescents in Black Churches: Applying Knowledge from Systematic Adaptation Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Fiona H.; Powell, Terrinieka W.; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented Black churches' receptivity to implementing adolescent sexual health programs within their congregations. Some authors have argued for new sexual health programs to be designed specifically for churches, similar to the development of school- and community-based interventions. However, strategies and curricula used…

  4. Research Brief--Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effects of both sex and ethnic background on mathematics achievement, 112 Mexican-American and Black adolescents were studied. Achievement scores, parental influence, and math attitudes were analyzed. Ethnic background seemed to exert a much greater effect on mathematics achievement than did gender. (PP)

  5. Comparison of esthetics perception and satisfaction of facial profile among male adolescents and adults with different profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate esthetics perception and satisfaction of the facial profile among Iranian male adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, male subjects referred to Orthodontic Department of Mashhad Dental School were enrolled (n = 84) and were divided into two groups: Adolescents (n = 39), and adults (n = 45). They were also assigned to straight, convex, or concave profile groups based on the facial profile angle (G-Sn-Pog’). An ideal silhouette of the lower facial profile was designed in Adobe® Photoshop® CS2 software (Kansas, USA). Then, eight other silhouettes representing different relations of the maxilla and mandible were constructed. Patients were asked to use numbers 1–10 to rank the facial profiles in the order of the attractiveness, and choose a silhouette that best closely resembled their own profile. Moreover, using a questionnaire patients were asked to rank their satisfaction with their profile, and asked to assign a number (1–5) to each question as follows; one represented the least satisfaction, while five reflected the highest satisfaction. Results: Adult and adolescent subjects with straight (adults: 12.0 ± 1.9, adolescents: 12.8 ± 1.05) and concave (adults: 10.0 ± 2.14, adolescents: 10.0 ± 2.08) profile showed the highest and the least satisfaction with their own profile, respectively. Both adult and adolescent group selected “retrognathic maxilla, prognathic mandible” as the least attractive profile. Overall, “straight” and “bimaxillary dentoalveolar retrusion” were chosen as the most attractive silhouettes in adolescent and adults, respectively. In comparison to a professional opinion (clinician ranking), 42.9% of adolescents and 22% of adults were able to correctly diagnose their own profiles type. Conclusion: Most of the male adolescents and especially adults diagnosis of their own profile differed with a professional assessment. PMID:27127750

  6. Trauma and Aggression: Investigating the Mediating Role of Mentalizing in Female and Male Inpatient Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abate, Anna; Marshall, Kaisa; Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda

    2017-02-07

    High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior. Using a sample of inpatient adolescents, the current study examined relations between PTSD symptoms and four forms of aggression, exploring the role of both over- and under-mentalizing (i.e., hypo- and hypermentalizing) as mediators and gender as a moderator. The results suggest that hypermentalizing, but not hypomentalizing, mediates the relation between trauma and aggression, extending prior research related to inpatient adolescents for the first time. Evidence of moderated mediation was noted, such that this mediational relation was evident for females but not males. The current study offers support for differential underlying causes of aggression among males and females with PTSD symptoms.

  7. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.

  8. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  9. Balance and Coordination Capacities of Male Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Pitetti, Ken; Miller, Ruth Ann; Loovis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit a mixture of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial limitation. Identifying specific inadequacies in motor proficiency in youth with ID would improve therapeutic management to enhance functional capacity and health-related physical activity. The purpose of this study was to initiate descriptive data collection of gross motor skills of youth with ID and compare those skills with competency norms. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) was used to measure 6 items for balance (BAL), 5 items for upper limb coordination (ULC), and 6 items for bilateral coordination (BLC) of 123 males (ages 8-18) with ID but without Down syndrome. The authors performed 2,840 assessments (10-32 for each item); 944, 985, and 913 for BAL, ULC, and BLC, respectively. Mean scores for all age groups for BAL, ULC, and BLC were consistently below BOT-2 criteria. Overall motor skills of males with ID are below the competence expected for children and adolescents without disabilities.

  10. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  11. Dating violence victimization, dispositional aggression, and nonsuicidal self-injury among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI.

  12. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.

  13. Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ty T; Palmer, Jennifer S; Gray, L Earl; Veeramachaneni, D N Rao

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated sequelae in male rabbits following exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at a dose level known to adversely affect testicular function in rodents without causing systemic toxicity. Because rabbits have a relatively long phase of reproductive development simulating better than rodents the reproductive development of humans, and because the use of rabbits facilitates multiple evaluations of mating ability and seminal quality, we used this animal model. Rabbits were exposed to 0 or 400 mg DBP/kg/day in utero (gestation days [GD] 15-29) or during adolescence (postnatal weeks [PNW] 4-12), and male offspring were examined at 6, 12, and 25 weeks of age. Another group was exposed after puberty (for 12 weeks) and examined at the conclusion of exposure. The most pronounced reproductive effects were in male rabbits exposed in utero. Male offspring in this group exhibited reduction in numbers of ejaculated sperm (down 43%; p < 0.01), in weights of testes (at 12 weeks, down 23%; p < 0.05) and in accessory sex glands (at 12 and 25 weeks, down 36%; p < 0.01 and down 27%; p < 0.05, respectively). Serum testosterone levels were down (at 6 weeks, 32%; p < 0.05); a slight increase in histological alterations of the testis (p < 0.05) and a doubling in the percentage (from 16 to 30%, p < 0.01) of abnormal sperm; and 1/17 males manifesting hypospadias, hypoplastic prostate, and cryptorchid testes with carcinoma in situ-like cells. In the DBP group exposed during adolescence, basal serum testosterone levels were reduced at 6 weeks (p < 0.01) while at 12 weeks, testosterone production in vivo failed to respond normally to a GnRH challenge (p < 0.01). In addition, weight of accessory sex glands was reduced at 12 weeks but not at 25 weeks after a recovery period; there was a slight increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in the ejaculate; and 1/11 males was unilaterally cryptorchid. In both of these DBP-treated groups, daily sperm production, epididymal sperm counts, mating

  14. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy White and Black Adolescents: Relations to Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relations of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14–18 years, 48% blacks, 51% girls) using a quantitative PCR method. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Black adolescents had longer telomeres than white adolescents (age and sex adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.32 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.014) and girls had longer telomeres than boys (age and race adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.31 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.007). None of the adiposity or adipokine measures explained a significant proportion of the variance in telomere length. Vigorous physical activity was positively associated with telomere length (adjusted R2=0.019, p=0.009) and accounted for 1.9% of the total variance only in girls. Conclusion This study, conducted in a biracial adolescent cohort, demonstrated that: (1) race and sex differences in telomere length have already emerged during adolescence; (2) adiposity and adipokines are not associated with telomere length at this age; and (3) the anti-aging effect of vigorous physical activity may begin in youth especially in girls. PMID:20855079

  15. Observed infanticides following a male immigration event in black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, at Palenque National Park, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Kulp, Aimee E; Thiessen-Bock, Robyn; Garcia, Marisol; Estrada, Alejandro

    2010-10-01

    This study describes two cases of directly observed and one case of nearly observed infanticide after an adult male immigrated into a multimale-multifemale group of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico. The immigrant male entered the group alone, injured the central adult male, presumably evicted the noncentral adult male, and killed all three young infants present over the course of three consecutive days in February 2010. Three weeks after the infanticide events, the three adult females who lost their infants were observed to sexually solicit and copulate with both the infanticidal male and the injured central male. Multimale mating is an effective reproductive strategy that females employ to confuse paternity and reduce the risk of infanticide, but the extent to which promiscuous mating after infanticide events is part of a counterstrategy in this species is still unknown. More cases of infanticide will need to be observed to assess the degree to which infanticide avoidance shapes the social system of the black howler monkey.

  16. Collateral Consequences: Implications of male incarceration rates, imbalanced sex ratios and partner availability for heterosexual Black women

    PubMed Central

    Dauria, Emily F.; Oakley, Lisa; Jacob Arriola, Kimberly; Elifson, Kirk; Wingood, Gina; Cooper, Hannah L. F.

    2015-01-01

    While studies have found correlations between rates of incarceration and STIs, few have explored the mechanisms linking these phenomena. This qualitative study examines how male incarceration rates and sex ratios influence perceived partner availability and sexual partnerships for heterosexual Black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 Black women living in two US neighbourhoods: one with a high male incarceration rate and an imbalanced sex ratio (referred to as “Allentown”) and one with a low male incarceration rate and an equitable sex ratio (referred to as “Blackrock”). Data were analysed using grounded theory. In Allentown, male incarceration reduced the number of available men; participants largely viewed men available for partnerships as being of an undesirable quality. The number and desirability of men impacted on the nature of partnerships such that they were shorter, focused on sexual activity, and may be with higher risk sexual partners (e.g. transactional sex partners). In Blackrock, marriage rates contributed to the shortage of desirable male partners. By highlighting the role that the quantity and quality of male partners has on shaping sexual partnerships, this study advances current understandings of how incarceration and sex ratios shape HIV- and STI-related risk. PMID:26056724

  17. Collateral consequences: implications of male incarceration rates, imbalanced sex ratios and partner availability for heterosexual Black women.

    PubMed

    Dauria, Emily F; Oakley, Lisa; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Elifson, Kirk; Wingood, Gina; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    While studies have found correlations between rates of incarceration and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), few studies have explored the mechanisms linking these phenomena. This qualitative study examines how male incarceration rates and sex ratios influence perceived partner availability and sexual partnerships for heterosexual Black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 Black women living in two US neighbourhoods, one with a high male incarceration rate and an imbalanced sex ratio (referred to as 'Allentown') and one with a low male incarceration rate and an equitable sex ratio (referred to as 'Blackrock'). Data were analysed using grounded theory. In Allentown, male incarceration reduced the number of available men, and participants largely viewed men available for partnerships as being of an undesirable quality. The number and desirability of men impacted on the nature of partnerships such that they were shorter, focused on sexual activity and may be with higher-risk sexual partners (e.g. transactional sex partners). In Blackrock, marriage rates contributed to the shortage of desirable male partners. By highlighting the role that the quantity and quality of male partners has on shaping sexual partnerships, this study advances current understandings of how incarceration and sex ratios shape HIV- and STI-related risk.

  18. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.

  19. Social Norms and Beliefs Regarding Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Involvement among Adolescent Males Treated for Dating Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F.; Hathaway, Jeanne E.; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of multiple partnering, 2) perceived gain of male social status from claims of sexual activity, 3) perception that rape is uncommon combined with belief that girls claiming to be raped are liars, 4) perception that men rationalize rapes to avoid responsibility, 5) condom non-use in the context of rape and sex involving substance use, 6) beliefs that girls lie and manipulate boys in order to become pregnant and trap them into relationships, and 7) male avoidance of responsibility and negative responses to pregnancy. The combination of peer-supported norms of male multiple partnering and adversarial sexual beliefs appear to support increased male sexual risk, lack of accountability for sexual risk, and rationalization of rape and negative responses to pregnancy. Further research focused on the context of male sexual risk and abusive relationship behaviors is needed to inform intervention with young men to promote sexual health and prevent rape, dating violence, and adolescent pregnancy. PMID:16845498

  20. Early life overnutrition induced by litter size manipulation decreases social play behavior in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Laura O; Ferri, Bárbara G; de Sousa, Francielly A Lopes; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of artificial litter size adjustment on offspring development. Social play behavior is important for neurobehavioral development and is impaired in several developmental psychiatric disorders. This study therefore investigated the effect of litter size on play behavior in adolescent rats. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of 3 pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors scored daily during the first week of lactation (PND2-8) revealed that arched nursing and pup licking behaviors were increased in dams with SLs versus those with NLs. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain and advanced development of physical landmarks and reflexes, possibly due to overnutrition. Social isolation lasting 3.5h prior to social play behavioral testing produced a higher frequency and duration of pouncing, pinning, sniffing, and grooming in both male and female offspring. However, male SL offspring exhibited a lower frequency of pouncing and pinning when compared with male NL offspring, while no litter size-dependent differences were observed in social behaviors unrelated to play (sniffing and grooming). These findings identify a possible sexually dimorphic influence of litter size in the development of social behavior. Given that social behaviors such as play behavior are vital for normal cognitive and social development, these findings have important implications for developmental and neuropsychiatric research.

  1. A Comparative Analysis Regarding Factors Related to 13- to 18-Year-Old African American Male Adolescents in Special Education and the Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Jonathan Lanier

    2013-01-01

    This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…

  2. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  3. Safe sex versus safe love? Relationship context and condom use among male adolescents in the favelas of Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Fatima; Martín, Teresa Castro

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of the relationship context where adolescent sexual activity takes place on contraceptive decisions. The data were collected in a specially designed survey carried out in May 2000 on 1,438 adolescent males aged 13-19 residing in favelas (urban slum areas) of Recife, Brazil. A logistic regression analysis of condom use at last sexual intercourse and a multinomial logit analysis of contraceptive method choice were performed for 678 sexually active adolescents. Educational attainment, degree of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, and condom use at first sexual intercourse were found to be significantly associated with current condom use. Regarding the relationship context, the analysis revealed that adolescent males in steady relationships were less likely to use condoms, less likely to regard themselves at risk of HIV infection, and more concerned about pregnancy prevention than adolescents in casual relationships. Differentials in condom use by type of relationship, however, did not result from a higher rejection of contraception by steady partners but from their higher likelihood to rely on other contraceptive methods. Results suggest that prevention campaigns need to take into account the intimate context where adolescents assess potential health risks, and to address the divergent symbolic meanings condoms may have in different types of relationships. If an increase of condom use among stable sexual partners is pursued, public health campaigns might need to romanticize condom use as a sign of love and trust and place more emphasis on the benefits of dual protection.

  4. Black Adolescent Mothers’ Perspectives on Sex and Parenting in Non-marital Relationships with the Biological Fathers of their Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to understand single Black adolescent mothers’ perspectives on the sexual and parenting related aspects of their relationships with the biological fathers of their children. Methods The study was a qualitative description of perspectives from a convenience sample of Black single (non married) adolescent mothers. Data were generated through focus groups and interviews. Participants were recruited using self-referral and health provider referrals. Setting The study was conducted in a county public health department sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Rochester, New York. Participants Single mothers (n=31) ages 15–19 participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 17.5 years (SD 1.4). Findings Four themes were identified that reflected the major characteristics of the relationships between the mothers and the biological fathers of their children: (1) You will always care about your baby daddy because of your child, (2) Negative behavior is tolerated to keep the family together, (3) The baby daddy can get sex as long as we are not on bad terms, and (4) He will always be part of our life. Conclusion Black adolescent mothers have complex relationships with the biological fathers of their children that may include ongoing sexual activity. The intersection of co-parenting and sexual health needs among adolescent mothers highlights the importance of integrating sexually transmitted infections prevention with perinatal health programs. It is important to consider this unique co-parenting relationship when providing risk-reduction counseling to young mothers. PMID:22834723

  5. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  6. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  7. Deficits in male sexual behavior in adulthood after social instability stress in adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Green, Matthew R; Cameron, Nicole M; Nixon, Feather; Levy, Marisa J; Clark, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence has long-lasting effects on emotional and cognitive behavior, but little is known as to whether reproductive functions are affected. We investigated appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in male rats that were exposed to chronic social instability stress (SS, n=24) for 16 days in mid-adolescence compared to control rats (CTL, n=24). Over five sexual behavior test sessions with a receptive female, SS rats made fewer ejaculations (p=0.02) and had longer latencies to ejaculation (p=0.03). When only data from rats that ejaculated in the fifth session were analyzed, SS rats (n=18) had reduced copulatory efficiency (more mounts and intromissions before ejaculation) compared to CTL rats (n=19) (p=0.004), and CTL rats were twice as likely as SS rats to make more than one ejaculation in the fifth session (p=0.05). Further, more CTL (14/24) than SS (5/25) rats ejaculated in four or more sessions (p=0.05). SS rats had lower plasma testosterone concentrations than CTL rats (p=0.05), but did not differ in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, or Fos immunoreactive cell counts in the medial preoptic area. The groups did not differ in a partner preference test administered between the fourth and fifth sexual behavior session. The results suggest that developmental history contributes to individual differences in reproductive behavior, and that stress exposures in adolescence may be a factor in sexual sluggishness.

  8. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  9. A self-efficacy questionnaire regarding leisure time physical activity: Psychometric properties among Iranian male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention to different aspects of self-efficacy leads to actual evaluation of self-efficacy about physical activity. This study was carried out in order to design and determine psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire for evaluation of self-efficacy about leisure time physical activity (SELPA) among Iranian adolescent boys, with an emphasis on regulatory self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This descriptive–analytic study was conducted in 734 male adolescents aged 15–19 years in Isfahan. After item generation and item selection based on review of literature and other questionnaires, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were determined and items were modified employing the opinions of expert panel (N = 10). Comprehensibility of the questionnaire was determined by members of target group (N = 35). Exploratory factors analysis (EFA) was operated on sample 1 (N1 = 325) and confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) on sample 2 (N2 = 347). Reliability of SELPA was estimated via internal consistency method. Results: According to EFA, barrier self-efficacy and scheduling self-efficacy are the two main aspects of SELPA with the total variance of 65%. The suggested model was confirmed by CFA and all fitness indices of the corrected model were good. Cronbach's alpha was totally estimated as 0.89 and for barrier and scheduling self-efficacy, it was 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusions: The results provide some evidence for acceptable validity and reliability of SELPA in Iranian adolescent boys. However, further investigations, especially for evaluation of predictive power of the questionnaire, are necessary. PMID:26985219

  10. Prenatal nicotine exposure changes natural and drug-induced reinforcement in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Park, Minjung; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2008-06-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of substance misuse and obesity in adolescents whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Although dopamine systems that mediate natural and drug-induced reinforcement have been shown in animal studies to be altered by gestational nicotine treatment, it is not clear whether there are concomitant changes in reinforcement sensitivity. To test whether prenatal nicotine exposure influences sensitivity to natural and drug rewards, timed pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering saline or nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 4 to 18. Male offspring were tested as adolescents, on postnatal day 32, for operant responding maintained by sucrose pellets or i.v. cocaine (200 or 500 mug/kg per injection). Cocaine-induced stereotypy and c-fos mRNA expression in cortex and striatum were also examined. Complex changes in reward circuitry were observed in the offspring of nicotine-exposed dams. Nicotine-exposed adolescents did not self-administer the low dose of cocaine, but, at the higher dose, exhibited significantly greater cocaine intake and c-fos mRNA expression in nucleus accumbens than did controls. In contrast, control animals showed significantly greater drug-induced stereotypy at both cocaine doses. Operant responding maintained by sucrose was also influenced by gestational nicotine exposure. At a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule, although the number of pellets eaten by the two experimental groups was equivalent, more pellets were left uneaten by nicotine-exposed offspring. At FR2 and FR5 schedules, the responding maintained by sucrose pellets was lower in nicotine-exposed offspring. These findings suggest that nicotine exposure during gestation may induce changes in both natural and drug reward pathways.

  11. The effects of traditional family values on the coming out process of gay male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, B S; Muzzonigro, P G

    1993-01-01

    The development of a gay or lesbian identity (often referred to as the coming out process) has been widely studied in adults; however, few studies have examined the process in gay adolescents. Even among these studies, little research has investigated the effects of race or family values on the coming out process. A small sample of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Eurasian, and Caucasian gay male adolescents participated in this survey study. Coming out was operationalized in three stages: sensitization; awareness with confusion, denial, guilt, and shame; and acceptance. The majority of respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. The average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Most respondents reported feeling confused during their first awareness that they were gay. Denial of identity was a coping strategy for about half the sample. Traditional family values played a greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. Families were categorized as having high or low traditional values based upon (1) the importance of religion, (2) emphasis on marriage, (3) emphasis on having children, and (4) whether a non-English language was spoken in the home. Families with a strong emphasis on traditional values were perceived as less accepting of homosexuality than were the low traditional families. Those who work with adolescents need to be aware that some will recognize their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, or bisexual during this time of their lives. These youth need support in the coming out process because they may encounter stigmatization and disapproval not only from the larger society, but also from their families, peers, and sometimes the gay community itself.

  12. Sexual activity and contraceptive use among low-income urban black adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Keith, J B; McCreary, C; Collins, K; Smith, C P; Bernstein, I

    1991-01-01

    A modified form of Nathanson and Becker's (1983) Health Belief Model Questionnaire and other measures designed to assess cognitive processing were administered to low-income black adolescent female clients of an inner-city comprehensive health care clinic. The purpose of the study was to explore determinants of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Subjects were classified as not sexually active (n = 50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n = 20), or sexually active/contracepting (n = 72). Not sexually active subjects tended to be younger, more career motivated, to have a father at home, to be more influenced by family values, and to have more conservative attitudes regarding adolescent sexuality than did sexually active subjects. Sexually active/noncontracepting subjects tended to report fewer benefits and more barriers to the use of contraception. Level of cognitive processing did not differ among the three groups, but was at a lower-than-expected level for age. Finally, inconsistent contraceptive use was common to both sexually active groups.

  13. Challenges to Engaging Black Male Victims of Community Violence in Healthcare Research: Lessons Learned From Two Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Sonia; Hoyte, Joel; James, Thea; Conoscenti, Lauren; Johnson, Renee M.; Liebschutz, Jane

    2010-01-01

    A dearth of literature exists on barriers to conducting research with Black male victims of community violence, despite the need for evidence-based postinjury interventions. This study used qualitative data from a cross-sectional interview study (n = 16) and a pilot intervention study (n = 11) conducted in Boston, MA to identify challenges and facilitators to conducting research with Black male victims of community violence, particularly with regard to recruitment and maintenance of a study sample. Qualitative methods, including Grounded Theory and ethnography, were used to analyze the data. Challenges included a fear of police involvement, an impression of “snitching” when disclosing personal information, mistrust of research motives, suspicion of the informed consent process, the emotional impact of the trauma itself, and logistical issues. Facilitators to research included monetary incentives and motivation to help oneself and others. Participant recommendations on recruitment methods relating to approach and timing are provided. Findings from this study may assist in the planning of research studies for Black male victims of community violence. PMID:20526412

  14. Multiple Pigment Cell Types Contribute to the Black, Blue, and Orange Ornaments of Male Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kottler, Verena A.; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632

  15. Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing in male delinquent adolescents in northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R

    1998-01-01

    A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.

  16. Absence of a normal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in adolescent males with Asperger syndrome (AS).

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Turner-Cobb, Julie; Munro-Naan, Zoe; Jessop, David

    2009-08-01

    In addition to abnormalities in social and communication development, a 'need for sameness' and 'resistance to change' are features of autistic spectrum disorders first identified by Kanner in 1943. Our ability to react to change is modulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a feature of which is a dramatic increase in cortisol upon waking, the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). This study examined whether the CAR was evident in 20 adolescent males with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and 18 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 11-16). Whilst a significant CAR was evidenced in the TD control group, this was not the case for those with AS. A normal diurnal decrease in cortisol, however, was evident in both groups. The implication that individuals with AS may have an impaired response to change in their environment due to a refractory HPA axis is discussed.

  17. Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Vermeiren, Robert R; Noom, Marc; Broekaert, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth detention centers in Flanders. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children was used to assess PLSs and the number of SUDs. Two to 4 years later, information on official recidivism was obtained. Although hallucinations were unrelated to violent recidivism, paranoid delusions (PDs) and threat/control override delusions (TCODs) were negatively related to violent recidivism. The relation between PLSs and violent recidivism did not become stronger in the presence of SUDs. Detained youths with PLSs do not have a higher risk for violent recidivism than detained youths without PLSs. In contrast, by identifying detained youths with PDs or TCODs, clinicians are likely to identify youths with a low risk for future violent crimes.

  18. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  19. Educational-entertainment as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Valerie Dorsey; Solomon, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing violence is one adverse childhood experience (ACE) associated with living in impoverished Black urban communities. Youth with higher violence avoidance self-efficacy and positive coping are more likely to avoid violence. This study evaluates educational entertainment (edutainment) as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence. Edutainment has shown success in increasing self-efficacy and positive coping skills in other domains. Self-administered scales were used to measure stress, anxiety, violence avoidance self-efficacy, and coping strategies. Data were collected pre- and nine days post-interventions/no intervention from 20 subjects receiving the edutainment intervention, 19 subjects participating in a group discussion about violence, and 21 subjects receiving no intervention (N = 60). Edutainment and no intervention were more effective than group discussion alone in increasing violence avoidance self-efficacy. Violence avoidance self-efficacy was found to have an intervening relationship between edutainment and the outcome of stress. This study indicates limited but positive effects for edutainment.

  20. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  1. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  2. The Effects of Value Confrontation and Reinforcement Counseling on the Career Planning Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Post-tests show that the value confrontation procedure resulted in significantly greater frequency of information seeking for internally controlled subjects when compared to the reinforcement counseling and control procedures. Examines two procedures designed to enhance the career planning attitudes and behavior of rural adolescent males.…

  3. Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…

  4. The Impacts of the Voice Change, Grade Level, and Experience on the Singing Self-Efficacy of Emerging Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…

  5. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Zhang, Jiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs) are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA) was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus), which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus), the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus), and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine), which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network) and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network). Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD. PMID:26713867

  6. Division I Men's Basketball Scholarship: The Challenges of Being a Black Male Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative research will explore issues that interface particularly with Black student- athletes on Division 1 basketball scholarships regarding academic readiness, academic support, family support and how the experience of a Division 1 scholarship impacted their lives. The population of Black student-athletes that the focus of the research…

  7. Difference in Condom Use among Sexually Active Males at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Thomas Alex; Wang, Yan; Browne, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) may not perceive themselves to be part of the larger gay community and hence may not heed prevention messages aimed at the community. Objective and Participants: To better understand the participants behaviors, the authors examined differences in condom…

  8. Black Males and Crime and Delinquency: Violence in Search of Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Dale F.

    1994-01-01

    Economic restructuring has exacerbated problems of black men such as poverty, unemployment, lowered life expectancy, and low expectations. Power diverted from productive channels is expressed in gang violence, homicide, and suicide. Recommendations include a national agency to eliminate poverty, involve the black community, and increase funding…

  9. Personality Differences among Black, White, and Hispanic-American Male Heroin Addicts on MMPI Content Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, M. P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assessed personality differences among Black, White, and Hispanic-American heroin addicts (N=423). Results confirmed the hypotheses that minority group heroin addicts (Blacks and Hispanics) would show better adjustment than White heroin addicts and that Hispanic-American heroin addicts would evidence personality characteristics unlike those of…

  10. The protective role of ethnic identity for urban adolescent males facing multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joanna L; Aiyer, Sophie M; Durkee, Myles I; Tolan, Patrick H

    2014-10-01

    Having a connection to one's ethnic heritage is considered a protective factor in the face of discrimination; however, it is unclear whether the protective effects are persistent across multiple stressors. Furthermore, the dimensions of ethnic identity that reflect group pride/connection (affirmation) and exploration of the meaning of group membership (achievement) may operate differently in the face of stress. The present study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity affirmation and achievement on concurrent and longitudinal relationships between exposure to stress (discrimination, family hardship, exposure to violence) and antisocial behavior in a sample of 256 Black and Latino male youth (70% Black) living in low-income urban neighborhoods. Using regression analysis, concurrent associations were examined at age 18, and longitudinal associations were tested 18 months later. We found that, among youth experiencing discrimination, high levels of achievement and low levels of affirmation predicted greater aggressive behavior and delinquency. Low affirmation also predicted more criminal offending in the face of discrimination. The two dimensions operated similarly in the context of family stress, in which case high levels of affirmation and achievement predicted lower levels of antisocial behavior. The findings suggest a differential role of the two dimensions of ethnic identity with respect to discrimination; furthermore, the coping skills that may be promoted as youth make meaning of their ethnic group membership may serve as cultural assets in the face of family stress.

  11. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  12. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials.

  13. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  14. The Agonies and Survival Techniques of Black Females and Their Implications for Improving the Plight of Black Males in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Hortense D.

    1992-01-01

    Briefly describes the lives of important African-American women, detailing the challenges they faced and how they survived from Sojourner Truth to Alice Walker. Suggests that the strengths and lessons of the lives of these women may shed light on how to help African-American males. (JB)

  15. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.

  16. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males

    PubMed Central

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071

  17. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  18. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  19. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  20. "Machismo," self-esteem, education and high maximum drinking among anglo, black and Mexican-American male drinkers.

    PubMed

    Neff, J A; Prihoda, T J; Hoppe, S K

    1991-09-01

    This study seeks to clarify the relevance of machismo to patterns of high maximum drinking among male drinkers. Specifically, the study describes the psychometric properties of a newly developed 7-item machismo measure, compares levels of machismo and self-esteem for a sample of Anglo, black and Mexican-American males, and examines both main and interaction effects of machismo, self-esteem and education as predictors of alcohol use in these racial/ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression analyses document interaction between race/ethnicity, machismo, self-esteem and education, which calls into question the presumed importance of machismo as a cultural element causing heavy drinking patterns among Mexican-American males.