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Sample records for adolescent brain maturation

  1. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  2. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization.

    PubMed

    Oron Semper, Jose V; Murillo, Jose I; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012

  3. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Oron Semper, Jose V.; Murillo, Jose I.; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012

  4. Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416

  5. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    PubMed

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures. PMID:22040134

  6. Maturation of metabolic connectivity of the adolescent rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yoori; Kim, Kyu Wan; Kang, Hyejin; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, E Edmund; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been used to examine developmental changes of the brain. While PET studies revealed maturation-related changes, maturation of metabolic connectivity of the brain is not yet understood. Here, we show that rat brain metabolism is reconfigured to achieve long-distance connections with higher energy efficiency during maturation. Metabolism increased in anterior cerebrum and decreased in thalamus and cerebellum during maturation. When functional covariance patterns of PET images were examined, metabolic networks including default mode network (DMN) were extracted. Connectivity increased between the anterior and posterior parts of DMN and sensory-motor cortices during maturation. Energy efficiency, a ratio of connectivity strength to metabolism of a region, increased in medial prefrontal and retrosplenial cortices. Our data revealed that metabolic networks mature to increase metabolic connections and establish its efficiency between large-scale spatial components from childhood to early adulthood. Neurodevelopmental diseases might be understood by abnormal reconfiguration of metabolic connectivity and efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11571.001 PMID:26613413

  7. Does recent research on adolescent brain development inform the mature minor doctrine?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    US Supreme Court rulings concerning sanctions for juvenile offenders have drawn on the science of brain development and concluded that adolescents are inherently less mature than adults in ways that render them less culpable. This conclusion departs from arguments made in cases involving the mature minor doctrine, in which teenagers have been portrayed as comparable to adults in their capacity to make medical decisions. I attempt to reconcile these apparently incompatible views of adolescents' decision-making competence. Adolescents are indeed less mature than adults when making decisions under conditions that are characterized by emotional arousal and peer pressure, but adolescents aged 15 and older are just as mature as adults when emotional arousal is minimized and when they are not under the influence of peers, conditions that typically characterize medical decision-making. The mature minor doctrine, as applied to individuals 15 and older, is thus consistent with recent research on adolescent development. PMID:23607975

  8. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  9. Schizophrenia Delays and Alters Maturation of the Brain in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douaud, Gwenaelle; Mackay, Clare; Andersson, Jesper; James, Susan; Quested, Digby; Ray, Manaan Kar; Connell, Julie; Roberts, Neil; Crow, Timothy J.; Matthews, Paul M.; Smith, Stephen; James, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia appears to be clinically more severe than the adult-onset form of the disease. In a previous study, we showed that anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities found in adolescents patients were larger and more widespread than what had been reported in the literature on adult schizophrenia. Particularly, we…

  10. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8-25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls. PMID:24416184

  11. Adolescent brain maturation and cortical folding: evidence for reductions in gyrification.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daniel; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Genc, Erhan; Sritharan, Sharmili; Mohr, Harald; Roux, Frederic; Han, Cheol E; Kaiser, Marcus; Singer, Wolf; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from anatomical and functional imaging studies have highlighted major modifications of cortical circuits during adolescence. These include reductions of gray matter (GM), increases in the myelination of cortico-cortical connections and changes in the architecture of large-scale cortical networks. It is currently unclear, however, how the ongoing developmental processes impact upon the folding of the cerebral cortex and how changes in gyrification relate to maturation of GM/WM-volume, thickness and surface area. In the current study, we acquired high-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 79 healthy subjects (34 males and 45 females) between the ages of 12 and 23 years and performed whole brain analysis of cortical folding patterns with the gyrification index (GI). In addition to GI-values, we obtained estimates of cortical thickness, surface area, GM and white matter (WM) volume which permitted correlations with changes in gyrification. Our data show pronounced and widespread reductions in GI-values during adolescence in several cortical regions which include precentral, temporal and frontal areas. Decreases in gyrification overlap only partially with changes in the thickness, volume and surface of GM and were characterized overall by a linear developmental trajectory. Our data suggest that the observed reductions in GI-values represent an additional, important modification of the cerebral cortex during late brain maturation which may be related to cognitive development. PMID:24454765

  12. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  13. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  14. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  15. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  16. Nicotine and the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Menglu; Cross, Sarah J; Loughlin, Sandra E; Leslie, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence encompasses a sensitive developmental period of enhanced clinical vulnerability to nicotine, tobacco, and e-cigarettes. While there are sociocultural influences, data at preclinical and clinical levels indicate that this adolescent sensitivity has strong neurobiological underpinnings. Although definitions of adolescence vary, the hallmark of this period is a profound reorganization of brain regions necessary for mature cognitive and executive function, working memory, reward processing, emotional regulation, and motivated behavior. Regulating critical facets of brain maturation are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, perturbations of cholinergic systems during this time with nicotine, via tobacco or e-cigarettes, have unique consequences on adolescent development. In this review, we highlight recent clinical and preclinical data examining the adolescent brain's distinct neurobiology and unique sensitivity to nicotine. First, we discuss what defines adolescence before reviewing normative structural and neurochemical alterations that persist until early adulthood, with an emphasis on dopaminergic systems. We review how acute exposure to nicotine impacts brain development and how drug responses differ from those seen in adults. Finally, we discuss the persistent alterations in neuronal signaling and cognitive function that result from chronic nicotine exposure, while highlighting a low dose, semi-chronic exposure paradigm that may better model adolescent tobacco use. We argue that nicotine exposure, increasingly occurring as a result of e-cigarette use, may induce epigenetic changes that sensitize the brain to other drugs and prime it for future substance abuse. PMID:26018031

  17. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  18. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  19. Cerebral maturation in adolescence: behavioral vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ernst, M; Korelitz, Katherine E

    2009-12-01

    Recent neurodevelopmental research has been focusing on the transition period of adolescence into adulthood. This growing interest was spurred by the long-standing realization of the high cost of this transition period in terms of morbidity and mortality, and the emergence of research tools that permit direct examination of brain function in humans. The cost of reaching adulthood is understood as resulting from the typical behavioral and environmental changes that accompany adolescence [4]. The present review describes how the current research helps formulate neurobiological models that can be used to guide future work. One example of such a model, the triadic neural systems model [8], will be examined in more detail. This review will proceed in three stages. First, we will show how neural development results from the confluence of maturational changes that are quantitatively and qualitatively heterogeneous across brain regions, neurochemical and molecular systems. This normative developmental heterogeneity is translated into typical adolescent behavioral patterns, including risk-taking, novelty-seeking, emotional intensity and lability, and peer-group social primacy [5, 9]. Second, based on the notion that motivated behavior can be operationally decomposed into the three core modules of approach, avoidance and control, any alteration in the balance of these three core entities can affect behavior in unique ways. This formulation will serve as the foundation of the neural systems model framework proposed in this review. Third, functional neuroimaging is being used to examine how neural systems underlie this balance within the neural systems model. We will provide a summary of the state of research in this area. Finally, we will show how this research is important for understanding not only normal development, but also the psychopathology. The role of genetic or environmental factors will not be addressed here, despite their critical roles in determining and

  20. Adolescent Naturalistic Conceptions of Moral Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Skalski, Jonathan E.; Basinger, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding lay conceptions of morality is important not only because they can guide moral psychology theory but also because they may play a role in everyday moral functioning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine adolescent conceptions of moral maturity. Study 1 (200 adolescents 12-18 years) involved a free-listing procedure to…

  1. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  2. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  3. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANA, MONICA

    2014-01-01

    Since this journal’s inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical–cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology–context interactions, represent the field’s most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled. PMID:24342843

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Rodgers, Ali B.; Morgan, Christopher P.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the reemergence of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus triggers a cascade of hormone-dependent processes. Maturation of specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex occurs during this window, but the complex mechanisms underlying these dynamic changes are not well understood. Particularly, the potential involvement of epigenetics in this programming has been under-examined. The epigenome is known to guide earlier stages of development, and it is similarly poised to regulate vital pubertal-driven brain maturation. Further, as epigenetic machinery is highly environmentally responsive, its involvement may also lend this period of growth to greater vulnerability to external insults, resulting in reprogramming and increased disease risk. Importantly, neuropsychiatric diseases commonly present in individuals during or immediately following puberty, and environmental perturbations including stress may precipitate disease onset by disrupting the normal trajectory of pubertal brain development via epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss epigenetic processes involved in pubertal brain maturation, the potential points of derailment, and the importance of future studies for understanding this dynamic developmental window and gaining a better understanding of neuropsychiatric disease risk. PMID:24239720

  5. Improved statistical evaluation of group differences in connectomes by screening-filtering strategy with application to study maturation of brain connections between childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Meskaldji, Djalel-Eddine; Vasung, Lana; Romascano, David; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hagmann, Patric; Morgenthaler, Stephan; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-03-01

    Detecting local differences between groups of connectomes is a great challenge in neuroimaging, because the large number of tests that have to be performed and the impact on multiplicity correction. Any available information should be exploited to increase the power of detecting true between-group effects. We present an adaptive strategy that exploits the data structure and the prior information concerning positive dependence between nodes and connections, without relying on strong assumptions. As a first step, we decompose the brain network, i.e., the connectome, into subnetworks and we apply a screening at the subnetwork level. The subnetworks are defined either according to prior knowledge or by applying a data driven algorithm. Given the results of the screening step, a filtering is performed to seek real differences at the node/connection level. The proposed strategy could be used to strongly control either the family-wise error rate or the false discovery rate. We show by means of different simulations the benefit of the proposed strategy, and we present a real application of comparing connectomes of preschool children and adolescents. PMID:25498390

  6. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

  7. The Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  8. The Changing Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…

  9. Adolescence: booze, brains, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert; Nixon, Kimberly; Sher, Kenneth J; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Tapert, Susan F; White, Aaron; Crews, Fulton T

    2005-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti and Fulton T. Crews. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction, by Peter M. Monti; (2) Adolescent Binge Drinking Causes Life-Long Changes in Brain, by Fulton T. Crews and Kim Nixon; (3) Functional Neuroimaging Studies in Human Adolescent Drinkers, by Susan F. Tapert; (4) Abnormal Emotional Reactivity as a Risk Factor for Alcoholism, by Robert Miranda, Jr.; (5) Alcohol-Induced Memory Impairments, Including Blackouts, and the Changing Adolescent Brain, by Aaron M. White and H. Scott Swartzwelder; and (6) Discussion, by Kenneth Sher. PMID:15714044

  10. Implications of Brain Research for Teaching Young Adolescents. What Research Says.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucinda M.; Horch, Hadley Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes research findings related to brain maturation during the adolescent years and highlights implications for the middle level educator, focusing on the types of classroom activities most compatible with attention and memory. Examines possible gender differences in how adolescents learn, the effects of stress on the brain, and implications…

  11. Maturational Patterns of Sigma Frequency Power Across Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian G.; Feinberg, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To further evaluate adolescent brain maturation by determining the longitudinal trajectories of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sigma (11–15 Hz) power across childhood-adolescence. Methods: The maturational trend for sigma (11–15 Hz) power was evaluated in an accelerated longitudinal study of three overlapping age cohorts (n = 92) covering ages 6 to 18 y. Semiannually, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from participants sleeping at home in their normal sleep environment while keeping their current school night schedules. Results: Sigma frequencies became faster with age. The frequency of the 11–15 Hz spectral peak increased linearly. Sigma frequency power (SFP) declined with age, but its trajectory was complex (cubic). Power in a group of low sigma subfrequencies declined with age. Power in a group of high sigma frequencies increased with age. Power in subfrequencies within 11–15 Hz also showed different trends across the night, with lower frequencies increasing across NREM periods and higher frequencies decreasing across NREM periods. The upper and lower boundaries for the sigma frequencies that changed across NREMPs shifted upward with age. Conclusions: We hypothesize that these maturational brain changes result from synaptic elimination which decreases sleep depth and streamlines circuits. SFP displays a maturational trajectory different from both delta and theta power. Theories on the function of sigma must be reconciled with its maturational trajectory. These findings further demonstrate the value of sleep EEG for studying noninvasively the complex developmental brain changes of adolescence. Citation: Campbell IG, Feinberg I. Maturational patterns of sigma frequency power across childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):193–201. PMID:26285004

  12. Longitudinal maturation of auditory cortical function during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fitzroy, Ahren B.; Krizman, Jennifer; Tierney, Adam; Agouridou, Manto; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) changes substantially in amplitude and latency from childhood to adulthood, suggesting that these aspects of the CAEP continue to mature through adolescence. However, no study to date has longitudinally followed maturation of these CAEP measures through this developmental period. Additionally, no study has examined the trial-to-trial variability of the CAEP during adolescence. Therefore, we longitudinally tracked changes in the latency, amplitude, and variability of the P1, N1, P2, and N2 components of the CAEP in 68 adolescents from age 14 years to age 17 years. Latency decreased for N1 and N2, and did not change for P1 or P2. Amplitude decreased for P1 and N2, increased for N1, and did not change for P2. Variability decreased with age for all CAEP components. These findings provide longitudinal support for the view that the human auditory system continues to mature through adolescence. Continued auditory system maturation through adolescence suggests that CAEP neural generators remain plastic during this age range and potentially amenable to experience-based enhancement or deprivation. PMID:26539092

  13. Adolescent Anovulation: Maturational Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adolescents are at high risk for menstrual dysfunction. The diagnosis of anovulatory disorders that may have long-term health consequences is too often delayed. Evidence Acquisition: A review of the literature in English was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Main Findings: Normal adolescent anovulation causes only minor menstrual cycle irregularity: most cycles range from 21–45 days, even in the first postmenarcheal year, 90% by the fourth year. Approximately half of symptomatic menstrual irregularity is due to neuroendocrine immaturity, and half is associated with increased androgen levels. The former is manifest as aluteal or short/deficient luteal phase cycles and usually resolves spontaneously. The latter seems related to polycystic ovary syndrome because adolescent androgen levels are associated with adult androgens and ovulatory dysfunction, but data are sparse. Obesity causes hyperandrogenemia and, via unclear mechanisms, seems to suppress LH; it may mimic polycystic ovary syndrome. The role of pubertal insulin resistance in physiological adolescent anovulation is unclear. High-sensitivity gonadotropin and steroid assays, the latter by specialty laboratories, are necessary for accurate diagnosis of pubertal disorders. Polycystic ovaries are a normal ultrasonographic finding in young women and are associated with nearly 2-fold increased anti-Müllerian hormone levels. Oral contraceptives are generally the first-line treatment for ongoing menstrual dysfunction, and the effects of treatment are similar among preparations. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle duration persistently outside 21–45 days in adolescents is unusual, and persistence ≥ 1 year suggests that disordered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function be considered. Research is needed on the mechanisms and prognosis of adolescent anovulation. PMID:23913942

  14. Sex Matters during Adolescence: Testosterone-Related Cortical Thickness Maturation Differs between Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bramen, Jennifer E.; Hranilovich, Jennifer A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Chen, Jessie; Rosso, Carly; Forbes, Erika E.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Worthman, Carol M.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in cortical thickness have been observed during adolescence, including thinning in frontal and parietal cortices, and thickening in the lateral temporal lobes. Studies have shown sex differences in hormone-related brain maturation when boys and girls are age-matched, however, because girls mature 1–2 years earlier than boys, these sex differences could be confounded by pubertal maturation. To address puberty effects directly, this study assessed sex differences in testosterone-related cortical maturation by studying 85 boys and girls in a narrow age range and matched on sexual maturity. We expected that testosterone-by-sex interactions on cortical thickness would be observed in brain regions known from the animal literature to be high in androgen receptors. We found sex differences in associations between circulating testosterone and thickness in left inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and right lingual gyrus, all regions known to be high in androgen receptors. Visual areas increased with testosterone in boys, but decreased in girls. All other regions were more impacted by testosterone levels in girls than boys. The regional pattern of sex-by-testosterone interactions may have implications for understanding sex differences in behavior and adolescent-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22479458

  15. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11–20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation. PMID:26824348

  16. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11-20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation. PMID:26824348

  17. Early Parental Care Is Important for Hippocampal Maturation: Evidence from Brain Morphology in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Hengyi; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Korczykowski, Marc; Avants, Brian B.; Gee, James C.; Wang, Jiongjiong; Hurt, Hallam; Detre, John A.; Farah, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of early life experience on later brain structure and function have been studied extensively in animals, yet the relationship between childhood experience and normal brain development in humans remains largely unknown. Using a unique longitudinal data set including ecologically valid in-home measures of early experience during childhood (at age 4 and 8 years) and high-resolution structural brain imaging during adolescence (mean age 14 years), we examined the effects on later brain morphology of two dimensions of early experience: parental nurturance and environmental stimulation. Parental nurturance at age 4 predicts the volume of the left hippocampus in adolescence, with better nurturance associated with smaller hippocampal volume. In contrast, environmental stimulation did not correlate with hippocampal volume. Moreover, the association between hippocampal volume and parental nurturance disappears at age 8, supporting the existence of a sensitive developmental period for brain maturation. These findings indicate that variation in normal childhood experience is associated with differences in brain morphology, and hippocampal volume is specifically associated with early parental nurturance. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence supporting the important role of warm parental care during early childhood for brain maturation. PMID:19595774

  18. Age-Related Changes in Transient and Oscillatory Brain Responses to Auditory Stimulation during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…

  19. Neocortical Maturation during Adolescence: Change in Neuronal Soma Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Theodore; Petetot, Jean MacDonald-Comber; Khoury, Jane C.; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M.

    2009-01-01

    During adolescence, cognitive abilities increase robustly. To search for possible related structural alterations of the cerebral cortex, we measured neuronal soma dimension (NSD = width times height), cortical thickness and neuronal densities in different types of neocortex in post-mortem brains of five 12-16 and five 17-24 year-olds (each 2F,…

  20. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  1. Cannabis and the maturing brain: Role in psychosis development.

    PubMed

    Crocker, C E; Tibbo, P G

    2015-06-01

    A common viewpoint has proliferated that cannabis use is mostly harmless. Some argue that by not supporting its use, we are missing a great therapeutic opportunity. The general public view on cannabis may partially be a result of poor knowledge translation. In fact, the "war on drugs" approach has not allowed for basic education on the varied effects of cannabis on the brain, especially at highly critical phases of brain development such as adolescence. PMID:25704358

  2. Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions.

    PubMed

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Tohka, Jussi; Evans, Alan C

    2015-05-01

    Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large longitudinal dataset of normally growing children and adolescents (n=308), were used to build a highly accurate predictive model for estimating chronological age (cross-validated correlation up to R=0.84). Unlike previous studies which used kernelized approach in building prediction models, we used an elastic net penalized linear regression model capable of producing a spatially sparse, yet accurate predictive model of chronological age. Upon investigating different scales of cortical parcellation from 78 to 10,240 brain parcels, we observed that the accuracy in estimated age improved with increased spatial scale of brain parcellation, with the best estimations obtained for spatial resolutions consisting of 2560 and 10,240 brain parcels. The top predictors of brain maturity were found in highly localized sensorimotor and association areas. The results of our study demonstrate that cortical thickness can be used to estimate individuals' brain maturity with high accuracy, and the estimated ages relate to functional and behavioural measures, underscoring the relevance and scope of the study in the understanding of biological maturity. PMID:25731999

  3. Developmental aspects of sleep slow waves: linking sleep, brain maturation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ringli, Maya; Huber, Reto

    2011-01-01

    Sleep slow waves are the major electrophysiological features of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Although there is growing understanding of where slow waves originate and how they are generated during sleep, the function of slow waves is still largely unclear. A recently proposed hypothesis relates slow waves to the homeostatic regulation of synaptic plasticity. While several studies confirm a correlation between experimentally triggered synaptic changes and slow-wave activity (SWA), little is known about its association to synaptic changes occurring during cortical maturation. Interestingly, slow waves undergo remarkable changes during development that parallel the time course of cortical maturation. In a recent cross-sectional study including children and adolescents, the topographical distribution of SWA was analyzed with high-density electroencephalography. The results showed age-dependent differences in SWA topography: SWA was highest over posterior regions during early childhood and then shifted over central derivations to the frontal cortex in late adolescence. This trajectory of SWA topography matches the course of cortical gray maturation. In this chapter, the major changes in slow waves during development are highlighted and linked to cortical maturation and behavior. Interestingly, synaptic density and slow-wave amplitude increase during childhood are highest shortly before puberty, decline thereafter during adolescence, reaching overall stable levels during adulthood. The question arises whether SWA is merely reflecting cortical changes or if it plays an active role in brain maturation. We thereby propose a model, by which sleep slow waves may contribute to cortical maturation. We hypothesize that while there is a balance between synaptic strengthening and synaptic downscaling in adults, the balance of strengthening/formation and weakening/elimination is tilted during development. PMID:21854956

  4. The Adolescent Brain: Reaching for Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this enlightening volume, expert educator Robert Sylvester explains how adults can better understand teenagers through an engaging discussion of the adolescent brain. Readers will learn how to: (1) Mentor adolescents rather than attempt to manage and control them; (2) Nurture creativity, imagination, and individuality; and (3) Understand such…

  5. Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Bava, Sunita; Tapert, Susan F

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in regions known to support complex cognition and behavior. Though fronto-subcortical circuitry development is notable during adolescence, asynchronous maturation of prefrontal and limbic systems may render youth more vulnerable to risky behaviors such as substance use. Indeed, binge-pattern alcohol consumption and comorbid marijuana use are common among adolescents, and are associated with neural consequences. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of adolescent brain development, particularly aspects that predispose individuals to reward seeking and risky choices during this phase of life, and discusses the influence of substance use on neuromaturation. Together, findings in this arena underscore the importance of refined research and programming efforts in adolescent health and interventional needs. PMID:20953990

  6. [Disorders of psychosexual maturation in adolescents with residual organic deficiency].

    PubMed

    Gur'eva, V A; Burelov, E A; Kuznetsov, I V; Smirnova, L K

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with disorders of psychosexual maturity in adolescents (n-70). For that purpose in view a comparative nosological study of the early residual organic psychopathlike conditions (46 cases) and of organic psychopathies (24 cases) formed during the pubertal crisis was done at a forensic psychiatry hospital. According to the data obtained in the majority of the test subjects, there occurred asynchronisms of puberty (80%). Unlike group II (organic psychopathy) where disharmonic puberty was predominant, retarded puberty was recorded most frequently in group I. The main variants of psychosexual maturity were distinguished within the framework of the forms indicated: 2 variants in retardation and 6 variants in disharmonic puberty. Disharmonic puberty, then retarded puberty and pubertas precox were found to be dangerous for the onset of sexual disorders (perversions, deviations). Expert criteria for assessing the depth of sexual disorders were specified in addition. The new data obtained are of importance of both general and forensic psychiatry. PMID:1646545

  7. The Relationship of Psychosocial Maturity to Parenting Quality and Intellectual Ability for American and Korean Adolescents

    PubMed

    Mantzicopoulos; Oh-Hwang

    1998-04-01

    Psychosocial maturity, gender, intellectual ability, and parenting practices were examined with a group of 344 Korean and 214 American adolescents. American adolescents reported greater self-reliance, work-orientation, and self-identity than did Korean adolescents. In addition, American girls described themselves as more mature in work orientation than did American boys, a trend reversed in the Korean culture. Intellectual ability was associated with adolescents' psychosocial maturity. Differences in parenting style were predictive of psychosocial maturity regardless of ethnic group membership. Authoritative parenting, compared to all other styles, was related to significantly higher means in adolescent maturity. Authoritarian and neglectful styles were almost always associated with lower psychosocial maturity, whereas permissive and mixed parenting styles were more advantageous than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9576842

  8. Predisposition to and effects of methamphetamine use on the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Lyoo, I K; Yoon, S; Kim, T S; Lim, S M; Choi, Y; Kim, J E; Hwang, J; Jeong, H S; Cho, H B; Chung, Y A; Renshaw, P F

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability both to addictive behaviors and drug-induced brain damage. Yet, only limited information exists on the brain mechanisms underlying these adolescent-specific characteristics. Moreover, distinctions in brain correlates between predisposition to drug use and effects of drugs in adolescents are unclear. Using cortical thickness and diffusion tensor image analyses, we found greater and more widespread gray and white matter alterations, particularly affecting the frontostriatal system, in adolescent methamphetamine (MA) users compared with adult users. Among adolescent-specific gray matter alterations related to MA use, smaller cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal cortex was associated with family history of drug use. Our findings highlight that the adolescent brain, which undergoes active myelination and maturation, is more vulnerable to MA-related alterations than the adult brain. Furthermore, MA-use-related executive dysfunction was greater in adolescent MA users than in adult users. These findings may provide explanation for the severe behavioral complications and relapses that are common in adolescent-onset drug addiction. Additionally, these results may provide insights into distinguishing the neural mechanisms that underlie the predisposition to drug addiction from effects of drugs in adolescents. PMID:25666756

  9. Predicting individual brain maturity using dynamic functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Chen, Shan-Guang; Hu, Dewen; Zeng, Ling-Li; Fan, Yi-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses have revealed significant developmental trends in specific intrinsic connectivity networks linked to cognitive and behavioral maturation. However, knowledge of how brain functional maturation is associated with FC dynamics at rest is limited. Here, we examined age-related differences in the temporal variability of FC dynamics with data publicly released by the Nathan Kline Institute (NKI; n = 183, ages 7–30) and showed that dynamic inter-region interactions can be used to accurately predict individual brain maturity across development. Furthermore, we identified a significant age-dependent trend underlying dynamic inter-network FC, including increasing variability of the connections between the visual network, default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum as well as within the cerebellum and DMN and decreasing variability within the cerebellum and between the cerebellum and DMN as well as the cingulo-opercular network. Overall, the results suggested significant developmental changes in dynamic inter-network interaction, which may shed new light on the functional organization of typical developmental brains. PMID:26236224

  10. Five images of maturity in adolescence: what does "grown up" mean?

    PubMed

    Tilton-Weaver, L C; Vitunski, E T; Galambos, N L

    2001-04-01

    This study focussed on the subjective meanings of maturity in adolescence, or what it means to adolescents to be grown up. Younger (6th grade) and older (9th grade) adolescents' descriptions (n=236) of their "grown-up" peers were examined through content analysis. This qualitative analysis revealed five images of maturity portrayed by adolescents: balanced maturity (adolescents who show psychosocial and behavioural maturity, and ability to balance work and play); an image focussed on privileges (adolescents who engage in problem behaviour and present what may be a facade of adult-like behaviour); an image focussed on responsibility (adolescents who may be psychosocially mature, but may have taken on inappropriately high levels of responsibility); an image focussed on power and status (adolescents who seem to have usurped an older status, by being bossy and controlling); and an image focussed on physical development (adolescents who show advanced levels of physical maturity). There were some gender and age differences in the frequencies of these five images. Discussion is directed at understanding the hallmarks of each image relative to scholarly notions of adult maturity. PMID:11437476

  11. Braking and Accelerating of the Adolescent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Casey, BJ; Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period often characterized as a time of impulsive and risky choices leading to increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for such suboptimal choices and actions have failed to account for nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible conceptualization of the mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in behavior, as an imbalance between a heightened sensitivity to motivational cues and immature cognitive control. Recent human imaging and animal studies provide a biological basis for this view, suggesting differential development of subcortical limbic systems relative to top-down control systems during adolescence relative to childhood and adulthood. This work emphasizes the importance of examining transitions into and out of adolescence and highlights emerging avenues of future research on adolescent brain development. PMID:21475613

  12. FTO, obesity and the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Melkaye G.; Gillis, Jesse; Bernard, Manon; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Leonard, Gabriel T.; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Brühl, Rüdiger; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Schwartz, Yannick; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Struve, Maren; Lattka, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Schumann, Gunter; Pavlidis, Paul; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Total fat mass was assessed with bioimpedance and body mass index was determined with anthropometry. Genotype–phenotype associations were tested with Merlin under an additive model. We found that the G allele of FTO (rs9930333) was associated with higher total body fat [TBF (P = 0.002) and lower brain volume (P = 0.005)]. The same allele was also associated with higher lean body mass (P = 0.03) and no difference in height (P = 0.99). Principal component analysis identified a shared inverse variance between the brain volume and TBF, which was associated with FTO at P = 5.5 × 10−6. These results were replicated in two independent samples of 413 and 718 adolescents, and in a meta-analysis of all three samples (n = 1729 adolescents), FTO was associated with this shared inverse variance at P = 1.3 × 10−9. Co-expression networks analysis supported the possibility that the underlying FTO effects may occur during embryogenesis. In conclusion, FTO is associated with shared inverse variance between body adiposity and brain volume, suggesting that this gene may exert inverse effects on adipose and brain tissues. Given the completion of the overall brain growth in early childhood, these effects may have their origins during early development. PMID:23201753

  13. FTO, obesity and the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Melka, Melkaye G; Gillis, Jesse; Bernard, Manon; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Brühl, Rüdiger; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Schwartz, Yannick; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Struve, Maren; Lattka, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Schumann, Gunter; Pavlidis, Paul; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomás; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Total fat mass was assessed with bioimpedance and body mass index was determined with anthropometry. Genotype-phenotype associations were tested with Merlin under an additive model. We found that the G allele of FTO (rs9930333) was associated with higher total body fat [TBF (P = 0.002) and lower brain volume (P = 0.005)]. The same allele was also associated with higher lean body mass (P = 0.03) and no difference in height (P = 0.99). Principal component analysis identified a shared inverse variance between the brain volume and TBF, which was associated with FTO at P = 5.5 × 10(-6). These results were replicated in two independent samples of 413 and 718 adolescents, and in a meta-analysis of all three samples (n = 1729 adolescents), FTO was associated with this shared inverse variance at P = 1.3 × 10(-9). Co-expression networks analysis supported the possibility that the underlying FTO effects may occur during embryogenesis. In conclusion, FTO is associated with shared inverse variance between body adiposity and brain volume, suggesting that this gene may exert inverse effects on adipose and brain tissues. Given the completion of the overall brain growth in early childhood, these effects may have their origins during early development. PMID:23201753

  14. Growth of White Matter in the Adolescent Brain: Myelin or Axon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paus, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    White matter occupies almost half of the human brain. It contains axons connecting spatially segregated modules and, as such, it is essential for the smooth flow of information in functional networks. Structural maturation of white matter continues during adolescence, as reflected in age-related changes in its volume, as well as in its…

  15. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586

  16. Facial preferences in early adolescent girls: pubertal maturity predicts preferences maturity.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly recognized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in girls at early adolescence (11-14 years old) and compare them with preferences of women. All females evaluated the same 30 male faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, girls assessed attractiveness much the same as women, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of women. Except for the youngest girls, pubertal maturity (measured as the time elapsed since the menarche and breast development) correlated positively with the similarity of the girls' attractiveness evaluations to those of adult women and with strength of preference for cues to good biological quality (skin healthiness and sexy appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting thus that sex hormones are involved in development of facial preferences in pubescent girls. PMID:24308210

  17. Early unilateral cochlear implantation promotes mature cortical asymmetries in adolescents who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Salima; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral cochlear implant (CI) stimulation establishes hearing to children who are deaf but compromises bilateral auditory development if a second implant is not provided within ∼ 1.5 years. In this study we asked: 1) What are the cortical consequences of missing this early sensitive period once children reach adolescence? 2) What are the effects of unilateral deprivation on the pathways from the opposite ear? Cortical responses were recorded from 64-cephalic electrodes within the first week of bilateral CI activation in 34 adolescents who had over 10 years of unilateral right CI experience and in 16 normal hearing peers. Cortical activation underlying the evoked peaks was localized to areas of the brain using beamformer imaging. The first CI evoked activity which was more strongly lateralized to the contralateral left hemisphere than normal, with abnormal recruitment of the left prefrontal cortex (involved in cognition/attention), left temporo-parietal-occipital junction (multi-modal integration), and right precuneus (visual processing) region. CI stimulation in the opposite deprived ear evoked atypical cortical responses with abnormally large and widespread dipole activity across the cortex. Thus, using a unilateral CI to hear beyond the period of cortical maturation causes lasting asymmetries in the auditory system, requires recruitment of additional cortical areas to support hearing, and does little to protect the unstimulated pathways from effects of auditory deprivation. The persistence of this reorganization into maturity could signal a closing of a sensitive period for promoting auditory development on the deprived side. PMID:26456629

  18. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  19. Lifespan maturation and degeneration of human brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Mezer, Aviv A

    2014-01-01

    Properties of human brain tissue change across the lifespan. Here we model these changes in the living human brain by combining quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of R1 (1/T1) with diffusion MRI and tractography (N=102, ages 7-85). The amount of R1 change during development differs between white-matter fascicles, but in each fascicle the rate of development and decline are mirror-symmetric; the rate of R1 development as the brain approaches maturity predicts the rate of R1 degeneration in aging. Quantitative measurements of macromolecule tissue volume (MTV) confirm that R1 is an accurate index of the growth of new brain tissue. In contrast to R1, diffusion development follows an asymmetric time-course with rapid childhood changes but a slow rate of decline in old age. Together, the time-courses of R1 and diffusion changes demonstrate that multiple biological processes drive changes in white-matter tissue properties over the lifespan. PMID:25230200

  20. Adolescent Brain Development and Implications for Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to observe the adolescent brain have shown that during adolescence multiple changes are occurring. This can provide a potential explanation for the sporadic and seemingly unpredictable behaviors that appear. It is believed that the brain of an adolescent goes through a profound neurological…

  1. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Weizhen; Yang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb) is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions) remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions), as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression. PMID:26368815

  2. The Digital Revolution and Adolescent Brain Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N.

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable advances in technologies that enable the distribution and utilization of information encoded as digital sequences of 1s or 0s have dramatically changed our way of life. Adolescents, old enough to master the technologies and young enough to welcome their novelty, are at the forefront of this “digital revolution”. Underlying the adolescent’s eager embracement of these sweeping changes is neurobiology forged byte fires of evolution to be extremely adept at adaptation. The consequences of the brains adaptation to the demands and opportunities of the digital age have enormous implications for adolescent health professionals. PMID:22824439

  3. Correlates of Blood Pressure According to Early, On Time, and Late Maturation in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werneck, André O; Silva, Danilo R P; Souza, Mariana F; Christofaro, Diego G D; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Ronque, Enio R V; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of blood pressure (BP) according to somatic maturation in Southern Brazilian adolescents. A total of 1321 adolescents participated in the study (732 girls), aged between 10 and 16 years, enrolled in public schools. The assessment of BP was performed using oscillometric equipment. Measurements of body weight, height, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness were performed. Somatic maturation was estimated by the age at peak height velocity. Behavioral and hereditary variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Early-maturing adolescents had the highest prevalence of high BP (28%; 95% confidence interval, 24.6-33.5) compared with other maturational groups (P=.003). In late-maturing adolescents, the variables associated with BP were paternal hypertension (systolic BP: β=4.9; diastolic BP: β=5.3) and early physical activity (systolic BP: β=-4.0; diastolic DBP: β=-3.6). In average-maturing adolescents, waist circumference (systolic BP: β=0.3), body mass index (diastolic BP: β=0.5), and mother's hypertension (diastolic BP: β=1.8) were positively related to BP. In early-maturing adolescents, only waist circumference (systolic BP: β=0.3; diastolic BP: β=0.3) was associated with BP. The authors conclude that the prevalence of high BP is greater in adolescents with early maturity and the outcome appears to be related to biological indicators in this group. On the other hand, in late-maturing adolescents, behavioral and hereditary variables are more related to BP. PMID:26408345

  4. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jennifer B; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST's function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  5. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST’s function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  6. White Matter Changes of Neurite Density and Fiber Orientation Dispersion during Human Brain Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi Shin; Owen, Julia P.; Pojman, Nicholas J.; Thieu, Tony; Bukshpun, Polina; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Berman, Jeffrey I.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of human brain development have consistently shown widespread, but nonlinear increases in white matter anisotropy through childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood. However, despite its sensitivity to changes in tissue microstructure, DTI lacks the specificity to disentangle distinct microstructural features of white and gray matter. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a recently proposed multi-compartment biophysical model of brain microstructure that can estimate non-collinear properties of white matter, such as neurite orientation dispersion index (ODI) and neurite density index (NDI). In this study, we apply NODDI to 66 healthy controls aged 7–63 years to investigate changes of ODI and NDI with brain maturation, with comparison to standard DTI metrics. Using both region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses, we find that NDI exhibits striking increases over the studied age range following a logarithmic growth pattern, while ODI rises following an exponential growth pattern. This novel finding is consistent with well-established age-related changes of FA over the lifespan that show growth during childhood and adolescence, plateau during early adulthood, and accelerating decay after the fourth decade of life. Our results suggest that the rise of FA during the first two decades of life is dominated by increasing NDI, while the fall in FA after the fourth decade is driven by the exponential rise of ODI that overcomes the slower increases of NDI. Using partial least squares regression, we further demonstrate that NODDI better predicts chronological age than DTI. Finally, we show excellent test—retest reliability of NODDI metrics, with coefficients of variation below 5% in all measured regions of interest. Our results support the conclusion that NODDI reveals biologically specific characteristics of brain development that are more closely linked to the microstructural features of white matter than

  7. Career Maturity Growth Curve and Sex-Role Stereotypes of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Choi, Wonseok; Goh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the career maturity growth curve of Korean Adolescents from 4th grade to 12th grade. The participants consisted of 3,241 male and 3,029 female students from the Korea Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korean adolescents. The present study explored the shape of the career maturity…

  8. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  9. Substance Abuse in Parents and Their Adolescent Offspring: The Role of Sexual Maturation and Sensation Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Gavaler, Judith S.; Pajer, Kathleen; Dunn, Marija; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2001-01-01

    Tests a theory positing a role of sexual maturation and behavioral self-regulation in the development of early onset substance use disorders. The rate of maturation in adolescent males across three timepoints was found to be associated with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Parental, especially maternal, SUD was related to the sons' SUD.…

  10. Long-range orbitofrontal and amygdala axons show divergent patterns of maturation in the frontal cortex across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carolyn M; Loucks, F Alexandra; Peckler, Hannah; Thomas, A Wren; Janak, Patricia H; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The adolescent transition from juvenile to adult is marked by anatomical and functional remodeling of brain networks. Currently, the cellular and synaptic level changes underlying the adolescent transition are only coarsely understood. Here, we use two-photon imaging to make time-lapse observations of long-range axons that innervate the frontal cortex in the living brain. We labeled cells in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and imaged their axonal afferents to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We also imaged the apical dendrites of dmPFC pyramidal neurons. Images were taken daily in separate cohorts of juvenile (P24-P28) and young adult mice (P64-P68), ages where we have previously discovered differences in dmPFC dependent decision-making. Dendritic spines were pruned across this peri-adolescent period, while BLA and OFC afferents followed alternate developmental trajectories. OFC boutons showed no decrease in density, but did show a decrease in daily bouton gain and loss with age. BLA axons showed an increase in both bouton density and daily bouton gain at the later age, suggesting a delayed window of enhanced plasticity. Our findings reveal projection specific maturation of synaptic structures within a single frontal region and suggest that stabilization is a more general characteristic of maturation than pruning. PMID:26896859

  11. Prediction of brain maturity in infants using machine-learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Smyser, Christopher D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Smyser, Tara A; Snyder, Abraham Z; Rogers, Cynthia E; Inder, Terrie E; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Recent resting-state functional MRI investigations have demonstrated that much of the large-scale functional network architecture supporting motor, sensory and cognitive functions in older pediatric and adult populations is present in term- and prematurely-born infants. Application of new analytical approaches can help translate the improved understanding of early functional connectivity provided through these studies into predictive models of neurodevelopmental outcome. One approach to achieving this goal is multivariate pattern analysis, a machine-learning, pattern classification approach well-suited for high-dimensional neuroimaging data. It has previously been adapted to predict brain maturity in children and adolescents using structural and resting state-functional MRI data. In this study, we evaluated resting state-functional MRI data from 50 preterm-born infants (born at 23-29weeks of gestation and without moderate-severe brain injury) scanned at term equivalent postmenstrual age compared with data from 50 term-born control infants studied within the first week of life. Using 214 regions of interest, binary support vector machines distinguished term from preterm infants with 84% accuracy (p<0.0001). Inter- and intra-hemispheric connections throughout the brain were important for group categorization, indicating that widespread changes in the brain's functional network architecture associated with preterm birth are detectable by term equivalent age. Support vector regression enabled quantitative estimation of birth gestational age in single subjects using only term equivalent resting state-functional MRI data, indicating that the present approach is sensitive to the degree of disruption of brain development associated with preterm birth (using gestational age as a surrogate for the extent of disruption). This suggests that support vector regression may provide a means for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in individual infants. PMID:27179605

  12. Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kirstie J; Vértes, Petra E; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Váša, František; Moutoussis, Michael; Prabhu, Gita; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Callaghan, Martina F; Wagstyl, Konrad; Rittman, Timothy; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Suckling, John; Inkster, Becky; Fonagy, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-08-01

    How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14-24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons. Adolescent cortical myelination and shrinkage were coupled and specifically associated with a dorsoventrally patterned gene expression profile enriched for synaptic, oligodendroglial- and schizophrenia-related genes. Topologically efficient and biologically expensive hubs of the brain anatomical network had greater rates of shrinkage/myelination and were associated with overexpression of the same transcriptional profile as cortical consolidation. We conclude that normative human brain maturation involves a genetically patterned process of consolidating anatomical network hubs. We argue that developmental variation of this consolidation process may be relevant both to normal cognitive and behavioral changes and the high incidence of schizophrenia during human brain adolescence. PMID:27457931

  13. Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Váša, František; Moutoussis, Michael; Prabhu, Gita; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Callaghan, Martina F.; Wagstyl, Konrad; Rittman, Timothy; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Suckling, John; Inkster, Becky; Fonagy, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.; Jones, Peter B.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14–24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons. Adolescent cortical myelination and shrinkage were coupled and specifically associated with a dorsoventrally patterned gene expression profile enriched for synaptic, oligodendroglial- and schizophrenia-related genes. Topologically efficient and biologically expensive hubs of the brain anatomical network had greater rates of shrinkage/myelination and were associated with overexpression of the same transcriptional profile as cortical consolidation. We conclude that normative human brain maturation involves a genetically patterned process of consolidating anatomical network hubs. We argue that developmental variation of this consolidation process may be relevant both to normal cognitive and behavioral changes and the high incidence of schizophrenia during human brain adolescence. PMID:27457931

  14. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  15. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  16. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  17. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  18. Ontogenesis of oxytocin pathways in the mammalian brain: late maturation and psychosocial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grinevich, Valery; Desarménien, Michel G.; Chini, Bice; Tauber, Maithé; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT), the main neuropeptide of sociality, is expressed in neurons exclusively localized in the hypothalamus. During the last decade, a plethora of neuroendocrine, metabolic, autonomic and behavioral effects of OT has been reported. In the urgency to find treatments to syndromes as invalidating as autism, many clinical trials have been launched in which OT is administered to patients, including adolescents and children. However, the impact of OT on the developing brain and in particular on the embryonic and early postnatal maturation of OT neurons, has been only poorly investigated. In the present review we summarize available (although limited) literature on general features of ontogenetic transformation of the OT system, including determination, migration and differentiation of OT neurons. Next, we discuss trajectories of OT receptors (OTR) in the perinatal period. Furthermore, we provide evidence that early alterations, from birth, in the central OT system lead to severe neurodevelopmental diseases such as feeding deficit in infancy and severe defects in social behavior in adulthood, as described in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Our review intends to propose a hypothesis about developmental dynamics of central OT pathways, which are essential for survival right after birth and for the acquisition of social skills later on. A better understanding of the embryonic and early postnatal maturation of the OT system may lead to better OT-based treatments in PWS or autism. PMID:25767437

  19. Authoritative Parenting, Psychosocial Maturity, and Academic Success among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between authoritative parenting and school achievement in 120 adolescents of 10-16 years. Adolescents who described their parents as treating them warmly, democratically, and firmly were more likely than their peers to develop positive attitudes toward their achievement and do well in school. (RJC)

  20. CBT for Adolescents With Anxiety: Mature Yet Still Developing.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Philip C; Peterman, Jeremy S

    2015-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents (ages 12 to 18) and contribute to a range of impairments. There has been speculation that adolescents with anxiety are at risk for being treatment nonresponders. In this review, the authors examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescents with anxiety. Outcomes from mixed child and adolescent samples and from adolescent-only samples indicate that approximately two-thirds of youths respond favorably to CBT. CBT produces moderate to large effects and shows superiority over control/comparison conditions. The literature does not support differential outcomes by age: adolescents do not consistently manifest poorer outcomes relative to children. Although extinction paradigms find prolonged fear extinction in adolescent samples, basic research does not fully align with the processes and goals of real-life exposure. Furthermore, CBT is flexible and allows for tailored application in adolescents, and it may be delivered in alternative formats (i.e., brief, computer/Internet, school-based, and transdiagnostic CBT). PMID:26029805

  1. Commentary: Making the brain matter in assessing and treating adolescent substance use--a commentary on Conrod and Nikolaou (2016).

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Matthew W; Lejuez, Carl W

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to psychiatric problems due to a range of factors, including advances in social and cognitive abilities, increased levels of autonomy in decision-making and behavioral governance, and greater exposure to opportunities for risk-taking behavior. Adding to these psychological and social challenges, adolescence also is marked by robust maturational changes affecting both the microcircuitry and connectivity between widely distributed brain systems. These changes alter the communication among parallel, distributed brain networks, have implications for one's vulnerability to engage in risk behavior and make the brain particularly susceptible to external perturbations, such as exposure to neurotoxic substances. PMID:26889899

  2. Predicting Two Components of Career Maturity in School Based Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy A.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data on career maturity, work commitment, work values, self-efficacy, age, and career decidedness were conducted for 367 Australian students in grades 8-12. Chief predictors of career maturity attitudes were age, gender, and career certainty. Commitment and career indecision were the main predictors of career…

  3. Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…

  4. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…

  5. T cell adolescence: maturation events beyond positive selection1

    PubMed Central

    Hogquist, Kristin A.; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-01-01

    Single positive (SP) thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in SP thymocytes, and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naïve T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review will focus on the changes that occur during T maturation, and the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  6. T Cell Adolescence: Maturation Events Beyond Positive Selection.

    PubMed

    Hogquist, Kristin A; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Single-positive thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in single-positive thymocytes and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants, before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naive T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review focuses on the changes that occur during T cell maturation, as well as the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  7. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence. PMID:23051898

  8. Positioning a "Mature" Self in Interactive Practices: How Adolescent Males Negotiate "Physical Attraction" in Group Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korobov, Neill; Bamberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a discursive psychological approach in examining the ways that adolescent boys (ages 12-15 years) accomplish a sense of "maturity" by bringing off and managing certain features of "heterosexuality" in group interaction. We focus on and analyse moments when the boys negotiate implicit challenges, make evaluations and offer…

  9. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  11. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  12. Controversies about the enhanced vulnerability of the adolescent brain to develop addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bernheim, Aurélien; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence, defined as a transition phase toward autonomy and independence, is a natural time of learning and adjustment, particularly in the setting of long-term goals and personal aspirations. It also is a period of heightened sensation seeking, including risk taking and reckless behaviors, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among teenagers. Recent observations suggest that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems may underlie the adolescent propensity for uninhibited risk taking and hazardous behaviors. However, converging preclinical and clinical studies do not support a simple model of frontal cortical immaturity, and there is substantial evidence that adolescents engage in dangerous activities, including drug abuse, despite knowing and understanding the risks involved. Therefore, a current consensus considers that much brain development during adolescence occurs in brain regions and systems that are critically involved in the perception and evaluation of risk and reward, leading to important changes in social and affective processing. Hence, rather than naive, immature and vulnerable, the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex, should be considered as prewired for expecting novel experiences. In this perspective, thrill seeking may not represent a danger but rather a window of opportunities permitting the development of cognitive control through multiple experiences. However, if the maturation of brain systems implicated in self-regulation is contextually dependent, it is important to understand which experiences matter most. In particular, it is essential to unveil the underpinning mechanisms by which recurrent adverse episodes of stress or unrestricted access to drugs can shape the adolescent brain and potentially trigger life-long maladaptive responses. PMID:24348419

  13. Controversies about the enhanced vulnerability of the adolescent brain to develop addiction.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Aurélien; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence, defined as a transition phase toward autonomy and independence, is a natural time of learning and adjustment, particularly in the setting of long-term goals and personal aspirations. It also is a period of heightened sensation seeking, including risk taking and reckless behaviors, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among teenagers. Recent observations suggest that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems may underlie the adolescent propensity for uninhibited risk taking and hazardous behaviors. However, converging preclinical and clinical studies do not support a simple model of frontal cortical immaturity, and there is substantial evidence that adolescents engage in dangerous activities, including drug abuse, despite knowing and understanding the risks involved. Therefore, a current consensus considers that much brain development during adolescence occurs in brain regions and systems that are critically involved in the perception and evaluation of risk and reward, leading to important changes in social and affective processing. Hence, rather than naive, immature and vulnerable, the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex, should be considered as prewired for expecting novel experiences. In this perspective, thrill seeking may not represent a danger but rather a window of opportunities permitting the development of cognitive control through multiple experiences. However, if the maturation of brain systems implicated in self-regulation is contextually dependent, it is important to understand which experiences matter most. In particular, it is essential to unveil the underpinning mechanisms by which recurrent adverse episodes of stress or unrestricted access to drugs can shape the adolescent brain and potentially trigger life-long maladaptive responses. PMID:24348419

  14. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals’ transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial behavior among serious juvenile offenders from 14 through 22 years of age and tested how impulse control, suppression of aggression, future orientation, consideration of others, personal responsibility, and resistance to peer influence distinguished between youths who persisted in antisocial behavior and youths who desisted. Different patterns of development in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to early adulthood, especially with respect to impulse control and suppression of aggression, distinguished among individuals who followed different trajectories of antisocial behavior. Compared with individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted in antisocial behavior exhibited deficits in elements of psychosocial maturity, particularly in impulse control, suppression of aggression, and future orientation. PMID:19899922

  15. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  16. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  17. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  18. Brain connectivity in normally developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Zhao, Lu; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Evans, Alan C

    2016-07-01

    The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development. Recent advances in connectivity analysis propelled by graph theory have allowed, on one hand, the investigation of maturational changes in global organization of structural and functional brain networks; and on the other hand, the exploration of specific networks within the context of global brain networks. An emerging picture from several connectivity studies is a system-level rewiring that constantly refines the connectivity of the developing brain. PMID:27054487

  19. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  20. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  1. Psychosocial (im)maturity from adolescence to early adulthood: distinguishing between adolescence-limited and persisting antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2013-11-01

    In the psychological tradition, desistance from antisocial behavior is viewed as the product of psychosocial maturation, including increases in the ability to control impulses, consider the implications of one's actions on others, delay gratification in the service of longer term goals, and resist the influences of peers. The present study investigates how individual variability in the development of psychosocial maturity is associated with desistance from antisocial behavior in a sample of 1,088 serious juvenile offenders followed from adolescence to early adulthood (ages 14-25). We find that psychosocial maturity continues to develop to the midtwenties and that different developmental patterns of maturation are found among those who desist and those who persist in antisocial behavior. Compared to individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted exhibited diminished development of psychosocial maturity. Moreover, earlier desistance compared to later desistance is linked to greater psychosocial maturity, suggesting that there is an association between desistance from antisocial behavior and normative increases in psychosocial maturity. PMID:24229551

  2. Maturing out of alcohol involvement: transitions in latent drinking statuses from late adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17-22), young adulthood (ages 23-28), and adulthood (ages 29-40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to nonrisky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers and that many high-risk drinkers who mature out merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  3. Evaluation of skeletal maturation using mandibular third molar development in Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nishit; Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Gupta, Bhaskar; Zaveri, Grishma; Shah, Unnati

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done with the following objectives: to estimate dental maturity using the Demirjian Index (DI) for the mandibular third molar; to investigate the relationship between dental maturity and skeletal maturity among growing patients; to evaluate the use of the mandibular third molar as an adjunctive tool for adolescent growth assessment in combination with the cervical vertebrae; to evaluate the clinical value of the third molar as a growth evaluation index. Materials and Methods: Samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 615 subjects (300 males and 315 females) of ages ranging 9-18 years, and estimates of dental maturity (DI) and skeletal maturity [cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI)] were made. Results: A highly significant association (r = 0.81 for males and r = 0.72 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. DI Stage B corresponded to Stage 2 of CVMI (prepeak of pubertal growth spurt) in both sexes. In males, DI stages C and D represent the peak of the pubertal growth spurt. In females, stages B and C show that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has not been passed. DI stage E in females and DI Stage F in males correlate that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has been passed. Conclusion: A highly significant association exists between DI and CVMI. Mandibular third molar DI stages are reliable adjunctive indicators of skeletal maturity. PMID:27555733

  4. Adolescent maturation of inhibitory inputs onto cingulate cortex neurons is cell-type specific and TrkB dependent

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Angela; Piekarski, David J.; Caporale, Natalia; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco Javier; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of inhibitory circuits during adolescence may be tied to the onset of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Neurotrophin signaling likely plays a critical role in supporting inhibitory circuit development and is also implicated in psychiatric disease. Within the neocortex, subcircuits may mature at different times and show differential sensitivity to neurotrophin signaling. We measured miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs and mEPSCs) in Layer 5 cell-types in the mouse anterior cingulate (Cg) across the periadolescent period. We differentiated cell-types mainly by Thy1 YFP transgene expression and also retrobead injection labeling in the contralateral Cg and ipsilateral pons. We found that YFP− neurons and commissural projecting neurons had lower frequency of mIPSCs than neighboring YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons in juvenile mice (P21–25). YFP− neurons and to a lesser extent commissural projecting neurons also showed a significant increase in mIPSC amplitude during the periadolescent period (P21–25 vs. P40–50), which was not seen in YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons. Systemic disruption of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling during P23–50 in TrkBF616A mice blocked developmental changes in mIPSC amplitude, without affecting miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs). Our data suggest that the maturation of inhibitory inputs onto Layer 5 pyramidal neurons is cell-type specific. These data may inform our understanding of adolescent brain development across species and aid in identifying candidate subcircuits that may show greater vulnerability in mental illness. PMID:25762898

  5. The Adolescent Brain: Learning, Reasoning, and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F., Ed.; Chapman, Sandra B., Ed.; Dougherty, Michael R., Ed.; Confrey, Jere, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The period from adolescence through young adulthood is one of great promise and vulnerability. As teenagers approach maturity, they must develop and apply the skills and habits necessary to navigate adulthood and compete in an ever more technological and globalized world. But as parents and researchers have long known, there is a crucial dichotomy…

  6. Delays in maturation among adolescents with hemophilia and a history of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Henry S.; Lail, Alice E.; Hoots, W. Keith; Berntorp, Erik; Gomperts, Edward D.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitory antibodies to factors VIII or IX have the potential to affect a broad range of outcomes among people with hemophilia; however, their possible effect on growth and maturation has not been explored. We evaluated skeletal maturation (bone age), pubertal progression, serum testosterone levels, height velocity, and stature in the multicenter Hemophilia Growth and Development Study. A total of 333 children and adolescents (mean age, 12.4 years) were enrolled from 1989 to 1990 and followed for 7 years. Of these, 18% (n = 60) had a history of inhibitors. Bone age among HIV− adolescents with a history of inhibitors lagged 9 or more months behind those without inhibitors at every age from 12 to 15 years. Those with a history of inhibitors were older at every Tanner stage transition, attained a lower maximum growth velocity, and their serum testosterone levels were significantly lower compared with those without inhibitors. Delays were greater among HIV+ patients with a history of inhibitors compared with those without inhibitors; however, the differences were generally small and not statistically significant. The results of this investigation underscore the importance of monitoring the growth and maturation of children and adolescents with hemophilia, particularly those with inhibitors. PMID:17715388

  7. Pubertal maturation and affective symptoms in adolescence and adulthood: Evidence from a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaysina, Darya; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The higher prevalence of affective symptoms among women compared to men emerges in adolescence, and it has been associated with pubertal maturation. However, it remains unclear whether pubertal timing has long-term influences on affective symptoms. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we investigated whether pubertal timing was associated with affective symptoms over the life course, distinguishing those with symptoms in adolescence only, symptoms in adulthood only, and symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood. In females, there was no evidence that early pubertal maturation was a risk factor for affective symptoms. However, those with particularly late menarche (≥15 years) showed a lower risk of adult-onset affective symptoms (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.31, 0.95). This effect of late pubertal timing was not explained by a range of sociobehavioral factors. In contrast, in males, late pubertal timing was associated with increased risk of adolescent-onset affective symptoms that tracked into adulthood (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.44, 3.06). This effect was partly explained by low prepubertal body mass index. Sex-specific effects of pubertal timing on the long-term risk of affective symptoms might be due to different effects of gonadal hormonal on the central nervous system, as well as different social experiences during puberty. PMID:26439078

  8. Brain Maturity and Variation of Oxygen Extraction in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Mohamed; Aly, Safwat; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Mohamed, Mohamed; du Plessis, Adre; Aly, Hany

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The ability of the premature brain to extract and use oxygen has not been studied adequately. This study aimed to determine factors that influence fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) of the brain in premature infants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. Study Design We prospectively studied FTOE in very low birth weight (BW) infants (< 1,500 g and ≤ 34 weeks' gestation). Factors affecting FTOE and its variability were examined using bivariate and linear regression models. FTOE variability was measured on two scales: short scales (3-20 seconds) and long scales (20-150 seconds). Results We examined 147 simultaneous NIRS and pulse oximetry recordings that were collected from 72 premature infants (gestational age [GA] = 28 weeks and BW = 1,036 g). In regression models, average FTOE correlated negatively with hemoglobin (Hb) and increased significantly in patients with severe intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia. Both FTOE short- and long-scale variabilities correlated negatively with GA and positively with postnatal age (PNA). Moreover, FTOE long-scale variability was significantly reduced in infants supported with invasive ventilation. Conclusions In premature infants, cerebral oxygen extraction increased with reduced Hb and severe brain injury. Variability in oxygen extraction showed differential changes with GA and PNAs and was affected by invasive ventilation. PMID:26906179

  9. The impact of the sexual maturation stage on body mass index in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S S; Kinik, E

    1999-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used in the clinical assessment of adiposity in children and adolescents. Population-based, race-specific and age-specific curves of BMI for children and adolescents exist, but there are noknown sexual maturation-based BMI curves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pubertal development (assessed according to the Tanner breast stage) on BMI in adolescent girls in a cross-sectional study. The study group comprised 167 healthy girls, between the ages of nine and 16 years, attending school near a hospital in Gerede, Bolu. A significant positive correlation was found between the Tanner stage of breast development and BMI (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Age also had a significant influence on BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). After controlling the effects of age, BMI was highly correlated with weight (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and the Tanner breast stage (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), but not with height. The correlation between BMI and the sexual stage was also found to increase with increasing age. But when breast development was taken as a control parameter, BMI was not statistically associated with age or height. As a result, there was a significant variation in BMI with the Tanner breast stage in addition to the well known change with increasing age in adolescent girls. Developmental differences occurring in the same age may require that BMI be evaluated only within the same sexual stages in adolescence. This study indicates that the curves of BMI need to take into account the sexual maturation stage of adolescents. PMID:10770091

  10. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents' opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low…

  11. Adolescence as a Sensitive Period of Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Knoll, Lisa J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-10-01

    Most research on sensitive periods has focussed on early sensory, motor, and language development, but it has recently been suggested that adolescence might represent a second ‘window of opportunity’ in brain development. Here, we explore three candidate areas of development that are proposed to undergo sensitive periods in adolescence: memory, the effects of social stress, and drug use. We describe rodent studies, neuroimaging, and large-scale behavioural studies in humans that have yielded data that are consistent with heightened neuroplasticity in adolescence. Critically however, concrete evidence for sensitive periods in adolescence is mostly lacking. To provide conclusive evidence, experimental studies are needed that directly manipulate environmental input and compare effects in child, adolescent, and adult groups. PMID:26419496

  12. Partial least squares correlation of multivariate cognitive abilities and local brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, G; Dahnke, R; Winkler, A D; Gaser, C

    2013-11-15

    Intelligent behavior is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. Individual differences in human cognitive abilities might be therefore described by a 'cognitive manifold' of intercorrelated tests from partially independent domains of general intelligence and executive functions. However, the relationship between these individual differences and brain morphology is not yet fully understood. Here we take a multivariate approach to analyzing covariations across individuals in two feature spaces: the low-dimensional space of cognitive ability subtests and the high-dimensional space of local gray matter volume obtained from voxel-based morphometry. By exploiting a partial least squares correlation framework in a large sample of 286 healthy children and adolescents, we identify directions of maximum covariance between both spaces in terms of latent variable modeling. We obtain an orthogonal set of latent variables representing commonalities in the brain-behavior system, which emphasize specific neuronal networks involved in cognitive ability differences. We further explore the early lifespan maturation of the covariance between cognitive abilities and local gray matter volume. The dominant latent variable revealed positive weights across widespread gray matter regions (in the brain domain) and the strongest weights for parents' ratings of children's executive function (in the cognitive domain). The obtained latent variables for brain and cognitive abilities exhibited moderate correlations of 0.46-0.6. Moreover, the multivariate modeling revealed indications for a heterochronic formation of the association as a process of brain maturation across different age groups. PMID:23727321

  13. Brain Maturation in Neonatal Rodents is Impeded by Sevoflurane Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Makaryus, Rany; Lee, Hedok; Feng, Tian; Park, June-Hee; Nedergaard, Maiken; Jacob, Zvi; Enikolopov, Grigori; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Background A wealth of data shows neuronal demise after general anesthesia in the very young rodent brain. Here we apply proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS), testing the hypothesis that neurotoxic exposure during peak synaptogenesis can be tracked via changes in neuronal metabolites. Methods 1HMRS spectra was acquired in the brain (thalamus) of neonatal rat pups 24- and 48 h after sevoflurane exposure on post-natal day (PND) 7 and 15, and in unexposed, sham controls. A repeated measure ANOVA was performed to examine if changes in metabolites were different between exposed and unexposed groups. Sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity on PND7 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results In unexposed PND7 pups (N=21), concentration of NAA ([NAA]) increased by 16% from PND8 to PND9, whereas in exposed PND7 pups (N=19), [NAA] did not change and concentration of choline compounds ([GPC+PCh]) decreased by 25%. In PND15 rats, [NAA] increased from PND16 to PND17 for both the exposed (N=14) and unexposed (N=16) groups. Two-way ANOVA for PND7 pups demonstrated changes over time observed in [NAA] (p=0.031) and [GPC+PCh] (p=0.024) were different between those two groups. Conclusions We demonstrated that normal [NAA] increase from PND8 to PND9 was impeded in sevoflurane-exposed rats when exposed at PND7; however, not impeded when exposed on PND15. Furthermore, we showed that non-invasive 1HMRS is sufficiently sensitive to detect subtle differences in developmental time trajectory of [NAA]. This is potentially clinically relevant since 1HMRS can be applied across species, and may be useful in providing evidence of neurotoxicity in the human neonatal brain. PMID:26181336

  14. Investigations on iodothyronine deiodinase activity in the maturing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ködding, R; Fuhrmann, H; von zur Mühlen, A

    1986-04-01

    5-Monodeiodination of T4 and T3 and 5'-monodeiodination of T4 and rT3 were studied in brain homogenates of male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 1-60 days. Portions of the homogenates were incubated with the substrates at 37 C for 30 min. The reaction products were estimated by specific RIAs. All of the four reactions were dependent upon time, temperature, pH, and upon the concentrations of substrate, thiol, and tissue protein. Maximal reactions were obtained between 40 and 160 mM dithioerythritol. T4 5'-deiodination proceeded optimally at pH 7.4 and 0.4 microM substrate, the other reactions at pH 8.5 and 10 microM substrate. The four reactions were inactivated by heat (56 C, 30 min) and inhibited by 10(-5) M iopanoic acid. Only rT3 5'-deiodination was inhibited by 3 X 10(-4) M propylthiouracil (greater than 95%). In cerebellum, basal ganglia, brainstem, and hypothalamus both T4 and T3 5-deiodinase activity were very high in perinatal rats [up to 5.56 pmol/(min X mg protein) in hypothalamus], and decreased rapidly with age. In cortex and olfactory bulb these enzyme activities were low after birth, followed by an increase during the growth spurt [up to 632 fmol/(min X mg protein) in olfactory bulb]. T4 and rT3 5'-deiodinase activity in all brain regions studied were at their lowest in perinatal rats. During and after the growth spurt an increase was observed [up to 457 fmol/(min X mg protein) in cerebellum]. The reciprocal course of 5- and 5'-deiodination between birth and growth spurt in most of the brain regions studied might lead to a reduced intracellular thyromimetic activity during the perinatal period. PMID:3948784

  15. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  16. Connectomics Signatures of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Affected Adolescent Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Li, Zhihao; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Coles, Claire; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Recent in-vivo neuroimaging studies revealed that several brain networks are altered in prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affected adolescent brains. However, due to a lack of dense and corresponding cortical landmarks across individuals, the systematical alterations of functional connectivities in large-scale brain networks and the alteration of structural brain architecture in PCE affected brain are largely unknown. In this paper, we adopted a newly-developed data-driven strategy to build a large set of cortical landmarks that are consistent and corresponding across PCE adolescents and their matched controls. Based on these landmarks, we constructed large-scale functional connectomes, and applied the well-established approaches of deriving genomics signatures in genome-wide gene expression studies to discover functional connectomics signatures for the characterization of PCE adolescent brains. Results derived from experimental data demonstrated that 10 structurally disrupted landmarks were identified in PCE, and more importantly, the discovered informative functional connectomics signatures among consistent landmarks distinctively differentiate PCE brains from their matched controls. PMID:22461404

  17. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  18. Association of the apparent diffusion coefficient with maturity in adolescent sacroiliac joints

    PubMed Central

    Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Roberts, James; Atkinson, David; Punwani, Shonit; Sen, Debajit; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall‐Craggs, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the extent to which apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values vary with skeletal maturity in adolescent joints. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was performed with Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We used a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) search to identify and recruit all adolescents who had undergone 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) between January 2010 and June 2015, and had no evidence of sacroiliitis and normal inflammatory markers. In all, 55 individuals were assessed. For each patient, coronal and sagittal images of the sacrum were visually analyzed to determine sacral maturity. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the degree of fusion of the sacral segmental apophyses: “Fused,” “Partial,” and “Unfused.” For each group, SIJ ADC was measured using a linear region‐of‐interest technique. Results Mean ADC values were 690 × 10−6 mm2/s in the fused group, 720 × 10−6 mm2/s in the partial group, and 842 × 10−6 mm2/s in the unfused group. ADC values were significantly higher in the unfused group than in the fused group (P = 0.046). ADC values were also higher in unfused subjects than partially fused subjects (P = 0.074). Conclusion Joint ADC values are higher in skeletally immature (unfused) patients than in skeletally more mature (fused) patients. ADC values measured in the unfused group overlap with those previously reported in sacroiliitis. These results suggest that ADC measurements in adolescent joints must be interpreted in light of joint maturity. Joint immaturity may lead to misdiagnosis of sacroiliitis, since immature juxta‐articular bone may appear similar to inflammation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:556–564. PMID:26898474

  19. Lag in maturation of the brain's intrinsic functional architecture in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra S; Kessler, Daniel; Angstadt, Mike

    2014-09-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, and there is great interest in understanding its neurobiological basis. A prominent neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes that ADHD involves a lag in brain maturation. Previous work has found support for this hypothesis, but examinations have been limited to structural features of the brain (e.g., gray matter volume or cortical thickness). More recently, a growing body of work demonstrates that the brain is functionally organized into a number of large-scale networks, and the connections within and between these networks exhibit characteristic patterns of maturation. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with ADHD (age 7.2-21.8 y) exhibit a lag in maturation of the brain's developing functional architecture. Using connectomic methods applied to a large, multisite dataset of resting state scans, we quantified the effect of maturation and the effect of ADHD at more than 400,000 connections throughout the cortex. We found significant and specific maturational lag in connections within default mode network (DMN) and in DMN interconnections with two task positive networks (TPNs): frontoparietal network and ventral attention network. In particular, lag was observed within the midline core of the DMN, as well as in DMN connections with right lateralized prefrontal regions (in frontoparietal network) and anterior insula (in ventral attention network). Current models of the pathophysiology of attention dysfunction in ADHD emphasize altered DMN-TPN interactions. Our finding of maturational lag specifically in connections within and between these networks suggests a developmental etiology for the deficits proposed in these models. PMID:25225387

  20. Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M

    2006-08-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed. PMID:16844415

  1. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    Torres-Unda, J, Zarrazquin, I, Gravina, L, Zubero, J, Seco, J, Gil, SM, Gil, J, and Irazusta, J. Basketball performance is related to maturity and relative age in elite adolescent players. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1325-1332, 2016-During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with

  2. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  3. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  4. The Power of Teen Brains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Frances E.

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has yielded an unprecedented amount of new science relating to the unique strengths and weaknesses of the adolescent and young adult brain. It is now crystal clear that when it comes to the brain, adolescents are not simply adults with fewer miles on them. In fact, the brain is the last organ in the body to mature, and is finally…

  5. Early Risk, Attention, and Brain Activation in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…

  6. Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology. PMID:23451272

  7. The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2015-03-30

    Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. PMID:25533028

  8. Altered Brain Microstate Dynamics in Adolescents with Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Drissi, Natasha M; Szakács, Attila; Witt, Suzanne T; Wretman, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Ståhlbrandt, Henriettae; Darin, Niklas; Hallböök, Tove; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcolepsy, we anticipated that changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state network (RSN) dynamics might also be apparent in patients with narcolepsy. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe brain microstate activity in adolescents with narcolepsy and correlate these to RSNs using simultaneous fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG). Sixteen adolescents (ages 13-20) with a confirmed diagnosis of narcolepsy were recruited and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneous EEG and fMRI data were collected during 10 min of wakeful rest. EEG data were analyzed for microstates, which are discrete epochs of stable global brain states obtained from topographical EEG analysis. Functional MRI data were analyzed for RSNs. Data showed that narcolepsy patients were less likely than controls to spend time in a microstate which we found to be related to the default mode network and may suggest a disruption of this network that is disease specific. We concluded that adolescents with narcolepsy have altered resting state brain dynamics. PMID:27536225

  9. Altered Brain Microstate Dynamics in Adolescents with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, Natasha M.; Szakács, Attila; Witt, Suzanne T.; Wretman, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Ståhlbrandt, Henriettae; Darin, Niklas; Hallböök, Tove; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcolepsy, we anticipated that changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state network (RSN) dynamics might also be apparent in patients with narcolepsy. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe brain microstate activity in adolescents with narcolepsy and correlate these to RSNs using simultaneous fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG). Sixteen adolescents (ages 13–20) with a confirmed diagnosis of narcolepsy were recruited and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneous EEG and fMRI data were collected during 10 min of wakeful rest. EEG data were analyzed for microstates, which are discrete epochs of stable global brain states obtained from topographical EEG analysis. Functional MRI data were analyzed for RSNs. Data showed that narcolepsy patients were less likely than controls to spend time in a microstate which we found to be related to the default mode network and may suggest a disruption of this network that is disease specific. We concluded that adolescents with narcolepsy have altered resting state brain dynamics. PMID:27536225

  10. Brain development during adolescence: A mixed-longitudinal investigation of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Allen, Nicholas B; Youssef, George; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    What we know about cortical development during adolescence largely stems from analyses of cross-sectional or cohort-sequential samples, with few studies investigating brain development using a longitudinal design. Further, cortical volume is a product of two evolutionarily and genetically distinct features of the cortex - thickness and surface area, and few studies have investigated development of these three characteristics within the same sample. The current study examined maturation of cortical thickness, surface area and volume during adolescence, as well as sex differences in development, using a mixed longitudinal design. 192 MRI scans were obtained from 90 healthy (i.e., free from lifetime psychopathology) adolescents (11-20 years) at three time points (with different MRI scanners used at time 1 compared to 2 and 3). Developmental trajectories were estimated using linear mixed models. Non-linear increases were present across most of the cortex for surface area. In comparison, thickness and volume were both characterised by a combination of non-linear decreasing and increasing trajectories. While sex differences in volume and surface area were observed across time, no differences in thickness were identified. Furthermore, few regions exhibited sex differences in the cortical development. Our findings clearly illustrate that volume is a product of surface area and thickness, with each exhibiting differential patterns of development during adolescence, particularly in regions known to contribute to the development of social-cognition and behavioral regulation. These findings suggest that thickness and surface area may be driven by different underlying mechanisms, with each measure potentially providing independent information about brain development. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2027-2038, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946457

  11. Development of the brain's structural network efficiency in early adolescence: A longitudinal DTI twin study.

    PubMed

    Koenis, Marinka M G; Brouwer, Rachel M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Mandl, René C W; van Soelen, Inge L C; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-12-01

    The brain is a network and our intelligence depends in part on the efficiency of this network. The network of adolescents differs from that of adults suggesting developmental changes. However, whether the network changes over time at the individual level and, if so, how this relates to intelligence, is unresolved in adolescence. In addition, the influence of genetic factors in the developing network is not known. Therefore, in a longitudinal study of 162 healthy adolescent twins and their siblings (mean age at baseline 9.9 [range 9.0-15.0] years), we mapped local and global structural network efficiency of cerebral fiber pathways (weighted with mean FA and streamline count) and assessed intelligence over a three-year interval. We find that the efficiency of the brain's structural network is highly heritable (locally up to 74%). FA-based local and global efficiency increases during early adolescence. Streamline count based local efficiency both increases and decreases, and global efficiency reorganizes to a net decrease. Local FA-based efficiency was correlated to IQ. Moreover, increases in FA-based network efficiency (global and local) and decreases in streamline count based local efficiency are related to increases in intellectual functioning. Individual changes in intelligence and local FA-based efficiency appear to go hand in hand in frontal and temporal areas. More widespread local decreases in streamline count based efficiency (frontal cingulate and occipital) are correlated with increases in intelligence. We conclude that the teenage brain is a network in progress in which individual differences in maturation relate to level of intellectual functioning. PMID:26368846

  12. Innovative and Brain-Friendly Strategies for Building a Therapeutic Alliance with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roaten, Gail K.

    2011-01-01

    Brain growth and change are key factors in adolescent development and influence cognitions, emotions, and behavior. Much of the research on the adolescent brain is fairly recent, and mental health practitioners working with adolescents must have knowledge about these changes to more effectively engage their young clients in therapy. The…

  13. Adolescent Brain Development: Current Research and the Impact on Secondary School Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roaten, Gail K.; Roaten, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain growth and change is a key factor in adolescent development, influencing cognitions, emotions, and behavior. As technology has improved, so has the research on the adolescent brain. School counselors working with adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work with middle and high school students.…

  14. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  15. Braking and Accelerating of the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period often characterized as a time of impulsive and risky choices leading to increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for such suboptimal choices and actions…

  16. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  17. Endogenous neurogenic cell response in the mature mammalian brain following traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In the mature mammalian brain, new neurons are generated throughout life in the neurogenic regions of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Over the past two decades, extensive studies have examined the extent of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, the role of the adult generated new neurons in normal brain function and the underlying mechanisms regulating the process of adult neurogenesis. The extent and the function of adult neurogenesis under neuropathological conditions have also been explored in varying types of disease models in animals. Increasing evidence has indicated that these endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells may play regenerative and reparative roles in response to CNS injuries or diseases. This review will discuss the potential functions of adult neurogenesis in the injured brain and will describe the recent development of strategies aimed at harnessing this neurogenic capacity in order to repopulate and repair the injured brain following trauma. PMID:25936874

  18. Cortical Brain Morphology in Young, Estrogen-Naive, and Adolescent, Estrogen-Treated Girls with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Mazaika, Paul K.; Hong, David S.; Raman, Mira; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition that permits direct investigation of the complex interaction among genes, hormones, behavior, and brain development. Here, we used automated segmentation and surface-based morphometry to characterize the differences in brain morphology in children (n = 30) and adolescents (n = 16) with TS relative to age- and sex-matched control groups (n = 21 and 24, respectively). Our results show that individuals with TS, young and adolescent, present widespread reduction of gray matter volume, white matter volume and surface area (SA) over both parietal and occipital cortices bilaterally, as well as enlarged amygdala. In contrast to the young cohort, adolescents with TS showed significantly larger mean cortical thickness and significantly smaller total SA compared with healthy controls. Exploratory developmental analyses suggested aberrant regional brain maturation in the parahippocampal gyrus and orbitofrontal regions from childhood to adolescence in TS. These findings show the existence of abnormal brain morphology early in development in TS, but also suggest the presence of altered neurodevelopmental trajectories in some regions, which could potentially be the consequences of estrogen deficiency, both pre- and postnatally. PMID:22806268

  19. Rebelling against the brain: public engagement with the 'neurological adolescent'.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna; McKinney, Kelly A; Merten, Moritz

    2012-02-01

    The adolescent brain has become a flourishing project for cognitive neuroscience. In the mid 1990s, MRI studies mapped out extended neuro-development in several cortical regions beyond childhood, and during adolescence. In the last ten years, numerous functional MRI studies have suggested that functions associated with these brain regions, such as cognitive control and social cognition undergo a period of development. These changes have been anecdotally and clinically used to account for behavioural changes during adolescence. The interpretation of these data that the "teen brain" is different has gained increasing visibility outside the neuroscience community, among policy makers and in the media, resonating strongly with current cultural conceptions of teenagers in Western societies. In the last two years, a new impetus has been placed on public engagement activities in science and in the popular science genre of the media that specifically attempts to educate children and teenagers about emerging models of the developing brain. In this article, we draw on data from an adolescent focus group and a questionnaire completed by 85 teenage students at a UK school, to show how teens may hold ambivalent and sometimes resistant views of cognitive neuroscience's teen brain model in terms of their own self-understandings. Our findings indicate that new "neuro"-identity formations are more fractured, resisted and incomplete than some of the current social science literature on neuro-subjectivities seem to suggest and that the effects of public policy and popular education initiatives in this domain will be more uneven and complex than currently imagined. PMID:22257745

  20. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  1. Pre-adolescent alcohol expectancies: critical shifts and associated maturational processes.

    PubMed

    Bekman, Nicole M; Goldman, Mark S; Worley, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristen G

    2011-12-01

    Children's alcohol expectancies shift in late childhood/early adolescence in ways thought to lead to increased risk for adolescent alcohol use. The precise nature of this shift and the maturational processes that may influence it remain to be clarified. To these ends, we compared expectancy endorsement by grade across four expectancy domains: positive, negative, arousal, and sedation, in a cross-sectional sample of 3rd-6th grade children attending afterschool programs (n = 299). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to describe the relationships between expectancies and differences in (a) cognitive ability and concept formation, (b) risk-taking personality traits, and (c) social exposure or values regarding alcohol-related information. Results showed those children in higher grades endorsed significantly more positive, negative, and sedating expectancies for alcohol than their younger peers. Concept formation partially and fully mediated the relationships between grade and both positive and sedating expectancies, respectively, but not the relationship between grade and negative expectancies. Sensation seeking did not increase across grades in this sample, and the relationship between sensation seeking and positive expectancies was fully mediated by reported alcohol exposure and values. This study provides a basis for future exploration of developmental influences on alcohol expectancies, an understanding of which may be helpful in the design of prevention efforts targeting high-risk youth before adolescence. PMID:21942260

  2. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jiajin; Ju, Enxia; Meng, Xianxin; Chen, Xuhai; Zhu, Siyu; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN vs. neutral pictures in N1 (100–150 ms), P2 (130–190 ms), N2 (210–290 ms), and P3 (360–440 ms) components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2, and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210–290 ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. PMID:25972790

  3. The Brain in the Jar: A Critique of Discourses of Adolescent Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that ideas about adolescent brains and their development increasingly function as powerful truths in making sense of young people. In this context, the knowledge practices of the neurosciences and evolutionary and developmental psychology are deemed capable of producing what we have come to understand as the evidence on which…

  4. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J.; Mateos-Pérez, J.M.; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26702424

  5. Role of brain maturation and reproductive history in the evolution of the primate brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sacher, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    All primates conform to a 12% ratio of brain weight to body weight throughout fetal life. This pattern evolved at the beginning of primate evolution, initially as an adaptation to the low energy density of the insect food resource in a strictly arboreal habitat. However, when a wider range of food resources became available, the higher primates retained the 12% trajectory and made it the basis for rapid evolution toward large brain size, which would not have been possible within the restrictions imposed by the 6% brain growth trajectory. The 12% trajectory originally evolved to reduce maternal investment in an energy-poor environment, but became a preadaptation to brain expansion once the energy limitation was overcome by the development of herbivory and frugivory by the higher primates.

  6. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Alessandro G.; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J.; Edwards, A. David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level–dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. PMID:26491066

  7. Hyperpolarization-independent maturation and refinement of GABA/glycinergic connections in the auditory brain stem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanmi; Bach, Eva; Noh, Jihyun; Delpire, Eric; Kandler, Karl

    2016-03-01

    During development GABA and glycine synapses are initially excitatory before they gradually become inhibitory. This transition is due to a developmental increase in the activity of neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which shifts the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) to values more negative than the resting membrane potential. While the role of early GABA and glycine depolarizations in neuronal development has become increasingly clear, the role of the transition to hyperpolarization in synapse maturation and circuit refinement has remained an open question. Here we investigated this question by examining the maturation and developmental refinement of GABA/glycinergic and glutamatergic synapses in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a binaural auditory brain stem nucleus, in KCC2-knockdown mice, in which GABA and glycine remain depolarizing. We found that many key events in the development of synaptic inputs to the LSO, such as changes in neurotransmitter phenotype, strengthening and elimination of GABA/glycinergic connection, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses, occur undisturbed in KCC2-knockdown mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that maturation of inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the LSO is independent of the GABA and glycine depolarization-to-hyperpolarization transition. PMID:26655825

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Developmental Trajectories of Parental Attachment and Career Maturity of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Hutchison, Brian; Lemberger, Matthew E.; Pope, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the developmental trajectories of career maturity (CM) and parental attachment (PA), the longitudinal influence of both, and gender as a moderator. Findings showed developmental progressions in adolescents' PA and CM over 4 years. The change in PA was positively related to the developmental change in CM. For gender, there was a…

  9. Mature B-cell lymphoma and leukemia in children and adolescents-review of standard chemotherapy regimen and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Worch, Jennifer; Rohde, Marius; Burkhardt, Birgit

    2013-09-01

    Mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) comprises more than 50% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in children and adolescents. Many B-NHL subtypes frequently observed in adults are rarely diagnosed in children and adolescents. In this age group, Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Burkitt leukemia or FAB L3 leukemia (B-AL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and aggressive mature B-NHL not further classifiable (B-NHL nfc) are the most common subtypes. Diverse clinical trials demonstrated similar results of current combination chemotherapy regimens succeeding in overall survival rates of more than 80%. However, treatment-related toxicity and the poor prognosis of relapse are serious concerns. Furthermore, specific histological B-NHL subtypes are rare in children and optimal treatment is not established. New treatment modalities are urgently needed for these patient groups. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that is already established in the treatment of adults with mature B-NHL, demonstrated promising results in pediatric patients. The definitive role of rituximab in the treatment of children and adolescents with B-NHL needs to be evaluated in prospective controlled clinical trials. This review provides a comprehensive overview of chemotherapy regimens and the perspectives for children and adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma and leukemia. PMID:23570584

  10. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  11. Mature T- and NK-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Vinodh; Tallarico, Michael; Bishop, Michael R; Lim, Megan S

    2016-05-01

    Mature T/Natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms of children and the young adolescent population exhibit higher prevalence in Central and South American and Asian populations and many are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). They are represented in large part by extranodal T/NK cell lymphomas- nasal-type or extra nasal-type, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of T/NK cells or chronic active EBV disease, systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood, hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma, hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and primary cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma among others. Many T/NK cell neoplasms in this age group are derived from cells of the innate immune system, in contrast to adults where they are predominantly from the adaptive immune system. The genetic basis of T/NK cell lymphomas in children and young adolescents remains largely unknown. Anthracycline-based regimens and haematopoietic stem cell transplants (allogeneic and autologous) are current treatment modalities, however it is anticipated that novel targeted therapeutic agents will be available in the near future. PMID:26992145

  12. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  13. Acute and crucial requirement for MeCP2 function upon transition from early to late adult stages of brain maturation.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Karten, Ariel; Felice, Christy A; Mandel, Gail; Ballas, Nurit

    2016-05-01

    Germline mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), underlie most cases of Rett syndrome (RTT), an autism spectrum disorder affecting approximately one in 10 000 female live births. The disease is characterized in affected girls by a latent appearance of symptoms between 12 and 18 months of age while boys usually die before the age of two. The nature of the latency is not known, but RTT-like phenotypes are recapitulated in mouse models, even when MeCP2 is removed at different postnatal stages, including juvenile and adolescent stages. Unexpectedly, here, we show that within a very brief developmental window, between 10 (adolescent) and 15 (adult) weeks after birth, symptom initiation and progression upon removal of MeCP2 in male mice transitions from 3 to 4 months to only several days, followed by lethality. We further show that this accelerated development of RTT phenotype and lethality occur at the transition to adult stage (15 weeks of age) and persists thereafter. Importantly, within this abbreviated time frame of days, the brain acquires dramatic anatomical, cellular and molecular abnormalities, typical of classical RTT. This study reveals a new postnatal developmental stage, which coincides with full-brain maturation, where the structure/function of the brain is extremely sensitive to levels of MeCP2 and loss of MeCP2 leads to precipitous collapse of the neuronal networks and incompatibility with life within days. PMID:26908602

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain development in premature and mature newborns.

    PubMed

    Hüppi, P S; Warfield, S; Kikinis, R; Barnes, P D; Zientara, G P; Jolesz, F A; Tsuji, M K; Volpe, J J

    1998-02-01

    Definition in the living premature infant of the anatomical and temporal characteristics of development of critical brain structures is crucial for insight into the time of greatest vulnerability of such brain structures. We used three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) and image-processing algorithms to quantitate total brain volume and total volumes of cerebral gray matter (GM), unmyelinated white matter (WM), myelinated WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 78 premature and mature newborns (postconceptional age, 29-41 weeks). Total brain tissue volume was shown to increase linearly at a rate of 22 ml/wk. Total GM showed a linear increase in relative intracranial volume of approximately 1.4% or 15 ml in absolute volume per week. The pronounced increase in total GM reflected primarily a fourfold increase in cortical GM. Unmyelinated WM was found to be the most prominent brain tissue class in the preterm infant younger than 36 weeks of postconceptional age. Although minimal myelinated WM was present in the preterm infant at 29 weeks, between 35 and 41 weeks an abrupt fivefold increase in absolute volume of myelinated WM was documented. Extracerebral and intraventricular CSF was readily quantitated by this technique and found to change minimally. The application of 3D MRI and tissue segmentation to the study of human infant brain from 29 to 41 weeks of postconceptional age has provided new insights into cerebral cortical development and myelination and has for the first time provided means of quantitative assessment in vivo of early human brain development. PMID:9485064

  15. Fertile bodies, immature brains?: A genealogical critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and of the global fight against adolescent motherhood.

    PubMed

    Koffman, Ofra

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and the suggestion that adolescent motherhood disrupts the healthy development of the mother and her child. It does so by presenting a genealogical investigation of the conceptualisation of 'adolescence' in Western psychology and the emergence of the problematization of 'adolescent motherhood'. This examination reveals that antecedents to neuroscientific claims regarding adolescent immaturity, impulsivity and instability were articulated by psychologists throughout the first half of the 20th century. However, up until the 1960s there was no problematization of 'adolescent motherhood' per se and adolescent mothers were only discussed as part of the concern with 'unwed mothers'. Exploring the continuities and shifts in assertions regarding adolescence, this article highlights the complex history of some of the notions currently found in neuroscience. In doing so it aims to contribute to a growing body of critical literature questioning the universality of neuroscientific findings. PMID:25464875

  16. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  17. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  18. Adolescent Heavy Drinking Does Not Affect Maturation of Basic Executive Functioning: Longitudinal Findings from the TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Boelema, Sarai R.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive alcohol use is assumed to affect maturation of cognitive functioning in adolescence. However, most existing studies that have tested this hypothesis are seriously flawed due to the use of selective groups and/or cross-sectional designs, which limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. This longitudinal study investigated whether patterns of alcohol use predicted differences in maturation of executive functioning in adolescence. Additionally, gender was tested as a possible moderator. Methods We used data from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which comprises a cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents. Maturation of executive functioning was measured by assessing the standardized improvement on each of four basic executive functions (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and shift- and sustained attention) between ages 11 and 19. Participants were assigned to one of six (heavy) drinking groups (i.e., non-drinkers, light drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, increased heavy drinkers, decreased heavy drinkers, and chronic heavy drinkers). We conducted linear regression analyses, and adjusted for relevant confounders. Results The six drinking groups did not reveal significant differences in maturation between drinking groups. E.g., maturation executive functioning of chronic heavy drinkers in comparison to non-drinkers; inhibition: B = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.41 to 0.14], working memory: B = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.26 to 0.21], shift attention: B = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.17 to 0.41], sustained attention: B = 0.12, 95% CI [-0.60 to 0.36]. Furthermore, gender was not found to be a significant moderator. Conclusions Four years of weekly heavy drinking (i.e., chronic heavy drinkers) did not result in measurable impairments in four basic executive functions. Thus, regular heavy drinking in adolescence does not seem to affect these basic behavioural measures of executive functioning. PMID:26489080

  19. Adolescent Brain Development and Underage Drinking in the United States: Identifying Risks of Alcohol Use in College Populations

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, an age period that overlaps with critical structural and functional maturation of the brain. Brain maturation and associated improvements in decision-making continue into the second decade of life, reaching plateaus within the period referred to as “emerging adulthood” (18–24 years). Emerging adulthood is the typical age span of the traditionally aged college student, which includes the age (21 years) when alcohol consumption becomes legal in the United States. This review highlights neurobiological evidence indicating the vulnerabilities of the emerging adult brain to alcohol effects. This review also identifies that reduced sensitivity to alcohol sedation and increased sensitivity to alcohol-related disruptions in memory, positive family history of alcoholism effects on brain structure and function, and emerging co-morbid psychiatric conditions serve as unique vulnerabilities that increase the risks associated with underage alcohol use. These vulnerabilities likely contribute to excessive and unsupervised drinking in college students. Discouraging alcohol consumption until neurobiological adulthood is reached is important for minimizing alcohol-related disruptions in brain development and decision-making capacity, and reducing the negative behavioral consequences associated with underage alcohol use. PMID:22894728

  20. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: Ramifications for brain development and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance, and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders. PMID:23274699

  1. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  2. Altered Brain Response to Drinking Glucose and Fructose in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Arora, Jagriti; Giannini, Cosimo; Kubat, Jessica; Malik, Saima; Van Name, Michelle A; Santoro, Nicola; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira J; Pierpont, Bridget; Cline, Gary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus). Conversely, in response to drinking glucose, lean adolescents demonstrated increased PFC brain perfusion and no change in perfusion in the hypothalamus. In addition, obese adolescents demonstrated attenuated suppression of serum acyl-ghrelin and increased circulating insulin level after glucose ingestion; furthermore, the change in acyl-ghrelin and insulin levels after both glucose and fructose ingestion was associated with increased hypothalamic, thalamic, and hippocampal blood flow in obese relative to lean adolescents. Additionally, in all subjects there was greater perfusion in the ventral striatum with fructose relative to glucose ingestion. Finally, reduced connectivity between executive, homeostatic, and hedonic brain regions was observed in obese adolescents. These data demonstrate that obese adolescents have impaired prefrontal executive control responses to drinking glucose and fructose, while their homeostatic and hedonic responses appear to be heightened. Thus, obesity-related brain adaptations to glucose and fructose consumption in obese adolescents may contribute to excessive consumption of glucose and fructose, thereby promoting further weight gain. PMID:27207544

  3. SOX2+ Cell Population from Normal Human Brain White Matter Is Able to Generate Mature Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Carrión-Navarro, Josefa; García-Romero, Noemí; Gutiérrez-Martín, Antonio; Lázaro-Ibáñez, Elisa; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Perona, Rosario; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A number of neurodegenerative diseases progress with a loss of myelin, which makes them candidate diseases for the development of cell-replacement therapies based on mobilisation or isolation of the endogenous neural/glial progenitor cells, in vitro expansion, and further implantation. Cells expressing A2B5 or PDGFRA/CNP have been isolated within the pool of glial progenitor cells in the subcortical white matter of the normal adult human brain, all of which demonstrate glial progenitor features. However, the heterogeneity and differentiation potential of this pool of cells is not yet well established. Methods We used diffusion tensor images, histopathology, and immunostaining analysis to demonstrate normal cytoarchitecture and the absence of abnormalities in human temporal lobe samples from patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. These samples were used to isolate and enrich glial progenitor cells in vitro, and later to detect such cells in vivo. Results We have identified a subpopulation of SOX2+ cells, most of them co-localising with OLIG2, in the white matter of the normal adult human brain in vivo. These cells can be isolated and enriched in vitro, where they proliferate and generate immature (O4+) and mature (MBP+) oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, astrocytes (GFAP+). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the existence of a new glial progenitor cell subpopulation that expresses SOX2 in the white matter of the normal adult human brain. These cells might be of use for tissue regeneration procedures. PMID:24901457

  4. Maturation of a central brain flight circuit in Drosophila requires Fz2/Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tarjani; Hasan, Gaiti

    2015-01-01

    The final identity of a differentiated neuron is determined by multiple signaling events, including activity dependent calcium transients. Non-canonical Frizzled2 (Fz2) signaling generates calcium transients that determine neuronal polarity, neuronal migration, and synapse assembly in the developing vertebrate brain. Here, we demonstrate a requirement for Fz2/Ca2+ signaling in determining the final differentiated state of a set of central brain dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila, referred to as the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Knockdown or inhibition of Fz2/Ca2+ signaling during maturation of the flight circuit in pupae reduces Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) expression in the PAM neurons and affects maintenance of flight. Thus, we demonstrate that Fz2/Ca2+ transients during development serve as a pre-requisite for normal adult behavior. Our results support a neural mechanism where PAM neuron send projections to the α' and β' lobes of a higher brain centre, the mushroom body, and function in dopaminergic re-inforcement of flight. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07046.001 PMID:25955970

  5. Adolescent impulsivity phenotypes characterized by distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Robert; Conrod, Patricia J; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bellgrove, Mark A; Büchel, Christian; Byrne, Mark; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Lalor, Edmund C; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Stephens, David N; Struve, Maren; Thyreau, Benjamin; Vollstaedt-Klein, Sabine; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh

    2012-06-01

    The impulsive behavior that is often characteristic of adolescence may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental processes. Moreover, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct, and it is plausible that distinct brain networks contribute to its different cognitive, clinical and behavioral aspects. As these networks have not yet been described, we identified distinct cortical and subcortical networks underlying successful inhibitions and inhibition failures in a large sample (n = 1,896) of 14-year-old adolescents. Different networks were associated with drug use (n = 1,593) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms (n = 342). Hypofunctioning of a specific orbitofrontal cortical network was associated with likelihood of initiating drug use in early adolescence. Right inferior frontal activity was related to the speed of the inhibition process (n = 826) and use of illegal substances and associated with genetic variation in a norepinephrine transporter gene (n = 819). Our results indicate that both neural endophenotypes and genetic variation give rise to the various manifestations of impulsive behavior. PMID:22544311

  6. Reduced brain activation in violent adolescents during response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yi; Mei, Yi; Du, XiaoXia; Xie, Bin; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control have been linked to aggression and violent behaviour. This study aimed to observe whether violent adolescents show different brain activation patterns during response inhibition and to ascertain the roles these brain regions play. A self-report method and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to evaluate violent behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 violent adolescents and 17 matched healthy subjects aged 12 to 18 years. While scanning, a go/no-go task was performed. Between-group comparisons revealed that activation in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and right orbitofrontal area (BA11) regions were significantly reduced in the violent group compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the violent group had more widespread activation in the prefrontal cortex than that observed in the control group. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the violent group was widespread but lacking in focus, failing to produce intensive activation in some functionally related regions during response inhibition. PMID:26888566

  7. Effects of Internet use on the adolescent brain: despite popular claims, experimental evidence remains scarce.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the invention of the World Wide Web changed society by allowing unfettered access to the Internet. How this technological revolution has affected brain development continues to be an open question. There is particular concern about how Internet use is affecting the brains of adolescents. This Forum article discusses the possible effects of the Internet, as well as the behaviors and capabilities associated with its use, on the adolescent brain. PMID:25064168

  8. Safety of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Santos, Luciana; Peterson, Mark D.; Ehinger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (tCS) have the potential to mitigate a variety of symptoms associated with neurological and psychiatric conditions, including stroke, cerebral palsy, autism, depression, and Tourette syndrome. While the safety of these modalities has been established in adults, there is a paucity of research assessing the safety of NIBS among children. Objective To examine the existing literature regarding the safety of NIBS techniques in children and adolescents with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods An electronic search was performed on online databases for studies using NIBS in individuals less than 18 years of age. Non-English publications, diagnostic studies, electroconvulsive therapy, single/dual pulse TMS studies, and reviews were excluded. Adverse events reported in the studies were carefully examined and synthesized to understand the safety and tolerability of NIBS among children and adolescents. Results The data from 48 studies involving more than 513 children/adolescents (2.5–17.8 years of age) indicate that the side-effects of NIBS were, in general, mild and transient [TMS: headache (11.5%), scalp discomfort (2.5%), twitching (1.2%), mood changes (1.2%), fatigue (0.9%), tinnitus (0.6%); tCS: tingling (11.5%), itching (5.8%), redness (4.7%), scalp discomfort (3.1%)] with relatively few serious adverse events. Conclusion Our findings indicate that both repetitive TMS and tCS are safe modalities in children and adolescents with various neurological conditions, especially when safety guidelines are followed. The incidence of adverse events appears to be similar to that observed in adults; however, further studies with longer treatment and follow-up periods are needed to better understand the benefits and tolerance of long-term use of NIBS in children. PMID:25499471

  9. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  10. Performance of Children and Adolescents With Brain Injury on the Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebby, Paul C; Pollock, Megan; Mouanoutoua, Amy; Lewey, Jennifer H

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths and disabilities in children and adolescents. There is a need for clinicians to quickly screen for disrupted cognitive functioning to appropriately refer to specialists. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Adolescents were developed to fill a gap in available measures and create a screening tool to quickly identify impaired neurocognitive functioning. A series of statistical analyses were conducted to determine their clinical utility. A multivariate analysis of variance found a statistically significant difference between those with brain injury (n = 59) from noninjured (n = 190) on the combined dependent variables, F(14, 234) = 46.530, P < .001; Wilks Lambda = .264; partial η(2) = .763. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examinations for Children and Adolescents are effective neurocognitive screening measures for children and adolescents in identifying brain injury. PMID:25403459

  11. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  12. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  13. Cortical Thickness Maturation and Duration of Music Training: Health-Promoting Activities Shape Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Hudziak, James J.; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif; Spottswood, Margaret; Crehan, Eileen; Evans, Alan C.; Botteron, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which playing a musical instrument is associated with cortical thickness development among healthy youths. Method Participants were part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development. This study followed a longitudinal design such that participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing on up to three separate visits, occurring at 2-year intervals. MRI, IQ, and music training data were available for 232 youths (334 scans), ranging from 6–18 years of age. Cortical thickness was regressed against the number of years each youth had played a musical instrument. Next, thickness was regressed against an “Age × Years of Playing” interaction term. Age, gender, total brain volume, and scanner were controlled for in analyses. Participant ID was entered as a random effect to account for within-person dependence. False discovery rate correction was applied (p ≤ 0.05). Results There was no association between thickness and years playing a musical instrument. The “Age × Years of Playing” interaction was associated with thickness in motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, as well as prefrontal and parietal cortices. Follow-up analysis revealed that musical training was associated with an increased rate of thickness maturation. Results were largely unchanged when IQ and handedness were included as covariates. Conclusion Playing a musical instrument was associated with more rapid cortical thickness maturation within areas implicated in motor planning and coordination, visuospatial ability, and emotion and impulse regulation. However, given the quasi-experimental nature of this study, we cannot rule out the influence of confounding variables. PMID:25440305

  14. Are adolescents less mature than adults?: minors' access to abortion, the juvenile death penalty, and the alleged APA "flip-flop".

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-10-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in Roper v. Simmons (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in Hodgson v. Minnesota (1990), however, which upheld adolescents' right to seek an abortion without parental involvement, APA argued that adolescents are as mature as adults. The authors present evidence that adolescents demonstrate adult levels of cognitive capability earlier than they evince emotional and social maturity. On the basis of this research, the authors argue that it is entirely reasonable to assert that adolescents possess the necessary skills to make an informed choice about terminating a pregnancy but are nevertheless less mature than adults in ways that mitigate criminal responsibility. The notion that a single line can be drawn between adolescence and adulthood for different purposes under the law is at odds with developmental science. Drawing age boundaries on the basis of developmental research cannot be done sensibly without a careful and nuanced consideration of the particular demands placed on the individual for "adult-like" maturity in different domains of functioning. PMID:19824745

  15. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  16. CB1 cannabinoid receptor stimulation during adolescence impairs the maturation of GABA function in the adult rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cass, D K; Flores-Barrera, E; Thomases, D R; Vital, W F; Caballero, A; Tseng, K Y

    2014-05-01

    Converging epidemiological studies indicate that cannabis abuse during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychosis and prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive impairments later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying the adolescent susceptibility to chronic cannabis exposure are poorly understood. Given that the psychoactive constituent of cannabis binds to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the present study was designed to determine the impact of a CB1 receptor agonist (WIN) during specific windows of adolescence on the functional maturation of the rat PFC. By means of local field potential recordings and ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, we found that a history of WIN exposure during early (postnatal days - P35-40) or mid-(P40-45) adolescence, but not in late adolescence (P50-55) or adulthood (P75-80), is sufficient to yield a state of frequency-dependent prefrontal disinhibition in adulthood comparable to that seen in the juvenile PFC. Remarkably, this prefrontal disinhibition could be normalized following a single acute local infusion of the GABA-Aα1 positive allosteric modulator Indiplon, suggesting that adolescent exposure to WIN causes a functional downregulation of GABAergic transmission in the PFC. Accordingly, in vitro recordings from adult rats exposed to WIN during adolescence demonstrate that local prefrontal GABAergic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons is markedly reduced to the level seen in the P30-35 PFC. Together, these results indicate that early and mid-adolescence constitute a critical period during which repeated CB1 receptor stimulation is sufficient to elicit an enduring state of PFC network disinhibition resulting from a developmental impairment of local prefrontal GABAergic transmission. PMID:24589887

  17. Are Adolescents Less Mature than Adults?: Minors' Access to Abortion, the Juvenile Death Penalty, and the Alleged APA "Flip-Flop"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in "Roper v. Simmons" (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in "Hodgson v. Minnesota"…

  18. Physical Activity, Physical Self-Concept, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Extreme Early and Late Maturing Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25678360

  20. Alterations in resting-state brain networks in concussed adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Borich, Michael; Babul, Aliya-Nur; Yuan, Po Hsiang; Boyd, Lara; Virji-Babul, Naznin

    2015-02-15

    Sports-related concussion in adolescents is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain connectivity. We evaluated connectivity of resting-state brain networks to determine whether alterations in specific networks distinguish adolescents with sports-related concussion from a group of healthy, active control adolescents. Twelve adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion and ten healthy adolescents matched for age, gender, and physical activity completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Functional connectivity of resting-state brain networks was evaluated in both groups using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA). Altered functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in adolescents with concussion. Specifically, we noted: a) alterations within the default mode network; b) increased connectivity in the right frontal pole in the executive function network; and c) increased connectivity in the left frontal operculum cortex associated with the ventral attention network. This preliminary report shows that whole-brain functional connectivity is altered in networks related to cognition and attention in adolescents in the subacute phase following sports-related concussion. This first report in adolescents should be used to inform future studies in larger cohorts of adolescents with sports-related concussion. Increased knowledge of these changes may lead to improvements in clinical management and help to develop rehabilitation programs. PMID:25010041

  1. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  2. Body composition and newborn birthweight in pregnancies of adolescent and mature women.

    PubMed

    Contreras Campos, María Elena; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Nora; Reza-López, Sandra; Ávila-Esparza, Marina; Chávez-Corral, Dora Virginia; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Teenage pregnancy has been associated with adverse effects for the mother and the newborn (NB). In order to compare body composition (BC) between adolescents (Ad) and mature women (MW) during pregnancy and to determine the difference in birthweight and perinatal morbidity, pregnant Ad (n=40) and MW (n=227) were studied. BC changes between the second and third trimesters were determined by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and birthweight and NB morbidity were evaluated. During the second and third trimesters of the pregnancy, fat mass was lower in the Ad group [16 kg (13-19)] than in the MW group [22 kg (17-27)] (P<0.01; median and quartiles 1-3). Fat-free mass increased by 3.09 kg (2.29-4.20) and 2.20 kg (1.0-3.59) (P≤0.01), and total body water increased by 2.77 L (0.84-4.49) vs. 2.04 L (0.55-3.89) (P=0.36), in the Ad and MW groups, respectively (median and quartiles 1-3). Birthweight was not significantly different between NBs of Ad (3223 ± 399 g) and NBs of MW (3312 ± 427 g, P=0.22). The youngest Ad (<18 year old, n=8) had NB with lower birthweight than MW (3031 ± 503 g, P=0.06). NBs of Ad mothers showed a non-significant trend towards a higher rate of morbidity relative to the NBs of MW. In conclusion, the BC of Ad differs from that of MW during pregnancy. In addition, the NB infants of Ad mothers tended to have a lower birthweight than those from MW, a result that suggests that the Ad should be in strict prenatal control. PMID:22913432

  3. Ribosomal protein L11 is related to brain maturation during the adult phase in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Lu, Wenjing; Yu, Feifei; Kang, Mingjiang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-05-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play pivotal roles in developmental regulation. The loss or mutation of ribosomal protein L11 ( RPL11) induces various developmental defects. However, few RPs have been functionally characterized in Apis cerana cerana. In this study, we isolated a single copy gene, AccRPL11, and characterized its connection to brain maturation. AccRPL11 expression was highly concentrated in the adult brain and was significantly induced by abiotic stresses such as pesticides and heavy metals. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that AccRPL11 was localized to the medulla, lobula and surrounding tissues of esophagus in the brain. The post-transcriptional knockdown of AccRPL11 gene expression resulted in a severe decrease in adult brain than in other tissues. The expression levels of other brain development-related genes, p38, ERK2, CacyBP and CREB, were also reduced. Immunofluorescence signal attenuation was also observed in AccRPL11-rich regions of the brain in ds AccRPL11-injected honeybees. Taken together, these results suggest that AccRPL11 may be functional in brain maturation in honeybee adults.

  4. Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.68, p = 0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored. PMID:25010719

  5. Adolescent, but Not Adult, Binge Ethanol Exposure Leads to Persistent Global Reductions of Choline Acetyltransferase Expressing Neurons in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret; Liu, Wen; Spear, Linda P.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70) produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28–P48) and adult (P70–P90) binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity. PMID:25405505

  6. Sleep EEG Changes during Adolescence: An Index of a Fundamental Brain Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Irwin; Campbell, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Delta (1-4 Hz) EEG power in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep declines massively during adolescence. This observation stimulated the hypothesis that during adolescence the human brain undergoes an extensive reorganization driven by synaptic elimination. The parallel declines in synaptic density, delta wave amplitude and cortical metabolic rate…

  7. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  8. Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Paus, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    What do we know about the maturation of the human brain during adolescence? Do structural changes in cerebral cortex reflect synaptic pruning? Are increases in white-matter volume driven by myelination? Is the adolescent brain more or less sensitive to reward? These are but a few questions we ask in this review while attempting to indicate how findings obtained in the healthy brain help in furthering our understanding of mental health during adolescence. PMID:19002191

  9. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation. PMID:27607063

  10. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes. PMID:26994726

  11. Who's Minding the Teenage Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how researchers study the adolescent brain--a subject of inquiry that did not exist a generation ago. Any parent of a teenager knows that adolescents often have difficulty navigating through their world. Now scientists are starting to find out why. Peering into the minds of maturing youngsters, researchers are…

  12. Cognitive Maturity, Stressful Events and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Gary M.; And Others

    Management of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a complex task that requires the adolescent with IDDM recognize the interaction between diet, exercise, stress, emotions, and insulin dosage. With regularity, however, adolescents with IDDM are shown to be in less good metabolic control than younger children or young adults. The study…

  13. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  14. Promoting Moral Maturity among Adolescents: An Ethnographic Study of the Israeli Kibbutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John

    1987-01-01

    A longitudinal ethnographic study of adolescent moral development in an Israeli kibbutz examined the process by which urban-born adolescents, "adopted" by the kibbutz, and their kibbutz-born peers are socialized into a cohesive group. Kibbutz educators support the development of democratic self-governing peer groups that foster community…

  15. Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions…

  16. Maturation processes in automatic change detection as revealed by event-related brain potentials and dipole source localization: significance for adult AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Oades, Robert D; Juran, Stephanie A

    2005-10-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential reflecting automatic attention-related information processing marking the detection of auditory change. The bilateral scalp distribution develops by 14 years of age, and is elicited with adult latencies by 17 years. But consistent with reports of continued brain maturation after adolescence, we show here that features of the temporal and frontal lobe dipole sources also continue to develop in the third decade of life. This has consequences for studies of the developmental course of MMN anomalies, from childhood into adulthood, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Two groups of healthy subjects with mean ages of 17 and 30 years were presented with a 3-tone auditory oddball. The duration-deviant MMN was recorded during attention to a visual discrimination (auditory-passive condition) and an active auditory discrimination. MMN amplitudes were smaller in the older subjects and the MMN lasted longer over the right hemisphere. Latencies and moments of the four dipoles in the temporal and frontal lobes did not distinguish the two subject-groups. But both temporal lobe sources were located significantly more ventrally and further left in the young adult than in the adolescent subjects. The left cingular source moved posteriorly and the right inferior frontal source moved antero-medially in the older subjects. Brain development in the third decade may cause the two frontal sources to move apart on the rostro-caudal axis but the temporal lobe sources to move left on the lateral and down on the dorsoventral axes. Thus special care is necessary in interpreting putative dysfunctional neurobiological changes in developmental attention-deficit disorders where as-yet-unspecified sub-groups may show a late developmental lag, partial lag, or no lag at all, associated with other impairments. PMID:15922470

  17. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  18. Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly influential theories hold that the "teenage brain" suffers cognitive flaws that impel risk taking. Aside from warnings by leading researchers that brain science is insufficiently advanced to yield definitive findings that teenage behaviors are internally driven, the belief that adolescents take excessive risks has been developed using…

  19. What Would Catherine of Sienna Do? Spiritual Formation and the Brains of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dori; Edwards, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how new knowledge about the adolescent female brain lends theoretical support to narrative and contemplative practices of spiritual formation of girls. Current brain research supports the use of particular methods of religious formation for teenagers in general, and teenage girls in particular. This article suggests that…

  20. Getting My Bearings, Returning to School: Issues Facing Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a blow to the head or other penetrating head injury resulting in impairment of the brain's functioning. Despite the high incidence of TBI in adolescents, many educators still consider TBI to be a low-incidence disability. In addition, school personnel often report receiving little to no pre-service…

  1. Versican in the developing brain: lamina-specific expression in interneuronal subsets and role in presynaptic maturation.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-09-14

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix help stabilize synaptic connections in the postnatal brain and impede regeneration after injury. Here, we show that a CSPG of the lectican family, versican, also promotes presynaptic maturation in the developing brain. In the embryonic chick optic tectum, versican is expressed selectively by subsets of interneurons confined to the retinorecipient laminae, in which retinal axons arborize and form synapses. It is a major receptor for the Vicia villosa B4 lectin (VVA), shown previously to inhibit invasion of the retinorecipient lamina by retinal axons (Inoue and Sanes, 1997). In vitro, versican promotes enlargement of presynaptic varicosities in retinal axons. Depletion of versican in ovo, by RNA interference, results in retinal arbors with smaller than normal varicosities. We propose that versican provides a lamina-specific cue for presynaptic maturation and discuss the related but distinct effects of versican depletion and VVA blockade. PMID:16162928

  2. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. PMID:21416563

  3. Maturation of coordinated immediate early gene expression by cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Caster, J M; Kuhn, C M

    2009-04-21

    Adolescence may be a critical period for drug addiction. Young adolescent male rats have greater locomotor responses than adults after acute low dose cocaine administration. Further, repeated cocaine administration produces as much or more conditioned place preference but reduced locomotor sensitization in adolescents compared to adults. Acute activation of neurons by cocaine induces long-term changes in behavior by activating transcriptional complexes. The purpose of the present study was to correlate cocaine-induced locomotor activity with neuronal activation in subregions of the striatum and cortex by acute cocaine in young adolescent (postnatal (PN) 28) and adult (PN 65) male rats by measuring the induction of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and zif268 using in situ hybridization. Animals were treated with saline, low (10 mg/kg), or high (40 mg/kg) dose cocaine in locomotor activity chambers and killed 30 min later. Low dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity and striatal c-fos expression in adolescents than adults whereas high dose cocaine induced more locomotor activity, striatal c-fos, and striatal zif268 expression in adults. Locomotor activity correlated with the expression of both genes in adults but correlated with striatal c-fos only in adolescents. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the expression of c-fos and zif268 in the adult striatum but not in adolescents. Our results suggest that the coordinated expression of transcription factors by cocaine continues to develop during adolescence. The immature regulation of transcription factors by cocaine could explain why adolescents show unique sensitivity to specific long-term behavioral alterations following cocaine treatment. PMID:19245875

  4. Perisynaptic barrier of proteoglycans in the mature brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takuro; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2003-08-01

    Cell bodies and their dendrites of motor neurons, motor-related neurons, and certain other subsets of neurons such as GABAergic interneurons in the mature brain and spinal cord possess intensely negatively charged perineuronal or perisynaptic nets of proteoglycans which are linked to the nerve cell surface glycoproteins. These perineuronal nets of proteoglycans are digested by chondroitinase ABC, hyaluronidase, or collagenase, but not by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, which is reactive to the nerve cell surface glycoproteins. Aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican are members of a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that bind to hyaluronan. Neurocan- or brevican-deficient mice showed a regionally heterogeneous composition of proteoglycans in perineuronal nets. Aggrecan glycoforms contribute to the molecular heterogeneity of the perineuronal nets. Proteoglycans such as phosphacan are included in matrix-associated proteoglycans. The extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R is accumulated in the perineuronal nets. The perineuronal proteoglycans are produced by associated satellite astrocytes just before weaning, while the nerve cell surface glycoproteins are produced by the associated nerve cells at earlier stages after birth. The perineuronal proteoglycans may entrap the tissue fluid and form a perineuronal gel layer which protects the synapses as a "perisynaptic barrier". Degradation of the perineuronal proteoglycans or perisynaptic barrier by treatment with chondroitinase ABC or hyaluronidase reactivates the neuronal plasticity or promotes the functional recovery of a severed nervous system. Another set of perineuronal nets occurs, which are intensely positively charged and contain guanidino compounds. It is considered that these intensely positively charged nets are intermingled with the intensely negatively charged ones of proteoglycans. PMID:14527161

  5. Identification of Pro- and Mature Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, AL; Ozdener, H; Utermohlen, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective Growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are polypeptides that are involved in the maintenance, survival, and death of central and peripheral cells. Numerous growth factors have been identified in saliva and are thought to promote wound healing and maintenance of the oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to determine if BDNF is also found in human saliva. Methods Whole, unstimulated saliva samples (n=30) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using an anti-human BDNF antibody. Proteolytic cleavage products were similarly assessed following the incubation of pooled saliva with N-glycanase F and plasmin. Subjects genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results These experiments revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands at 14, 32 and 34 kD, corresponding to mature (mBDNF) and proBDNF, as well as a truncated pro-form at 24 kD. Not every sample contained all forms of BDNF. Treatment with N-glycanase and plasmin reduced the size of the higher molecular weight bands, confirming the glycosylated pro-form of BDNF. mBDNF was detected significantly less often in subjects with the Val66Met SNP, compared to those without the polymorphism (X2 = 4.05; P<0.05). Conclusions While the function of salivary BDNF still requires elucidation, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use saliva in lieu of blood in future studies of BDNF and the Val66Met polymorphism. PMID:19467646

  6. [Juvenile experience and learning modulate the functional maturation of the brain: relevance for the genesis and therapy of mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Bogerts, B

    2000-11-01

    This article summarizes experimental data that indicate how juvenile experience and learning events modulate the functional maturation of the brain, shaping thereby the neuronal substrate for the development of intellectual and socio-emotional abilities. The fact that early experience occurs during early postnatal brain development, i.e. phases of elevated neuronal and synaptic plasticity, results in an "imprinting" of synaptic connectivity and neural circuitry in the infant brain. Results from experimental research in animal models support the hypothesis that impoverished intellectual stimulation and disturbance of the socio-emotional environment during early childhood may disturb the formation of functional brain pathways, in particular of the limbic circuits, which play a major role in emotion and learning. Such defective brain systems, representing neurofunctional "scars" in the brain, may be the neuronal basis of a variety of mental disorders and clinical symptoms caused by early stressful psychosocial environment. Ultimately, the goal will be to apply the knowledge gained to the development of biological and psychosocial intervention strategies by utilizing remaining plasticity of the adult human brain aimed at promoting human health, decreasing susceptibility and increasing resistance to disease. PMID:11130142

  7. Puberty Influences Medial Temporal Lobe and Cortical Gray Matter Maturation Differently in Boys Than Girls Matched for Sexual Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Hranilovich, Jennifer A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Forbes, Erika E.; Chen, Jessica; Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Worthman, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in age- and puberty-related maturation of human brain structure have been observed in typically developing age-matched boys and girls. Because girls mature 1–2 years earlier than boys, the present study aimed at assessing sex differences in brain structure by studying 80 adolescent boys and girls matched on sexual maturity, rather than age. We evaluated pubertal influences on medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamic, caudate, and cortical gray matter volumes utilizing structural magnetic resonance imaging and 2 measures of pubertal status: physical sexual maturity and circulating testosterone. As predicted, significant interactions between sex and the effect of puberty were observed in regions with high sex steroid hormone receptor densities; sex differences in the right hippocampus, bilateral amygdala, and cortical gray matter were greater in more sexually mature adolescents. Within sex, we found larger volumes in MTL structures in more sexually mature boys, whereas smaller volumes were observed in more sexually mature girls. Our results demonstrate puberty-related maturation of the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortical gray matter that is not confounded by age, and is different for girls and boys, which may contribute to differences in social and cognitive development during adolescence, and lasting sexual dimorphisms in the adult brain. PMID:20713504

  8. A Study of the Relationship of Moral Development and Social Interest to Vocational Maturity of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Elfriede

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among vocational, moral, and social development in ninth- and twelfth-grade students to clarify the psychological and psychosocial nature of vocational maturity. The effects of age differences and sex differences are discussed. (PP)

  9. Contribution of Brain Size to IQ and Educational Underperformance in Extremely Preterm Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Anderson, Peter J.; Roberts, Gehan; Burnett, Alice C.; Lee, Katherine J.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Molloy, Carly; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Connelly, Alan; Seal, Marc L.; Wood, Stephen J.; Doyle, Lex W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Extremely preterm (EP) survivors have smaller brains, lower IQ, and worse educational achievement than their term-born peers. The contribution of smaller brain size to the IQ and educational disadvantages of EP is unknown. This study aimed (i) to compare brain volumes from multiple brain tissues and structures between EP-born (<28weeks) and term-born (≥37weeks) control adolescents, (ii) to explore the relationships of brain tissue volumes with IQ and basic educational skills and whether this differed by group, and (iii) to explore how much total brain tissue volume explains the underperformance of EP adolescents compared with controls. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of 148 EP and 132 term controls born in Victoria, Australia in 1991-92. At age 18, magnetic resonance imaging-determined brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures were calculated. IQ and educational skills were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Wide Range Achievement Test(WRAT-4), respectively. Results Brain volumes were smaller in EP adolescents compared with controls (mean difference [95% confidence interval] of -5.9% [-8.0, -3.7%] for total brain tissue volume). The largest relative differences were noted in the thalamus and hippocampus. The EP group had lower IQs(-11.9 [-15.4, -8.5]), spelling(-8.0 [-11.5, -4.6]), math computation(-10.3 [-13.7, -6.9]) and word reading(-5.6 [-8.8, -2.4]) scores than controls; all p-values<0.001. Volumes of total brain tissue and other brain tissues and structures correlated positively with IQ and educational skills, a relationship that was similar for both the EP and controls. Total brain tissue volume explained between 20-40% of the IQ and educational outcome differences between EP and controls. Conclusions EP adolescents had smaller brain volumes, lower IQs and poorer educational performance than controls. Brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures are related to IQ and educational outcomes

  10. Altered cortical maturation in adolescent cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Katherine A; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2015-03-01

    During late adolescence, progressive cortical thinning occurs in heteromodal association cortex (HASC) that is thought to subserve cognitive development. However, the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) upon cortical gray matter development in both healthy adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is unclear. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 79 adolescents at baseline and after an 18-month follow-up: 17 with EOS, 17 with CUD, 11 with EOS+CUD, and 34 healthy controls (HC). Mean age at baseline was 16.4years (CUD+) and 17.0years (CUD-). Using FreeSurfer, measures of cortical thickness for ROIs within HASC were obtained. A 2 (EOS versus no EOS)×2 (CUD versus no CUD) multivariate analysis of covariance was applied to change scores from baseline to follow-up to test for main effects of EOS and CUD and an interaction effect. After adjusting for covariates, a significant main effect of CUD was observed. Adolescents with CUD showed an attenuated loss of cortical thickness in the left and right supramarginal, left and right inferior parietal, right pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left superior frontal, and left superior temporal regions compared to non-using subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that greater cumulative cannabis exposure predicted greater cortical thickness in both the left (p=.008) and right (p=.04) superior frontal gyri at study endpoint after adjusting for baseline cortical thickness for the entire sample. These preliminary longitudinal data demonstrate an atypical pattern of cortical development in HASC in adolescents with CUD relative to non-using subjects, across diagnostic groups. Additional studies are needed to replicate these data and to clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:25600549

  11. Circadian Misalignment, Reward-Related Brain Function, and Adolescent Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Developmental changes in sleep and circadian rhythms that occur during adolescence may contribute to reward-related brain dysfunction, and consequently increase the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Methods This review (a) describes marked changes in circadian rhythms, reward-related behavior and brain function, and alcohol involvement that occur during adolescence, (b) offers evidence that these parallel developmental changes are associated, and (c) posits a conceptual model by which misalignment between sleep-wake timing and endogenous circadian timing may increase the risk of adolescent AUDs by altering reward-related brain function. Results The timing of sleep shifts later throughout adolescence, in part due to developmental changes in endogenous circadian rhythms, which tend to become more delayed. This tendency for delayed sleep and circadian rhythms is at odds with early school start times during secondary education, leading to misalignment between many adolescents’ sleep-wake schedules and their internal circadian timing. Circadian misalignment is associated with increased alcohol use and other risk-taking behaviors, as well as sleep loss and sleep disturbance. Growing evidence indicates that circadian rhythms modulate the reward system, suggesting that circadian misalignment may impact adolescent alcohol involvement by altering reward-related brain function. Neurocognitive function is also subject to sleep and circadian influence, and thus circadian misalignment may also impair inhibitory control and other cognitive processes relevant to alcohol use. Specifically, circadian misalignment may further exacerbate the cortical-subcortical imbalance within the reward circuit, an imbalance thought to explain increased risk-taking and sensation-seeking during adolescence. Adolescent alcohol use is highly contexualized, however, and thus studies testing this model will also need to consider factors that may influence both circadian misalignment and

  12. Whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moseley, R L; Ypma, R J F; Holt, R J; Floris, D; Chura, L R; Spencer, M D; Baron-Cohen, S; Suckling, J; Bullmore, E; Rubinov, M

    2015-01-01

    Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable markers that may assist in the identification of the complex genetic underpinnings of psychiatric conditions. Here we examined global hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). We studied well-matched groups of adolescent males with autism, genetically-related siblings of individuals with autism, and typically-developing control participants. We parcellated the brain into 258 regions and used complex-network analysis to detect a robust hypoconnectivity endophenotype in our participant group. We observed that whole-brain functional connectivity was highest in controls, intermediate in siblings, and lowest in ASC, in task and rest conditions. We identified additional, local endophenotype effects in specific networks including the visual processing and default mode networks. Our analyses are the first to show that whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity is an endophenotype of autism in adolescence, and may thus underlie the heritable similarities seen in adolescents with ASC and their relatives. PMID:26413477

  13. Whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R.L.; Ypma, R.J.F.; Holt, R.J.; Floris, D.; Chura, L.R.; Spencer, M.D.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Suckling, J.; Bullmore, E.; Rubinov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable markers that may assist in the identification of the complex genetic underpinnings of psychiatric conditions. Here we examined global hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). We studied well-matched groups of adolescent males with autism, genetically-related siblings of individuals with autism, and typically-developing control participants. We parcellated the brain into 258 regions and used complex-network analysis to detect a robust hypoconnectivity endophenotype in our participant group. We observed that whole-brain functional connectivity was highest in controls, intermediate in siblings, and lowest in ASC, in task and rest conditions. We identified additional, local endophenotype effects in specific networks including the visual processing and default mode networks. Our analyses are the first to show that whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity is an endophenotype of autism in adolescence, and may thus underlie the heritable similarities seen in adolescents with ASC and their relatives. PMID:26413477

  14. Relationships between plasma and erythrocyte Zn and maturation in adolescent males

    SciTech Connect

    Arquitt, A.B.; Hermann, J.R.; Stoecker, B.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty-three male volunteers between the ages of 10.6 and 14.3 yr were assessed for maturation and zinc status. The adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), used as a maturation indicator, was significantly correlated with height, weight, hemoglobin, and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA) as previously reported. Erythrocyte Zn (RBC-Zn) and plasma Zn were significantly correlated. When grouped by plasma Zn tertiles, significant differences were found for RBC-Zn and cholesterol between the highest and lowest groups. When subjects were grouped by RBC-Zn concentration, the lowest 10% of subjects had higher concentrations of DHEAS, lower plasma Zn , and were taller, heavier and had larger MAMA than the other group. In these subjects plasma and RBC-Zn concentrations were within normal limits. In this study RBC-Zn and plasma Zn were related to indicators of maturation.

  15. Electrophysiological Changes during Adolescence: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Santesso, Diane L.; Jetha, Michelle K.

    2010-01-01

    While psychological research has long shown that adolescence is a period of major cognitive and affective transition, recent neurophysiological research has shown that adolescence is also accompanied by observable maturational changes in the brain, both in terms of structure and neurotransmitter function. Given this situation, we would expect that…

  16. A Descriptive Study of Vocal Maturation among Male Adolescent Vocalists and Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study was designed to examine middle school adolescent boys' singing voices ( N = 104) comprising volunteers enrolled in band (n = 72) or choir (n = 32). The authors sought to confirm possible earlier voice change, to compare vocal characteristics among frequent (choir) and infrequent (band) singers, and to determine use of…

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  18. Neurogenic effect of VEGF is related to increase of astrocytes transdifferentiation into new mature neurons in rat brains after stroke.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu-Wen; Duan, Chun-Ling; Chen, Xian-Hua; Wang, Yong-Quan; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Qiu-Wan; Cui, Hui-Ru; Sun, Feng-Yan

    2016-09-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-enhanced neurogenesis in ischemic brain injury, we used middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to induce transient focal ischemic brain injury. The results showed that ischemic injury significantly increased glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive (GFAP(+)) and nestin(+) cells in ipsilateral striatum 3 days following MCAO. Most GFAP(+) cells colocalized with nestin (GFAP(+)-nestin(+)), Pax6 (GFAP(+)-Pax6(+)), or Olig2 (GFAP(+)-Olig2(+)). VEGF further increased GFAP(+)-nestin(+) and GFAP(+)-Pax6(+) cells, and decreased GFAP(+)-Olig2(+) cells. We used striatal injection of GFAP targeted enhanced green fluorescence protein (pGfa2-EGFP) vectors combined with multiple immunofluorescent staining to trace the neural fates of EGFP-expressing (GFP(+)) reactive astrocytes. The results showed that MCAO-induced striatal reactive astrocytes differentiated into neural stem cells (GFP(+)-nestin(+) cells) at 3 days after MCAO, immature (GFP(+)-Tuj-1(+) cells) at 1 week and mature neurons (GFP(+)-MAP-2(+) or GFP(+)-NeuN(+) cells) at 2 weeks. VEGF increased GFP(+)-NeuN(+) and BrdU(+)-MAP-2(+) newborn neurons after MCAO. Fluorocitrate, an astrocytic inhibitor, significantly decreased GFAP and nestin expression in ischemic brains, and also reduced VEGF-enhanced neurogenic effects. This study is the first time to report that VEGF-mediated increase of newly generated neurons is dependent on the presence of reactive astrocytes. The results also illustrate cellular mechanism of VEGF-enhanced neural repair and functional plasticity in the brains after ischemic injury. We concluded that neurogenic effect of VEGF is related to increase of striatal astrocytes transdifferentiation into new mature neurons, which should be very important for the reconstruction of neurovascular units/networks in non-neurogenic regions of the mammalian brain. PMID:26603138

  19. Scents of Adolescence: The Maturation of the Olfactory Phenotype in a Free-Ranging Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Barbara A.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Franke, Stephan; Voigt, Christian C.

    2011-01-01

    Olfaction is an important sensory modality for mate recognition in many mammal species. Odorants provide information about the health status, genotype, dominance status and/or reproductive status. How and when odor profiles change during sexual maturation is, however often unclear, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated whether the wing sac odorant of male greater sac-winged bats (Saccopteryx bilineata, Emballonuridae) differs between young and adults, and thus offers information about sexual maturity to potential mating partners. Using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, we found differences in the odorants of young and adult males prior and during, but not after the mating period. The wing sac odorant of adult males consists of several substances, such as Pyrocoll, 2,6,10-trimethyl-3-oxo-6,10-dodecadienolide, and a so far unidentified substance; all being absent in the odor profiles of juveniles prior to the mating season. During the mating season, these substances are present in most of the juvenile odorants, but still at lower quantities compared to the wing sac odorants of adults. These results suggest that the wing sac odorant of males encodes information about age and/or sexual maturity. Although female S. bilineata start to reproduce at the age of half a year, most males of the same age postpone the sexual maturation of their olfactory phenotype until after the first mating season. PMID:21738615

  20. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, K. M.; Burt, S. A.; Sisk, C. L.; Nigg, J. T.; Klump, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone may be a biological factor that protects males against eating disorders. Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is linked to lower levels of disordered eating symptoms, but effects emerge only after mid-puberty. Whether circulating levels of testosterone account for decreased risk for disordered eating in boys after mid-puberty is currently unknown; however, animal data support this possibility. In rodents, prenatal testosterone’s masculinizing effects on sex-differentiated behaviors emerge during puberty when circulating levels of testosterone increase and ‘activate’ the expression of masculinized phenotypes. This study investigated whether higher levels of circulating testosterone predict lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys, and in particular whether effects are associated with advancing pubertal maturation. Method Participants were 213 male twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire assessed several disordered eating symptoms. The Pubertal Development Scale assessed pubertal status. Afternoon saliva samples were assayed for testosterone using enzyme immunoassays. Results Consistent with animal data, higher levels of circulating testosterone predicted lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys and effects emerged with advancing puberty. Results were not accounted for by several important covariates, including age, adiposity, or mood/anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest that elevated circulating testosterone may be protective and underlie decreased risk for eating pathology in males during/after puberty, whereas lower levels of testosterone may increase risk and explain why some, albeit relatively few, males develop eating disorders. PMID:24406155

  1. Deductive reasoning, brain maturation, and science concept acquisition: Are they linked?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    The present study tested the alternative hypotheses that the poor performance of the intuitive and transitional students on the concept acquisition tasks employed in the Lawson et al. (1991) study was due either to their failure (a) to use deductive reasoning to test potentially relevant task features, as suggested by Lawson et al. (1991); (b) to identify potentially relevant features; or (c) to derive and test a successful problem-solving strategy. To test these hypotheses a training session, which consisted of a series of seven concept acquisition tasks, was designed to reveal to students key task features and the deductive reasoning pattern necessary to solve the tasks. The training was individually administered to students (ages 5-14 years). Results revealed that none of the five- and six-year-olds, approximately half of the seven-year-olds, and virtually all of the students eight years and older responded successfully to the training. These results are viewed as contradictory to the hypothesis that the intuitive and transitional students in the Lawson et al. (1991) study lacked the reasoning skills necessary to identify and test potentially relevant task features. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that their poor performance was due to their failure to use hypothetico-deductive reasoning to derive an effective strategy. Previous research is cited that indicates that the brain's frontal lobes undergo a pronounced growth spurt from about four years of age to about seven years of age. In fact, the performance of normal six-year-olds and adults with frontal lobe damage on tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), a task similar in many ways to the present concept acquisition tasks, has been found to be identical. Consequently, the hypothesis is advanced that maturation of the frontal lobes can explain the striking improvement in performance at age seven. A neural network of the role of the frontal lobes in task performance based upon the work

  2. A brain circuit that synchronizes growth and maturation revealed through Dilp8 binding to Lgr3.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diana M; Juarez-Carreño, Sergio; Bolivar, Jorge; Morante, Javier; Dominguez, Maria

    2015-11-13

    Body-size constancy and symmetry are signs of developmental stability. Yet, it is unclear exactly how developing animals buffer size variation. Drosophila insulin-like peptide Dilp8 is responsive to growth perturbations and controls homeostatic mechanisms that coordinately adjust growth and maturation to maintain size within the normal range. Here we show that Lgr3 is a Dilp8 receptor. Through the use of functional and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate assays, we defined a pair of Lgr3 neurons that mediate homeostatic regulation. These neurons have extensive axonal arborizations, and genetic and green fluorescent protein reconstitution across synaptic partners show that these neurons connect with the insulin-producing cells and prothoracicotropic hormone-producing neurons to attenuate growth and maturation. This previously unrecognized circuit suggests how growth and maturation rate are matched and co-regulated according to Dilp8 signals to stabilize organismal size. PMID:26429885

  3. Meniscus Tear Patterns in Relation to Skeletal maturity: Children Versus Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Alvin; Bastrom, Tracey; Roocroft, Joanna; Edmonds, Eric W.; Pennock, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meniscus tear patterns in the pediatric population have not been well described. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to delineate the pattern of meniscus tears and the likelihood of repair at the time of surgery in both children and adolescents. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Retrospective review was performed on all patients between the age of 10 and 19 years who underwent arthroscopic surgery for meniscus pathology. Patients were classified into two groups: those with open growth plates were classified as children while those with closed growth plates were classified as adolescents. Demographic data was documented, including: age, sex, BMI, mechanism of injury, and duration from injury to surgery. Operative reports and intraoperative photographs were used to assess tear pattern: type, location, zone, as well as all concomitant procedures and pathology. Tears were classified as discoid, vertical, bucket-handle, radial, oblique, horizontal, fray, root detachment, or complex. ANOVA and chi-squared tests were then performed. Results Of the 293 patients reviewed, 197 (67%) had lateral meniscus tears, 65 (22%) had medial meniscus tears, and 31 (11%) had tears to both menisci. The cohort was separated into groups: 119 (41%) children (open growth plates) and 174 (59%) adolescents (closed growth plates). The mean age between groups was 13.5 years compared to 16.4 years (p < 0.001), respectively. Children were more likely to have discoid meniscus tears, lower BMI, and meniscus pathology not associated with ligamentous injuries (p<0.05). The rate of associated ligament injuries in children was 29% compared to 51% in adolescents. Overall, the most frequent tear pattern was complex (28%) followed by vertical (16%), discoid (14%), bucket-handle (14%), radial (10%), horizontal (8%), oblique (5%), fray (3%), and root detachment (2%). Complex tears were associated with boys (32% vs. 20% girls, p < 0.03) and greater mean BMI (27

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Academic and Intellectual Outcomes Following Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ehly, Stewart; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on intellectual and academic outcomes postinjury. A comprehensive assessment of cognition, achievement, learning, and memory was administered to 27 children and adolescents 6 to 8 years post-TBI. Findings revealed that parent ratings of premorbid achievement…

  5. Hard Wired for Risk: Neurological Science, "the Adolescent Brain" and Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article considers claims now being made about "the adolescent brain". It points out why some of those claims are problematic for methodological, social and philosophical reasons. Attention is given to how some "youth experts" and others have used this research by relying on and reinforcing prejudicial stereotypes about young people as…

  6. Linking Brain Growth with the Development of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Conceptual Change during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that an early adolescent brain growth plateau and spurt exists, and that this plateau and spurt influence students' ability to reason scientifically and to learn theoretical science concepts. Finds that measures of students' (n=210) prefrontal lobe activity correlated highly with scientific reasoning ability, and that these…

  7. Neurobiology of the Adolescent Brain and Behavior: Implications for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Jones, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a developmental period that entails substantial changes in risk-taking behavior and experimentation with alcohol and drugs. Understanding how the brain is changing during this period relative to childhood and adulthood and how these changes vary across individuals are key in predicting risk for later substance abuse and…

  8. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  9. The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury during Adolescence on Career Plans and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Tammy; Hyde, Nellemarie; Colantonio, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often occurs during the years when individuals are aiming for vocational goals and acquiring skills needed to achieve vocational success. This exploratory study aimed to describe the perceived long-term impact on career outcomes for individuals who were hospitalized with a TBI during adolescence. This study used a…

  10. Reduced N400 Semantic Priming Effects in Adult Survivors of Paediatric and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuepffer, C.; Murdoch, B. E.; Lloyd, D.; Lewis, F. M.; Hinchliffe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate and long-term neural correlates of linguistic processing deficits reported following paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Therefore, the current research investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during a semantic picture-word priming experiment in two groups of highly functioning…

  11. The effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structures and systems.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the neurocognitive and neuroimaging literature regarding the effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structure and function. Adolescents who engage in heavy alcohol use, even at subdiagnostic levels, show differences in brain structure, function, and behavior when compared with non-drinking controls. Preliminary longitudinal studies have helped disentangle premorbid factors from consequences associated with drinking. Neural abnormalities and cognitive disadvantages both appear to predate drinking, particularly in youth who have a family history of alcoholism, and are directly related to the neurotoxic effect of alcohol use. Binge drinking and withdrawal and hangover symptoms have been associated with the greatest neural abnormalities during adolescence, particularly in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. PMID:25307592

  12. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2016-08-01

    Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss occur in the brains of patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) and improve again upon weight restoration. Adolescence is an important time period for AN to begin. However, little is known about the differences between brain changes in adolescents vs adults. We used a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all MRI studies regarding acute structural brain volume changes and their recovery in adolescents and adults with AN. 29 studies with 473 acute, 121 short-term weight-recovered and 255 long-term recovered patients with AN were included in the meta-analysis. In acute AN, GM and WM were reduced compared to healthy controls. Acute adolescent patients showed a significantly greater GM reduction than adults (-8.4 vs -3.1 %), the difference in WM (-4.0 vs -2.1 %) did not reach significance. Short-term weight-recovered patients showed a remaining GM deficit of 3.6 % and a non-significant WM reduction of 0.9 % with no age differences. Following 1.5-8 years of remission, GM and WM were no longer significantly reduced in adults (GM -0.4 %, WM -0.7 %); long-term studies for adolescents were scarce. The qualitative review showed that GM volume loss was correlated with cognitive deficits and three studies found GM regions, cerebellar deficits and WM to be predictive of outcome. GM and WM are strongly reduced in acute AN and even more pronounced in adolescence. Long-term recovery appears to be complete for adults while no conclusions can be drawn for adolescents, thus caution remains. PMID:27188331

  13. Leptin Is Associated With Exaggerated Brain Reward and Emotion Responses to Food Images in Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A.; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R. Todd; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation’s youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. RESULTS Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P < 0.05, family-wise error [FWE]), involved in motivation-reward and emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P < 0.05, FWE). CONCLUSIONS This significant association between higher circulating leptin and hyperresponsiveness of brain motivation-reward regions to HCF images suggests that dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. PMID:25139883

  14. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  15. Thyroid hormone-dependent transcriptional repression of neural cell adhesion molecule during brain maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, T; Caubín, J; Stunnenberg, H G; Zaballos, A; Bernal, J; Muñoz, A

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) is a main regulator of brain development acting as a transcriptional modulator. However, only a few T3-regulated brain genes are known. Using an improved whole genome PCR approach, we have isolated seven clones encoding sequences expressed in neonatal rat brain which are under the transcriptional control of T3. Six of them, including the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, alpha-tubulin and four other unidentified sequences (RBA3, RBA4, RBB3 and RBB5) were found to be upregulated in the hypothyroid brain, whereas another (RBE7) was downregulated. Binding sites for the T3 receptor (T3R/c-erbA) were identified in the isolated clones by gel-shift and footprinting assays. Sites in the NCAM (in an intron), alpha-tubulin (in an exon) and RBA4 clones mediated transcriptional regulation by T3 when inserted upstream of a reporter construct. However, no effect of the NCAM clone was found when located downstream of another reporter gene. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization studies showed a higher expression of NCAM in the brain of postnatal hypothyroid rats. Since NCAM is an important morphoregulatory molecule, abnormal NCAM expression is likely to contribute to the alterations present in the brain of thyroid-deficient humans and experimental animals. Images PMID:8861959

  16. Changes in functional brain networks following sports-related concussion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Makan, Nadia; Liu, Aiping; Smith-Forrester, Jenna; Franks, Chris; Wang, Z J

    2014-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks in adolescents following injury. Our aim was to use the tools from graph theory to evaluate the changes in brain network properties following concussion in adolescent athletes. We recorded resting state electroencephalography (EEG) in 33 healthy adolescent athletes and 9 adolescent athletes with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion. Graph theory analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global and local metrics of the structural properties of the graph were calculated for each group and correlated with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores. Brain networks of both groups showed small-world topology with no statistically significant differences in the global metrics; however, significant differences were found in the local metrics. Specifically, in the concussed group, we noted: 1) increased values of betweenness and degree in frontal electrode sites corresponding to the (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the (R) inferior frontal gyrus and 2) decreased values of degree in the region corresponding to the (R) frontopolar prefrontal cortex. In addition, there was significant negative correlation between degree and hub value, with total symptom score at the electrode site corresponding to the (R) prefrontal cortex. This preliminary report in adolescent athletes shows for the first time that resting-state EEG combined with graph theoretical analysis may provide an objective method of evaluating changes in brain networks following concussion. This approach may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for future injury. PMID:24956041

  17. Adolescent Binge Drinking Linked to Abnormal Spatial Working Memory Brain Activation: Differential Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Methods 40 binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males) ages 16 to 19, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and a spatial working memory task (SWM) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Significant binge drinking status x gender interactions were found (p<.05) in 8 brain regions spanning bilateral frontal, anterior cingulate, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. In all regions, female binge drinkers showed less SWM activation than female controls, while male bingers exhibited greater SWM response than male controls. For female binge drinkers, less activation was associated with poorer sustained attention and working memory performances (ps<.025). For male binge drinkers, greater activation was linked to better spatial performance (p<.025). Conclusion Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during a SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that BOLD activation is both affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive

  18. Diet and endocrine effects on behavioral maturation-related gene expression in the pars intercerebralis of the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Ament, Seth A; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Southey, Bruce; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-12-01

    Nervous and neuroendocrine systems mediate environmental conditions to control a variety of life history traits. Our goal was to provide mechanistic insights as to how neurosecretory signals mediate division of labor in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Worker division of labor is based on a process of behavioral maturation by individual bees, which involves performing in-hive tasks early in adulthood, then transitioning to foraging for food outside the hive. Social and nutritional cues converge on endocrine factors to regulate behavioral maturation, but whether neurosecretory systems are central to this process is not known. To explore this, we performed transcriptomic profiling of a neurosecretory region of the brain, the pars intercerebralis (PI). We first compared PI transcriptional profiles for bees performing in-hive tasks and bees engaged in foraging. Using these results as a baseline, we then performed manipulative experiments to test whether the PI is responsive to dietary changes and/or changes in juvenile hormone (JH) levels. Results reveal a robust molecular signature of behavioral maturation in the PI, with a subset of gene expression changes consistent with changes elicited by JH treatment. In contrast, dietary changes did not induce transcriptomic changes in the PI consistent with behavioral maturation or JH treatment. Based on these results, we propose a new verbal model of the regulation of division of labor in honey bees in which the relationship between diet and nutritional physiology is attenuated, and in its place is a relationship between social signals and nutritional physiology that is mediated by JH. PMID:26567353

  19. Adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells undergoing maturation modulate learning and memory in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Saxe, Michael D.; Gallina, Iryna S.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) contribute to learning and memory, yet it remains unknown when adult-born DGCs become involved in the cognitive processes. During neurogenesis, immature dentate granule cells (DGCs) display distinctive physiological characteristics while undergoing morphological maturation before final integration into the neural circuits. The survival and activity of the adult-born DGCs can be influenced by the experience of the animal during a critical period when newborn DGCs are still immature. To assess the temporal importance of adult neurogenesis, we developed a transgenic mouse model that allowed us to transiently reduce the numbers of adult-born DGCs in a temporally regulatable manner. We found that mice with a reduced population of adult-born DGCs at the immature stage were deficient in forming robust, long-term spatial memory and displayed impaired performance in extinction tasks. These results suggest that immature DGCs that undergo maturation make important contributions to learning and memory. PMID:19864566

  20. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220

  1. White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Emilie; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Guye, Maxime; Denis, Daniele; Cozzone, Patrick J; Girard, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the ability to determine in vivo and in utero the transitions between the main stages of white matter (WM) maturation in normal human fetuses using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Biophysical characteristics of water motion are used as an indirect probe to evaluate progression of the tissue matrix organization in cortico-spinal tracts (CSTs), optic radiations (OR), and corpus callosum (CC) in 17 normal human fetuses explored between 23 and 38 weeks of gestation (GW) and selected strictly on minimal motion artifacts. Nonlinear polynomial (third order) curve fittings of normalized longitudinal and radial water diffusivities (Z-scores) as a function of age identify three different phases of maturation with specific dynamics for each WM bundle type. These phases may correspond to distinct cellular events such as axonal organization, myelination gliosis, and myelination, previously reported by other groups on post-mortem fetuses using immunostaining methods. According to the DTI parameter dynamics, we suggest that myelination (phase 3) appears early in the CSTs, followed by the OR and by the CC, respectively. DTI tractography provides access to a better understanding of fetal WM maturation. PMID:22399089

  2. Metabolomics reveals impaired maturation of HDL particles in adolescents with hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Samino, Sara; Vinaixa, Maria; Díaz, Marta; Beltran, Antoni; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Mallol, Roger; Heras, Mercedes; Cabre, Anna; Garcia, Lorena; Canela, Nuria; de Zegher, Francis; Correig, Xavier; Ibáñez, Lourdes; Yanes, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess (HIAE) in prepubertal and pubertal girls usually precedes a broader pathological phenotype in adulthood that is associated with anovulatory infertility, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The metabolic derangements that determine these long-term health risks remain to be clarified. Here we use NMR and MS-based metabolomics to show that serum levels of methionine sulfoxide in HIAE girls are an indicator of the degree of oxidation of methionine-148 residue in apolipoprotein-A1. Oxidation of apo-A1 in methionine-148, in turn, leads to an impaired maturation of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that is reflected in a decline of large HDL particles. Notably, such metabolic alterations occur in the absence of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and were partially restored after 18 months of treatment with a low-dose combination of pioglitazone, metformin and flutamide. PMID:26099471

  3. Brain Injury among Children and Adolescents. Tip Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Marilyn; Savage, Ron; DePompei, Roberta; Blosser, Jean

    These eight brochures for parents provide practical information and suggestions regarding various aspects of managing a child with a brain injury. The brochures are: (1) "Back to School after a Mild Brain Injury or Concussion," which covers helping the student in the classroom and changes that occur in school and knowing when extra help is needed…

  4. Brain Science, Adolescence, and Secondary Schools: A Critical Disconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTaggart, Heather; Abbott, John

    2010-01-01

    Children learn a whole raft of skills in the first seven or eight years of life by closely imitating their parents and teachers. But for children to grow up as clones at a time of rapid cultural and economic environmental change would be nothing short of disastrous. We now know that children need the struggle of adolescence to put away those…

  5. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  6. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sagari; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Blackwood, Nigel; Scott, Stephen; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM) tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe) compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear. Methods We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history. Results The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1) the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2) right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3) left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone. Conclusions Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM ‘connectivity’. PMID:27271503

  7. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes.

    PubMed

    Del Piero, Larissa B; Saxbe, Darby E; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-06-01

    Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation) between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach) and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range) were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age. PMID:27038840

  8. The maturation of incentive processing and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Charles; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how immaturities in the reward system affect decision-making can inform us on adolescent vulnerabilities to risk-taking, which is a primary contributor to mortality and substance abuse in this age group. In this paper, we review the literature characterizing the neurodevelopment of reward and cognitive control and propose a model for adolescent reward processing. While the functional neuroanatomy of the mature reward system has been well-delineated, adolescent reward processing is just beginning to be understood. Results indicate that adolescents relative to adults demonstrate decreased anticipatory processing and assessment of risk, but an increased consummatory response. Such differences could result in suboptimal representations of reward valence and value and bias adolescent decision-making. These functional differences in reward processing occur in parallel with on-going structural and pharmacological maturation in the adolescent brain. In addition to limitations in incentive processing, basic cognitive control abilities, including working memory and inhibitory control, continue to mature during adolescence. Consequently, adolescents may be limited, relative to adults, in their abilities to inhibit impulsive behaviors and reliably hold ‘on-line’ comparisons of potential rewards/punishments during decision-making. PMID:19593842

  9. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed. PMID:24726667

  10. Anxiety is related to indices of cortical maturation in typically developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik; Thompson, Wesley K; Bartsch, Hauke; Hagler, Donald J; Chen, Chi-Hua; Brown, Timothy T; Kuperman, Joshua M; McCabe, Connor; Chung, Yoonho; Libiger, Ondrej; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Schork, Nicholas; Kenet, Tal; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart; Amaral, David G; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for many adverse neuropsychiatric and socioeconomic outcomes, and has been linked to functional and structural changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the nature of these differences, as well as how they develop in children and adolescents, remains poorly understood. More effective interventions to minimize the negative consequences of anxiety require better understanding of its neurobiology in children. Recent research suggests that structural imaging studies may benefit from clearly delineating between cortical surface area and thickness when examining these associations, as these distinct cortical phenotypes are influenced by different cellular mechanisms and genetic factors. The present study examined relationships between cortical surface area and thickness of the VMPFC and a self-report measure of anxiety (SCARED-R) in 287 youths aged 7-20 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study. Age and gender interactions were examined for significant associations in order to test for developmental differences. Cortical surface area and thickness were also examined simultaneously to determine whether they contribute independently to the prediction of anxiety. Anxiety was negatively associated with relative cortical surface area of the VMPFC as well as with global cortical thickness, but these associations diminished with age. The two cortical phenotypes contributed additively to the prediction of anxiety. These findings suggest that higher anxiety in children may be characterized by both delayed expansion of the VMPFC and an altered trajectory of global cortical thinning. Further longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26183468

  11. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another's emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another's mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11-39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  12. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another’s emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another’s mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11–39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  13. Exploring the Early Organization and Maturation of Linguistic Pathways in the Human Infant Brain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jessica; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand; Simonnet, Hina; Kulikova, Sofya; Leroy, François; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2016-05-01

    Linguistic processing is based on a close collaboration between temporal and frontal regions connected by two pathways: the "dorsal" and "ventral pathways" (assumed to support phonological and semantic processing, respectively, in adults). We investigated here the development of these pathways at the onset of language acquisition, during the first post-natal weeks, using cross-sectional diffusion imaging in 21 healthy infants (6-22 weeks of age) and 17 young adults. We compared the bundle organization and microstructure at these two ages using tractography and original clustering analyses of diffusion tensor imaging parameters. We observed structural similarities between both groups, especially concerning the dorsal/ventral pathway segregation and the arcuate fasciculus asymmetry. We further highlighted the developmental tempos of the linguistic bundles: The ventral pathway maturation was more advanced than the dorsal pathway maturation, but the latter catches up during the first post-natal months. Its fast development during this period might relate to the learning of speech cross-modal representations and to the first combinatorial analyses of the speech input. PMID:25924951

  14. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  15. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  16. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  17. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an average of…

  18. Is Jumping off the Roof "Always" a Bad Idea? A Rejoinder on Risk Taking and the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.

    2010-01-01

    Three respondents provide cogent commentary on the author's first article, "Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal." Two respondent papers argue that the author mischaracterized valid and useful developmental and biological arguments affirming adolescents' singular risk propensities; the third response raises…

  19. Ischemic postconditioning in cerebral ischemia: Differences between the immature and mature brain?

    PubMed

    Leger, Pierre-Louis; Bonnin, Philippe; Renolleau, Sylvain; Baud, Olivier; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (postC), defined as serial mechanical interruptions of blood flow at reperfusion, effectively reduces myocardial infarct size in all species tested so far, including humans. In the brain, ischemic postC leads to controversial results regardless of variations in factors such as onset time of beginning, the duration of ischemia and/or reperfusion, and the number of cycles of occlusion/reperfusion. Thus, many major issues remain to be resolved regarding its protective effects. Future studies should aim to identify the parameters that yield the strongest protection, as well as to understand why the efficacy of ischemic postC differs between models. This review will focus on initial hemodynamic changes and their consequences, and on specific features such as NO-dependent vascular tone and/or prolonged acidosis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in order to better understand the dynamics of ischemic postC in the developing brain. PMID:25777940

  20. Patterns of Coordinated Anatomical Change in Human Cortical Development: A Longitudinal Neuroimaging Study of Maturational Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Raznahan, Armin; Lerch, Jason P.; Lee, Nancy; Greenstein, Dede; Wallace, Gregory L.; Stockman, Michael; Clasen, Liv; Shaw, Phillip W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding of human structural brain development has rapidly advanced in recent years, but remains fundamentally “localizational” in nature. Here, we use 376 longitudinally acquired structural brain scans from 108 typically developing adolescents to conduct the first study of coordinated anatomical change within the developing cortex. Correlation in rates of anatomical change was regionally heterogeneous, with fronto-temporal association cortices showing the strongest and most widespread maturational coupling with other cortical areas, and lower-order sensory cortices showing the least. Canonical cortical systems with rich structural and functional interconnectivity showed significantly elevated maturational coupling. Evidence for sexually dimorphic maturational coupling was found within a frontopolar-centered prefrontal system involved in complex decision-making. By providing the first link between cortical connectivity and the coordination of cortical development, we reveal a hitherto unseen property of healthy brain maturation, which may represent a target for neurodevelopmental disease processes, and a substrate for sexually dimorphic behavior in adolescence. PMID:22153381

  1. Phantom lower limb as a perceptual marker of neural plasticity in the mature human brain.

    PubMed

    Aglioti, S; Bonazzi, A; Cortese, F

    1994-03-22

    Three lower limb amputees, who reported phantom sensations, referred somatic stimuli delivered to skin regions proximal to the stump to select points on the phantom limb. Stimuli on the rectum and anus (e.g. during defecation) and on genital areas (e.g. during sexual intercourse) induced analogous, although less precise, mislocation to the phantom limb. Although the representation of the stump in the somatosensory pathway is lateral to that of the amputated lower limb, both anus and genitals are mapped medially to the areas formerly subserving the amputated lower limb. Therefore the mislocalization phenomenon can be considered as a perceptual landmark of new functional connections between the deprived areas and the adjacent ones, thus suggesting a dynamic neural remodelling in the mature nervous system, which was previously considered as a static entity. PMID:8022843

  2. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  3. Reduced N400 semantic priming effects in adult survivors of paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Knuepffer, C; Murdoch, B E; Lloyd, D; Lewis, F M; Hinchliffe, F J

    2012-10-01

    The immediate and long-term neural correlates of linguistic processing deficits reported following paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Therefore, the current research investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during a semantic picture-word priming experiment in two groups of highly functioning individuals matched for various demographic variables and behavioural language performance. Participants in the TBI group had a recorded history of paediatric or adolescent TBI involving injury mechanisms associated with diffuse white matter pathology, while participants in the control group never sustained any insult to the brain. A comparison of N400 Mean Amplitudes elicited during three experimental conditions with varying semantic relatedness between the prime and target stimuli (congruent, semantically related, unrelated) revealed a significantly smaller N400 response in the unrelated condition in the TBI group, indicating residual linguistic processing deviations when processing demands required the quick detection of a between-category (unrelated) violation of semantic expectancy. PMID:22819620

  4. Multifactorial inheritance, rates of maturation and psychiatry's taxonomic dilemma: on Saugstad's "radical proposition" for two extremes of brain function and structure.

    PubMed

    deVries, Marten W

    2008-06-01

    This paper reviews aspects of Letten F. Saugstad's Maturation Theory in relation to the Kraepelinian dichotomy and psychiatric classification. The maturation theory is based on existing neuroscience, cross-national and mental health case register data and offers an innovative alternative to current etiological formulations. The maturational theory holds (1) that manic depressive illness relates to early maturation and (2) the schizophrenic syndrome relates to late maturation. The foundation of these processes lies in cerebral pruning of excitatory synapses particularly at puberty but also at a number of earlier crucial periods in development. The process of synaptic pruning has by puberty eliminated some 40% of the synapses, leading to the disappearance of glutematergic excitatory synapses without apparently appreciably influencing inhibitory GABAergic neurons. As a consequence, early maturation is related to the manic-depressive syndrome and characterized by increased neural excitability. Conversely, late maturation is related to schizophrenia characterized by diminished neural activity. Saugstad demonstrates using cross-national and neuroscience studies the multifactoral and environmental influences on rates of maturation and thereby mental illness. Using these data Saugstad reasons her agreement with the Kraepelinian dichotomy based on the existence of two extremes in brain structure and function developed through interactions between the person and the environment. PMID:18516513

  5. Plasma levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    PubMed

    Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ishima, Tamaki; Kishi, Fukuko; Yasuda, Yuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Ito, Akira; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-11-27

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. Peripheral BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia have been widely reported in the literature. However, it is still controversial whether peripheral levels of BDNF are altered in patients with schizophrenia. The peripheral BDNF levels previously reported in patients with schizophrenia were total BDNF (proBDNF and mature BDNF) as it was unable to specifically measure mature BDNF due to limited BDNF antibody specificity. In this study, we examined whether peripheral levels of mature BDNF were altered in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were also measured, as MMP-9 plays a role in the conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF. Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma levels of mature BDNF and MMP-9 were measured using ELISA kits. No significant difference was observed for mature BDNF however, MMP-9 was significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. The significant correlation was observed between mature BDNF and MMP-9 plasma levels. Neither mature BDNF nor MMP-9 plasma levels were associated clinical variables. Our results do not support the view that peripheral BDNF levels are associated with schizophrenia. MMP-9 may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serve as a biomarker for schizophrenia. PMID:24141084

  6. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, Jung Woo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Noh, Ji Heon; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie Hongjian; Ryu, Jae Chun; Ahn, Young Min; Min, Jin-Hye; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Nam, Suk Woo

    2009-05-15

    The amphetamine derivative ({+-})-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  7. Brain reward region responsivity of adolescents with and without parental substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-09-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (n = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from 2 smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively, results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model. PMID:24128289

  8. New understanding of adolescent brain development: relevance to transitional healthcare for young people with long term conditions.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan; Longwell, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Whether or not adolescence should be treated as a special period, there is now no doubt that the brain changes much during adolescence. From an evolutionary perspective, the idea of an under developed brain which is not fit for purpose until adulthood is illogical. Rather, the adolescent brain is likely to support the challenges specific to that period of life. New imaging techniques show striking changes in white and grey matter between 11 and 25 years of age, with increased connectivity between brain regions, and increased dopaminergic activity in the pre-frontal cortices, striatum and limbic system and the pathways linking them. The brain is dynamic, with some areas developing faster and becoming more dominant until other areas catch up. Plausible mechanisms link these changes to cognitive and behavioural features of adolescence. The changing brain may lead to abrupt behavioural change with attendant risks, but such a brain is flexible and can respond quickly and imaginatively. Society allows adolescent exuberance and creativity to be bounded and explored in relative safety. In healthcare settings these changes are especially relevant to young people with long term conditions as they move to young adult life; such young people need to learn to manage their health conditions with the support of their healthcare providers. PMID:23986559

  9. A preliminary examination of how serotonergic polymorphisms influence brain response following an adolescent cannabis intervention.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Mead, Hilary K; Yezhuvath, Uma; Dewitt, Sam; Hutchison, Kent E; Filbey, Francesca M

    2012-11-30

    Given the link between depression, anxiety, and cannabis abuse, a serotonin receptor (rs6311) and transporter polymorphism (rs2020936) were examined as moderators of neural response as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging following a psychosocial treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). While the proposed hypotheses were unsupported, we found that the rs6311 C allele was significantly related to brain activation (medial frontal gyrus, precuneus), indicating the role of this serotonin receptor in adolescent treatment response. PMID:23217578

  10. Multicenter Study of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescent-Onset Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Santiago; Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Janssen, Joost; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Nuria; González-Pinto, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Ortuño, Felipe; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the extent of structural brain abnormalities in a multicenter sample of children and adolescents with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis (FEP), compared with a sample of healthy controls. Total brain and lobar volumes and those of gray matter (GM), white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 92 patients with a FEP and in 94 controls, matched for age, gender, and years of education. Male patients (n = 64) showed several significant differences when compared with controls (n = 61). GM volume in male patients was reduced in the whole brain and in frontal and parietal lobes compared with controls. Total CSF volume and frontal, temporal, and right parietal CSF volumes were also increased in male patients. Within patients, those with a further diagnosis of “schizophrenia” or “other psychosis” showed a pattern similar to the group of all patients relative to controls. However, bipolar patients showed fewer differences relative to controls. In female patients, only the schizophrenia group showed differences relative to controls, in frontal CSF. GM deficit in male patients with a first episode correlated with negative symptoms. Our study suggests that at least part of the GM deficit in children and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and in other psychosis occurs before onset of the first positive symptoms and that, contrary to what has been shown in children-onset schizophrenia, frontal GM deficits are probably present from the first appearance of positive symptoms in children and adolescents. PMID:20478821

  11. Functional imaging of brain maturation in humans using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, M.; Denays, R.; Ham, H.R.; Piepsz, A.; VanPachterbeke, T.; Haumont, D.; Nol, P. )

    1989-12-01

    The application of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) study by means of lipophilic radiotracers and single photon emission computed (SPECT) devices in very young infants is hampered by the considerable changes of rCBF pattern as a result of the cerebral maturation process. In an attempt to determine the normal evolution of ({sup 123}I)IMP SPECT pattern as a function of age, we retrospectively selected the studies of 30 babies with normal clinical examination, EEG and CT or ultrasound scans at time of SPECT. There was a marked predominance of the thalamic perfusion over cortical areas until the end of the second month. The distribution of regional cortical activity followed a strict sequence. The perfusion of both parietal and occipital areas was well-visualized around the 40th week of gestational age and thereafter rapidly rose, always, however, with a slight predominance of the parietal activity. At the opposite, frontal activity which remained scarcely recognizable up to the second month tremendously rose to present the adult-like pattern at the beginning of the second year. The rCBF changes described above are well in agreement with the behavioral evolution occurring during prime infancy.

  12. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  13. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures' volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15-18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal 'increases' in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence. PMID:24526186

  14. Distribution of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide in mature and developing marsupial brain.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K

    2010-01-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a neuromodulator involved in feeding, drug reward, stress and cardiovascular function. We have immunohistochemically studied the distribution of the CART peptide in the brains of two adult marsupial species: the brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii) as a representative of polyprotodont marsupials and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a representative of diprotodont marsupials. We have also examined the distribution of CART during postnatal development in the tammar wallaby. There were similarities and differences both between the two marsupial species and between the marsupials and eutherians in CART distribution. Both marsupials showed immunoreactivity to CART in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, extended amygdala, the supraoptic, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, somatosensory and auditory nuclei of the brainstem, vagal/solitary complex, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus and presumptive presympathetic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla, as has been seen in eutherians. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to CART was weak in or absent from isocortical areas, and immunoreactivity to CART was poor or minimal in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of both species; regions where immunoreactivity to CART is very strong in the brains of eutherians. During development, CART was present at birth (P0) in the lateral trigeminal ganglion, spinal trigeminal tract and the vagal sensorimotor complex, but did not appear in mid- or forebrain regions until much later (from P37). These anatomical findings indicate that although CART is likely to serve very similar functions in both eutherians and marsupials, there are potentially functionally significant differences between the two mammalian groups. PMID:20881368

  15. Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and females: a cross-species understanding of underlying brain changes

    PubMed Central

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood that encompasses vast changes within brain systems that parallel some, but not all, behavioral changes. Elevations in emotional reactivity and reward processing follow an inverted U shape in terms of onset and remission, with the peak occurring during adolescence. However, cognitive processing follows a more linear course of development. This review will focus on changes within key structures and will highlight the relationships between brain changes and behavior, with evidence spanning from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to molecular studies of receptor and signaling factors in animals. Adolescent changes in neuronal substrates will be used to understand how typical and atypical behaviors arise during adolescence. We draw upon clinical and preclinical studies to provide a neural framework for defining adolescence and its role in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21600919

  16. Brain Cortical Thickness Differences in Adolescent Females with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Peter K.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Tanabe, Jody; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Some youths develop multiple substance use disorders early in adolescence and have severe, persistent courses. Such youths often exhibit impulsivity, risk-taking, and problems of inhibition. However, relatively little is known about the possible brain bases of these behavioral traits, especially among females. Methods We recruited right-handed female patients, 14–19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere. Age and IQ were entered as nuisance factors for all analyses. Results A priori region-of-interest analyses yielded no significant differences. However, whole-brain group comparisons revealed that the left pregenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the left medial orbitofrontal region (355.84 mm2 in size), a subset of two of our a priori regions-of-interest, was significantly thinner in patients compared to controls (vertex-level threshold p = 0.005 and cluster-level family wise error corrected threshold p = 0.05). The whole-brain group differences did not survive after adjusting for depression or externalizing scores. Whole-brain within-patient analyses demonstrated a positive association between cortical thickness in the left precuneus and behavioral disinhibition scores (458.23 mm2 in size). Conclusions Adolescent females with substance use disorders have significant differences in brain cortical thickness in regions engaged by the default mode network and that have been associated with problems of emotional dysregulation, inhibition, and behavioral control in past studies. PMID:27049765

  17. Circulating IGF1 regulates hippocampal IGF1 levels and brain gene expression during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Bixler, Georgina V; Brucklacher, Robert M; Farley, Julie A; Han, Song; Freeman, Willard M; Sonntag, William E

    2012-01-01

    GH and its anabolic mediator, IGF1, are important not only in somatic growth but also in the regulation of brain function. Even though GH treatment has been used clinically to improve body composition and exercise capacity in adults, its influence on central nervous system function has only recently been recognized. This is also the case for children with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) where GH has been used to stimulate bone growth and enhance final adult height. Circulating IGF1 is transported across the blood–brain barrier and IGF1 and its receptors are also synthesized in the brain by neurons and glial and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, the relationship between circulating IGF1 and brain IGF1 remains unclear. This study, using a GH-deficient dwarf rat model and peripheral GH replacement, investigated the effects of circulating IGF1 during adolescence on IGF1 levels in the brain. Our results demonstrated that hippocampal IGF1 protein concentrations during adolescence are highly regulated by circulating IGF1, which were reduced by GHD and restored by systematic GH replacement. Importantly, IGF1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were decreased by GHD but not restored by GH replacement. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression using microarrays and RT-PCR indicated that circulating IGF1 levels did not modify the transcription of Igf1 or its receptor in the hippocampus but did regulate genes that are involved in microvascular structure and function, brain development, and synaptic plasticity, which potentially support brain structures involved in cognitive function during this important developmental period. PMID:21750148

  18. Structural Modulation of Brain Development by Oxygen: Evidence on Adolescents Migrating from High Altitude to Sea Level Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Ji; Fan, Ming; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate structural modulation of brain by high level of oxygen during its peak period of development. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD) based on MRI images were carried out on 21 Tibetan adolencents (15–18 years), who were born and raised in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (2900–4700 m) and have lived at sea level (SL) in the last 4 years. The control group consisted of matched Tibetan adolescents born and raised at high altitude all the time. SL immigrants had increased GM volume in the left insula, left inferior parietal gyrus, and right superior parietal gyrus and decreased GM in the left precentral cortex and multiple sites in cerebellar cortex (left lobule 8, bilateral lobule 6 and crus 1/2). Decreased WM volume was found in the right superior frontal gyrus in SL immigrants. SL immigrants had higher FA and lower MD at multiple sites of WM tracts. Moreover, we detected changes in ventilation and circulation. GM volume in cerebellum lobule 8 positively correlated with diastolic pressure, while GM volume in insula positively correlated vital capacity and hypoxic ventilatory response. Our finding indicate that the structural modulations of GM by high level of oxygen during its peak period of development are related to respiratory and circulatory regulations, while the modulation in WM mainly exhibits an enhancement in myelin maturation. PMID:23874449

  19. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. PMID:27217101

  20. Maturation Along White Matter Tracts in Human Brain Using a Diffusion Tensor Surface Model Tract-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang; Zhang, Hui; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Liu, Min; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography studies have demonstrated exponential patterns of developmental changes for diffusion parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) averaged over all voxels in major white matter (WM) tracts of the human brain. However, this assumes that the entire tract is changing in unison, which may not be the case. In this study, a surface model based tract-specific analysis was applied to a cross-sectional cohort of 178 healthy subjects (83 males/95 females) aged from 6 to 30 years to spatially characterize the age-related changes of FA and MD along the trajectory of seven major WM tracts – corpus callosum (CC) and six bilateral tracts. There were unique patterns of regions that showed different exponential and linear rates of increasing FA or decreasing MD and age at which FA or MD levels off along each tract. Faster change rate of FA was observed in genu of CC and frontal-parietal part of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Inferior corticospinal tract (CST), posterior regions of association tracts such as inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus also displayed earlier changing patterns for FA. MD decreases with age also exhibited this posterior-to-anterior WM maturation pattern for most tracts in females. Both males and females displayed similar FA/MD patterns of change with age along most large tracts; however, males had overall reached the FA maxima or MD minima later compared with females in most tracts with the greater differences occurring in the CST and frontal-parietal part of SLF for MD. Therefore, brain WM development has spatially varying trajectories along tracts that depend on sex and the tract. PMID:26909027

  1. Neural imaginaries and clinical epistemology: Rhetorically mapping the adolescent brain in the clinical encounter.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2015-10-01

    The social work of brain images has taken center stage in recent theorizing of the intersections between neuroscience and society. However, neuroimaging is only one of the discursive modes through which public representations of neurobiology travel. This article adopts an expanded view toward the social implications of neuroscientific thinking to examine how neural imaginaries are constructed in the absence of visual evidence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over 18 months (2008-2009) in a United States multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic, I examine the pragmatic clinical work undertaken to represent ambiguous symptoms in neurobiological form. Focusing on one physician, I illustrate how, by rhetorically mapping the brain as a therapeutic tool, she engaged in a distinctive form of representation that I call neural imagining. In shifting my focus away from the purely material dimensions of brain images, I juxtapose the cultural work of brain scanning technologies with clinical neural imaginaries in which the teenage brain becomes a space of possibility, not to map things as they are, but rather, things as we hope they might be. These neural imaginaries rely upon a distinctive clinical epistemology that privileges the creative work of the imagination over visualization technologies in revealing the truths of the body. By creating a therapeutic space for adolescents to exercise their imaginative faculties and a discursive template for doing so, neural imagining relocates adolescents' agency with respect to epistemologies of bodily knowledge and the role of visualization practices therein. In doing so, it provides a more hopeful alternative to the dominant popular and scientific representations of the teenage brain that view it primarily through the lens of pathology. PMID:24780561

  2. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  3. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: Implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew Malter; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  4. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    heavy drinking adolescents prior to the onset of any alcohol use diagnosis. Across the majority of these brain regions, differences in BOLD response were no longer apparent following a month of abstinence, suggesting a decrease in alcohol cue reactivity among adolescent non-dependent heavy drinkers as a consequence of abstaining from alcohol. These results highlight the malleability of adolescent brain function despite no formal intervention targeting cue reactivity. Increased understanding of the neural underpinnings of cue reactivity could have implications for prevention and intervention strategies in adolescent heavy alcohol users. PMID:25796007

  5. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it. PMID:26578509

  6. The role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) in brain development, maturation and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adam H; Vahdatpour, Cyrus; Sanfeliu, Albert; Tropea, Daniela

    2016-06-14

    Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) is a phylogenetically ancient neurotrophic hormone with crucial roles to play in CNS development and maturation. Recently, IGF-1 has been shown to have potent effects on cellular neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticty refers to the adaptive changes made by the CNS in the face of changing functional demands and is crucial in processes such as learning and memory. IGF-1, signaling through its glycoprotein receptor (IGF-1R), and canonical signaling pathways such as the PI3K-Akt and Ras-Raf-MAP pathways, has potent effects on cellular neuroplasticity in the CNS. In the present review, the role of IGF-1 in brain development is reviewed, followed by a detailed discussion of the role played by IGF in cellular neuroplasticity in the CNS. Findings from models of perturbed and reparative plasticity detailing the role played by IGF-1 are discussed, followed by the electrophysiological, structural and functional evidence supporting this role. Finally, the post-lesion and post-injury roles played by IGF-1 are briefly evaluated. We discuss the putative neurobiology underlying these changes, reviewing recent evidence and highlighting areas for further research. PMID:27038749

  7. ADAR2 induces reproducible changes in sequence and abundance of mature microRNAs in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Cornelia; Tauber, Stefanie; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Tajaddod, Mansoureh; von Haeseler, Arndt; Jantsch, Michael F

    2014-10-29

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs including miRNA precursors. A to I editing is widespread and required for normal life. By comparing deep sequencing data of brain miRNAs from wild-type and ADAR2 deficient mouse strains, we detect editing sites and altered miRNA processing at high sensitivity. We detect 48 novel editing events in miRNAs. Some editing events reach frequencies of up to 80%. About half of all editing events depend on ADAR2 while some miRNAs are preferentially edited by ADAR1. Sixty-four percent of all editing events are located within the seed region of mature miRNAs. For the highly edited miR-3099, we experimentally prove retargeting of the edited miRNA to novel 3' UTRs. We show further that an abundant editing event in miR-497 promotes processing by Drosha of the corresponding pri-miRNA. We also detect reproducible changes in the abundance of specific miRNAs in ADAR2-deficient mice that occur independent of adjacent A to I editing events. This indicates that ADAR2 binding but not editing of miRNA precursors may influence their processing. Correlating with changes in miRNA abundance we find misregulation of putative targets of these miRNAs in the presence or absence of ADAR2. PMID:25260591

  8. Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha J; Dalvie, Shareefa; Cuzen, Natalie L; Cardenas, Valerie; Fein, George; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus. PMID:24496784

  9. Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents' brain structure and reward processing

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S; Brassen, S; Bromberg, U; Banaschewski, T; Conrod, P; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, A; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Büchel, C

    2012-01-01

    Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers' interpersonal qualities in relation to their children's brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been investigated systematically. In 63 adolescents, we assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as interpersonal affiliation in their mothers. This allowed us to associate maternal affiliation with gray matter density and neural responses during different phases of the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay task. Maternal affiliation was positively associated with hippocampal and orbitofrontal gray matter density. Moreover, in the feedback of reward hit as compared with reward miss, an association with caudate activation was found. Although no significant gender effects were observed in these associations, during reward feedback as compared with baseline, maternal affiliation was significantly associated with ventral striatal and caudate activation only in females. Our findings demonstrate that maternal interpersonal affiliation is related to alterations in both the brain structure and reward-related activation in healthy adolescents. Importantly, the pattern is in line with typical findings in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, suggesting that a lack of maternal affiliation might have a role in the genesis of mental disorders. PMID:23149446

  10. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Filippo; Onorati, Paolo; Condoluci, Claudia; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Pierallini, Alberto; Sarà, Marco; Miano, Silvia; Cornia, Riccardo; Albertini, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Summary In order to investigate alterations in brain morphology and a possible temporal pattern of neuroanatomical abnormalities in the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young patients with Down syndrome (DS), high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed on 21 children and adolescents with this chromosomal aberration and 27 age-matched participants as controls. In comparison with control subjects, children and adolescents with DS showed not only an overall smaller whole-brain volume, but also volume reductions of the GM in the cerebellum, frontal lobes, frontal region of the limbic lobe, parahippocampal gyri and hippocampi and of the WM in the cerebellum, frontal and parietal lobes, sub-lobar regions and brainstem. By contrast, volume preservation was observed in the GM of the parietal lobes, temporal lobe and sub-lobar regions and in the WM of the temporal lobe and temporal regions of the limbic lobe. A lower volume of CSF was also detected in the frontal lobes. This study is the first to use the high-resolution MRI VBM method to describe a whole-brain pattern of abnormalities in young DS patients falling within such a narrow age range and it provides new information on the neuroanatomically specific regional changes that occur during development in these patients. PMID:23731912

  11. Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents' brain structure and reward processing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Brassen, S; Bromberg, U; Banaschewski, T; Conrod, P; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, A; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Büchel, C

    2012-01-01

    Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers' interpersonal qualities in relation to their children's brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been investigated systematically. In 63 adolescents, we assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as interpersonal affiliation in their mothers. This allowed us to associate maternal affiliation with gray matter density and neural responses during different phases of the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay task. Maternal affiliation was positively associated with hippocampal and orbitofrontal gray matter density. Moreover, in the feedback of reward hit as compared with reward miss, an association with caudate activation was found. Although no significant gender effects were observed in these associations, during reward feedback as compared with baseline, maternal affiliation was significantly associated with ventral striatal and caudate activation only in females. Our findings demonstrate that maternal interpersonal affiliation is related to alterations in both the brain structure and reward-related activation in healthy adolescents. Importantly, the pattern is in line with typical findings in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, suggesting that a lack of maternal affiliation might have a role in the genesis of mental disorders. PMID:23149446

  12. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. Objectives To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. Methods We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Results Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right>left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Conclusion Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches. PMID:26337200

  13. Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Alexander, Suzanne; Cui, Xiaoying; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of dynamic remodeling and maturation in the brain. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during adolescence can potentially alter neural maturation in the adolescent brain subsequently altering neural function at maturity. In this regard, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are important given a notable global increase in prescription of these APDs to adolescents for a variety of behavioural symptoms and conditions over the past twenty years. However, there is a paucity of data on the long-term consequences of APDs on the adolescent brain. In this preclinical study, we have examined whether the adolescent brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to long-term neural changes induced by risperidone, which is the APD most frequently prescribed to adolescents. Rats were chronically treated (21 days) with 1.3 mg/kg/day risperidone or vehicle either as adolescents (postnatal day (PND) 36-56)) or adults (PND80-100). Behaviour was assessed using the well-described suppression of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) by APDs. We examined CAR after all animals had reached maturity (PND127). We show that mature rats treated with risperidone as adolescents had increased CAR suppression compared to adults when rechallenged with this same drug. In the nucleus accumbens, significant downregulation of serotonergic 5HT2A receptors and catechol-o-methyl transferase mRNA levels was observed only in the adolescent treated animals. Impaired 5HT2A receptor signaling may explain the increased CAR suppression observed in rats treated with risperidone as adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, did not detect any risperidone-induced long-term brain structural change at maturity. These findings confirm that APD administration during adolescence may produce long-term behavioural and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27130903

  14. Recurrent seizures, mental retardation and extensive brain calcinosis related to delayed diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Eom, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Min

    2015-05-01

    Reports of adolescent patients presenting with intractable seizures and mental retardation secondary to idiopathic hypothyroidism are uncommon in the literature. In this case, we report a 17-year-old boy who developed recurrent seizures, mental retardation and extensive brain calcinosis related to delayed diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism can be easily missed in children and adolescents, and may lead to irreversible neurologic sequelae. This case highlights the need to consider hypocalcemia in any patient with uncontrolled seizures. PMID:25835143

  15. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  16. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  17. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time. PMID:26307356

  18. Brain Responses to Musical Feature Changes in Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users. PMID:25705185

  19. Brain responses to musical feature changes in adolescent cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users. PMID:25705185

  20. The Effects of Repeat Traumatic Brain Injury on the Pituitary in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hovda, David; Prins, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adolescents are one of the highest groups at risk for sustaining both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). Consequences of endocrine dysfunction following TBI have been routinely explored in adults, but studies in adolescents are limited, and show an incidence rate of endocrine dysfunction in 16–61% in patients, 1–5 years after injury. Similar to in adults, the most commonly affected axis is growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF-1). Despite TBI being the primary cause of morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population, there are currently no experimental studies specifically addressing the occurrence of pituitary dysfunction in adolescents. The present study investigated whether a sham, single injury or four repeat injuries (24 h interval) delivered to adolescent rats resulted in disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Circulating levels of basal GH and IGF-1 were measured at baseline, 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, and 1 month after injury, and vascular permeability of the pituitary gland was quantified via Evans Blue dye extravasation. Changes in weight and length of animals were measured as a potential consequence of GH and IGF-1 disruption. The results from the current study demonstrate that RTBI results in significant acute and chronic decreases in circulation of GH and IGF-1, reduction in weight gain and growth, and an increase in Evans Blue dye extravasation in the pituitary compared with sham and single injury animals. RTBI causes significant disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis that may ultimately affect normal cognitive and physical development during adolescence. PMID:23862570

  1. The Role of Early Maturation, Perceived Popularity, and Rumors in the Emergence of Internalizing Symptoms among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    Despite the widely reported link between early pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among girls, less is known about the peer reputation of earlier maturing girls. The current study assesses whether early maturation is associated with perceived popularity and/or rumors, and whether these reputational factors help account for earlier maturing…

  2. Looking Ahead with Hope: Reviving the Reading Maturity Construct as Social Science for Adolescent and Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Matt

    2013-01-01

    "Reading maturity" is a construct that looks broadly at reading development encompassing not only basic reading skills but reading habits, attitudes, and dispositions. It has a rich history and this article calls for a need to make reading maturity a necessary part of the literacy curriculum. It offers a working description and reviews…

  3. Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, Laurence M; Chiu, Sufen; Frazier, Jean A

    2005-01-01

    Electroencephalogram biofeedback (EBF), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) are emerging interventions that attempt to directly impact brain function through neurostimulation and neurofeedback mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of each of these techniques, summarizes the relevant research findings, and examines the implications of this research for practice standards based on the guidelines for recommending evidence based treatments as developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). EBF meets the "Clinical Guidelines" standard for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, depression, and traumatic brain injury. VNS meets this same standard for treatment of refractory epilepsy and meets the lower "Options" standard for several other disorders. rTMS meets the standard for "Clinical Guidelines" for bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Several conditions are discussed regarding the use of evidence based thinking related to these emerging interventions and future directions. PMID:15564050

  4. Brain magnetic resonance imaging CO2 stress testing in adolescent postconcussion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutch, W Alan C; Ellis, Michael J; Ryner, Lawrence N; Ruth Graham, M; Dufault, Brenden; Gregson, Brian; Hall, Thomas; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James; Mikulis, David J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECT A neuroimaging assessment tool to visualize global and regional impairments in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular responsiveness in individual patients with concussion remains elusive. Here the authors summarize the safety, feasibility, and results of brain CO2 stress testing in adolescents with postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and healthy controls. METHODS This study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Board at the University of Manitoba. Fifteen adolescents with PCS and 17 healthy control subjects underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI, and brain stress testing using controlled CO2 challenge and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI. Post hoc processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping to determine voxel-by-voxel regional resting CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness of the brain to the CO2 stimulus (increase in BOLD signal) or the inverse (decrease in BOLD signal). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare voxel counts categorized by control (0) or PCS (1). RESULTS Studies were well tolerated without any serious adverse events. Anatomical MRI was normal in all study participants. No differences in CO2 stimuli were seen between the 2 participant groups. No group differences in global mean CBF were detected between PCS patients and healthy controls. Patient-specific differences in mean regional CBF and CO2 BOLD responsiveness were observed in all PCS patients. The ROC curve analysis for brain regions manifesting a voxel response greater than and less than the control atlas (that is, abnormal voxel counts) produced an area under the curve of 0.87 (p < 0.0001) and 0.80 (p = 0.0003), respectively, consistent with a clinically useful predictive model. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent PCS is associated with patient-specific abnormalities in regional mean CBF and BOLD cerebrovascular responsiveness that occur in the setting of normal global resting CBF. Future prospective

  5. Pubertal status associations with reward and threat sensitivities and subcortical brain volumes during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by complex developmental processes that impact behavior, biology, and social functioning. Two such adolescence-specific processes are puberty and increases in reward sensitivity. Relations between these processes are poorly understood. The present study focused on examining unique effects of puberty, age, and sex on reward and threat sensitivities and volumes of subcortical brain structures relevant for reward/threat processing in a healthy sample of 9-18year-olds. Unlike age, pubertal status had a significant unique positive relationship with reward sensitivity. In addition, there was a trend for adolescent females to exhibit higher threat sensitivity with more advanced pubertal development and higher reward and threat sensitivity with older age. Similarly, there were significant puberty by sex interaction effects on striatal volumes, i.e., left nucleus accumbens and right pallidum. The present pattern of results suggests that pubertal development, independent of chronological age, is uniquely associated with reward hypersensitivity and with structural differences in striatal regions implicated in reward processing. PMID:24512818

  6. Attenuated behavioral and brain responses to trust violations among assaulted adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lenow, Jennifer K; Scott Steele, J; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D; Cisler, Josh M

    2014-07-30

    Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls׳ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants׳ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage differential learning processes upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims. PMID:24811608

  7. Attenuated behavioral and brain responses to trust violations among assaulted adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Lenow, Jennifer K.; Steele, J. Scott; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D.; Cisler, Josh M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls’ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions - regions implicated in reinforcement learning - among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants’ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage aberrant learning processes (e.g., diminishment of prediction error signals) upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims. PMID:24811608

  8. T2 relaxometry in the extremely-preterm brain at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Nicholas; Chalk, Alan; Martin, Teresa I; Scott, Catherine J; Semedo, Carla; Le, Quan; Orasanu, Eliza; Cardoso, Jorge M; Melbourne, Andrew; Marlow, Neil; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Survival following very preterm birth is associated with cognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have identifiable neural correlates. Many survivors of modern neonatal care in the 1990s are now young adults and the evolution of MRI findings into adult life has rarely been evaluated. We have investigated a cohort of 19-year-old adolescents without severe impairments born between 22 and 26weeks of gestation in 1995 (extremely preterm: EP). Using T2 data derived from magnetic resonance imaging we investigate differences between the brains of 46 EP participants (n=46) and the brains of a group of term-born controls (n=20). Despite EP adolescents having significantly reduced gray and white matter volumes, the composition of these tissues, assessed by both single and multi-component relaxometry, appears to be unrelated to either preterm status or gender. This may represent either insensitivity of the imaging technique or reflect that there are only subtle differences between EP subjects and their term-born peers. PMID:26723846

  9. T2 relaxometry in the extremely-preterm brain at adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, Nicholas; Chalk, Alan; Martin, Teresa I.; Scott, Catherine J.; Semedo, Carla; Le, Quan; Orasanu, Eliza; Cardoso, Jorge M.; Melbourne, Andrew; Marlow, Neil; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Survival following very preterm birth is associated with cognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have identifiable neural correlates. Many survivors of modern neonatal care in the 1990s are now young adults and the evolution of MRI findings into adult life has rarely been evaluated. We have investigated a cohort of 19-year-old adolescents without severe impairments born between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in 1995 (extremely preterm: EP). Using T2 data derived from magnetic resonance imaging we investigate differences between the brains of 46 EP participants (n = 46) and the brains of a group of term-born controls (n = 20). Despite EP adolescents having significantly reduced gray and white matter volumes, the composition of these tissues, assessed by both single and multi-component relaxometry, appears to be unrelated to either preterm status or gender. This may represent either insensitivity of the imaging technique or reflect that there are only subtle differences between EP subjects and their term-born peers. PMID:26723846

  10. Association between Postnatal Dexamethasone for Treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Brain Volumes at Adolescence in Infants Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jeanie L.Y.; Burnett, Alice C.; Lee, Katherine J.; Roberts, Gehan; Thompson, Deanne K.; Wood, Stephen J.; Connelly, Alan; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare brain volumes in adolescents who were born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation) who had received postnatal dexamethasone, and to determine if there was a postnatal dexamethasone dose–response effect on brain volumes. Study design Geographical cohort study of extremely preterm adolescents born in 1991-1992 in Victoria, Australia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 18 years of age. Segmented and parcellated brain volumes were calculated using an automated segmentation method (FreeSurfer) and compared between groups, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. The relationships between total postnatal dexamethasone dose and brain volumes were explored using linear regression. Results Of the 148 extremely preterm participants, 55 (37%) had received postnatal dexamethasone, with a cumulative mean dose of 7.7 mg/kg. Compared with participants who did not receive postnatal dexamethasone, those who did had smaller total brain tissue volumes (mean difference −3.6%, 95% CI [−7.0%, −0.3%], P value = .04) and smaller white matter, thalami, and basal ganglia volumes (all P < .05). There was a trend of smaller total brain and white matter volumes with increasing dose of postnatal dexamethasone (regression coefficient −7.7 [95% CI −16.2, 0.8] and −3.2 [−6.6, 0.2], respectively). Conclusions Extremely preterm adolescents who received postnatal dexamethasone in the newborn period had smaller total brain tissue volumes than those who did not receive postnatal dexamethasone, particularly white matter, thalami, and basal ganglia. Vulnerability of brain tissues or structures associated with postnatal dexamethasone varies by structure and persists into adolescence. PMID:24332820

  11. Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Lori G.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Elliott, Alan C.; Evenson, Nellie N.; Vinton, Kami

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down) versus rote memory learning (bottom-up), on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition) in 20 adolescents (ages 12–20) who were 6 months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-min sessions over 1 month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10) exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10) failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 h) utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI. PMID:24966850

  12. Cognitive gains from gist reasoning training in adolescents with chronic-stage traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lori G; Chapman, Sandra B; Elliott, Alan C; Evenson, Nellie N; Vinton, Kami

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down) versus rote memory learning (bottom-up), on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition) in 20 adolescents (ages 12-20) who were 6 months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-min sessions over 1 month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10) exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10) failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 h) utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI. PMID:24966850

  13. Suicidality, Bullying and Other Conduct and Mental Health Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario. Method and Findings Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9) of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52), attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39), seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10), and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45). Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70), being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05), and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90), compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours. Conclusions Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and

  14. Cerebral radiofrequency exposures during adolescence: Impact on astrocytes and brain functions in healthy and pathologic rat models.

    PubMed

    Petitdant, Nicolas; Lecomte, Anthony; Robidel, Franck; Gamez, Christelle; Blazy, Kelly; Villégier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones by adolescents raises concerns about possible health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF 900 MHz) on the immature brain. Neuro-development is a period of particular sensitivity to repeated environmental challenges such as pro-inflammatory insults. Here, we used rats to assess whether astrocyte reactivity, perception, and emotionality were affected by RF EMF exposures during adolescence. We also investigated if adolescent brains were more sensitive to RF EMF exposures after neurodevelopmental inflammation. To do so, we either performed 80 μg/kg intra-peritoneal injections of lipopolysaccharides during gestation or 1.25 μg/h intra-cerebro-ventricular infusions during adolescence. From postnatal day (P)32 to 62, rats were subjected to 45 min RF EMF exposures to the brain (specific absorption rates: 0, 1.5, or 6 W/kg, 5 days/week). From P56, they were tested for perception of novelty, anxiety-like behaviors, and emotional memory. To assess astrocytic reactivity, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein was measured at P64. Our results did not show any neurobiological impairment in healthy and vulnerable RF EMF-exposed rats compared to their sham-exposed controls. These data did not support the hypothesis of a specific cerebral sensitivity to RF EMF of adolescents, even after a neurodevelopmental inflammation. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:338-350, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272062

  15. Testing a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development using resting-state connectivity analyses.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenvoorde, A C K; Achterberg, M; Braams, B R; Peters, S; Crone, E A

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development. PMID:25969399

  16. The impact of therapists' words on the adolescent brain: In the context of addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Houck, Jon M; Yezhuvath, Uma; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Truitt, Dustin; Filbey, Francesca M

    2016-01-15

    At this time, we still do not know how therapist behaviors influence adolescent brain response and related treatment outcomes. Therefore, we examined this question with 17 binge drinking youth (mean age=16.62 years; 64.3% female; 42.9% Hispanic; 28.6% bi-/multi-racial). In this within-subjects design, all youth completed a baseline assessment, two therapy sessions, an fMRI scan, and were re-evaluated for behavior change at one-month post-treatment. During the fMRI session, youth were presented with two types of responses from their treating therapist: higher-skill statements prescribed in an empirically-supported addiction treatment (complex reflections) vs. language standard within addiction treatment more broadly (closed questions). In terms of behavior change, at the one-month follow-up, youth showed significant reductions in number of drinking days and binge drinking days. Further, we found main effects for complex reflections and closed questions across the superior middle temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (FWE-corrected, p<.05). Greater brain response was observed for complex reflections versus closed questions within the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus. Greater BOLD response in the parietal lobe during closed questions was significantly associated with less post-treatment drinking. Lower BOLD response during complex reflections and closed questions in the precuneus were associated with greater post-treatment ratings of importance of changing. This study represents a first step in understanding how therapist behaviors influence the developing adolescent brain and how that neural response may be associated with youth treatment outcomes. PMID:26455873

  17. Positive Youth Cultures and the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2009-01-01

    The maturation of the adolescent brain is focused on two tasks: developing autonomy and understanding self in context of the community. Therefore, parents and other adults must assure that young people have multiple opportunities to interact in supportive environments where they can develop the capacity to self-regulate and achieve autonomy.…

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: A Sourcebook for Teachers and Other School Personnel. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Janet Siantz; Mira, Mary P.

    This book is designed to provide educators with the requisite information to successfully meet the needs of students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses particularly on students (preschoolers through adolescents) whose injuries are moderate to severe and who are expected to suffer educationally significant residual impairments. It…

  19. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  20. Brain Development of Very Preterm and Very Low-Birthweight Children in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…

  1. Changes in brain seabream GnRH mRNA and pituitary seabream GnRH peptide levels during ovarian maturation in female barfin flounder.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Pham, Ky Xuan; Amiya, Noriko; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    The pleuronectid barfin flounder Verasper moseri expresses three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), i.e., seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), salmon GnRH, and chicken GnRH-II. Among these, sbGnRH is the dominant form in the pituitary, indicating that sbGnRH regulates gonadal maturation. In order to clarify the physiological roles of sbGnRH during ovarian maturation in reared female barfin flounder, the changes in brain sbGnRH mRNA levels and pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, respectively. The fish hatched in April 2002. The gonadosomatic index remained low until August 2004 and increased thereafter until April 2005 when the fish began to ovulate. The sbGnRH mRNA levels per brain increased significantly from April 2004 to April 2005. Pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels also increased significantly during this period. These results indicate that sbGnRH is involved in ovarian maturation and ovulation in the barfin flounder. PMID:18662692

  2. Semi-quantitative Assessment of Brain Maturation by Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neonates with Clinically Mild Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Sun, Qin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Miao; Li, Yan-Yan; Li, Huan; Hou, Xin; Yu, Bo-Lang; Zhou, Xi-Hui; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury is becoming the major type in neonatal brain diseases. The aim of this study was to assess brain maturation in mild HIE neonatal brains using total maturation score (TMS) based on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Totally, 45 neonates with clinically mild HIE and 45 matched control neonates were enrolled. Gestated age, birth weight, age after birth and postmenstrual age at magnetic resonance (MR) scan were homogenous in the two groups. According to MR findings, mild HIE neonates were divided into three subgroups: Pattern I, neonates with normal MR appearance; Pattern II, preterm neonates with abnormal MR appearance; Pattern III, full-term neonates with abnormal MR appearance. TMS and its parameters, progressive myelination (M), cortical infolding (C), involution of germinal matrix tissue (G), and glial cell migration bands (B), were employed to assess brain maturation and compare difference between HIE and control groups. Results: The mean of TMS was significantly lower in mild HIE group than it in the control group (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.62 ± 1.53 vs. 12.36 ± 1.26, P < 0.001). In four parameters of TMS scores, the M and C scores were significantly lower in mild HIE group. Of the three patterns of mild HIE, Pattern I (10 cases) showed no significant difference of TMS compared with control neonates, while Pattern II (22 cases), III (13 cases) all had significantly decreased TMS than control neonates (mean ± SD 10.56 ± 0.93 vs. 11.48 ± 0.55, P < 0.05; 12.59 ± 1.28 vs. 13.25 ± 1.29, P < 0.05). It was M, C, and GM scores that significantly decreased in Pattern II, while for Pattern III, only C score significantly decreased. Conclusions: The TMS system, based on conventional MRI, is an effective method to detect delayed brain maturation in clinically mild HIE. The conventional MRI can reveal the different retardations in subtle structures and development processes

  3. Cognitive Remediation: Potential Novel Brain-Based Treatment for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Cushman, Grace K.; Kim, Kerri L.; Weissman, Alexandra B.; Wegbreit, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most impairing psychiatric disorders affecting children and adolescents, despite our best psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments. Cognitive remediation, defined as a behavioral intervention designed to improve cognitive functions so as to reduce psychiatric illness, is an emerging brain-based treatment approach that has thus far not been studied in pediatric BD. The present article reviews the basic principles of cognitive remediation, describes what is known about cognitive remediation in psychiatric disorders, and delineates potential brain/behavior alterations implicated in pediatric BD that might be targets for cognitive remediation. Emerging data shows that cognitive remediation may be useful in children and adults with schizophrenia, ADHD, and anxiety disorders, and in adults with BD. Potential targets for cognitive remediation in pediatric BD include face processing, response inhibition, frustration, and cognitive flexibility. Further study is warranted to determine if cognitive remediation for these targets, or others, may serve as a novel, brain-based treatment for pediatric BD. PMID:26135596

  4. MR Analysis of Regional Brain Volume in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Neurological Manifestation of a Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianming; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Young, Geoffrey; Li, Kaiming; Yeung, Benson H.Y.; Guo, Lei; Man, Gene C.W.; Lam, Wynnie W.M.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Cheng, Jack C.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether regional brain volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients differ from matched control subjects as AIS subjects are reported to have poor performance on combined visual and proprioceptive testing and impaired postural balance in previous studies. Materials and Methods Twenty AIS female patients with typical right-convex thoracic curve (age range,11−18 years; mean, 14.1 years) and 26 female controls (mean age, 14.8 years) underwent three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (3D-MPRAGE) MR imaging. Volumes of 99 preselected neuroanatomical regions were compared by statistical parametric mapping and atlas-based hybrid warping. Results Analysis of variance statistics revealed significant mean volumetric differences in 22 brain regions between AIS and controls. Ten regions were larger in AIS including the left frontal gyri and white matter in left frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, corpus callosum and brainstem. Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri. Conclusion Regional brain volume difference in AIS subjects may help to explain neurological abnormalities in this group. PMID:18302230

  5. Study protocol: Imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes. PMID:24779869

  6. Maturation of the Long-Latency Auditory ERP: Step Function Changes at Start and End of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn; Uwer, Ruth; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    The auditory event-related potential (ERP) is obtained by averaging electrical impulses recorded from the scalp in response to repeated stimuli. Previous work has shown large differences between children, adolescents and adults in the late auditory ERP, raising the possibility that analysis of waveform shape might be useful as an index of brain…

  7. Tic-Tac-Toe Performance as a Function of Maturational Level of Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; Winters, Emilia A.

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. Two groups (36 Ss) of educable and trainable mentally retarded adolescents in an institution were compared with two groups (38 Ss) of nonretarded children (ages 8-9 years old) on a modified tic-tac-toe game for foresight in logical problem solving. (MH)

  8. Career Maturity Determinants: Individual Development, Social Context, and Historical Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    1998-01-01

    Compares adolescents from East Germany who experienced an educational system offering little choice with adolescents from West Germany who experienced more leeway to investigate career maturity. East German adolescents reported more career maturity. Person-related variables predicted career maturity in both groups; family and peer context were…

  9. Cerebral white matter correlates of delay discounting in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Koeppel, Julie A; Barry, Amy B

    2016-05-15

    The adolescent brain undergoes extensive structural white matter (WM) changes. Adolescence is also a critical time period during which cognitive, emotional and social maturation occurs in transition into adulthood. Compared to adults, adolescents are generally more impulsive with increased risk-taking behaviors. The goal of this study is to examine whether adolescent impulsivity may be related to cerebral WM maturation. In 89 healthy adolescents, we assessed impulsivity using the delay discounting task, and MRI WM volumes in brain regions previously implicated in delay discounting behaviors. We found that smaller delay discounting AUC (area under the curve) was associated with larger WM volumes in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices (PFC) and motor cortex. There were no significant effects of AUC on WM volumes within somatosensory brain regions. In our sample, younger age was significantly associated with greater WM volumes in orbitofrontal and dorsolateral PFC subregions. Even after accounting for age-related effects, preference for immediate rewards (or greater impulsivity) still correlated with larger WM volumes in prefrontal regions known to mediate cognitive control. Our findings lend further support to the notion that reduced brain WM maturity may limit the ability in adolescents to forgo immediate rewards leading to greater impulsivity. PMID:26946275

  10. Manic Symptoms Due to Methylphenidate Use in an Adolescent with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğullari; Ekinci, Nuran; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Almost one-fifth of children who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are under the risk of attention problems after injury. The efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with a history of TBI have not been completely identified. In this case report, MPH-induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with TBI will be summarized. A male patient aged 17 years was admitted with the complaints of attention difficulties on schoolwork and forgetfullness which became evident after TBI. Long-acting MPH was administered with the dose of 18 mg/day for attention problems. After one week, patient presented with the complaints of talking to himself, delusional thoughts, irritability and sleeplessness. This case highlights the fact that therapeutic dose of MPH may cause mania-like symptoms in children with TBI. Close monitarization and slow dose titration are crucial when considering MPH in children with TBI. PMID:27489389

  11. Manic Symptoms Due to Methylphenidate Use in an Adolescent with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğullari; Ekinci, Nuran; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2016-08-31

    Almost one-fifth of children who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are under the risk of attention problems after injury. The efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with a history of TBI have not been completely identified. In this case report, MPH-induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with TBI will be summarized. A male patient aged 17 years was admitted with the complaints of attention difficulties on schoolwork and forgetfullness which became evident after TBI. Long-acting MPH was administered with the dose of 18 mg/day for attention problems. After one week, patient presented with the complaints of talking to himself, delusional thoughts, irritability and sleeplessness. This case highlights the fact that therapeutic dose of MPH may cause mania-like symptoms in children with TBI. Close monitarization and slow dose titration are crucial when considering MPH in children with TBI. PMID:27489389

  12. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  13. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581

  14. Prefrontal brain metabolites in short-term weight-recovered adolescent anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Garcia, Ana Isabel; Lazaro, Luisa; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Falcón, Carles; Plana, Maria Teresa; Bargallo, Nuria

    2010-08-16

    Various neuroimaging techniques have revealed morphological and functional alterations in anorexia nervosa (AN), although few spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies have examined short-term weight-recovered AN patients. Subjects were 32 female adolescent patients (between 13 and 18 years old) seen consecutively in our department and who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AN. All of them had received a minimum of six months of treatment and were short-term weight-recovered (for one to three months) with a body mass index ranging from 18 to 23. A group of 20 healthy female volunteer controls of similar age were also included. All subjects were assessed with psychopathological scales and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total choline (Cho) (p=0.007) and creatine (Cr) (p=0.008) levels were significantly higher in AN patients than in controls. AN patients receiving psychopharmacological treatment with SSRIs (N=9) had metabolite levels similar to control subjects, but patients without this treatment did not. The present study shows abnormalities in brain neurometabolites related to Cho compounds and Cr in the prefrontal cortex in short-term weight-recovered adolescent AN patients, principally in patients not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. More studies with larger samples are necessary to test the generalizability of the present results. PMID:20580920

  15. Effects of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury on anticipating consequences of actions in adolescents: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lori G; Hanten, Gerri; Orsten, Kimberley D; Chapman, Sandra B; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Levin, Harvey S

    2013-05-01

    For this pilot study, we compared performance of 15 adolescents with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to that of 13 typically developing (TD) adolescents in predicting social actions and consequences for avatars in a virtual microworld environment faced with dilemmas involving legal or moral infractions. Performance was analyzed in relation to cortical thickness in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Groups did not differ in number of actions predicted nor in reasons cited for predictions when presented only the conflict situation. After viewing the entire scenario, including the choice made by the avatar, TD and TBI adolescents provided similar numbers of short-term consequences. However, TD adolescents provided significantly more long-term consequences (p = .010). Additionally, for the Overall qualitative score, TD adolescents' responses were more likely to reflect the long-term impact of the decision made (p = .053). Groups differed in relation of the Overall measure to thickness of right medial prefrontal cortex/frontal pole and precuneus, with stronger relations for the TD group (p < .01). For long-term consequences, the relations to the posterior cingulate, superior medial frontal, and precentral regions, and to a lesser extent, the middle temporal region, were stronger for the TBI group (p < .01). PMID:23312035

  16. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents. PMID:26578922

  17. Predicting Postconcussion Syndrome After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents Who Present to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Lynn; Byczkowski, Terri; Wade, Shari L.; Ho, Mona; Mookerjee, Sohug; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the acute predictors associated with the development of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury. Design Retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study. Setting Pediatric emergency department (ED) in a children’s hospital. Participants Four hundred six children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years. Main Exposure Closed head trauma. Main Outcome Measures The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire administered 3 months after the injury. Results Of the patients presenting to the ED with mild traumatic brain injury, 29.3% developed PCS. The most frequent PCS symptom was headache. Predictors of PCS, while controlling for other factors, were being of adolescent age, headache on presentation to the ED, and admission to the hospital. Patients who developed PCS missed a mean (SD) of 7.4 (13.9) days of school. Conclusions Adolescents who have headache on ED presentation and require hospital admission at the ED encounter are at elevated risk for PCS after mild traumatic brain injury. Interventions to identify this population and begin early treatment may improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:23247384

  18. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents. PMID:26578922

  19. Mean-level personality development across childhood and adolescence: a temporary defiance of the maturity principle and bidirectional associations with parenting.

    PubMed

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica; Prinzie, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated mean-level personality development in children from 6 to 20 years of age. Additionally, we investigated longitudinal, bidirectional associations between child personality and maternal overreactive and warm parenting. In this 5-wave study, mothers reported on their child's personality from Time 1 (T1) through Time 4 (T4), and children provided self-reports from Time 2 (T2) through Time 5 (T5). Mothers reported on their levels of overreactive and warm parenting from T2 through T4. Using cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling, we investigated mother reported child personality from 6 to 17 years of age and child reported personality from 9 to 20 years of age. Extraversion decreased linearly across the entire study. Benevolence and conscientiousness increased from middle to late childhood, temporarily declined from late childhood to mid-adolescence, and increased again thereafter. Imagination decreased from middle childhood to mid-adolescence and also increased thereafter. Mothers reported a temporary decline in emotional stability with an increase thereafter, whereas children did not. Boys and girls differed in mean-levels of the personality dimensions and, to a lesser extent, in the degree and direction of changes. Latent difference score modeling showed that child personality predicted changes in parenting and that, to a lesser extent, parenting predicted changes in child traits. Additionally, changes in child personality were associated with changes in maternal parenting. Results of the present study show that personality change is not directed at increasing maturity from childhood to mid-adolescence and that it elicits and is shaped by both positive and negative parenting. PMID:25133720

  20. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  1. Long-term oral methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats: differential effects on brain morphology and function.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, Kajo; Klomp, Anne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Schipper, Pieter; Lucassen, Paul J; Homberg, Judith R; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a widely prescribed psychostimulant for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, which raises questions regarding its potential interference with the developing brain. In the present study, we investigated effects of 3 weeks oral methylphenidate (5 mg/kg) vs vehicle treatment on brain structure and function in adolescent (post-natal day [P]25) and adult (P65) rats. Following a 1-week washout period, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess effects of age and treatment on independent component analysis-based functional connectivity (resting-state functional MRI), D-amphetamine-induced neural activation responses (pharmacological MRI), gray and white matter tissue volumes and cortical thickness (postmortem structural MRI), and white matter structural integrity (postmortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)). Many age-related differences were found, including cortical thinning, white matter development, larger dopamine-mediated activation responses and increased striatal functional connectivity. Methylphenidate reduced anterior cingulate cortical network strength in both adolescents and adults. In contrast to clinical observations from ADHD patient studies, methylphenidate did not increase white matter tissue volume or cortical thickness in rat. Nevertheless, DTI-based fractional anisotropy was higher in the anterior part of the corpus callosum following adolescent treatment. Furthermore, methylphenidate differentially affected adolescents and adults as evidenced by reduced striatal volume and myelination upon adolescent treatment, although we did not observe adverse treatment effects on striatal functional activity. Our findings of small but significant age-dependent effects of psychostimulant treatment in the striatum of healthy rats highlights the importance of further research in children and adolescents that are exposed to methylphenidate. PMID:23851400

  2. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  3. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  4. Gender differences in brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2008-03-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.

  5. Prenatal Origins of Temperament: Fetal Growth, Brain Structure, and Inhibitory Control in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schlotz, Wolff; Godfrey, Keith M.; Phillips, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individual differences in the temperamental dimension of effortful control are constitutionally based and have been associated with an adverse prenatal developmental environment, with structural brain alterations presenting a potential mechanism. We investigated this hypothesis for anatomically defined brain regions implicated in cognitive and inhibitory motor control. Methods Twenty-seven 15–16 year old participants with low, medium, or high fetal growth were selected from a longitudinal birth cohort to maximize variation and represent the full normal spectrum of fetal growth. Outcome measures were parent ratings of attention and inhibitory control, thickness and surface area of the orbitofrontal cortex (lateral (LOFC) and medial (MOFC)) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), and volumetric measures of the striatum and amygdala. Results Lower birth weight was associated with lower inhibitory control, smaller surface area of LOFC, MOFC and rIFG, lower caudate volume, and thicker MOFC. A mediation model found a significant indirect effect of birth weight on inhibitory control via caudate volume. Conclusions Our findings support a neuroanatomical mechanism underlying potential long-term consequences of an adverse fetal developmental environment for behavioral inhibitory control in adolescence and have implications for understanding putative prenatal developmental origins of externalizing behavioral problems and self-control. PMID:24802625

  6. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  7. Competence in Caregivers of Adolescent and Young Adult Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Deatrick, Janet A.; Hobbie, Wendy; Ogle, Sue; Fisher, Michael J.; Barakat, Lamia; Hardie, Thomas; Reilly, Maureen; Li, Yimei; Ginsberg, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Caregivers of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with complex medical conditions, including brain tumor survivors, have protracted and often complex roles, yet a gap exists in understanding their perceived competence. The aim of this study is to test a hypothesized model based on the theoretical and empirical literature: better caregiver health, better survivor health, and better family functioning contribute directly to fewer caregiving demands, which in turn contribute to greater caregiver competence. Method Telephone interviews using structured self-report questionnaires were conducted in this cross-sectional study with a sample of 186 caregivers (mothers) of childhood brain tumor survivors aged 14–40 years old who live with at least one parent. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized model. Results The final SEM model suggests that survivor health and family functioning directly predict caregiver competence. Caregiver health indirectly predicts caregiver competence through caregiver demands and then family functioning. Family income directly predicts family functioning. The model showed adequate fit (CFI = 0.905, TFI = 0.880, and RMSEA = 0.081). Overall, the model accounted for 45% of variance in caregiver competence. Conclusions For this sample of caregivers of AYA with medically complex conditions, family functioning and the health of survivors are both important to how they evaluate their skills as caregivers. The results of this study underscore the crucial role of care models that focus on optimizing the health of the survivor, caregiver, and family, along with supporting a family centered approach to their care. PMID:23957900

  8. Intrinsic brain indices of verbal working memory capacity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Jutagir, Devika R; Koyama, Maki S; Craddock, R Cameron; Yan, Chao-Gan; Shehzad, Zarrar; Castellanos, F Xavier; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is central to the acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout childhood and adolescence. While numerous behavioral and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined WM development, few have used resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). Here, we present a systematic R-fMRI examination of age-related differences in the neural indices of verbal WM performance in a cross-sectional pediatric sample (ages: 7-17; n=68), using data-driven approaches. Verbal WM capacity was measured with the digit span task, a commonly used educational and clinical assessment. We found distinct neural indices of digit span forward (DSF) and backward (DSB) performance, reflecting their unique neuropsychological demands. Regardless of age, DSB performance was related to intrinsic properties of brain areas previously implicated in attention and cognitive control, while DSF performance was related to areas less commonly implicated in verbal WM storage (precuneus, lateral visual areas). From a developmental perspective, DSF exhibited more robust age-related differences in brain-behavior relationships than DSB, and implicated a broader range of networks (ventral attention, default, somatomotor, limbic networks)--including a number of regions not commonly associated with verbal WM (angular gyrus, subcallosum). These results highlight the importance of examining the neurodevelopment of verbal WM and of considering regions beyond the "usual suspects". PMID:26299314

  9. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  10. Diversity of endurance training effects on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in different brain regions of adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J

    2015-08-01

    Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal

  11. A role for synaptic plasticity in the adolescent development of executive function

    PubMed Central

    Selemon, L D

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent brain maturation is characterized by the emergence of executive function mediated by the prefrontal cortex, e.g., goal planning, inhibition of impulsive behavior and set shifting. Synaptic pruning of excitatory contacts is the signature morphologic event of late brain maturation during adolescence. Mounting evidence suggests that glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity, in particular long term depression (LTD), is important for elimination of synaptic contacts in brain development. This review examines the possibility (1) that LTD mechanisms are enhanced in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence due to ongoing synaptic pruning in this late developing cortex and (2) that enhanced synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex represents a key molecular substrate underlying the critical period for maturation of executive function. Molecular sites of interaction between environmental factors, such as alcohol and stress, and glutamate receptor mediated plasticity are considered. The accentuated negative impact of these factors during adolescence may be due in part to interference with LTD mechanisms that refine prefrontal cortical circuitry and when disrupted derail normal maturation of executive function. Diminished prefrontal cortical control over risk-taking behavior could further exacerbate negative outcomes associated with these behaviors, as for example addiction and depression. Greater insight into the neurobiology of the adolescent brain is needed to fully understand the molecular basis for heightened vulnerability during adolescence to the injurious effects of substance abuse and stress. PMID:23462989

  12. Immunoreactive somatostatin and. beta. -endorphin content in the brain of mature rats after neonatal exposure to propylthiouacil. [Propylthiouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, N.; Sundmark, V.C.; Van Middlesworth, L.; Havlicek, V.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The contents of immunoreactive somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and ..beta..-endorphin (IR-..beta..-EP) in 12 brain regions were examined in rats exposed neonatally to propylthiouracil (PTU) through the mother's milk. Since the dose of PTU used in this study is lower than the usual dose employed to induce hypothyroidism, a milder form of neonatal hypothyroidism resulted. This conclusion is supported by the only mild subnormal growth of rats to adulthood and serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentrations in the normal range. Adult rats treated with PTU neonatally had significantly higher IR-SRIF contents in several brain regions compared to controls, whereas IR-..beta..-EP levels were not significantly different in most regions. The results indicate that even mild hypothyroidism during early postnatal development causes permanent impairment of brain function, which manifests itself in part by an altered brain content of IR-SRIF.

  13. Immunoreactive somatostatin and. beta. -endorphin content in the brain of mature rats after neonatal exposure to propylthiouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, N.; Sundmark, V.C.; Van Middlesworth, L.; Havlicek, V.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The contents of immunoreactive somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and ..beta..-endorphin (IR-..beta..-EP) in 12 brain regions were examined in rats exposed neonatally to propylthiouracil (PTU) through the mother's milk. Since the dose of PTU used in the study is lower than the usual dose employed to induce hypothyroidism, a milder form of neonatal hypothyroidism resulted. This conclusion is supported by the only mild subnormal growth of rats to adulthood and serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentrations in the normal range. Adult rats treated with PTU neonatally had significantly higher IR-SRIF contents in several brain regions compared to controls, whereas IR-..beta..-EP levels were not significantly different (significant increase only in the thalamus) in most regions. The results indicate that even mild hypothyroidism during early postnatal development causes permanent impairment of brain function, which manifests itself in part by an altered brain content of IR-SRIF.

  14. Gestational nicotine exposure modifies myelin gene expression in the brains of adolescent rats with sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J; Wang, J; Dwyer, J B; Gautier, N M; Wang, S; Leslie, F M; Li, M D

    2013-01-01

    Myelination defects in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. As these disorders are often observed in individuals prenatally exposed to cigarette smoking, we tested the hypothesis that such exposure impairs central myelination in adolescence, an important period of brain development and the peak age of onset of psychiatric disorders. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg kg−1 per day; gestational nicotine (GN)) or gestational saline via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4–18. Both male and female offsprings were killed on postnatal day 35 or 36, and three limbic brain regions, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens, were removed for measurement of gene expression and determination of morphological changes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) array, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. GN altered myelin gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, with striking sex differences. Aberrant expression of myelin-related transcription and trophic factors was seen in GN animals, which correlated highly with the alterations in the myelin gene expression. These correlations suggest that these factors contribute to GN-induced alterations in myelin gene expression and also indicate abnormal function of oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-producing cells in the CNS. It is unlikely that these changes are attributable solely to an alteration in the number of OLGs, as the cell number was changed only in the PFC of GN males. Together, our findings suggest that abnormal brain myelination underlies various psychiatric disorders and drug abuse associated with prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke. PMID:23591971

  15. Behavioural profiles of children and adolescents after pre- or perinatal unilateral brain damage.

    PubMed

    Trauner, D A; Nass, R; Ballantyne, A

    2001-05-01

    Recent case reports of individuals with early-onset damage to the prefrontal cortex have suggested that such early insults could result in severely impaired social behaviour in later childhood and adolescence. The investigators speculated that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. In a large cohort of children, we sought to determine whether early focal brain insults might result in clinically significant behavioural or emotional problems. This study reports on 39 children with pre- or perinatal-onset unilateral brain damage (focal lesion) from cerebral infarction or intraparenchymal haemorrhage, using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist to assess the presence or absence of behavioural and emotional difficulties. Two-thirds of the subjects had left hemisphere (LH) lesions and one-third had right hemisphere (RH) lesions. Age range was 4.0-15.4 years at the time of questionnaire completion. Their results were compared with those of 54 control children. Analyses were conducted on focal lesion versus controls, RH versus LH lesion, frontal versus non-frontal lesion, and seizure versus non-seizure groups. When the effect of IQ was partialled out, there were no significant differences on the nine Behavior Problem scales, the Internalizing-Externalizing dichotomy or the Total Problem score for any of the group comparisons. Our subjects showed no evidence of clinically significant behavioural or emotional problems, even when the frontal lobe was involved. Individuals with more extensive and bilateral damage may be at higher risk of significant behavioural and emotional dysfunction than were those in our study population. In future studies of brain-behaviour relationships in developing children, all potential causes for any observed behavioural abnormalities, such as genetic and environmental factors and toxin exposure, must be considered before concluding that specific anatomical lesions are causally related to specific

  16. Gestational nicotine exposure modifies myelin gene expression in the brains of adolescent rats with sex differences.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Wang, J; Dwyer, J B; Gautier, N M; Wang, S; Leslie, F M; Li, M D

    2013-01-01

    Myelination defects in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. As these disorders are often observed in individuals prenatally exposed to cigarette smoking, we tested the hypothesis that such exposure impairs central myelination in adolescence, an important period of brain development and the peak age of onset of psychiatric disorders. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg kg(-1) per day; gestational nicotine (GN)) or gestational saline via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4-18. Both male and female offsprings were killed on postnatal day 35 or 36, and three limbic brain regions, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens, were removed for measurement of gene expression and determination of morphological changes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) array, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. GN altered myelin gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, with striking sex differences. Aberrant expression of myelin-related transcription and trophic factors was seen in GN animals, which correlated highly with the alterations in the myelin gene expression. These correlations suggest that these factors contribute to GN-induced alterations in myelin gene expression and also indicate abnormal function of oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-producing cells in the CNS. It is unlikely that these changes are attributable solely to an alteration in the number of OLGs, as the cell number was changed only in the PFC of GN males. Together, our findings suggest that abnormal brain myelination underlies various psychiatric disorders and drug abuse associated with prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke. PMID:23591971

  17. Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert F; McDonald, Craig G; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Brielmaier, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity. A large number of brain changes occur during adolescence as the CNS matures. These changes suggest that the adolescent brain may still be susceptible to developmental alterations by substances which impact its growth. Here we review recent studies on adolescent nicotine which show that the adolescent brain is differentially sensitive to nicotine-induced alterations in dendritic elaboration, in several brain areas associated with processing reinforcement and emotion, specifically including nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dentate gyrus. Both sensitivity to nicotine, and specific areas responding to nicotine, differ between adolescent and adult rats, and dendritic changes in response to adolescent nicotine persist into adulthood. Areas sensitive to, and not sensitive to, structural remodeling induced by adolescent nicotine suggest that the remodeling generally corresponds to the extended amygdala. Evidence suggests that dendritic remodeling is accompanied by persisting changes in synaptic connectivity. Modeling, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral data are consistent with the implication of our anatomical studies showing that adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in neural connectivity. Emerging data thus suggest that early adolescence is a period when nicotine consumption, presumably mediated by nicotine-elicited changes in patterns of synaptic activity, can sculpt late brain development, with consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation. Adolescent nicotine may induce a more addiction-prone phenotype, and the structures altered by nicotine also subserve some emotional and cognitive functions, which may also be altered. We suggest that dendritic elaboration and associated changes are mediated by activity-dependent synaptogenesis, acting in part

  18. Genes, maternal smoking, and the offspring brain and body during adolescence: design of the Saguenay Youth Study.

    PubMed

    Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomás; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Almerigi, Jason; Arbour, Nadine; Bernard, Manon; Gaudet, Daniel; Hanzalek, Petr; Hamet, Pavel; Evans, Alan C; Kramer, Michael; Laberge, Luc; Leal, Susan M; Leonard, Gabriel; Lerner, Jackie; Lerner, Richard M; Mathieu, Jean; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce; Pitiot, Alain; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R; Syme, Catriona; Toro, Roberto; Tremblay, Richard E; Veillette, Suzanne; Watkins, Kate

    2007-06-01

    The search for genes of complex traits is aided by the availability of multiple quantitative phenotypes collected in geographically isolated populations. Here we provide rationale for a large-scale study of gene-environment interactions influencing brain and behavior and cardiovascular and metabolic health in adolescence, namely the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS). The SYS is a retrospective study of long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) in which multiple quantitative phenotypes are acquired over five sessions (telephone interview, home, hospital, laboratory, and school). To facilitate the search for genes that modify an individual's response to an in utero environment (i.e. PEMCS), the study is family-based (adolescent sibships) and is carried out in a relatively geographically isolated population of the Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region in Quebec, Canada. DNA is acquired in both biological parents and in adolescent siblings. A genome-wide scan will be carried out with sib-pair linkage analyses, and fine mapping of identified loci will be done with family-based association analyses. Adolescent sibships (12-18 years of age; two or more siblings per family) are recruited in high schools throughout the SLSJ region; only children of French-Canadian origin are included. Based on a telephone interview, potential participants are classified as exposed or nonexposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking; the two groups are matched for the level of maternal education and the attended school. A total of 500 adolescent participants in each group will be recruited and phenotyped. The following types of datasets are collected in all adolescent participants: (1) magnetic resonance images of brain, abdominal fat, and kidneys, (2) standardized and computer-based neuropsychological tests, (3) hospital-based cardiovascular, body-composition and metabolic assessments, and (4) questionnaire-derived measures (e.g. life habits such as

  19. Core brain networks interactions and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder individuals in late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Jin, Chenwang; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Regardless of whether it is conceptualized as a behavioral addiction or an impulse-control disorder, internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been speculated to be associated with impaired cognitive control. Efficient cognitive behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, however, whether the interactions among these networks during resting state modulated cognitive control behavior in IGD adolescents remain unclear. Twenty-eight IGD adolescents and twenty-five age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in our study. Stroop color-word task was conducted to evaluate the cognitive control deficits in IGD adolescents. Functional connectivity and Granger Causal Analysis were employed to investigate the functional and effective connections within and between the salience, central executive, and default mode networks. Meanwhile, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess the structural integrity of abnormal network connections. The abnormal functional connectivity within central executive networks and effective connectivity within salience network in IGD adolescents were detected. Moreover, the inefficient interactions between these two brain networks were observed. In addition, we identified reduced fractional anisotropy in salience network, right central executive network tracts, and between-network (the anterior cingulate cortex-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracts) pathways in IGD individuals. Notably, we observed a significant correlation between the effective and structural connection from salience network to central executive network and the number of errors during incongruent condition in Stroop task in both IGD and control subjects. Our results suggested that impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents is likely to be mediated through the abnormal interactions and structural connection between intrinsic large-scale brain networks. PMID:25573247

  20. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  1. Adolescence, imperceptible boundary between normality and pathology: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bove, Domenico; Bove, Rocco M; Caccavale, Stefano; Bravaccio, Carmela; Marino, Maria; La Montagna, Maddalena

    2016-04-01

    A reorganization of the brain occurs in adolescence and it is documented by neuroimaging, neurophysiology and pathology of development. The high levels of neural plasticity allow the intellectual and emotional development during adolescence, a transition period of life full of physical and psychological changes. However, potentially dangerous agents could be the genesis of psychopathology of the adult and mental illness or distress. Adolescence is a crucial phase for the maturation of the brain. Therefore, future research should study how the environment affects and influences the function and the organization of the brain. Teenagers look for new experiences and strong emotions, sometimes endangering their health. Neuroscientific explanations have been proposed for the typical teenagers' behavior. In the postnatal period the highest density of gray matter can be found in the primary sensorimotor cortex, while prefrontal cortex matures later. Subcortical areas of the brain, especially the limbic system and the reward system, develop earlier; therefore, there is an imbalance between the more mature subcortical areas and the less mature prefrontal areas during adolescence. This could explain the typical behavior patterns of this period of life. PMID:27002489

  2. Traumatic brain injury in late adolescent rats: effects on adulthood memory and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Amorós-Aguilar, Laura; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida

    2015-04-01

    The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during late adolescence (7 weeks old) on spontaneous object recognition memory and on anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze were tested in rats during adulthood. Testing took place at 2 different postinjury times, in separate groups: 3 and 6 weeks, when animals were 10 and 13 weeks old, respectively. The rats were either submitted to controlled cortical impact injury, an experimental model of focal TBI with contusion, or were sham-operated. TBI animals failed to remember the familiar object and had a significantly lower performance than sham-operated animals, indicating memory disruption, when the retention delay was 24 hr, but not when it was 3 hr. TBI did not have any significant effect on the main anxiety-related behaviors, but it reduced time in the central platform of the elevated plus maze. The effects of TBI on memory and on anxiety-like behaviors were similar at the 2 postinjury times. In both TBI and sham-operated groups, animals tested 6 weeks after surgery had lower anxiety-related indices than those tested at 3 weeks, an effect that might be indicative of reduced anxiety levels with increasing age. In summary, focal TBI with contusion sustained during late adolescence led to object recognition memory deficits in a 24-hr test during adulthood but did not have a major impact on anxiety-like behaviors. Memory deficits persisted for at least 6 weeks after injury, indicating that spontaneous modifications of these functional disturbances did not take place along this time span. PMID:25730123

  3. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lauxen Peruzzolo, Tatiana; Anes, Mauricio; Kohmann, Andre de Moura; Souza, Ana Claudia Mércio Loredo; Rodrigues, Ramiro Borges; Brun, Juliana Basso; Peters, Roberta; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Kapczinski, Flavio; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder). We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm(3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD. PMID:26075097

  4. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  5. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  6. Adolescence and the reorganization of infant development: a neuro-psychoanalytic model.

    PubMed

    Stortelder, Frans; Ploegmakers-Burg, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The psychoanalytic view of adolescence as a phase of turbulence and reorganization occupied a central position in child and adolescent psychiatry until about 1980. The view of adolescence as a silent-transition phase then prevailed and diverged from the psychoanalytic perspective. This article reviews infant and adolescent development using an interdisciplinary, neuro-psychoanalytic model in which psychoanalytic, neurobiological, and developmental perspectives converge and complement each other. Recent empirical research focuses attention on adolescence as a phase in which a far-reaching neurobiological and psychological reorganization takes place. According to the ontogenetic principle of psychoanalysis, the development and organization of the basic psychic functions occur in the first five years of life, while a reorganization takes place in adolescence. Neurobiological research confirms that the basic growth and maturation of the brain occurs in the first five years of life, and that a substantial reorganization in brain development transpires in adolescence. Research also verifies the clinical psychoanalytic concept that neurobiological and psychological maturation in adolescence remain unfinished till approximately age 23. The long-term and late biopsychosocial maturation in adolescence implies that adequate monitoring by parents and school remains necessary. The view that adolescents need to separate, and discover their individuality and independence alone, is unsupported by recent findings. The adolescent must acquire his independence, personal identity, and self-agency ("scaffolding") step by step. It is important that the adolescent knows that his parents are in the background monitoring and intervening as necessary; that he is not entirely alone, adrift and at risk for potential fragmentation. The long-term plasticity of the brain in adolescence implies greater vulnerability for the development of psychopathology, but offers opportunity for

  7. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  8. Molecular and physiological study of the artificial maturation process in European eel males: from brain to testis.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Gallego, Víctor; Jover, Miguel; Tveiten, Helge; Baloche, Sylvie; Dufour, Sylvie; Asturiano, Juan F

    2010-03-01

    European eel males can be artificially matured (1.5IU hCG/g fish), but the regulatory mechanisms of their reproductive development are practically unknown. Spermatogenic stages (S1-S6), biometric characters [eye index (EI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI)] and sperm quality parameters (motility, viability and head spermatozoa morphometry) were analysed. Moreover, the present study evaluated the expression of GnRHs (mammal and chicken II Gonadotropin Release Hormone I) and gonadotrophins (FSHbeta and LHbeta) during hormonal treatment, as well as 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P) plasma levels. One week was enough to observe the S2 of gonad development, but it was necessary to reach the 7th week of treatment to obtain animals that presented the most advanced stage of development (S6). Differential regulation of the two GnRH expressions was found, supporting the main role of mGnRH in the control of gonadotrophin release. One hCG injection was enough to dramatically decrease the FSHbeta expression, being close to zero during the rest of the treatment. LHbeta expression and 17,20beta-P registered a significant increase in the same stage of development, S3/4, confirming the role of this gonadotrophin in the last steps of maturation and 17,20beta-P in the spermatozoa maturation. The 11-KT increased with GSI, and the highest 11-KT values coincided with the advanced steps of spermatogenesis prior to spermiation. Being consistent with the known role of the steroid in these processes. Furthermore, this study supports a role for 11-KT in stimulating eye growth, presenting high values when EI increased. Sperm production was obtained from the 4th week of treatment, but it was in the 8th week when a significant increase was observed in sperm quality [viability, high motility (>75%)]. PMID:19699741

  9. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in the corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that sensory cortices are highly plastic structures. Using tasks with high and low monetary rewards while subjects underwent functional MRI, we also examined whether neural activity during reward processing was altered, or not, in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during a high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared to the typically developed group. The striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was also markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurred in the striatum in children and adolescents with RAD, potentially leading to a future risk of psychiatric disorders such as dependence. PMID:27150924

  10. Reliability Analysis of the Distal Radius and Ulna Classification for Assessing Skeletal Maturity for Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Luk, Keith D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective radiographic study. Objective To test the reliability of the Distal Radius and Ulna Classification (DRU). Methods This single-center study included prospectively recruited subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis managed with bracing. The left-hand radiographs were measured using the DRU classification by two examiners. Intra- and interobserver reliability analysis were performed using intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis. Results From these clinics, 161 patients (124 females and 37 males) with left-hand radiographs were included in the study. The mean age was 13.3 years (standard deviation: 1.5). There was excellent intra- (ICC: 0.93 to 0.95) and interobserver (ICC: 0.97) reliability. Conclusions The DRU classification scheme has been shown to be accurate in determining the peak growth phase and growth cessation. It has now been confirmed to be a reliable tool. Future prospective studies should be performed to investigate its application in deciding when to apply bracing or operative treatment. PMID:26933618

  11. Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Depue, Brendan E; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2015-01-28

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  12. Adolescent psychotherapy for addiction medicine: From brain development to neurocognitive treatment mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Rachel E; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2016-01-01

    Effectively treating addiction is a challenge among any population, and treatment for adolescents may be particularly challenging in the context of ongoing neurodevelopment, which may alter the brain's initial response to substances as well as its response to treatment. One way to improve treatment outcomes for youth is to use a translational perspective that explicitly connects cognitive and neurodevelopmental fields with the field of behavioral therapies. This integrative approach is a potential first step to inform the correspondence between the neurocognitive and behavioral fields in youth addiction. This chapter seeks to provide context for neurocognitive treatment studies by first discussing recent structural and functional neuroimaging studies showing associations with substance use or behavioral addictions. Several regions of interest are then proposed that appear to also be associated with addiction treatment across multiple studies, namely, the accumbens/striatum, precuneus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This research suggests that reward, self-reflective, and executive control areas might be especially relevant in youth behavioral treatment response, and preliminary evidence suggests that existing treatments may encourage neurocognitive changes in these areas. PMID:26822364

  13. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  14. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  15. Chronic ketamine exposure induces permanent impairment of brain functions in adolescent cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Yew, David T

    2014-03-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist, has emerged as an increasingly popular drug among young drug abusers worldwide. Available evidence suggests that ketamine produces acute impairments of working, episodic and semantic memory along with psychotogenic and dissociative effects when a single dose is given to healthy volunteers. However, understanding of the possible chronic effects of ketamine on behavior, cognitive anomalies and neurochemical homeostasis is still incomplete. Although previous human studies demonstrate that ketamine could impair a range of cognitive skills, investigation using non-human models would permit more precise exploration of the neurochemical mechanisms which may underlie the detrimental effects. The current study examined the abnormalities in behavior (move, walk, jump and climb) and apoptosis of the prefrontal cortex using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptotic markers, including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in adolescent male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after 1 or 6 months of sub-anesthetic ketamine administration (1 mg/kg, i.v.). Results showed that ketamine decreased locomotor activity and increased cell death in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys with 6 months of ketamine treatment when compared with the control monkeys. Such decreases were not found in the 1-month ketamine-treated group. Our study suggested that ketamine administration of recreational dose in monkeys might produce permanent and irreversible deficits in brain functions due to neurotoxic effects, involving the activation of apoptotic pathways in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:23145560

  16. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia ME; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Methods Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12–17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline. Participants were instructed to withhold their responses upon seeing happy or sad words. Among these participants, 13 patients had CBT over approximately 30 weeks. These participants and 20 matched controls then repeated the task. Results At baseline, increased activation in response to happy relative to neutral distractors was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in depressed patients which was normalised after CBT. No significant group differences were found behaviourally or in brain activation in response to sad distractors. Improvements in symptoms (mean: 9.31, 95% CI: 5.35–13.27) were related at trend-level to activation changes in orbitofrontal cortex. Limitations In the follow-up section, a limited number of post-CBT patients were recruited. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study addressing the effect of CBT in adolescent depression. Although a bias toward negative information is widely accepted as a hallmark of depression, aberrant brain hyperactivity to positive distractors was found and normalised after CBT. Research, assessment and treatment focused on positive stimuli could be a future consideration. Moreover, a pathophysiological mechanism distinct from adult depression may be suggested and awaits further exploration. PMID:26406969

  17. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  18. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  19. Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: a brief review of the preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior. PMID:23916409

  20. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  1. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  2. The function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain in vivo and learning ability decrease in parallel in mature compared with young rats

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Cauli, Omar; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have recently reported that the ability of rats to learn a Y-maze conditional discrimination task depends on the function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain. The aims of the present work were to assess whether the ability of rats to learn this task decreases with age and whether this reduction is associated with a decreased function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway in brain in vivo, as analyzed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. We show that 7-mo-old rats need significantly more (192 ± 64%) trials than do 3-mo-old rats to learn the Y-maze task. Moreover, the function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway is reduced by 60 ± 23% in 7-mo-old rats compared with 3-mo-old rats. The results reported support the idea that the reduction in the ability to learn the Y-maze task (and likely other types of learning) of mature compared with young rats would be a consequence of reduced function of the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway. PMID:17412964

  3. The function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo and learning ability decrease in parallel in mature compared with young rats.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Cauli, Omar; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-04-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have recently reported that the ability of rats to learn a Y-maze conditional discrimination task depends on the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain. The aims of the present work were to assess whether the ability of rats to learn this task decreases with age and whether this reduction is associated with a decreased function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo, as analyzed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. We show that 7-mo-old rats need significantly more (192 +/- 64%) trials than do 3-mo-old rats to learn the Y-maze task. Moreover, the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway is reduced by 60 +/- 23% in 7-mo-old rats compared with 3-mo-old rats. The results reported support the idea that the reduction in the ability to learn the Y-maze task (and likely other types of learning) of mature compared with young rats would be a consequence of reduced function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. PMID:17412964

  4. Increases in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain during chronic sleep restriction in rats: possible role in initiating allostatic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, J K; Deurveilher, S; Currie, R W; Fawcett, J P; Semba, K

    2014-09-26

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) has various negative consequences on cognitive performance and health. Using a rat model of CSR that uses alternating cycles of 3h of sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating activity wheels) and 1h of sleep opportunity continuously for 4 days ('3/1' protocol), we previously observed not only homeostatic but also allostatic (adaptive) sleep responses to CSR. In particular, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) electroencephalogram (EEG) delta power, an index of sleep intensity, increased initially and then declined gradually during CSR, with no rebound during a 2-day recovery period. To study underlying mechanisms of these allostatic responses, we examined the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to regulate NREMS EEG delta activity, during the same CSR protocol. Mature BDNF protein levels were measured in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain, two brain regions involved in sleep and EEG regulation, and the hippocampus, using Western blot analysis. Adult male Wistar rats were housed in motorized activity wheels, and underwent the 3/1 CSR protocol for 27 h, for 99 h, or for 99 h followed by 24h of recovery. Additional rats were housed in either locked wheels (locked wheel controls [LWCs]) or unlocked wheels that rats could rotate freely (wheel-running controls [WRCs]). BDNF levels did not differ between WRC and LWC groups. BDNF levels were increased, compared to the control levels, in all three brain regions after 27 h, and were increased less strongly after 99 h, of CSR. After 24h of recovery, BDNF levels were at the control levels. This time course of BDNF levels parallels the previously reported changes in NREMS delta power during the same CSR protocol. Changes in BDNF protein levels in the cortex and basal forebrain may be part of the molecular mechanisms underlying allostatic sleep responses to CSR. PMID:25010399

  5. Environmental enrichment alters structural plasticity of the adolescent brain but does not remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to both drugs of abuse and environmental enrichment (EE) are widely studied experiences that induce large changes in dendritic morphology and synaptic connectivity. As there is an abundance of literature using EE as a treatment strategy for drug addiction, we sought to determine whether EE could remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure. Using Golgi-Cox staining, we examined eighteen neuroanatomical parameters in four brain regions [medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumben, and Par1] of Long-Evans rats. EE in adolescence dramatically altered structural plasticity in the male and female brain, modifying 60% of parameters investigated. EE normalized three parameters (OFC spine density and dendritic branching and mPFC dendritic branching) in male offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally but did not remediate any measures in female offspring. PN exposure interfered with adolescent EE-induced changes in five neuroanatomical measurements (Par1 spine density and dendritic branching in both male and female offspring, and mPFC spine density in male offspring). And in four neuroanatomical parameters examined, PN exposure and EE combined to produce additive effects [OFC spine density in females and mPFC dendritic length (apical and basilar) and branching in males]. Despite demonstrated efficacy in reversing drug addiction, EE was not able to reverse many of the PN-induced changes in neuronal morphology, indicating that modifications in neural circuitry generated in the prenatal period may be more resistant to change than those generated in the adult brain. PMID:24616009

  6. Acute alcohol exposure during neurulation: Behavioral and brain structural consequences in adolescent C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Fish, E W; Holloway, H T; Rumple, A; Baker, L K; Wieczorek, L A; Moy, S S; Paniagua, B; Parnell, S E

    2016-09-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can induce physical malformations and behavioral abnormalities that depend in part on thedevelopmental timing of alcohol exposure. The current studies employed a mouse FASD model to characterize the long-term behavioral and brain structural consequences of a binge-like alcohol exposure during neurulation; a first-trimester stage when women are typically unaware that they are pregnant. Time-mated C57BL/6J female mice were administered two alcohol doses (2.8g/kg, four hours apart) or vehicle starting at gestational day 8.0. Male and female adolescent offspring (postnatal day 28-45) were then examined for motor activity (open field and elevated plus maze), coordination (rotarod), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), sensory motor gating (acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition), sociability (three-chambered social test), and nociceptive responses (hot plate). Regional brain volumes and shapes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In males, PAE increased activity on the elevated plus maze and reduced social novelty preference, while in females PAE increased exploratory behavior in the open field and transiently impaired rotarod performance. In both males and females, PAE modestly impaired Morris water maze performance and decreased the latency to respond on the hot plate. There were no brain volume differences; however, significant shape differences were found in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, and corpus callosum. These results demonstrate that alcohol exposure during neurulation can have functional consequences into adolescence, even in the absence of significant brain regional volumetric changes. However, PAE-induced regional shape changes provide evidence for persistent brain alterations and suggest alternative clinical diagnostic markers. PMID:27185739

  7. Neuroimaging methods for adolescent substance use disorder prevention science

    PubMed Central

    Clark, DB; Chung, T; Pajtek, S; Zhai, Z; Long, E; Hasler, B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods safely provide in vivo indicators of cerebral macrostructure, microstructure, and activation that can be examined in relation to substance use disorder (SUD) risks and effects. This article will provide an overview of MRI approaches, including volumetric measures, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, that have been applied to studies of adolescent neuromaturation in relationship to risk phenotypes and adolescent SUD. To illustrate these applications, examples of research findings will be presented. MRI indicators have demonstrated that neurobiological maturation continues throughout adolescence. MRI research has suggested that variations in neurobiological maturation may contribute to SUD risk, and that substance use adversely influence adolescent brain development. Directly measured neurobiological variables may be viable preventive intervention targets and outcome indicators. Further research is needed to provide definitive findings on neurodevelopmental immaturity as an SUD risk and to determine the directions such observations suggest for advancing prevention science. PMID:23417665

  8. Brain changes in early-onset bipolar and unipolar depressive disorders: a systematic review in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Borgwardt, Stefan; Houenou, Josselin; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Jardri, Renaud; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar disorder (UD) share common symptomatic and functional impairments. Various brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate the integrity of brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in these disorders. Despite promising preliminary findings, it is still unclear whether these alterations may be considered as common trait markers or may be used to distinguish BD from UD. A systematic literature search of studies between 1980 and September 2013 which reported WM/GM changes in pediatric and adolescent BD/UD, as detected by diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based analysis was conducted. Of the 34 articles judged as eligible, 17 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were finally retained in this review. More abnormalities have been documented in the brains of children and adolescents with BD than UD. Reductions in the volume of basal ganglia and the hippocampus appeared more specific for pediatric UD, whereas reduced corpus callosum volume and increased rates of deep WM hyperintensities were more specific for pediatric BD. Seminal papers failed to address the possibility that the differences between unipolar and bipolar samples might be related to illness severity, medication status, comorbidity or diagnosis. UD and BD present both shared and distinctive impairments in the WM and GM compartments. More WM abnormalities have been reported in children and adolescents with bipolar disease than in those with unipolar disease, maybe as a result of a low number of DTI studies in pediatric UD. Future longitudinal studies should investigate whether neurodevelopmental changes are diagnosis-specific. PMID:25212880

  9. Brain white matter microstructure alterations in adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to early life stress: associations with high cortisol during infancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adverse experiences, especially those involving disruption of the mother-infant relationship, are detrimental for proper socioemotional development in primates. Humans with histories of childhood maltreatment are at high risk for developing psychopathologies including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and behavioral disorders. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental alterations are not well understood. Here we used a nonhuman primate animal model of infant maltreatment to study the long-term effects of this early life stress on brain white matter integrity during adolescence, its behavioral correlates, and the relationship with early levels of stress hormones. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and tract based spatial statistics were used to investigate white matter integrity in 9 maltreated and 10 control animals during adolescence. Basal plasma cortisol levels collected at one month of age (when abuse rates were highest) were correlated with white matter integrity in regions with group differences. Total aggression was also measured and correlated with white matter integrity. Results We found significant reductions in white matter structural integrity (measured as fractional anisotropy) in the corpus callosum, occipital white matter, external medullary lamina, as well as in the brainstem of adolescent rhesus monkeys that experienced maternal infant maltreatment. In most regions showing fractional anisotropy reductions, opposite effects were detected in radial diffusivity, without changes in axial diffusivity, suggesting that the alterations in tract integrity likely involve reduced myelin. Moreover, in most regions showing reduced white matter integrity, this was associated with elevated plasma cortisol levels early in life, which was significantly higher in maltreated than in control infants. Reduced fractional anisotropy in occipital white matter was also associated with increased social aggression. Conclusions These findings highlight the

  10. Impact of Fc gamma-receptor polymorphisms on the response to rituximab treatment in children and adolescents with mature B cell lymphoma/leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Birgit; Yavuz, Deniz; Zimmermann, Martin; Schieferstein, Jutta; Kabickova, Edita; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Reiter, Alfred; Makarova, Olga; Worch, Jennifer; Bonn, Bettina R; Damm-Welk, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies in adult lymphoma patients have indicated a correlation between polymorphisms of Fc gamma-receptors (FcγRs, encoded by the respective FCGR genes) and the response to rituximab treatment. In vitro, cells expressing FcγRIIIa-158V mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) more efficiently than cells expressing FcγRIIIa-158F. The impact of the FCGR2A-131HR polymorphism is unclear. In this study, the FCGR polymorphisms FCGR3A-158VF and FCGR2A-131HR were analyzed in pediatric patients with mature aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma/leukemia (B-NHL). Pediatric patients received a single dose of rituximab monotherapy. Response was evaluated on day 5 followed by standard chemotherapy for B-NHL. Among 105 evaluable patients, a response to rituximab was observed in 21 % of those homozygous for FcγRIIa-131RR (5/24) compared to 48 % of patients who were HH and HR FcγRIIa-131 allele carriers (18/34 and 21/47, respectively; p = 0.044). Among patients with the FCGR3A-158 polymorphism, those homozygous for the FF genotype had a significantly favorable rituximab response rate of 59 % (22/37) compared to 32 % in patients who were FcγRIIIa-158VV and FcγRIIIa-VF allele carriers (2/9 and 20/59, respectively; p = 0.022). A stringent phase II response evaluation of children and adolescents with B-NHL after one dose of rituximab monotherapy showed a significant association between the rituximab response rate and FCGR polymorphisms. These findings support the hypothesis that FCGR polymorphisms represent patient-specific parameters that influence the response to rituximab. PMID:27376362

  11. Behavioral Predictors of Outpatient Mental Health Service Utilization within 6 Months after Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Wade, Shari L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Brown, Tanya M.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize utilization of mental health services and determine the ability of a behavior problem and clinical functioning assessment to predict utilization of such services within the first 6 months after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a large cohort of adolescents. Design Multicenter cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient setting of four tertiary pediatric hospitals, two tertiary general medical centers, and one specialized children's hospital. Participants Adolescents age 12-17 years (N=132), 1 to 6 months after moderate to severe TBI. Methods Logistic regression was used to determine the association of mental health service utilization with clinical functioning as assessed by the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and behavior problems assessed by the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Main Outcome Measure Mental health service utilization measured by the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents (SACA). Results Behavioral or functional impairment occurred in 37 to 56%. Of the total study population, 24.2% reported receiving outpatient mental health services, 8.3% reported receiving school services, and 28.8% reported receiving any type of mental health service. Use of any (school or outpatient) mental health service was associated with borderline to impaired total CAFAS (OR [CI] = 3.50 [1.46, 8.40], p < 0.01) and CBCL total competence (OR [CI] = 5.08 (2.02, 12.76), p < 0.01). Conclusions A large proportion of participants had unmet mental health needs. Both the CAFAS and CBCL identified individuals who would likely benefit from mental health services in outpatient or school settings. Future research should focus on methods to ensure early identification by health care providers of adolescents with TBI in need of mental health services. PMID:23973505

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces post-lesion transcommissural growth of olivary axons that develop normal climbing fibers on mature Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Sherrard, Rachel M

    2006-11-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system, reinnervation and recovery from trauma is limited. During development, however, post-lesion plasticity may generate alternate paths providing models to investigate factors that promote reinnervation to appropriate targets. Following unilateral transection of the neonatal rat olivocerebellar pathway, axons from the remaining inferior olive reinnervate the denervated hemicerebellum and develop climbing fiber arbors on Purkinje cells. However, the capacity to recreate this accurate target reinnervation in a mature system remains unknown. In rats lesioned on day 15 (P15) or 30 and treated with intracerebellar injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or vehicle 24 h later, the morphology and organisation of transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation was examined using neuronal tracing and immunohistochemistry. In all animals BDNF, but not vehicle, induced transcommissural olivocerebellar axonal growth into the denervated hemicerebellum. The distribution of reinnervating climbing fibers was not confined to the injection sites but extended throughout the denervated hemivermis and, less densely, up to 3.5 mm into the hemisphere. Transcommissural olivocerebellar axons were organised into parasagittal microzones that were almost symmetrical to those in the right hemicerebellum. Reinnervating climbing fiber arbors were predominantly normal, but in the P30-lesioned group 10% were either branched within the molecular layer forming a smaller secondary arbor or were less branched, and in the P15 lesion group the reinnervating arbors extended their terminals almost to the pial surface and were larger than control arbors (P < 0.02). These results show that BDNF can induce transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation, which resembles developmental neuroplasticity to promote appropriate target reinnervation in a mature environment. PMID:16790241

  13. Longitudinal working memory development is related to structural maturation of frontal and parietal cortices.

    PubMed

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Holland, Dominic; Østby, Ylva; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2013-10-01

    Parallels between patterns of brain maturation and cognitive development have been observed repeatedly, but studies directly testing the relationships between improvements in specific cognitive functions and structural changes in the brain are lacking. Working memory development extends throughout childhood and adolescence and likely plays a central role for cognitive development in multiple domains and in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroimaging, lesion, and electrophysiological studies indicate that working memory emerges from coordinated interactions of a distributed neural network in which fronto-parietal cortical regions are critical. In the current study, verbal working memory function, as indexed by performance on the Keep Track task, and volumes of brain regions were assessed at two time points in 79 healthy children and adolescents in the age range of 8-22 years. Longitudinal change in cortical and subcortical volumes was quantified by the use of Quantitative Anatomical Regional Change. Improvement in working memory was related to cortical volume reduction in bilateral prefrontal and posterior parietal regions and in regions around the central sulci. Importantly, these relationships were not explained by differences in gender, age, or intelligence level or change in intellectual abilities. Furthermore, the relationships did not interact with age and were not significantly different in children, young adolescents, and old adolescents. The results provide the first direct evidence that structural maturation of a fronto-parietal cortical network supports working memory development. PMID:23767921

  14. GnRH immunodetection in the brain of the holocephalan fish Chimaera monstrosa L.: correlation to oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Masini, Maria Angela; Prato, Paola; Vacchi, Marino; Uva, Bianca Maria

    2008-05-01

    Chimera monstrosa (rabbit fish) like other holocephalans is a rare, delicate deep sea fish. Owing to the difficulty of sampling individuals in good shape, there is a paucity of information available on the morphology and physiology of this species especially concerning reproduction. In holocephalans, a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis has been postulated and a GnRH molecule identical to cGnRH II has been identified. The aim of the present study was to correlate the presence of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovarian follicles with the presence of GnRH in the hypothalamus. Estrogens, the steroids that trigger the accumulation of yolk (vitellogenesis) in the oocytes are synthesized by the somatic cells of the follicle in the vitellogenic stages via a cascade of steroid dehydrogenases involving 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD; in the inner thecal layer) and aromatase cytochrome (P450; granulosa layer). Our results showed that 3 beta-HSD is present concomitant with the presence of cGnRH II in the preoptic area and in the ventral hypothalamus. Another form of immunoreactive GnRH, mGnRH is also present in the brain of C. monstrosa. It is localized in the ventral telencephalon and in the midbrain caudal diencephalon (boundary between ventral thalamus and tegmentum of the mesencephalon). This form of GnRH is probably correlated with sexual behaviour. PMID:18400222

  15. mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in brain and spinal cord of immature and mature rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.L.; Russell, D.W.; Goldstein, J.L.; Brown, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Hybridization studies with (/sup 32/P)cDNA probes revealed detectable amounts of mRNA for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the central nervous system (CNS) of rabbits. mRNA levels were highest in the medulla/pons and spinal cord, which were the most heavily myelinated regions that were studied. Lower, but detectable levels were present in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. In the medulla/pons and spinal cord, the levels of receptor mRNA were in a range comparable to that detected in the liver. The levels of receptor mRNA in whole brain were constant from 3 days of age to adulthood and, thus, did not vary in proportion to the rate of myelin synthesis. LDL receptor mRNA in the CNS was produced by the same gene that produced the liver and adrenal mRNA as revealed by the demonstration of a deletion in the neural mRNA of Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits identical to the deletion in the LDL receptor gene of these mutant animals. Using antibodies directed against the bovine LDL receptor, the authors showed that LDL receptor protein is present in the medulla/pons of adult cows. The cell types that express LDL receptors in the CNS and the functions of these receptors are unknown.

  16. Very Preterm Adolescents Show Gender-Dependent Alteration of the Structural Brain Correlates of Spelling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona E.; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P.; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and…

  17. Risk-Taking and the Adolescent Brain: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Adriana; Hare, Todd; Voss, Henning; Glover, Gary; Casey, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Relative to other ages, adolescence is described as a period of increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior that can lead to fatal outcomes (suicide, substance abuse, HIV, accidents, etc.). This study was designed to examine neural correlates of risk-taking behavior in adolescents, relative to children and adults, in order to predict who may be…

  18. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    Background Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Method This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Results Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation. PMID:27347478

  19. Adolescent ethanol exposure: does it produce long lasting electrophysiological effects?

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Criado, José R.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses evidence for long lasting neurophysiological changes that may occur following exposure to ethanol during adolescent development in animal models. Adolescence is the time that most individuals first experience ethanol exposure and binge drinking is not uncommon during adolescence. If alcohol exposure is neurotoxic to the developing brain during adolescence, not unlike it is during fetal development, then understanding how ethanol affects the developing adolescent brain becomes a major public health issue. Adolescence is a critical time period when cognitive, emotional and social maturation occurs and it is likely that ethanol exposure may affect these complex processes. In order to study the effects of ethanol on adolescent brain animal models where the dose and time of exposure can be carefully controlled that closely mimic the human condition are needed. The studies reviewed provide evidence that demonstrates that relatively brief exposure to high levels of ethanol, via ethanol vapours, during a period corresponding to parts of adolescence in the rat is sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in functional brain activity. Disturbances in waking EEG and a reduction in the P3 component of the ERP have been demonstrated in adult rats that were exposed to ethanol vapour during adolescence. Adolescent ethanol exposure was also found to produce long lasting reductions in the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS, a finding consistent with a premature aging of sleep. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, in a range of strains, and to link those findings to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure. PMID:20113872

  20. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A. . E-mail: t.slotkin@duke.edu

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a {beta}-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides.

  1. Role of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF conversion in activity-dependent competition at developing neuromuscular synapses

    PubMed Central

    Je, H. Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Lu, Bai

    2012-01-01

    Formation of specific neuronal connections often involves competition between adjacent axons, leading to stabilization of the active terminal, while retraction of the less active ones. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that activity-dependent conversion of pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature (m)BDNF mediates synaptic competition. Stimulation of motoneurons triggers proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF at nerve terminals. In Xenopus nerve–muscle cocultures, in which two motoneurons innervate one myocyte, proBDNF-p75NTR signaling promotes retraction of the less active terminal, whereas mBDNF–tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) facilitates stabilization of the active one. Thus, proBDNF and mBDNF may serve as potential “punishment” and “reward” signals for inactive and active terminals, respectively, and activity-dependent conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF may regulate synapse elimination. PMID:23019376

  2. Adolescents and Androgens, Receptors and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with increases in pleasure-seeking behaviors, which, in turn, are shaped by the pubertal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In animal models of naturally rewarding behaviors, such as sex, testicular androgens contribute to the development and expression of the behavior in males. To effect behavioral maturation, the brain undergoes significant remodeling during adolescence, and many of the changes are likewise sensitive to androgens, presumably acting through androgen receptors (AR). Given the delicate interaction of gonadal hormones and brain development, it is no surprise that disruption of hormone levels during this sensitive period significantly alters adolescent and adult behaviors. In male hamsters, exposure to testosterone during adolescence is required for normal expression of adult sexual behavior. Males deprived of androgens during puberty display sustained deficits in mating. Conversely, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce mating in prepubertal males, even though brain AR are present before puberty. In this context, wide-spread use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence is a significant concern. AAS abuse has the potential to alter both the timing and the levels of androgens in adolescent males. In hamsters, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggression, and causes lasting changes in neurotransmitter systems. In addition, AAS are themselves reinforcing, as demonstrated by self-administration of testosterone and other AAS. However, recent evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of androgens may not require classical AR. Therefore, further examination of interactions between androgens and rewarding behaviors in the adolescent brain is required for a better understanding of AAS abuse. PMID:18343381

  3. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  4. Immediate early gene expression reveals interactions between social and nicotine rewards on brain activity in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Bastle, Ryan M; Peartree, Natalie A; Goenaga, Julianna; Hatch, Kayla N; Henricks, Angela; Scott, Samantha; Hood, Lauren E; Neisewander, Janet L

    2016-10-15

    Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to a reward-conditioned environment or to the unconditioned stimuli (US). Adolescent, male rats were assigned to the following CPP US conditions: (1) Saline+Isolated, (2) Nicotine+Isolated, (3) Saline+Social, or (4) Nicotine+Social. For Experiment 1, brain tissue was collected 90min following the CPP expression test and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that rats conditioned with nicotine with or without a social partner exhibited CPP; however, we found no group differences in Fos expression in any brain region analyzed, with the exception of the nucleus accumbens core that exhibited a social-induced attenuation in Fos expression. For Experiment 2, brain tissue was collected 90min following US exposure during the last conditioning session. We found social reward-induced increases in IEG expression in striatal and amydalar subregions. In contrast, nicotine reduced IEG expression in prefrontal and striatal subregions. Reward interactions were also found in the dorsolateral striatum, basolateral amygdala, and ventral tegmental area where nicotine alone attenuated IEG expression and social reward reversed this effect. These results suggest that in general social rewards enhance, whereas nicotine attenuates, activation of mesocorticolimbic regions; however, the rewards given together interact to enhance activation in some regions. The findings contribute to knowledge of how a social environment influences nicotine effects. PMID:27435419

  5. Neuropsychological development in adolescents: cognitive and emotional model for considering risk factors for adolescents with cleft.

    PubMed

    Richman, L C

    1995-03-01

    This article reviews neurologic, endocrinologic, and neuropsychological developments that affect our understanding of the adolescent patient. Neuroimaging and neuroradiologic techniques have assisted in identifying brain-behavior relationships and how different neuropsychological patterns result in different ways of thinking. Psychoneuroendocrinologic studies have shown that sex differences in maturation and hormonal effects on behavior need taking into account. At adolescence, the individual with a cleft or craniofacial condition may be at risk for adjustment problems due to earlier developmental events, which may affect language, behavior, and self-esteem. PMID:7748881

  6. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  8. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  9. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation. PMID:25432771

  10. Brain Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Directs the Transition from Stem Cells to Mature Neurons During Postnatal/Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Oueslati-Morales, Carlos O; Li, Lingling; Pickel, James; Morales, Aixa V; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The specific actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the role of brain-derived IGF-I during hippocampal neurogenesis have not been fully defined. To address the influence of IGF-I on the stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied a postnatal/adult global Igf-I knockout (KO) mice (Igf-I(-/-) ) and a nervous system Igf-I conditional KO (Igf-I(Δ/Δ) ). In both KO mice we found an accumulation of Tbr2(+) -intermediate neuronal progenitors, some of which were displaced in the outer granule cell layer (GCL) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Similarly, more ectopic Ki67(+) - cycling cells were detected. Thus, the GCL was disorganized with significant numbers of Prox1(+) -granule neurons outside this layer and altered morphology of radial glial cells (RGCs). Dividing progenitors were also generated in greater numbers in clonal hippocampal stem cell (HPSC) cultures from the KO mice. Indeed, higher levels of Hes5 and Ngn2, transcription factors that maintain the stem and progenitor cell state, were expressed in both HPSCs and the GCL-ML from the Igf-I(Δ/Δ) mice. To determine the impact of Igf-I deletion on neuronal generation in vivo, progenitors in Igf-I(-/-) and Igf-I(+/+) mice were labeled with a GFP-expressing vector. This revealed that in the Igf-I(-/-) mice more GFP(+) -immature neurons were formed and they had less complex dendritic trees. These findings indicate that local IGF-I plays critical roles during postnatal/adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the transition from HPSCs and progenitors to mature granule neurons in a cell stage-dependent manner. Stem Cells 2016;34:2194-2209. PMID:27144663

  11. The neurotoxicity of amphetamines during the adolescent period.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Gomes, Armanda; Costa, Vera Marisa; Feio-Azevedo, Rita; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Amphetamine-type psychostimulants (ATS), such as amphetamine (AMPH), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methamphetamine (METH) are psychoactive substances widely abused, due to their powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulation ability. Young people particularly use ATS as recreational drugs. Moreover, AMPH is used clinically, particularly for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and has the ability to cause structural and functional brain alterations. ATS are known to interact with monoamine transporter sites and easily diffuse across cellular membranes, attaining high levels in several tissues, particularly the brain. Strong evidence suggests that ATS induce neurotoxic effects, raising concerns about the consequences of drug abuse. Considering that many teenagers and young adults commonly use ATS, our main aim was to review the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines, namely AMPH, MDMA, and METH, in the adolescence period of experimental animals. Reports agree that adolescent animals are less susceptible than adult animals to the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines. The susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of ATS seems roughly located in the early adolescent period of animals. Many authors report that the age of exposure to ATS is crucial for the neurotoxic outcome, showing that the stage of brain maturity has a strong importance. Moreover, recent studies have been undertaken in young adults and/or consumers during adolescence that clearly indicate brain or behavioural damage, arguing for long-term neurotoxic effects in humans. There is an urgent need for more studies during the adolescence period, in order to unveil the mechanisms and the brain dysfunctions promoted by ATS. PMID:25482046

  12. Your Child's Growing Mind: A Guide to Learning and Brain Development from Birth to Adolescence. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Jane M.

    Noting that understanding a child's brain and the way it develops is the key to understanding learning, this book explores the relationship between brain physiology and children's learning processes. The book first translates the most current scientific theories on nervous-system development into practical information for parents. It then details…

  13. Child and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury: Academic, Behavioural, and Social Consequences in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Paul B.; Coulter, Gail A.

    2007-01-01

    More than five million children suffer from brain injuries each year. While the majority of these children are treated and released without permanent consequences, many children return to the classroom with lasting effects. Symptoms of brain injury can be misconstrued as common behaviour or academic problems. Therefore, teachers need to recognize…

  14. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

  15. Single housing during early adolescence causes time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, L; Roman, E; Nylander, I

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A number of experimental procedures require single housing to assess individual behaviour and physiological responses to pharmacological treatments. The endogenous opioids are closely linked to social interaction, especially early in life, and disturbance in the social environment may affect opioid peptides and thereby confound experimental outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine time-dependent effects of single housing on opioid peptides in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Early adolescent Sprague Dawley rats (post-natal day 22) were subjected to either prolonged (7 days) or short (30 min) single housing. Several brain regions were dissected and immunoreactive levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP), dynorphin B and nociception/orphanin FQ, as well as serum corticosterone were measured using RIA. KEY RESULTS Prolonged single housing reduced immunoreactive MEAP in hypothalamus, cortical regions, amygdala, substantia nigra and periaqueductal grey. Short single housing resulted in an acute stress response as indicated by high levels of corticosterone, accompanied by elevated immunoreactive nociceptin/orphanin FQ in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Neither short nor prolonged single housing affected dynorphin B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Disruption in social environmental conditions of rats, through single housing during early adolescence, resulted in time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids in the brain. These results provide further evidence for an association between early life social environment and opioids. Furthermore, the results have implications for experimental design; in any pharmacological study involving opioid peptides, it is important to distinguish between effects induced by housing and treatment. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  16. Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury on a Virtual Reality Social Problem Solving Task and Relations to Cortical Thickness in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hanten, Gerri; Cook, Lori; Orsten, Kimberley; Chapman, Sandra B.; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Schnelle, Kathleen P.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Social problem solving was assessed in 28 youth ages 12–19 years (15 with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 13 uninjured) using a naturalistic, computerized virtual reality (VR) version of the Interpersonal Negotiations Strategy interview (Yeates, Schultz, & Selman, 1991). In each scenario, processing load condition was varied in terms of number of characters and amount of information. Adolescents viewed animated scenarios depicting social conflict in a virtual microworld environment from an avatar’s viewpoint, and were questioned on four problem solving steps: defining the problem, generating solutions, selecting solutions, and evaluating the likely outcome. Scoring was based on a developmental scale in which responses were judged as impulsive, unilateral, reciprocal, or collaborative, in order of increasing score. Adolescents with TBI were significantly impaired on the summary VR-Social Problem Solving (VR-SPS) score in Condition A (2 speakers, no irrelevant information), p = 0.005; in Condition B (2 speakers + irrelevant information), p = 0.035; and Condition C (4 speakers + irrelevant information), p = 0.008. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were large (A = 1.40, B = 0.96, C = 1.23). Significant group differences were strongest and most consistent for defining the problems and evaluating outcomes. The relation of task performance to cortical thickness of specific brain regions was also explored, with significant relations found with orbitofrontal regions, the frontal pole, the cuneus, and the temporal pole. Results are discussed in the context of specific cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying social problem solving deficits after childhood TBI. PMID:21147137

  17. Rural Adolescent Boys' Negotiating Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: "We Need to Sacrifice Our Brains"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  19. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  20. Invited Commentary: Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Pain Processing in Adolescents' Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

    2010-01-01

    Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and…

  1. Teens Will Be Teens: The Latest Brain Research Has a Lot to Say about Adolescent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami

    2005-01-01

    Most adults are challenged when it comes to understanding teens' motives. "What were they thinking of?" is an all-too-common response. Without a doubt, no developmental period in life is more confounding and baffling than adolescence. Until recently, erratic teen behavior was blamed on raging hormones, but scientific research in the last decade…

  2. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. PMID:21376543

  3. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  4. The development of brain network architecture.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Lara M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Dijk, Sarai; Rijks, Yvonne; de Reus, Marcel A; Durston, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Brain connectivity shows protracted development throughout childhood and adolescence, and, as such, the topology of brain networks changes during this period. The complexity of these changes with development is reflected by regional differences in maturation. This study explored age-related changes in network topology and regional developmental patterns during childhood and adolescence. We acquired two sets of Diffusion Weighted Imaging-scans and anatomical T1-weighted scans. The first dataset included 85 typically developing individuals (53 males; 32 females), aged between 7 and 23 years and was acquired on a Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla scanner. A second dataset (N = 38) was acquired on a different (but identical) 1.5 T scanner and was used for independent replication of our results. We reconstructed whole brain networks using tractography. We operationalized fiber tract development as changes in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity with age. Most fibers showed maturational changes in mean and radial diffusivity values throughout childhood and adolescence, likely reflecting increasing white matter integrity. The largest age-related changes were observed in association fibers within and between the frontal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, there was a simultaneous age-related decrease in average path length (P < 0.0001), increase in node strength (P < 0.0001) as well as network clustering (P = 0.001), which may reflect fine-tuning of topological organization. These results suggest a sequential maturational model where connections between unimodal regions strengthen in childhood, followed by connections from these unimodal regions to association regions, while adolescence is characterized by the strengthening of connections between association regions within the frontal and parietal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:717-729, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26595445

  5. Part II: Strain- and sex-specific effects of adolescent exposure to THC on adult brain and behaviour: Variants of learning, anxiety and volumetric estimates.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; Bye, C; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Marijuana is one of the most highly used psychoactive substances in the world, and its use typically begins during adolescence, a period of substantial brain development. Females across species appear to be more susceptible to the long-term consequences of marijuana use. Despite the identification of inherent differences between rat strains including measures of anatomy, genetics and behaviour, no studies to our knowledge have examined the long-term consequences of adolescent exposure to marijuana or its main psychoactive component, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in males and females of two widely used rat strains: Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats. THC was administered for 14 consecutive days following puberty onset, and once they reached adulthood, changes in behaviour and in the volume of associated brain areas were quantified. Rats were assessed in behavioural tests of motor, spatial and contextual learning, and anxiety. Some tasks showed effects of injection, since handled and vehicle groups were included as controls. Performance on all tasks, except motor learning, and the volume of associated brain areas were altered with injection or THC administration, although these effects varied by strain and sex group. Finally, analysis revealed treatment-specific correlations between performance and brain volumes. This study is the first of its kind to directly compare males and females of two rat strains for the long-term consequences of adolescent THC exposure. It highlights the importance of considering strain and identifies certain rat strains as susceptible or resilient to the effects of THC. PMID:25591471

  6. Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911

  7. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students' individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  8. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  9. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-01-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  10. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Huckins, Jeremy F; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of adolescent obesity has increased dramatically over the past three decades, and research has documented that the number of television shows viewed during childhood is associated with greater risk for obesity. In particular, considerable evidence suggests that exposure to food marketing promotes eating habits that contribute to obesity. The present study examines neural responses to dynamic food commercials in overweight and healthy-weight adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared with non-food commercials, food commercials more strongly engaged regions involved in attention and saliency detection (occipital lobe, precuneus, superior temporal gyri, and right insula) and in processing rewards [left and right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. Activity in the left OFC and right insula further correlated with subjects' percent body fat at the time of the scan. Interestingly, this reward-related activity to food commercials was accompanied by the additional recruitment of mouth-specific somatosensory-motor cortices-a finding that suggests the intriguing possibility that higher-adiposity adolescents mentally simulate eating behaviors and offers a potential neural mechanism for the formation and reinforcement of unhealthy eating habits that may hamper an individual's ability lose weight later in life. PMID:25994961

  11. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    -specific exposure effects, notable maturational changes in brain have been observed from early to late adolescence that could provide differential neural substrates for exposure timing-related consequences, with for instance exposure during early adolescence perhaps more likely to impact later self-administration and social/affective behaviors, whereas exposures later in adolescence may be more likely to influence cognitive tasks whose neural substrates (such as the prefrontal cortex [PFC]) are still undergoing maturation at that time. Substantial more work is needed, however to characterize timing-specific effects of adolescent ethanol exposures and their sex dependency, determine their neural substrates, and assess their comparability to and interactions with adolescent exposure to other drugs and stressors. Such information could prove critical for informing intervention/prevention strategies regarding the potential efficacy of efforts directed toward delaying onset of alcohol use versus toward reducing high levels of use and risks associated with that use later in adolescence. PMID:25624108

  12. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    -specific exposure effects, notable maturational changes in brain have been observed from early to late adolescence that could provide differential neural substrates for exposure timing-related consequences, with for instance exposure during early adolescence perhaps more likely to impact later self-administration and social/affective behaviors, whereas exposures later in adolescence may be more likely to influence cognitive tasks whose neural substrates (such as the prefrontal cortex [PFC]) are still undergoing maturation at that time. More work is needed, however to characterize timing-specific effects of adolescent ethanol exposures and their sex dependency, determine their neural substrates, and assess their comparability to and interactions with adolescent exposure to other drugs and stressors. Such information could prove critical for informing intervention/prevention strategies regarding the potential efficacy of efforts directed toward delaying onset of alcohol use versus toward reducing high levels of use and risks associated with that use later in adolescence. PMID:25624108

  13. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  14. Structural Brain Imaging in Children and Adolescents Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V.; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Quinn, Brian T.; Lala, Meenakshi D.; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M.; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 8–10 years, were studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 non-cocaine exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, thalamus and putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse-correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes, for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE and 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13–15 years old. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continues into 13–15 years of age. We found that the differences in structural volumes between CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are matched by study design or controlled for. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort, and while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  15. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Sakhardande, Ashok; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of adolescents drink alcohol, with many engaging in high-risk patterns of consumption, including binge drinking. Here, we systematically review and synthesize the existing empirical literature on how consuming alcohol affects the developing human brain in alcohol-using (AU) youth. Methods For this systematic review, we began by conducting a literature search using the PubMED database to identify all available peer-reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of AU adolescents (aged 19 and under). All studies were screened against a strict set of criteria designed to constrain the impact of confounding factors, such as co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Results Twenty-one studies (10 MRI and 11 fMRI) met the criteria for inclusion. A synthesis of the MRI studies suggested that overall, AU youth showed regional differences in brain structure as compared with non-AU youth, with smaller grey matter volumes and lower white matter integrity in relevant brain areas. In terms of fMRI outcomes, despite equivalent task performance between AU and non-AU youth, AU youth showed a broad pattern of lower task-relevant activation, and greater task-irrelevant activation. In addition, a pattern of gender differences was observed for brain structure and function, with particularly striking effects among AU females. Conclusions Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors) within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the

  16. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  17. Sex-dependent changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of maternal deprivation and adolescent cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Assis, María A; Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Marco, Eva M; Parolaro, Daniela; Ambrosio, Emilio; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-08-01

    Early life stress has been associated with several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Actually, maternal deprivation (MD) alters the endocannabinoid system, which participates in motivation and reward for drugs, including cocaine. At youth, the rate of cocaine abuse is alarmingly increasing. Herein, we have investigated the consequences of MD and/or adolescent cocaine exposure in brain CB1Rs and CB2Rs in immune tissues. Control and maternally deprived (24h on postnatal day, pnd, 9) male and female Wistar rats were administered cocaine (8mg/kg/day) or saline during adolescence (pnd 28-42). At adulthood, [(3)H]-CP-55,940 autoradiographic binding was employed for the analysis of CB1R density and CP-55,940-stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding for CB1R functionality; CB2R expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Sex differences in CB1R expression and functionality were found, and MD induced important and enduring sex-dependent changes. In addition, the plastic changes induced by adolescent cocaine administration in brain CB1Rs were differentially influenced by early life events. MD increased spleen CB2R expression while adolescent cocaine administration attenuated this effect; cocaine exposure also diminished CB2R expression in bone marrow. Present findings provide evidence for changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of early life stress and adolescent cocaine exposure, and indicate functional interactions between both treatments, which in many regions differ between males and females. PMID:23680694

  18. Prenatal tobacco exposure predicts differential brain function during working memory in early adolescence: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Mohamed, Feroze B; Carmody, Dennis P; Malik, Muhammed; Faro, Scott H; Lewis, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Children prenatally exposed to tobacco exhibit higher rates of learning and emotional-behavioral problems related to worse working memory performance. Brain function, however, among tobacco exposed children while performing a working memory task has not previously been examined. This study compared the brain function of tobacco-exposed (n = 7) and unexposed (n = 11) 12-year-olds during a number N-back working memory task using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. Prenatal alcohol exposure, neonatal medical problems, environmental risk, and sex were statistically controlled. Tobacco-exposed children showed greater activation in inferior parietal regions, whereas unexposed children showed greater activation in inferior frontal regions. These differences were observed in the context of correct responses, suggesting that exposed and unexposed children use different brain regions and approaches to succeed in working memory tasks. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22820891

  19. Differences in mGnRH and cGnRH-II contents in pituitaries and discrete brain areas of Rana rugulosa W. according to age and stage of maturity.

    PubMed

    Yuanyou, L; Haoran, L

    2000-02-01

    (1) In tadpoles, chicken-II gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) could be measured in the brains before metamorphosis, but mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) did not appear until the stage of metamorphosis, i.e. cGnRH-II appeared earlier than mGnRH during ontogenesis. (2) During the metamorphic climax, mGnRH content increased more rapidly than cGnRH-II; the content of mGnRH was about two times of that of cGnRH-II. (3) In juveniles and adults, the content of mGnRH and cGnRH-II, and the distribution pattern of mGnRH (but not cGnRH-II) in the brains and pituitaries changed with age and stages of gonadal development. mGnRH mainly distributed in the rostral brain areas, whereas cGnRH-II had a widespread distribution in the brain. (4) Both mGnRH and cGnRH-II were present in the pituitaries at each stage of maturity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content at sexually maturity was significantly higher than that at other stages of gonadal development, and the content of mGnRH was about 15-18 times of that of cGnRH-II. (5) These results suggest that both mGnRH and cGnRH-II are potentially involved in the direct regulation of pituitary gonadotropes, and mGnRH may be the major active form, cGnRH-II may also serve as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. PMID:11790340

  20. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  1. REPEATED ANABOLIC/ANDROGENIC STEROID EXPOSURE DURING ADOLESCENCE ALTERS PHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED GLUTAMINASE AND GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR 1 SUBUNIT IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN HAMSTER BRAIN: CORRELATION WITH OFFENSIVE AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Shannon G.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    Male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with moderately high doses (5.0mg/kg/day) of anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence (P27–P56) display highly escalated offensive aggression. The current study examined whether adolescent AAS-exposure influenced the immunohistochemical localization of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutamate, a fast-acting neurotransmitter implicated in the modulation of aggression in various species and models of aggression, as well as glutamate receptor 1 subunit (GluR1). Hamsters were administered AAS during adolescence, scored for offensive aggression using the resident-intruder paradigm, and then examined for changes in PAG and GluR1 immunoreactivity in areas of the brain implicated in aggression control. When compared with sesame oil-treated control animals, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters displayed a significant increase in the number of PAG- and area density of GluR1- containing neurons in several notable aggression regions, although the differential pattern of expression did not appear to overlap across brain regions. Together, these results suggest that altered glutamate synthesis and GluR1 receptor expression in specific aggression areas may be involved in adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression. PMID:17418431

  2. Fetal chlorpyrifos exposure: adverse effects on brain cell development and cholinergic biomarkers emerge postnatally and continue into adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dan; Seidler, Frederic J; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2003-01-01

    Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated that neonatal rats were more sensitive to CPF than were fetal rats, yet animals exposed prenatally still developed behavioral deficits in adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we administered CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-20, using regimens devoid of overt fetal toxicity. We then examined subsequent development of acetylcholine systems in forebrain regions involved in cognitive function and compared the effects with those on general biomarkers of cell development. Choline acetyltransferase, a constitutive marker for cholinergic nerve terminals, showed only minor CPF-induced changes during the period of rapid synaptogenesis. In contrast, hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, which is responsive to nerve impulse activity, displayed marked suppression in the animals exposed to CPF; despite a return to nearly normal values by weaning, deficits were again apparent in adolescence and adulthood. There was no compensatory up-regulation of cholinergic receptors, as m2-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding was unchanged. CPF also elicited delayed-onset alterations in biomarkers for general aspects of cell integrity, with reductions in cell packing density, increases in relative cell size, and contraction of neuritic extensions; however, neither the magnitude nor timing of these changes was predictive of the cholinergic defects. The present findings indicate a wide window of vulnerability of cholinergic systems to CPF, extending from prenatal through postnatal periods, occurring independently of adverse effects on general cellular neurotoxicity. PMID:12676612

  3. The Moderating Effects of Sex and Age on the Association between Traumatic Brain Injury and Harmful Psychological Correlates among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored

  4. Impact of random and systematic recall errors and selection bias in case--control studies on mobile phone use and brain tumors in adolescents (CEFALO study).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Andersen, Tina Veje; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Prochazka, Michaela; Klaeboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Röösli, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Whether the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for brain tumors in adolescents is currently being studied. Case--control studies investigating this possible relationship are prone to recall error and selection bias. We assessed the potential impact of random and systematic recall error and selection bias on odds ratios (ORs) by performing simulations based on real data from an ongoing case--control study of mobile phones and brain tumor risk in children and adolescents (CEFALO study). Simulations were conducted for two mobile phone exposure categories: regular and heavy use. Our choice of levels of recall error was guided by a validation study that compared objective network operator data with the self-reported amount of mobile phone use in CEFALO. In our validation study, cases overestimated their number of calls by 9% on average and controls by 34%. Cases also overestimated their duration of calls by 52% on average and controls by 163%. The participation rates in CEFALO were 83% for cases and 71% for controls. In a variety of scenarios, the combined impact of recall error and selection bias on the estimated ORs was complex. These simulations are useful for the interpretation of previous case-control studies on brain tumor and mobile phone use in adults as well as for the interpretation of future studies on adolescents. PMID:21294138

  5. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

  6. Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

  7. Using Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Academic Response Latencies of an Adolescent with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Megan R.; Carr, James E.; Mozzoni, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which…

  8. Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Community Integration after a Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Barbara; Brouwers, Lynn; Ruoff, Janis; Trudel, Tina M.; Valnes, Betsy; Elias, Eileen; Pines, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    "Rehabilitation," as a term in and of itself, implies a goal of bringing something back to its original state of being. However, for many people living with traumatic brain injury (TBI), rehabilitation means learning to live all over again. Through means of education and employment, this article explores the quest for inclusive community…

  9. Arithmetic and Brain Connectivity: Mental Calculation in Adolescents with Periventricular Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Marina; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2009-01-01

    The ability for mental calculation represents a fundamental prerequisite for development of intelligence, which is predictive for educational and professional success in life. Many individuals with calculation difficulties are survivors of premature birth. The brain mechanisms of these deficits are, however, largely unknown. In this work, we…

  10. Some Current Findings on Brain Characteristics of the Mathematically Gifted Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the brain characteristics of mathematically gifted youth indicate that they possess a unique functional organisation as compared to those of average math ability (O'Boyle, et al., 1995). Specifically, data from a variety of behavioural and psychophysiological experiments tend to suggest enhanced processing…

  11. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  12. New Jersey Commits to Addressing Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcher, Dale; Lestino, John

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of important developments that have occurred in New Jersey recently surrounding brain injury that may serve as an inspiration for school psychologists in other states. In this article, the authors discuss what is happening in New Jersey to increase awareness among school psychologists, other educators, the public, and public…

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity, i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system (BAS), and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities) lead to these phenomena. The present study is the first longitudinal investigation of changes in reward (i.e., BAS) sensitivity in 9 to 23-year-olds across a two-year follow-up. We found support for increased reward sensitivity from early to late adolescence and evidence for decline in the early twenties. This decline is combined with a decrease in left nucleus accumbens (Nacc) volume, a key structure for reward processing, from the late teens into the early twenties. Furthermore, we found longitudinal increases in sensitivity to reward to be predicted by individual differences in the Nacc and medial OFC volumes at baseline in this developmental sample. Similarly, increases in sensitivity to threat (i.e., BIS sensitivity) were qualified by sex, with only females experiencing this increase, and predicted by individual differences in lateral OFC volumes at baseline. PMID:22390662

  14. Altered brain response to reward and punishment in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; McCurdy, Danyale; Grenesko-Stevens, Emily; (Zoe) Irvine, Laura E.; Wagner, Angela; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Wierenga, Christina E.; Fudge, Julie L.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Adults recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN) have altered reward modulation within striatal limbic regions associated with the emotional significance of stimuli, and executive regions concerned with planning and consequences. We hypothesized that adolescents with AN would show similar disturbed reward modulation within the striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex, a region connected to the striatum and involved in reward-guided action selection. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, twenty-two adolescent females (10 restricting-type AN, 12 healthy volunteers) performed a monetary guessing task. Time series data associated with monetary wins and losses within striatal and cingulate regions of interest were subjected to a linear mixed effects analysis. All participants responded more strongly to wins versus losses in limbic and anterior executive striatal territories. However, AN participants exhibited an exaggerated response to losses compared to wins in posterior executive and sensorimotor striatal regions, suggesting altered function in circuitry responsible for coding the affective context of stimuli and action selection based upon these valuations. As AN individuals are particularly sensitive to criticism, failure, and making mistakes, these findings may reflect the neural processes responsible for a bias in those with AN to exaggerate negative consequences. PMID:24148909

  15. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  16. Regulation of neuronal oxytocin mRNA by ovarian steroids in the mature and developing hypothalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, F D; Ozimek, G; Milner, R J; Bloom, F E

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the changes in neuronal expression of oxytocin mRNA in the perinatal and mature female rat as a function of endogenous gonadal steroids. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a significant developmental increase in the abundance of oxytocin mRNA in the female brain concomitant with puberty. Ovariectomy of adult females decreased total brain oxytocin mRNA to significantly lower levels. In contrast, lactating mothers had increased levels of neuronal oxytocin mRNA. In situ hybridization analysis of neuronal oxytocin mRNA in adolescent, mature virgin, and ovariectomized virgin female brains demonstrated that the location and number of neurons expressing oxytocin mRNA was unchanged and that total brain oxytocin mRNA differences were attributable to amounts expressed per neuron. Differences in mRNA abundance were noted in oxytocin neurons throughout the hypothalamus, including those known to project as magnocellular neurons to the neurohypophysis and those of parvocellular origin thought to make wholly intracerebral connections. This developmental and dynamic regulation of oxytocin mRNA levels during gonadal maturation may coordinate the peripheral and central effects of this peptide on the reproductive biology of the female rat. Images PMID:2928343

  17. The phenomenology of personality change due to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Max, J E; Robertson, B A; Lansing, A E

    2001-01-01

    The authors aimed to contribute a clinically rich description of personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children. The sample consisted of consecutively injured children. Ninety-four subjects ages 5 to 14 years were assessed at the time of hospitalization after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A standardized psychiatric interview, the Neuropsychiatric Rating Schedule, was used to elicit symptoms of PC. PC occurred in 59% of severe (22/37) and 5% of mild/moderate (3/57) TBI subjects. Among the 37 severe TBI subjects, the labile subtype of PC was the most common (49%), followed by the aggressive and disinhibited subtypes (38% each), apathy (14%), and paranoia (5%). Also frequent in severe TBI was perseveration (35%). A detailed case example, numerous clinical vignettes of PC symptoms, and a tabulation of their frequencies provide clinicians a broader frame of reference for eliciting symptoms of PC. PMID:11449023

  18. Personality Change Due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J; Saunders, Ann E; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Thompson, Wesley K; Yang, Tony T; Levin, Harvey S

    2015-01-01

    Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers. Patients were followed up prospectively at baseline and at 6 months, and they were assessed with semistructured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26 (18%) of 141 participants assessed at 6 months postinjury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function were significantly associated with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and preinjury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology. PMID:26185905

  19. Personality Change due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Personality Change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. The aim of the study was to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included children (n=177) aged 5-14 years with traumatic brain injury from consecutive admissions to 5 trauma centers were followed prospectively at baseline and 6 months with semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26/141 (18%) participants assessed at 6 months post-injury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function, were significantly associated (p < .05) with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and pre-injury attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology. PMID:26185905

  20. Adolescent neurobehavioral characteristics, alcohol sensitivities, and intake: Setting the stage for alcohol use disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations that include not only the hormonal and physiological changes of puberty but also dramatic changes in the brain as well. Similar neural and physiological changes are associated with the transition from immaturity to maturity across a variety of mammalian species, along with a variety of common adolescent-typical behavioral characteristics. Among the neural systems undergoing alterations during adolescence are those that modulate sensitivity to a variety of alcohol effects, potentially increasing the propensity for relatively high levels of adolescent alcohol use, which in turn may set the stage for later alcohol use disorders. This article reviews research on adolescent alcohol sensitivities and suggests possible implications of these findings for the frequent initiation and relatively high levels of alcohol intake seen at this age. PMID:22328900

  1. Creatine target engagement with brain bioenergetics: a dose-ranging phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of adolescent females with SSRI-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Douglas G; Forrest, Lauren N; Shi, Xianfeng; Sung, Young-Hoon; Hellem, Tracy L; Huber, Rebekah S; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often begins during adolescence and is projected to become the leading cause of global disease burden by the year 2030. Yet, approximately 40 % of depressed adolescents fail to respond to standard antidepressant treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Converging evidence suggests that depression is related to brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Our previous studies of MDD in adult and adolescent females suggest that augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with creatine monohydrate (CM) may improve MDD outcomes. Neuroimaging with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) can measure the high-energy phosphorus metabolites in vivo that reflect mitochondrial function. These include phosphocreatine (PCr), a substrate for the creatine kinase reaction that produces adenosine triphosphate. As part of the National Institute of Mental Health's experimental medicine initiative, we conducted a placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of adjunctive CM for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or CM 2, 4 or 10 g daily for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment (31)P-MRS scans were used to measure frontal lobe PCr, to assess CM's target engagement with cerebral energy metabolism. Mean frontal lobe PCr increased by 4.6, 4.1 and 9.1 % in the 2, 4 and 10 g groups, respectively; in the placebo group, PCr fell by 0.7 %. There was no group difference in adverse events, weight gain or serum creatinine. Regression analysis of PCr and depression scores across the entire sample showed that frontal lobe PCr was inversely correlated with depression scores (p = 0.02). These results suggest that CM achieves target engagement with brain bioenergetics and that the target is correlated with a clinical signal. Further study of CM as a treatment for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted. PMID:26907087

  2. Creatine target engagement with brain bioenergetics: a dose-ranging phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of adolescent females with SSRI-resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Douglas G.; Forrest, Lauren N.; Shi, Xianfeng; Sung, Young-Hoon; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often begins during adolescence and is projected to become the leading cause of global disease burden by the year 2030. Yet, approximately 40 % of depressed adolescents fail to respond to standard antidepressant treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Converging evidence suggests that depression is related to brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Our previous studies of MDD in adult and adolescent females suggest that augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with creatine monohydrate (CM) may improve MDD outcomes. Neuroimaging with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) can measure the high-energy phosphorus metabolites in vivo that reflect mitochondrial function. These include phosphocreatine (PCr), a substrate for the creatine kinase reaction that produces adenosine triphosphate. As part of the National Institute of Mental Health’s experimental medicine initiative, we conducted a placebo-controlled doseranging study of adjunctive CM for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or CM 2, 4 or 10 g daily for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment 31P-MRS scans were used to measure frontal lobe PCr, to assess CM’s target engagement with cerebral energy metabolism. Mean frontal lobe PCr increased by 4.6, 4.1 and 9.1 % in the 2, 4 and 10 g groups, respectively; in the placebo group, PCr fell by 0.7 %. There was no group difference in adverse events, weight gain or serum creatinine. Regression analysis of PCr and depression scores across the entire sample showed that frontal lobe PCr was inversely correlated with depression scores (p = 0.02). These results suggest that CM achieves target engagement with brain bioenergetics and that the target is correlated with a clinical signal. Further study of CM as a treatment for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted. PMID:26907087

  3. The utility of the balance error scoring system for mild brain injury assessments in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Hugentobler, Jason; Ammon, Robin; Mwase, Najima; Kurowski, Brad; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-09-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes' post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals. PMID:25295764

  4. What Can Rats Tell Us about Adolescent Cannabis Exposure? Insights from Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Renard, Justine; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse among adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for brain development, during which time various neurotransmitter systems such as the glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems undergo extensive reorganization to support the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). ▵-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, acts as a partial agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1Rs are abundant in the CNS and are central components of the neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence. Thus, overactivation of CB1Rs by cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has the ability to dramatically alter brain maturation, leading to persistent and enduring changes in adult cerebral function. Increasing preclinical evidence lends support to clinical evidence suggesting that chronic adolescent marijuana exposure may be associated with a higher risk for neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. In this review, we present a broad overview of current neurobiological evidence regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on adult neuropsychiatric-like disorders. PMID:27254841

  5. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  6. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-08-11

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  7. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development

    PubMed Central

    Chu, CJ; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, MA; Cash, SS

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. Methods We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. Results We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Conclusion Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. Significance This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. PMID:24418219

  8. The pediatric template of brain perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Avants, Brian B; Duda, Jeffrey T; Kilroy, Emily; Krasileva, Kate; Jann, Kay; Kandel, Benjamin T; Tustison, Nicholas J; Yan, Lirong; Jog, Mayank; Smith, Robert; Wang, Yi; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) captures the dynamics of brain development with multiple modalities that quantify both structure and function. These measurements may yield valuable insights into the neural patterns that mark healthy maturation or that identify early risk for psychiatric disorder. The Pediatric Template of Brain Perfusion (PTBP) is a free and public neuroimaging resource that will help accelerate the understanding of childhood brain development as seen through the lens of multiple modality neuroimaging and in relation to cognitive and environmental factors. The PTBP uses cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI to quantify cortex, white matter, resting state functional connectivity and brain perfusion, as measured by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), in 120 children 7–18 years of age. We describe the PTBP and show, as a demonstration of validity, that global summary measurements capture the trajectories that demarcate critical turning points in brain maturation. This novel resource will allow a more detailed understanding of the network-level, structural and functional landmarks that are obtained during normal adolescent brain development. PMID:25977810

  9. Development of Brain Structural Connectivity between Ages 12 and 30: A 4-Tesla Diffusion Imaging Study in 439 Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Jahanshad, Neda; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the brain matures in healthy individuals is critical for evaluating deviations from normal development in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The brain’s anatomical networks are profoundly re-modeled between childhood and adulthood, and diffusion tractography offers unprecedented power to reconstruct these networks and neural pathways in vivo. Here we tracked changes in structural connectivity and network efficiency in 439 right-handed individuals aged 12 to 30 (211 female/126 male adults, mean age=23.6, SD=2.19; 31 female/24 male 12 year olds, mean age=12.3, SD=0.18; and 25 female/22 male 16 year olds, mean age=16.2, SD=0.37). All participants were scanned with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) at 4 Tesla. After we performed whole brain tractography, 70 cortical gyral-based regions of interest were extracted from each participant’s co-registered anatomical scans. The degree of fiber connections between all pairs of cortical regions, or nodes, were found to create symmetric fiber density matrices, reflecting the structural brain network. From those 70×70 matrices we computed graph theory metrics characterizing structural connectivity. Several key global and nodal metrics changed across development, showing increased network integration, with some connections pruned and others strengthened. The increases and decreases in fiber density, however, were not distributed proportionally across the brain. The frontal cortex had a disproportionate number of decreases in fiber density while the temporal cortex had a disproportionate number of increases in fiber density. This large-scale analysis of the developing structural connectome offers a foundation to develop statistical criteria for aberrant brain connectivity as the human brain matures. PMID:22982357

  10. The Philosophy of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibleman, James K.

    1969-01-01

    The adolescent goes through various stages of physical and psychological development in the years between puberty and maturity. Finding his rightful place in society and refining his ideas about life are two experiences he undergoes during this period. (CK)

  11. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  12. The effect of sumatriptan on nitric oxide synthase enzyme production after iatrogenic inflammation in the brain stem of adolescent rats: A randomized, controlled, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Demirpence, Savas; Kurul, Semra Hiz; Kiray, Müge; Tugyan, Kazim; Yilmaz, Osman; Köse, Galip

    2009-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a common disabling disorder of childhood and adolescence. Despite advances in the understanding of migraine pathophysiology, treatment remains a challenge. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the production of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes in the brain stem of adolescent rats, using an experimental model of migraine, and the effect of sumatriptan pretreatment on the production of the NOS enzymes. Methods: Male adolescent (aged ~2 months) Wistar rats were used in the study. The animals were anesthetized using pentobarbital. The trigeminovascular system was stimulated by injecting a proinflammatory molecule, carrageenan, into the cis-terna magna of the anesthetized rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups of equal size: (1) the study group, in which the rats were treated with sumatriptan succinate 2 hours before intracisternal carrageenan injection; (2) the sham group, in which the rats were not administered intracisternal carrageenan injection or sumatriptan pretreatment; and (3) the control group, in which the rats were administered intracisternal carrageenan injection but were not pretreated with sumatriptan. In the control and study groups, the rats were euthanized using ether anesthesia 1 hour after intracisternal carrageenan injection. Rats in the sham group were euthanized 1 hour after intracisternal catheterization. Brain tissue was removed and endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) immunohistochemistry was performed. Results: Twenty-one rats were randomized into 3 groups of 7. The mean values of the immunolabeling intensities for eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS enzymes in the brain stem were significantly lower in the sham group compared with the control group (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). The mean values of the immunolabeling intensities of eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS in the brain stem were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group (P = 0

  13. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    PubMed

    Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In

  14. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Bomba, Monica; Riva, Anna; Morzenti, Sabrina; Grimaldi, Marco; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN) suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. PMID:25834442

  15. Hormone-dependent adolescent organization of socio-sexual behaviors in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    The adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood requires both reproductive and behavioral maturation as individuals acquire the ability to procreate. Gonadal steroid hormones are key players in the maturation of behaviors required for reproductive success. Beyond activating behavior in adulthood, testicular and ovarian hormones organize the adolescent brain and program adult-typical and sex-typical expression of sociosexual behaviors. Testicular hormones organize sexual and agonistic behaviors, including social proficiency-the ability to adapt behavior as a function of social experience. Ovarian hormones organize behaviors related to energy balance and maternal care. These sex differences in the behaviors that are programmed by gonadal hormones during adolescence suggest that evolution has selected for hormone-dependent sex-specific organization of behaviors that optimize reproductive fitness. PMID:26963894

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents 24 Months After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Friedman, Keren; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Hanten, Gerri; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Dennis, Maureen; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the occurrence of novel psychiatric disorders (NPDs) in children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to preinjury variables, injury-related variables, and concurrent neurocognitive outcome. Eighty-seven children aged 5–14 years who had experienced mTBI were studied from consecutive hospital admissions with semistructured psychiatric interviews soon after injury (baseline). Fifty-four children were reassessed 24 months postinjury. Standardized instruments were used to evaluate injury severity, lesion characteristics, preinjury variables (lifetime psychiatric disorder, family psychiatric history, family function, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, adaptive function, and academic function), and finally, postinjury neurocognitive and adaptive function. At 24 months postinjury, NPDs had occurred in 17 of 54 (31%) participants. NPD at 24 months was related to frontal white matter lesions and was associated with estimated preinjury reading, preinjury adaptive function, and concurrent deficits in reading, processing speed, and adaptive function. These findings extend earlier reports that the psychiatric morbidity after mTBI in children is more common than previously thought, and moreover, it is linked to preinjury individual variables and injury characteristics and is associated with postinjury adaptive and neurocognitive functioning. PMID:25923850

  17. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in the first six months after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Keatley, Eva; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Levin, Harvey S; Schachar, Russell J; Saunders, Ann; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Dennis, Maureen; Yang, Tony T

    2011-01-01

    The study's objective was to assess the nature, rate, predictive factors, and neuroimaging correlates of novel (new-onset) definite anxiety disorders and novel definite/subclinical anxiety disorders (in a broader group of children with at least subclinical anxiety disorders) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children with TBI from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers were enrolled and studied with psychiatric interviews soon after injury (baseline) and again 6 months post-injury. Novel definite anxiety disorder and novel definite/subclinical anxiety disorders were heterogeneous and occurred in 8.5% (N=12) and 17% (N=24) of participants, respectively, in the first 6 months after injury. Novel definite anxiety disorder was significantly associated with younger age at injury and tended to be associated with novel depressive disorder, as well as lesions of the superior frontal gyrus. Novel definite/subclinical anxiety disorder was significantly associated with concurrent psychiatric problems of personality change due to TBI and novel definite/subclinical depressive disorder, as well as with lesions of the superior frontal gyrus and a trend-association with frontal lobe white-matter lesions. These findings suggest that anxiety after childhood TBI may be part of a broader problem of affective dysregulation related to damaged dorsal frontal lobe and frontal white-matter systems, with younger children being at greatest risk for developing novel anxiety disorder after TBI. PMID:21304136

  18. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11–16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT. PMID:27505076

  19. The Function of the Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway in Brain in Vivo and Learning Ability Decrease in Parallel in Mature Compared with Young Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Cauli, Omar; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have recently reported that the ability of rats to learn a Y-maze conditional discrimination task depends on the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain. The aims of the present work were to assess whether the ability of rats to…

  20. Adolescents and alcohol: acute sensitivities, enhanced intake, and later consequences.

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in the brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  1. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  2. Quantitative EEG and neurofeedback in children and adolescents: anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, comorbid addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and brain injury.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Deborah R; Thatcher, Robert W; Lubar, Joel

    2014-07-01

    This article explores the science surrounding neurofeedback. Both surface neurofeedback (using 2-4 electrodes) and newer interventions, such as real-time z-score neurofeedback (electroencephalogram [EEG] biofeedback) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback, are reviewed. The limited literature on neurofeedback research in children and adolescents is discussed regarding treatment of anxiety, mood, addiction (with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and traumatic brain injury. Future potential applications, the use of quantitative EEG for determining which patients will be responsive to medications, the role of randomized controlled studies in neurofeedback research, and sensible clinical guidelines are considered. PMID:24975621

  3. Maturation of interhemispheric signal propagation in autism spectrum disorder and typically developing controls: a TMS-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Jarczok, Tomasz A; Fritsch, Merve; Kröger, Anne; Schneider, Anna Lisa; Althen, Heike; Siniatchkin, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Brain maturation from childhood to adulthood is associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity between remote brain regions. Altered connectivity plays an important role in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is associated with abnormal brain development and structurally altered interhemispheric connections. Cortico-cortical connectivity can be studied by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent EEG (TMS-EEG). TMS-evoked Interhemispheric Signal Propagation (ISP) is a correlate of interhemispheric connectivity related to the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC). We used TMS-EEG to measure ISP in 22 ASD subjects (10-21 years) and 22 typically developing control subjects (9-19 years). We expected (1) maturational changes of ISP from childhood to young adulthood and also (2) reduced interhemispheric signal transfer in ASD. ISP was positively correlated with age in both ASD and typically developing control subjects. No difference in ISP between ASD and typically developing controls was found. Our findings demonstrate maturation of effective interhemispheric connectivity during adolescence. As ISP is related to the microstructure of the CC, the developmental change of ISP likely reflects maturation of the CC during the second life decade. The results support ISP as a valid parameter reflecting functional interhemispheric connectivity. Our results do not support a global deficit of interhemispheric connectivity in ASD. PMID:27177879

  4. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related brain function have revealed conflicting findings regarding developmental change in the reactivity of the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and have not considered puberty. The current study focused on puberty-specific changes in brain function and their association with mood. Method A sample of 77 healthy adolescents (26 pre/early pubertal, 51 mid/late pubertal) recruited in a narrow age range (M=11.94 years, SD=.75) were assessed for sexual maturation and circulating testosterone, completed an fMRI guessing task with monetary reward, and underwent experience sampling of mood in natural environments. For comparison, 19 healthy adults completed the fMRI assessment. Results Adolescents with more advanced pubertal maturation exhibited less striatal and more mPFC reactivity during reward outcome than similarly aged adolescents with less advanced maturation. Testosterone was positively correlated with striatal reactivity in boys during reward anticipation and negatively correlated with striatal reactivity in girls and boys during reward outcome. Striatal reactivity was positively correlated with real-world subjective positive affect and negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. mPFC reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Reward-related brain function changes with puberty and is associated with adolescents' positive affect and depressive symptoms. Increased reward-seeking behavior at this developmental point could serve to compensate for these changes. PMID:20215938

  5. Effects of repeated adolescent stress and serotonin transporter gene partial knockout in mice on behaviors and brain structures relevant to major depression

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Simona; Müller, Tanja; Friedel, Miriam; Sigrist, Hannes; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Henkelman, Mark; Rudin, Markus; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    In humans, exposure to stress during development is associated with structural and functional alterations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMY), and hippocampus (HC) and their circuits of connectivity, and with an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder particularly in carriers of the short (s) variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Although changes in these regions are found in carriers of the s allele and/or in depressed patients, evidence for a specific genotype × developmental stress effect on brain structure and function is limited. Here, we investigated the effect of repe