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Sample records for adolescent cannabinoid exposure

  1. Permanent Suppression of Cortical Oscillations in Mice After Adolescent Exposure to Cannabinoids: Receptor Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Raver, Sylvina M.; Keller, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use in adolescence, but not adulthood, may permanently impair cognitive functioning and increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. Cortical oscillations are patterns of neural network activity implicated in cognitive processing, and are abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. We have recently reported that cortical oscillations are suppressed in adult mice that were treated, in adolescence but not adulthood, with the cannabinoids WIN55,212-2 (WIN) or Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). WIN and THC are cannabinoid types 1 and 2 receptor (CB1R & CB2R) agonists, and also have activity at non-cannabinoid receptor targets. However, as acute WIN and THC administration can suppress oscillations through CB1Rs, we hypothesize that a similar mechanism underlies the permanent suppression of oscillations by repeated cannabinoid exposure in adolescence. Here we test the prediction that cannabinoid exposure in adolescence permanently suppresses cortical oscillations by acting through CB1Rs, and that these suppressive effects can be antagonized by a CB1R antagonist. We treated adolescent mice with various cannabinoid compounds, and pharmacologically-evoked oscillations in vitro in adult mice. We find that WIN exposure for six days in early adolescence suppresses oscillations preferentially in adult medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) via CB1Rs, and that a similar CB1R mechanism accounts for the suppressive effects of long-term (20 day) adolescent THC in adult somatosensory cortex (SCx). Unexpectedly, we also find that CB2Rs may be involved in the suppression of oscillations in both mPFC and SCx by long-term adolescent cannabinoid exposure, and that non-cannabinoid receptors may also contribute to oscillation suppression in adult mPFC. These findings represent a novel attempt to antagonize the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural network activity, and reveal the contribution of non-CB1R targets to the suppression of cortical oscillations. PMID:25036610

  2. Long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ucha, Marcos; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the adolescent and fetal nervous system, marihuana consumption during these stages may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity. In addition, several neurochemical modifications are also evident after prenatal or adolescent cannabinoid exposure, especially in the endocannabinoid, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and opioidergic systems. Important sexual dimorphisms are also evident in terms of the long-lasting effects of cannabinoid consumption during pregnancy and adolescence, and cannabinoids possibly have a protective effect in adolescents who have suffered traumatic life challenges, such as maternal separation or intense stress. Finally, we suggest some future research directions that may encourage further advances in this exciting field.

  3. Long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ucha, Marcos; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the adolescent and fetal nervous system, marihuana consumption during these stages may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity. In addition, several neurochemical modifications are also evident after prenatal or adolescent cannabinoid exposure, especially in the endocannabinoid, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and opioidergic systems. Important sexual dimorphisms are also evident in terms of the long-lasting effects of cannabinoid consumption during pregnancy and adolescence, and cannabinoids possibly have a protective effect in adolescents who have suffered traumatic life challenges, such as maternal separation or intense stress. Finally, we suggest some future research directions that may encourage further advances in this exciting field. PMID:25960036

  4. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences.

  5. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences. PMID:25979486

  6. Chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence leads to long-term structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Renard, Justine; Vitalis, Tania; Rame, Marion; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lenkei, Zsolt; Le Pen, Gwenaëlle; Jay, Thérèse M

    2016-01-01

    In many species, adolescence is a critical phase in which the endocannabinoid system can regulate the maturation of important neuronal networks that underlie cognitive function. Therefore, adolescents may be more susceptible to the neural consequences of chronic cannabis abuse. We reported previously that chronically exposing adolescent rats to the synthetic cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 leads to impaired performances in adulthood i.e. long-lasting deficits in both visual and spatial short-term working memories. Here, we examined the synaptic structure and function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adult rats that were chronically treated with CP55,940 during adolescence. We found that chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence induces long-lasting changes, including (1) significantly altered dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in layer II/III in the medial PFC (2) impaired hippocampal input-induced synaptic plasticity in the PFC and (3) significant changes in the expression of PSD95 (but not synaptophysin or VGLUT3) in the medial PFC. These changes in synaptic structure and function in the PFC provide key insight into the structural, functional and molecular underpinnings of long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent cannabinoid exposure. They suggest that cannabinoids may impede the structural maturation of neuronal circuits in the PFC, thus leading to impaired cognitive function in adulthood. PMID:26689328

  7. Effects of Cannabinoid Exposure during Adolescence on the Conditioned Rewarding Effects of WIN 55212-2 and Cocaine in Mice: Influence of the Novelty-Seeking Trait.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, M; Roger-Sánchez, C; Vilanova, I; Revert, N; Manzanedo, C; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids enhances the behavioural effects of cocaine, and high novelty-seeking trait predicts greater sensitivity to the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by this drug. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of novelty-seeking on the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure. Adolescent male mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS and LNS) in the hole-board test. First, we evaluated the CPP induced by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg, i.p.) in HNS and LNS mice. Then, HNS and LNS mice were pretreated i.p. with vehicle, WIN 55212-2 (0.1 mg/kg), or cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg) and were subsequently conditioned with WIN 55212-2 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or cocaine (1 or 6 mg/kg, i.p.). Only HNS mice conditioned with the 0.075 mg/kg dose acquired CPP with WIN 55212-2. Adolescent exposure to this cannabinoid agonist increased the rewarding effects of 1 mg/kg of cocaine in both HNS and LNS mice, and in HNS mice it also increased the reinstating effect of a low dose of cocaine. Our results endorse a role for individual differences such as a higher propensity for sensation-seeking in the development of addiction.

  8. Effects of Cannabinoid Exposure during Adolescence on the Conditioned Rewarding Effects of WIN 55212-2 and Cocaine in Mice: Influence of the Novelty-Seeking Trait

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Arias, M.; Roger-Sánchez, C.; Vilanova, I.; Revert, N.; Manzanedo, C.; Miñarro, J.; Aguilar, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids enhances the behavioural effects of cocaine, and high novelty-seeking trait predicts greater sensitivity to the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by this drug. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of novelty-seeking on the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure. Adolescent male mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS and LNS) in the hole-board test. First, we evaluated the CPP induced by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg, i.p.) in HNS and LNS mice. Then, HNS and LNS mice were pretreated i.p. with vehicle, WIN 55212-2 (0.1 mg/kg), or cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg) and were subsequently conditioned with WIN 55212-2 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or cocaine (1 or 6 mg/kg, i.p.). Only HNS mice conditioned with the 0.075 mg/kg dose acquired CPP with WIN 55212-2. Adolescent exposure to this cannabinoid agonist increased the rewarding effects of 1 mg/kg of cocaine in both HNS and LNS mice, and in HNS mice it also increased the reinstating effect of a low dose of cocaine. Our results endorse a role for individual differences such as a higher propensity for sensation-seeking in the development of addiction. PMID:26881125

  9. Maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure impact hippocampal astrocytes, CB1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a sexually dimorphic fashion.

    PubMed

    López-Gallardo, M; López-Rodríguez, A B; Llorente-Berzal, Á; Rotllant, D; Mackie, K; Armario, A; Nadal, R; Viveros, M-P

    2012-03-01

    We have recently reported that early maternal deprivation (MD) for 24 h [postnatal day (PND) 9-10] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (CP) [0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42] in Wistar rats induced, in adulthood, diverse sex-dependent long-term behavioral and physiological modifications. Here we show the results obtained from investigating the immunohistochemical analysis of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive (+) cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus of the same animals. MD induced, in males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), an effect that was attenuated by CP in the two latter regions. Adolescent cannabinoid exposure induced, in control non-deprived males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in the polymorphic layer of the DG. MD induced a decrease in CB1 expression in both sexes, and this effect was reversed in males by the cannabinoid treatment. In turn, the drug "per se" induced, in males, a general decrease in CB1 immunoreactivity, and the opposite effect was observed in females. Cannabinoid exposure tended to reduce BDNF expression in CA1 and CA3 of females, whereas MD counteracted this trend and induced an increase of BDNF in females. As a whole, the present results show sex-dependent long-term effects of both MD and juvenile cannabinoid exposure as well as functional interactions between the two treatments.

  10. MATERNAL DEPRIVATION AND ADOLESCENT CANNABINOID EXPOSURE IMPACT HIPPOCAMPAL ASTROCYTES, CB1 RECEPTORS AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR IN A SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC FASHION

    PubMed Central

    LÓPEZ-GALLARDO, M.; LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, A. B.; LLORENTE-BERZAL, Á.; ROTLLANT, D.; MACKIE, K.; ARMARIO, A.; NADAL, R.; VIVEROS, M.-P.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that early maternal deprivation (MD) for 24 h [postnatal day (PND) 9–10] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (CP) [0.4 mg/kg, PND 28–42] in Wistar rats induced, in adulthood, diverse sex-dependent long-term behavioral and physiological modifications. Here we show the results obtained from investigating the immunohistochemical analysis of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive (+) cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus of the same animals. MD induced, in males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in CA1 and CA3 areas and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), an effect that was attenuated by CP in the two latter regions. Adolescent cannabinoid exposure induced, in control non-deprived males, a significant increase in the number of GFAP+ cells in the polymorphic layer of the DG. MD induced a decrease in CB1 expression in both sexes, and this effect was reversed in males by the cannabinoid treatment. In turn, the drug “per se” induced, in males, a general decrease in CB1 immunoreactivity, and the opposite effect was observed in females. Cannabinoid exposure tended to reduce BDNF expression in CA1 and CA3 of females, whereas MD counteracted this trend and induced an increase of BDNF in females. As a whole, the present results show sex-dependent long-term effects of both MD and juvenile cannabinoid exposure as well as functional interactions between the two treatments. PMID:22001306

  11. Adolescent exposure to nicotine and/or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 induces gender-dependent long-lasting memory impairments and changes in brain nicotinic and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Mateos, B; Borcel, E; Loriga, R; Luesu, W; Bini, V; Llorente, R; Castelli, M P; Viveros, M-P

    2011-12-01

    We have analysed the long-term effects of adolescent (postnatal day 28-43) exposure of male and female rats to nicotine (NIC, 1.4 mg/kg/day) and/or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP, 0.4 mg/kg/day) on the following parameters measured in the adulthood: (1) the memory ability evaluated in the object location task (OL) and in the novel object test (NOT); (2) the anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze; and (3) nicotinic and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in cingulated cortex and hippocampus. In the OL, all pharmacological treatments induced significant decreases in the DI of females, whereas no significant effects were found among males. In the NOT, NIC-treated females showed a significantly reduced DI, whereas the effect of the cannabinoid agonist (a decrease in the DI) was only significant in males. The anxiety-related behaviour was not changed by any drug. Both, nicotine and cannabinoid treatments induced a long-lasting increase in CB(1) receptor activity (CP-stimulated GTPγS binding) in male rats, and the nicotine treatment also induced a decrease in nicotinic receptor density in the prefrontal cortex of females. The results show gender-dependent harmful effects of both drugs and long-lasting changes in CB(1) and nicotinic receptors.

  12. Detrimental psychophysiological effects of early maternal deprivation in adolescent and adult rodents: altered responses to cannabinoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Llorente, Ricardo; Laviola, Giovanni; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-04-01

    Environmental rearing conditions during the neonatal period are critical for the establishment of neurobiological factors controlling behavior and stress responsiveness. Early maternal deprivation (MD), consisting of a single 24-h maternal deprivation episode during early neonatal life, has been proposed as an animal model for certain psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Despite first onset of mental disorders usually occur during adolescence, characterization of MD has been mostly developed in adult animals. We review here a series of experiments that were conducted on rats and mice, in which we analyzed the psychoimmunoendocrine outcomes of MD at both adolescence and adulthood. As a whole our results indicate that MD might promote a depressive-like trait that may be present from adolescence to maturity. Maternally deprived adolescent animals also displayed altered locomotor responses, a reduced interest for social investigation and seemed prone for impulsive behavior. Therefore, MD in rodents is further confirmed as a suitable animal model for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders that might become evident during adolescence. Given the increasing consumption of cannabis derivatives among the juvenile population and the reported comorbidity of neuropsychiatric symptoms with cannabis abuse, we also discuss our results indicating altered responses of maternally deprived adolescent animals to cannabinoid compounds.

  13. Sex-dependent long-term effects of adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA on neuroinflammation and serotoninergic and cannabinoid systems in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeMany young people consume ecstasy as a recreational drug and often in combination with cannabis. In this study, we aimed to mimic human consumption patterns and investigated, in male and female animals, the long-term effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on diverse neuroinflammation and neurotoxic markers. Experimental ApproachMale and female Wistar rats were chronically treated with increasing doses of THC and/or MDMA during adolescence. The effects of THC and/or MDMA on glial reactivity and on serotoninergic and cannabinoid systems were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. Key ResultsTHC increased the area staining for glial fibrilar acidic protein in both sexes. In males, both drugs, either separately or in combination, increased the proportion of reactive microglia cells [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)]. In contrast, in females, each drug, administered alone, decreased of this proportion, whereas the combination of both drugs resulted in a ‘normalization’ to control values. In males, MDMA reduced the number of SERT positive fibres, THC induced the opposite effect and the group receiving both drugs did not significantly differ from the controls. In females, MDMA reduced the number of SERT positive fibres and the combination of both drugs counteracted this effect. THC also reduced immunostaining for CB1 receptors in females and this effect was aggravated by the combination with MDMA. Conclusions and ImplicationsAdolescent exposure of rats to THC and/or MDMA induced long-term, sex-dependent neurochemical and glial alterations, and revealed interactions between the two drugs. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24236988

  14. Alteration of imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 miRNA cluster expression in the entorhinal cortex induced by maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hollins, S L; Zavitsanou, K; Walker, F R; Cairns, M J

    2014-01-01

    A significant feature of the cortical neuropathology of schizophrenia is a disturbance in the biogenesis of short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) that regulate translation and stability of mRNA. While the biological origin of this phenomenon has not been defined, it is plausible that it relates to major environmental risk factors associated with the disorder such as exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabis use. To explore this hypothesis, we administered the viral mimic poly I:C to pregnant rats and further exposed some of their maturing offsprings to daily injections of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 for 14 days starting on postnatal day 35. Whole-genome miRNA expression analysis was then performed on the left and right hemispheres of the entorhinal cortex (EC), a region strongly associated with schizophrenia. Animals exposed to either treatment alone or in combination exhibited significant differences in the expression of miRNA in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere was less responsive. Hemisphere-associated differences in miRNA expression were greatest in the combined treatment and highly over-represented in a single imprinted locus on chromosome 6q32. This observation was significant as the syntenic 14q32 locus in humans encodes a large proportion of miRNAs differentially expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that interaction of early and late environmental insults may affect miRNA expression, in a manner that is relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25268256

  15. Framework for sex differences in adolescent neurobiology: a focus on cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Viveros, Maria-Paz; Marco, Eva M; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Wagner, Edward J

    2011-08-01

    This review highlights the salient findings that have furthered our understanding of how sex differences are initiated during development and maintained throughout life. First we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones organize the framework for sex differences within critical periods of development-namely, during those exposures which occur in utero and post-partum, as well as those which occur during puberty. Given the extensive precedence of sex differences in cannabinoid-regulated biology, we then focus on the disparities within the endogenous cannabinoid system, as well as those observed with exogenously administered cannabinoids. We start with how the expression of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors is regulated throughout development. This is followed by a discussion of differential vulnerability to the pathological sequelae stemming from cannabinoid exposure during adolescence. Next we talk about sex differences in the interactions between cannabinoids and other drugs of abuse, followed by the organizational and activational roles of gonadal steroids in establishing and maintaining the sex dependence in the biological actions of cannabinoids. Finally, we discuss ways to utilize this knowledge to strategically target critical developmental windows of vulnerability/susceptibility and thereby implement more effective therapeutic interventions for afflictions that may be more prevalent in one sex vs. the other.

  16. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  17. Subchronic nicotine exposure in adolescence induces long-term effects on hippocampal and striatal cannabinoid-CB1 and mu-opioid receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Granstrem, Oleg; Moreno, Enrique; Llorente, Ricardo; Adriani, Walter; Laviola, Giovanni; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2007-02-14

    There is evidence for the existence of functional interactions between nicotine and cannabinoids and opioid compounds in adult experimental animals. However, there is scarce information about these relationships in young animals. In the present study we evaluated short and long-term effects of a subchronic nicotine treatment [0.4 mg/kg daily i.p. injections from postnatal day (PND) 34 to PND 43], upon hippocampal and striatal cannabinoid-CB(1) and mu-opioid receptors in Wistar rats of both genders. Rats were sacrificed 2 h after the last nicotine injection (short-term effects, PND 43) or one month later (long-term effects, PND 75). Hippocampal and striatal cannabinoid CB(1) and mu-opioid receptors were quantified by Western blotting. The subchronic nicotine treatment induced a region-dependent long-lasting effect in cannabinoid CB(1) receptor: a significant increase in hippocampal cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and a significant decrease in striatal cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, with these effects being similar in males and females. With respect to mu-opioid receptors, subchronic nicotine induced a significant down-regulation in hippocampal and striatal mu-opioid receptors in the long-term, and within the striatum the effects were more marked in adult males than in females. The present results indicate that juvenile nicotine taking may have implications for the endocannabinoid and endogenous opioid function and for the behaviors served by those systems, this includes possible modification of the response of adults to different psychotropic drugs, i.e. cannabis and morphine/heroin when taken later in life.

  18. Acute Intoxication Caused by a Synthetic Cannabinoid in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Travis S.; Burroughs, Zachary; Thompson, A. Jill; Tecklenburg, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug use continues to be a common problem among pediatric patients. Daily marijuana use among high school seniors is currently at a 30-year high. Marijuana use in adults has rarely been associated with cardiovascular adverse effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids, such as the incense “K2” or “Spice,” has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. Overdose and chronic use of these substances may cause adverse effects including altered mental status, tachycardia, and loss of consciousness. Overdoses in adult patients have been described; however, limited reports in the pediatric population have been documented. A recent case series describes myocardial infarctions in pediatric patients, associated with synthetic cannabinoid use. In this report, we describe two adolescent patients admitted after they inhaled “K2,” resulting in loss of consciousness, tachycardia, and diffuse pain. PMID:23118671

  19. Sex-Specific Alterations in Hippocampal Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Expression Following Adolescent Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lindsay; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren; Izenwasser, Sari; Frank, Ashley; Wade, Dean; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use by adolescents has been on the rise since the early 1990’s. With recent legalization and decriminalization acts passed, cannabinoid exposure in adolescents will undoubtedly increase. Human studies are limited in their ability to examine underlying changes in brain biochemistry making rodent models valuable. Studies in adult and adolescent animals show region and sex specific downregulation of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor following chronic cannabinoid treatment. However, although sex-dependent changes in behavior have been observed during the drug abstinence period following adolescent cannabinoid exposure, little is known about CB1 receptor expression during this critical time. In order to characterize CB1 receptor expression following chronic adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure, we used [3H]CP55,940 binding to assess CB1 receptor expression in the dentate gyrus and areas CA1, CA2, and CA3 of the hippocampus in both male and female adolescent rats at both 24 hours and 2 weeks post chronic THC treatment. Consistent with other reported findings, we found downregulation of the CB1 receptor in the hippocampal formation at 24 hours post treatment. While this downregulation persisted in both sexes following two weeks of abstinence in the CA2 region, in females, this downregulation also persisted in areas CA1 and CA3. Expression in the dentate gyrus returned to the normal range by two weeks. These data suggest that selective regions of the hippocampus show persistent reductions in CB1 receptor expression and that these reductions are more widespread in female compared to male adolescents. PMID:26118897

  20. Adolescent brain maturation, the endogenous cannabinoid system and the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2010-11-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychotic disorders later in life. However, the neurobiological processes underlying this relationship are unknown. This review reports the results of a literature search comprising various neurobiological disciplines, ultimately converging into a model that might explain the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia. The article briefly reviews current insights into brain development during adolescence. In particular, the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in experience-dependent maturation of specific cortical circuitries is examined. The review also covers recent hypotheses regarding disturbances in strengthening and pruning of synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex, and the link with latent psychotic disorders. In the present model, cannabis-induced schizophrenia is considered to be a distortion of normal late postnatal brain maturation. Distortion of glutamatergic transmission during critical periods may disturb prefrontal neurocircuitry in specific brain areas. Our model postulates that adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive substance in cannabis, transiently disturbs physiological control of the endogenous cannabinoid system over glutamate and GABA release. As a result, THC may adversely affect adolescent experience-dependent maturation of neural circuitries within prefrontal cortical areas. Depending on dose, exact time window and duration of exposure, this may ultimately lead to the development of psychosis or schizophrenia. The proposed model provides testable hypotheses which can be addressed in future studies, including animal experiments, reanalysis of existing epidemiological data, and prospective epidemiological studies in which the role of the dose-time-effect relationship should be central.

  1. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  3. Stress-induced sensitization of cortical adrenergic receptors following a history of cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, B.A.S.; Szot, P.; Sikkema, C.; Cathel, A. M.; Kirby, L.G.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, increases extracellular norepinephrine levels in the rat frontal cortex under basal conditions, likely via desensitization of inhibitory α2-adrenergic receptors located on norepinephrine terminals. Here, the effect of WIN 55,212-2 on stress-induced norepinephrine release was assessed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis. Systemic administration of WIN 55,212-2 thirty minutes prior to stressor exposure prevented stress-induced cortical norepinephrine release induced by a single exposure to swim when compared to vehicle. To further probe cortical cannabinoid-adrenergic interactions, postsynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated responses were assessed in mPFC pyramidal neurons using electrophysiological analysis in an in vitro cortical slice preparation. We confirm prior studies showing that clonidine increases cortical pyramidal cell excitability and that this was unaffected by exposure to acute stress. WIN 55,212-2, via bath application, blocked postsynaptic α2-AR mediated responses in cortical neurons irrespective of exposure to stress. Interestingly, stress exposure prevented the desensitization of α2-AR mediated responses produced by a history of cannabinoid exposure. Together, these data indicate the stress-dependent nature of cannabinoid interactions via both pre- and postsynaptic ARs. In summary, microdialysis data indicate that cannabinoids restrain stress-induced cortical NE efflux. Electrophysiology data indicate that cannabinoids also restrain cortical cell excitability under basal conditions; however, stress interferes with these CB1-α2 AR interactions, potentially contributing to over-activation of pyramidal neurons in mPFC. Overall, cannabinoids are protective of the NE system and cortical excitability but stress can derail this protective effect, potentially contributing to stress-related psychopathology. These data add to the

  4. Long-term consequences of URB597 administration during adolescence on cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in brain areas.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva María; Rubino, Tiziana; Adriani, Walter; Viveros, María-Paz; Parolaro, Daniela; Laviola, Giovanni

    2009-02-27

    Despite the alarming increment in the use and abuse of cannabis preparations among young people, little is known about possible long-term consequences of targeting the endocannabinoid system during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Therefore, we aimed to analyze possible long-lasting neurobiological consequences of enhancing endocannabinoid signalling during adolescence, by means of blocking anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis. Adolescent Wistar male rats were administered an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis, i.e. URB597 (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg/day from postnatal days 38 to 43). The expression of brain cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) was then analyzed by [(3)H]CP-55,940 auto-radiographic binding at adulthood. Repeated URB597 administration during adolescence persistently modified CB1R binding in a region-dependent manner. A long-lasting decrease of CB1R binding levels was found in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and hippocampus, while an opposite increment was observed in the locus coeruleus. Present results provide evidence for long-lasting effects of adolescent URB597 administration. Activation of endocannabinoid transmission during the still plastic phase of adolescence may have implications for the maturational end-point of the endocannabinoid system itself, which could lead to permanent alterations in neuronal brain circuits and behavioural responses. Insights into the developmental trajectories of this neuromodulatory system may help us to better understand and prevent outcomes of neonatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.

  5. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  6. What Can Rats Tell Us about Adolescent Cannabis Exposure? Insights from Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Renard, Justine; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse among adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for brain development, during which time various neurotransmitter systems such as the glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems undergo extensive reorganization to support the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). ▵-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, acts as a partial agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1Rs are abundant in the CNS and are central components of the neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence. Thus, overactivation of CB1Rs by cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has the ability to dramatically alter brain maturation, leading to persistent and enduring changes in adult cerebral function. Increasing preclinical evidence lends support to clinical evidence suggesting that chronic adolescent marijuana exposure may be associated with a higher risk for neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. In this review, we present a broad overview of current neurobiological evidence regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on adult neuropsychiatric-like disorders. PMID:27254841

  7. Cannabinoids in oral fluid following passive exposure to marijuana smoke.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Coulter, Cynthia; Uges, Donald; Tuyay, James; van der Linde, Susanne; van Leeuwen, Arthur; Garnier, Margaux; Orbita, Jonathan

    2011-10-10

    The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) as well as cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) were measured in oral fluid following realistic exposure to marijuana in a Dutch coffee-shop. Ten healthy subjects, who were not marijuana smokers, volunteered to spend 3h in two different coffee shops in Groningen, The Netherlands. Subjects gave two oral fluid specimens at each time point: before entering the store, after 20 min, 40 min, 1h, 2h, and 3h of exposure. The specimens were collected outside the shop. Volunteers left the shop completely after 3h and also provided specimens approximately 12-22 h after beginning the exposure. The oral fluid specimens were subjected to immunoassay screening; confirmation for THC, cannabinol and cannabidiol using GC/MS; and THC-COOH using two-dimensional GC-GC/MS. THC was detectable in all oral fluid specimens taken 3h after exposure to smoke from recreationally used marijuana. In 50% of the volunteers, the concentration at the 3h time-point exceeded 4 ng/mL of THC, which is the current recommended cut-off concentration for immunoassay screening; the concentration of THC in 70% of the oral fluid specimens exceeded 2 ng/mL, currently proposed as the confirmatory cut-off concentration. THC-COOH was not detected in any specimens from passively exposed individuals. Therefore it is recommended that in order to avoid false positive oral fluid results assigned to marijuana use, by analyzing for only THC, the metabolite THC-COOH should also be monitored. PMID:21763088

  8. Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Parolaro, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period for brain development and the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuronal refinement during this period. Cannabis is the most consumed drug among adolescent people and its heavy use may affect maturational refinement by disrupting the regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. In animals, adolescent cannabinoid exposure has been reported to cause long-term impairment in specific components of learning and memory and to differentially affect emotional reactivity with milder effects on anxiety behaviour and more pronounced effects on depression-like behaviour. Moreover, adolescent exposure to cannabinoids might represent a risk factor for developing psychotic-like symptoms at adulthood. Also epidemiological studies suggest that heavy adolescent cannabis use may increase the risk of cognitive abnormalities, psychotic illness, mood disorders and other illicit substance use later in life. In conclusion, the available data point to the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use in adolescence could increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders, especially in people who already have a vulnerability to develop a psychiatric syndrome. Only few papers have investigated the neurobiological substrates of this vulnerability, thus further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

  9. Lasting impacts of prenatal cannabis exposure and the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Jew, Christopher P; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2011-07-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance among pregnant women. Human epidemiological and animal studies have found that prenatal cannabis exposure influences brain development and can have long-lasting impacts on cognitive functions. Exploration of the therapeutic potential of cannabis-based medicines and synthetic cannabinoid compounds has given us much insight into the physiological roles of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and their receptors. In this article, we examine human longitudinal cohort studies that document the long-term influence of prenatal exposure to cannabis, followed by an overview of the molecular composition of the endocannabinoid system and the temporal and spatial changes in their expression during brain development. How endocannabinoid signaling modulates fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, neurogenesis, migration and axonal pathfinding are also summarized.

  10. The role of the cannabinoid receptor in adolescents' processing of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Anais; Becker, Susanne; Heinrich, Angela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Bromberg, Uli; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Frouin, Vincent; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Ittermann, Bernd; Gowland, Penny; Paus, Tomáš; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora; Whelan, Rob; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The processing of emotional faces is an important prerequisite for adequate social interactions in daily life, and might thus specifically be altered in adolescence, a period marked by significant changes in social emotional processing. Previous research has shown that the cannabinoid receptor CB1R is associated with longer gaze duration and increased brain responses in the striatum to happy faces in adults, yet, for adolescents, it is not clear whether an association between CBR1 and face processing exists. In the present study we investigated genetic effects of the two CB1R polymorphisms, rs1049353 and rs806377, on the processing of emotional faces in healthy adolescents. They participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Faces Task, watching blocks of video clips with angry and neutral facial expressions, and completed a Morphed Faces Task in the laboratory where they looked at different facial expressions that switched from anger to fear or sadness or from happiness to fear or sadness, and labelled them according to these four emotional expressions. A-allele versus GG-carriers in rs1049353 displayed earlier recognition of facial expressions changing from anger to sadness or fear, but not for expressions changing from happiness to sadness or fear, and higher brain responses to angry, but not neutral, faces in the amygdala and insula. For rs806377 no significant effects emerged. This suggests that rs1049353 is involved in the processing of negative facial expressions with relation to anger in adolescence. These findings add to our understanding of social emotion-related mechanisms in this life period. PMID:26527537

  11. The role of the cannabinoid receptor in adolescents' processing of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Anais; Becker, Susanne; Heinrich, Angela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Bromberg, Uli; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Frouin, Vincent; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Ittermann, Bernd; Gowland, Penny; Paus, Tomáš; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora; Whelan, Rob; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The processing of emotional faces is an important prerequisite for adequate social interactions in daily life, and might thus specifically be altered in adolescence, a period marked by significant changes in social emotional processing. Previous research has shown that the cannabinoid receptor CB1R is associated with longer gaze duration and increased brain responses in the striatum to happy faces in adults, yet, for adolescents, it is not clear whether an association between CBR1 and face processing exists. In the present study we investigated genetic effects of the two CB1R polymorphisms, rs1049353 and rs806377, on the processing of emotional faces in healthy adolescents. They participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Faces Task, watching blocks of video clips with angry and neutral facial expressions, and completed a Morphed Faces Task in the laboratory where they looked at different facial expressions that switched from anger to fear or sadness or from happiness to fear or sadness, and labelled them according to these four emotional expressions. A-allele versus GG-carriers in rs1049353 displayed earlier recognition of facial expressions changing from anger to sadness or fear, but not for expressions changing from happiness to sadness or fear, and higher brain responses to angry, but not neutral, faces in the amygdala and insula. For rs806377 no significant effects emerged. This suggests that rs1049353 is involved in the processing of negative facial expressions with relation to anger in adolescence. These findings add to our understanding of social emotion-related mechanisms in this life period.

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Immunological Alterations Following Prenatal Exposure to Marijuana Cannabinoids and its Long Term Consequences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Sido, Jessica M; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2015-06-01

    Use of marijuana during pregnancy is fairly commonplace and can be expected increase in frequency as more states legalize its recreational use. The cannabinoids present in marijuana have been shown to be immunosuppressive, yet the effect of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids on the immune system of the developing fetus, its long term consequences during adult stage of life, and transgenerational effects have not been well characterized. Confounding factors such as co-existing drug use make the impact of cannabis use on progeny inherently difficult to study in a human population. Data from various animal models suggests that in utero exposure to cannabinoids results in profound T cell dysfunction and a greatly reduced immune response to viral antigens. Furthermore, evidence from animal studies indicates that the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids can be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as altered microRNA, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles. Such studies support the hypothesis that that parental or prenatal exposure to cannabis can trigger epigenetic changes that could have significant immunological consequences for offspring as well as long term transgenerational effects.

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Immunological Alterations Following Prenatal Exposure to Marijuana Cannabinoids and its Long Term Consequences in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Sido, Jessica M.; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of marijuana during pregnancy is fairly commonplace and can be expected increase in frequency as more states legalize its recreational use. The cannabinoids present in marijuana have been shown to be immunosuppressive, yet the effect of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids on the immune system of the developing fetus, its long term consequences during adult stage of life, and transgenerational effects have not been well characterized. Confounding factors such as coexisting drug use make the impact of cannabis use on progeny inherently difficult to study in a human population. Data from various animal models suggests that in utero exposure to cannabinoids results in profound T cell dysfunction and a greatly reduced immune response to viral antigens. Furthermore, evidence from animal studies indicates that the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids can be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as altered microRNA, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles. Such studies support the hypothesis that that parental or prenatal exposure to cannabis can trigger epigenetic changes that could have significant immunological consequences for offspring as well as long term transgenerational effects. PMID:25618446

  14. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  15. A preliminary evaluation of synthetic cannabinoid use among adolescent cannabis users: Characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC), particularly use among adolescent substance users who may be at higher risk. The present exploratory study seeks to describe SC use and subjective effects among cannabis-using adolescents as well as compare the characteristics of cannabis users who do and do not use SC. Exploratory analyses evaluated cannabis treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Participants enrolled in a randomized, controlled intervention for cannabis-using high school students aged 14-19 (N=252) completed questionnaires regarding their use of SC and other substances. Those who used SC in the past 60days reported subjective effects of SC, consequences, and SC use disorder symptoms. Baseline characteristics, alcohol and other drug use, and treatment outcomes of SC users were compared to participants who never tried SC. Within this sample 29% had tried SC, and 6% used SC recently. Although most reported use at a relatively low rate, 43% of recent SC users reported SC use-disorder symptoms. Positive and negative subjective effects of SC were endorsed, with positive subjective effects reported more often. SC use was associated with more cannabis use, but not more alcohol or other (non-SC and non-cannabis) drug use. SC users did not differ from non-users on cannabis treatment outcomes. This exploratory study described SC use, and compared characteristics and treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Negative subjective effects of SC were reported as occurring less often, but SC use was associated with use disorder psychopathology. SC use was associated with more problematic cannabis use at baseline, but was not associated with use of other substances or differences in treatment outcome.

  16. The role of the placenta in variability of fetal exposure to cocaine and cannabinoids: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, R; Klein, J; Woodland, C; Karaskov, T; Koren, G

    2001-11-01

    There is wide variability in the reported adverse fetal effects of cocaine and cannabinoids. The causes of this variability are largely unknown. We hypothesized that variability in placental handling of drugs affect fetal exposure. We used twin pregnancies as a paradigm to address the role of the placenta in this variability. We analyzed hair or meconium samples taken from dizygotic and monozygotic twins exposed in utero to illicit drugs. Out of 12 pairs, 5 had negative levels in both twins, and seven pairs of twins had chemical evidence of fetal exposure to cocaine (n = 5) or cannabinoids (n = 2). The one known monozygotic pair of twins had almost identical levels of cocaine. In contrast, the six dizygotic pairs had large disparities in either cocaine or cannabinoid concentrations. In three of these six dizygotic pairs, levels of cocaine (n = 2) or canabinoids (n = 1) were undetectable in one twin while positive in the other. Given that twins are theoretically exposed to similar maternal drug levels, our findings suggest that the placenta may have a major role in modulating the amounts of drug reaching the fetus.

  17. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347

  18. Chronic cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212-2) exposure alters hippocampal dentate gyrus spine density in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Candelaria-Cook, Felicha Teresa; Hamilton, Derek Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chronic abuse of drugs can result in vast negative repercussions on behavioral and biological systems by altering underlying neurocircuitry. Long-term cannabinoid administration in rats leads to detrimental cellular and dendritic morphology changes. Previous studies have found that chronic treatment with delta-9-THC selectively decreases dendritic morphology and spine density in the dentate gyrus of young rats (Rubino et al., 2009), however, whether these changes are specific to a particular developmental age is not known. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic exposure (7 or 21 days) to WIN 55, 212-2 (i.p., 3.7 mg/kg), a potent cannabinoid agonist, on dendritic morphology of dentate gyrus neurons in adult rats. Upon completion of treatment brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. No significant effects of WIN 55, 212-2 exposure were observed for dendritic branching or length. Spine density was quantified in the inner (proximal), middle, and outer (distal) thirds of the dendritic fields selected to approximate the spatial loci of afferents comprising the associational-commissural pathway, medial perforant path, and lateral perforant path, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls there was a significant reduction in spine density (~1 spine/10μm) in the inner and middle dendritic segments. The spine density reduction was significant in inner segments following 7 days of treatment. These results suggest that chronic cannabinoid treatment specifically alters spine density in the dendritic targets of the associational-commissural afferents and medial perforant path projections, but not lateral perforant path. The resulting loss of dendritic spine density may be an important factor underlying cannabinoid induced memory impairments. PMID:24183783

  19. Adolescent cannabis exposure interacts with mutant DISC1 to produce impaired adult emotional memory

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, Michael D.; Saito, Atsushi; Abazyan, Bagrat; Taniguchi, Yu; Huang, Ching-Hsun; Ito, Koki; Zhu, Xiaolei; Segal, Hadar; Jaaro-Peled, Hanna; Sawa, Akira; Mackie, Ken; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is an increasingly popular and controversial drug used worldwide. Cannabis use often begins during adolescence, a highly susceptible period for environmental stimuli to alter functional and structural organization of the developing brain. Given that adolescence is a critical time for the emergence of mental illnesses before full-onset in early adulthood, it is particularly important to investigate how genetic insults and adolescent cannabis exposure interact to affect brain development and function. Here we show for the first time that a perturbation in Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) exacerbates the response to adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, consistent with the concept that gene-environment interactions may contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. We found that chronic adolescent treatment with Δ9-THC exacerbates deficits in fear-associated memory in adult mice that express a putative dominant-negative mutant of DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Synaptic expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, critical brain regions for fear-associated memory, by either expression of DN-DISC1 or adolescent Δ9-THC treatment. Notably, elevation of c-Fos expression evoked by context-dependent fear memory retrieval is impaired in these brain regions in DN-DISC1 mice. We also found a synergistic reduction of c-Fos expression induced by cue-dependent fear memory retrieval in DN-DISC1 with adolescent Δ9-THC exposure. These results suggest that alteration of CB1R-mediated signaling in DN-DISC1 mice may underlie susceptibility to detrimental effects of adolescent cannabis exposure on adult behaviors. PMID:26093170

  20. Adolescent cannabis exposure interacts with mutant DISC1 to produce impaired adult emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, Michael D; Saito, Atsushi; Abazyan, Bagrat; Taniguchi, Yu; Huang, Ching-Hsun; Ito, Koki; Zhu, Xiaolei; Segal, Hadar; Jaaro-Peled, Hanna; Sawa, Akira; Mackie, Ken; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is an increasingly popular and controversial drug used worldwide. Cannabis use often begins during adolescence, a highly susceptible period for environmental stimuli to alter functional and structural organization of the developing brain. Given that adolescence is a critical time for the emergence of mental illnesses before full-onset in early adulthood, it is particularly important to investigate how genetic insults and adolescent cannabis exposure interact to affect brain development and function. Here we show for the first time that a perturbation in disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) exacerbates the response to adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, consistent with the concept that gene-environment interaction may contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. We found that chronic adolescent treatment with Δ(9)-THC exacerbates deficits in fear-associated memory in adult mice that express a putative dominant-negative mutant of DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Synaptic expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, critical brain regions for fear-associated memory, by either expression of DN-DISC1 or adolescent Δ(9)-THC treatment. Notably, elevation of c-Fos expression evoked by context-dependent fear memory retrieval is impaired in these brain regions in DN-DISC1 mice. We also found a synergistic reduction of c-Fos expression induced by cue-dependent fear memory retrieval in DN-DISC1 with adolescent Δ(9)-THC exposure. These results suggest that alteration of CB1R-mediated signaling in DN-DISC1 mice may underlie susceptibility to detrimental effects of adolescent cannabis exposure on adult behaviors.

  1. Adolescent cannabis exposure interacts with mutant DISC1 to produce impaired adult emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, Michael D; Saito, Atsushi; Abazyan, Bagrat; Taniguchi, Yu; Huang, Ching-Hsun; Ito, Koki; Zhu, Xiaolei; Segal, Hadar; Jaaro-Peled, Hanna; Sawa, Akira; Mackie, Ken; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is an increasingly popular and controversial drug used worldwide. Cannabis use often begins during adolescence, a highly susceptible period for environmental stimuli to alter functional and structural organization of the developing brain. Given that adolescence is a critical time for the emergence of mental illnesses before full-onset in early adulthood, it is particularly important to investigate how genetic insults and adolescent cannabis exposure interact to affect brain development and function. Here we show for the first time that a perturbation in disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) exacerbates the response to adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, consistent with the concept that gene-environment interaction may contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. We found that chronic adolescent treatment with Δ(9)-THC exacerbates deficits in fear-associated memory in adult mice that express a putative dominant-negative mutant of DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Synaptic expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, critical brain regions for fear-associated memory, by either expression of DN-DISC1 or adolescent Δ(9)-THC treatment. Notably, elevation of c-Fos expression evoked by context-dependent fear memory retrieval is impaired in these brain regions in DN-DISC1 mice. We also found a synergistic reduction of c-Fos expression induced by cue-dependent fear memory retrieval in DN-DISC1 with adolescent Δ(9)-THC exposure. These results suggest that alteration of CB1R-mediated signaling in DN-DISC1 mice may underlie susceptibility to detrimental effects of adolescent cannabis exposure on adult behaviors. PMID:26093170

  2. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  3. Persistent inhibitory circuit defects and disrupted social behavior following in utero exogenous cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vargish, Geoffrey A.; Pelkey, Kenneth A.; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Collins, David; Fang, Calvin; McBain, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental transfer of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during pregnancy has the potential to interfere with endogenous cannabinoid regulation of fetal nervous system development in utero. Here we examined the effect of maternal cannabinoid intake on mouse hippocampal interneurons largely focusing on cholecystokinin containing interneurons (CCK-INTs), a prominent cannabinoid subtype 1 receptor (CB1R) expressing neuronal population throughout development. Maternal treatment with THC or the synthetic CB1R agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) produced a significant loss of CCK-INTs in offspring. Further, residual CCK-INTs in animals prenatally treated with WIN displayed decreased dendritic complexity. Consistent with these anatomical deficits, pups born to cannabinoid treated dams exhibited compromised CCK-INT mediated feedforward and feedback inhibition. Moreover, pups exposed to WIN in utero lacked constitutive CB1R mediated suppression of inhibition from residual CCK-INTs, and displayed altered social behavior. Our findings add to a growing list of potential cell/circuit underpinnings that may underlie cognitive impairments in offspring of mothers that abuse marijuana during pregnancy. PMID:26976041

  4. Genetic vs. pharmacological inactivation of COMT influences cannabinoid-induced expression of schizophrenia-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Clarke, Gerard; Walsh, Jeremy; Desbonnet, Lieve; Petit, Emilie; O'Leary, Claire; Tighe, Orna; Clarke, Niamh; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Dinan, Ted G; Cryan, John F; Waddington, John L

    2012-10-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of dopamine and disturbance in dopamine function is proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Clinical epidemiological studies have indicated cannabis use to confer a 2-fold increase in risk for subsequent onset of psychosis, with adolescent-onset use conveying even higher risk. There is evidence that a high activity COMT polymorphism moderates the effects of adolescent exposure to cannabis on risk for adult psychosis. In this paper we compared the effect of chronic adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid WIN 55212 on sensorimotor gating, behaviours related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, anxiety- and stress-related behaviours, as well as ex-vivo brain dopamine and serotonin levels, in COMT KO vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Additionally, we examined the effect of pretreatment with the COMT inhibitor tolcapone on acute effects of this cannabinoid on sensorimotor gating in C57BL/6 mice. COMT KO mice were shown to be more vulnerable than WT to the disruptive effects of adolescent cannabinoid treatment on prepulse inhibition (PPI). Acute pharmacological inhibition of COMT in C57BL/6 mice also modified acute cannabinoid effects on startle reactivity, as well as PPI, indicating that chronic and acute loss of COMT can produce dissociable effects on the behavioural effects of cannabinoids. COMT KO mice also demonstrated differential effects of adolescent cannabinoid administration on sociability and anxiety-related behaviour, both confirming and extending earlier reports of COMT×cannabinoid effects on the expression of schizophrenia-related endophenotypes. PMID:22074909

  5. Genetic vs. pharmacological inactivation of COMT influences cannabinoid-induced expression of schizophrenia-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Clarke, Gerard; Walsh, Jeremy; Desbonnet, Lieve; Petit, Emilie; O'Leary, Claire; Tighe, Orna; Clarke, Niamh; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Dinan, Ted G; Cryan, John F; Waddington, John L

    2012-10-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of dopamine and disturbance in dopamine function is proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Clinical epidemiological studies have indicated cannabis use to confer a 2-fold increase in risk for subsequent onset of psychosis, with adolescent-onset use conveying even higher risk. There is evidence that a high activity COMT polymorphism moderates the effects of adolescent exposure to cannabis on risk for adult psychosis. In this paper we compared the effect of chronic adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid WIN 55212 on sensorimotor gating, behaviours related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, anxiety- and stress-related behaviours, as well as ex-vivo brain dopamine and serotonin levels, in COMT KO vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Additionally, we examined the effect of pretreatment with the COMT inhibitor tolcapone on acute effects of this cannabinoid on sensorimotor gating in C57BL/6 mice. COMT KO mice were shown to be more vulnerable than WT to the disruptive effects of adolescent cannabinoid treatment on prepulse inhibition (PPI). Acute pharmacological inhibition of COMT in C57BL/6 mice also modified acute cannabinoid effects on startle reactivity, as well as PPI, indicating that chronic and acute loss of COMT can produce dissociable effects on the behavioural effects of cannabinoids. COMT KO mice also demonstrated differential effects of adolescent cannabinoid administration on sociability and anxiety-related behaviour, both confirming and extending earlier reports of COMT×cannabinoid effects on the expression of schizophrenia-related endophenotypes.

  6. In utero cannabinoid exposure alters breathing and the response to hypoxia in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Tree, Keda C; Scotto di Perretolo, Maud; Peyronnet, Julie; Cayetanot, Florence

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs at ages highly correlated with potential pregnancy. Endocannabinoid signalling regulates important stages of neuronal development. When cannabinoid receptors, which are widely distributed through the nervous system, are activated by exogenous cannabinoids, breathing in adult rats is depressed. Here, we show that, in newborn mice, endocannabinoids, through the activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 R), participate in the modulation of respiration and its control. Blocking CB1 Rs at birth suppressed the brake exerted by endocannabinoids on ventilation in basal and in hypoxic conditions. The number of apnoeas and their duration were also minimized by activation of CB1 Rs in normoxic and in hypoxic conditions. However, prenatal cannabis intoxication, caused by a daily injection of WIN55,212-2, in pregnant mice durably modified respiration of the offspring, as shown by hyperventilation in basal conditions, an altered chemoreflex in response to hypoxia, and longer apnoeas. When CB1 Rs were blocked in WIN55,212-2 treated newborns, persistent hyperventilation was still observed, which could partly be explained by a perturbation of the central respiratory network. In fact, in vitro medullary preparations from WIN55,212-2 treated pups, free of peripheral or of supramedullary structures, showed an altered fictive breathing frequency. In conclusion, the endocannabinoid pathway at birth seems to modulate breathing and protect the newborn against apnoeas. However, when exposed prenatally to an excess of cannabinoid, the breathing neuronal network in development seems to be modified, probably rendering the newborn more vulnerable in the face of an unstable environment. PMID:24717006

  7. Exposure to Violence in Adolescence and Precocious Role Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Petts, Richard J.; Maimon, David; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious public health concern that compromises adolescents by affecting their behavior and psychological well-being. The current study advances knowledge about the consequences of exposure to violence in adolescence by applying a life course perspective to evaluate the developmental implications of adolescents' exposure…

  8. Early maternal deprivation and neonatal single administration with a cannabinoid agonist induce long-term sex-dependent psychoimmunoendocrine effects in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Ricardo; Arranz, Lorena; Marco, Eva-María; Moreno, Enrique; Puerto, Marta; Guaza, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2007-07-01

    Maternal deprivation [24h on postnatal day 9] might represent an animal model of schizophrenia and behavioural and neurochemical alterations observed in adulthood may be mediated by hippocampal impairments induced by abnormally increased glucocorticoids due to neonatal stress. We aimed to provide new data for psychoimmunoendocrine characterization of this animal model by evaluating its effects in adolescent rats of both genders. In previous studies we found that cannabinoid compounds counteracted the enhanced impulsivity of maternally deprived animals and that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 showed neuroprotective properties in neonatal rats. So, we hypothesised that this compound could counteract at least some of the detrimental effects that we expected to find in maternally deprived animals. Accordingly, the drug was administered immediately after the maternal deprivation period. Maternally deprived males showed significantly decreased motor activity in the holeboard and the plus-maze. The cannabinoid agonist induced, exclusively in males, a significant anxiogenic-like effect, which was reversed by maternal deprivation. In the forced swimming test, both treatments independently induced depressive-like responses. Maternal deprivation reduced immunological function whereas the drug exerted tissue-dependent effects on the immune parameters analysed. Maternally deprived females showed reduced corticosterone levels whereas the cannabinoid agonist increased hormone concentration in all groups. In general, the results show detrimental effects of both treatments as well as intriguing interactions, notably in relation to emotional behaviour and certain immunological responses.

  9. Exposure to violence in adolescence and precocious role exits.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Dana L; Petts, Richard J; Maimon, David; Piquero, Alex R

    2009-03-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious public health concern that compromises adolescents by affecting their behavior and psychological well-being. The current study advances knowledge about the consequences of exposure to violence in adolescence by applying a life course perspective to evaluate the developmental implications of adolescents' exposure to violence. In particular, drawing on a sample of 11,949 school-aged adolescents in the U.S., we examine whether exposure to violence in adolescence is associated with precocious role exits that some adolescents experience. Exposure to violence is conceptualized as including both direct (i.e., experiencing physical victimization) and indirect exposure (i.e., witnessing others' victimization). Three types of direct exposure to violence are examined: street, intimate partner, and family victimization, as well as four types of indirect exposure including: street, peer, and school violence as well as exposure to family/friend suicide. Using three waves of longitudinal data from the Add Health Study, we find that exposure to violence is associated with greater risks of running away from home, dropping out of high school, having a child, attempting suicide, and coming into contact with the criminal justice system in later adolescence. In addition, risks depend upon the relational context in which the exposure to violence occurred, risks increase with greater exposure to violence, and risks are, for the most part, highest for those youth exposed to both indirect and direct violence in adolescence. PMID:19636744

  10. Prenatal exposure to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 alters migration of early-born glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Saez, Trinidad M M; Aronne, María P; Caltana, Laura; Brusco, Alicia H

    2014-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system, composed of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and synthesis and degradation enzymes, is present since early stages of brain development. During this period, the endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of neural progenitor proliferation and specification as well as the migration and differentiation of pyramidal neurons and interneurons. Marijuana consumption during pregnancy represents a serious risk in relation to the fetal brain development since Δ(9) -tetrahidrocannabinol, the main active compound of cannabis, can reach the fetus through placenta and hemato-encephalic barrier. Cohort studies performed on children and adolescents of mothers who consumed marijuana during pregnancy reported cognitive and comportamental abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 R during corticogenesis in radially and tangentially migrating post-mitotic neurons. We found that prenatal exposure to WIN impaired tangential and radial migration of post-mitotic neurons in the dorsal pallium. In addition, we described alterations of two transcription factors associated with proliferating and newly post-mitotic glutamatergic cells in the dorsal pallium, Tbr1 and Tbr2, and disruption in the number of Cajal-Retzius cells. The present results contribute to the knowledge of neurobiological substrates that determine neuro-comportamental changes that will persist through post-natal life.

  11. Targeted metabolomic approach for assessing human synthetic cannabinoid exposure and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Patton, Amy L; Seely, Kathryn A; Chimalakonda, Krishna C; Tran, Johnny P; Trass, Matthew; Miranda, Art; Fantegrossi, William E; Kennedy, Paul D; Dobrowolski, Paul; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; McCain, Keith R; James, Laura P; Endres, Gregory W; Moran, Jeffery H

    2013-10-01

    Designer synthetic cannabinoids like JWH-018 and AM2201 have unique clinical toxicity. Cytochrome-P450-mediated metabolism of each leads to the generation of pharmacologically active (ω)- and (ω-1)-monohydroxyl metabolites that retain high affinity for cannabinoid type-1 receptors, exhibit Δ(9)-THC-like effects in rodents, and are conjugated with glucuronic acid prior to excretion in human urine. Previous studies have not measured the contribution of the specific (ω-1)-monohydroxyl enantiomers in human metabolism and toxicity. This study uses a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy approach (LC-MS/MS) to quantify each specific enantiomer and other nonchiral, human metabolites of JWH-018 and AM2201 in human urine. The accuracy (average % RE = 18.6) and reproducibility (average CV = 15.8%) of the method resulted in low-level quantification (average LLQ = 0.99 ng/mL) of each metabolite. Comparisons with a previously validated nonchiral method showed strong correlation between the two approaches (average r(2) = 0.89). Pilot data from human urine samples demonstrate enantiospecific excretion patterns. The (S)-isomer of the JWH-018-(ω-1)-monohydroxyl metabolite was predominantly excreted (>87%) in human urine as the glucuronic acid conjugate, whereas the relative abundance of the corresponding AM2201-(ω-1)-metabolite was low (<5%) and did not demonstrate enantiospecificity (approximate 50:50 ratio of each enantiomer). The new chiral method provides a comprehensive, targeted metabolomic approach for studying the human metabolism of JWH-018 and AM2201. Preliminary evaluations of specific enantiomeric contributions support the use of this approach in future studies designed to understand the pharmacokinetic properties of JWH-018 and/or AM2201.

  12. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  13. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  14. Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Zheng, Yiwen

    2016-02-01

    One hypothesis suggests that tinnitus is a form of sensory epilepsy, arising partly from neuronal hyperactivity in auditory regions of the brain such as the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus. Although there is currently no effective drug treatment for tinnitus, anti-epileptic drugs are used in some cases as a potential treatment option. There is increasing evidence to suggest that cannabinoid drugs, i.e. cannabinoid receptor agonists, can also have anti-epileptic effects, at least in some cases and in some parts of the brain. It has been reported that cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), are expressed in the cochlear nucleus and that they are involved in the regulation of plasticity. This review explores the question of whether cannabinoid receptor agonists are likely to be pro- or anti-epileptic in the cochlear nucleus and therefore whether cannabinoids and Cannabis itself are likely to make tinnitus better or worse.

  15. Prenatal exposure to cannabinoids evokes long-lasting functional alterations by targeting CB1 receptors on developing cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    de Salas-Quiroga, Adán; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; García-Rincón, Daniel; Remmers, Floortje; Vega, David; Gómez-Cañas, María; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main target of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most prominent psychoactive compound of marijuana, plays a crucial regulatory role in brain development as evidenced by the neurodevelopmental consequences of its manipulation in animal models. Likewise, recreational cannabis use during pregnancy affects brain structure and function of the progeny. However, the precise neurobiological substrates underlying the consequences of prenatal THC exposure remain unknown. As CB1 signaling is known to modulate long-range corticofugal connectivity, we analyzed the impact of THC exposure on cortical projection neuron development. THC administration to pregnant mice in a restricted time window interfered with subcerebral projection neuron generation, thereby altering corticospinal connectivity, and produced long-lasting alterations in the fine motor performance of the adult offspring. Consequences of THC exposure were reminiscent of those elicited by CB1 receptor genetic ablation, and CB1-null mice were resistant to THC-induced alterations. The identity of embryonic THC neuronal targets was determined by a Cre-mediated, lineage-specific, CB1 expression-rescue strategy in a CB1-null background. Early and selective CB1 reexpression in dorsal telencephalic glutamatergic neurons but not forebrain GABAergic neurons rescued the deficits in corticospinal motor neuron development of CB1-null mice and restored susceptibility to THC-induced motor alterations. In addition, THC administration induced an increase in seizure susceptibility that was mediated by its interference with CB1-dependent regulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neuron development. These findings demonstrate that prenatal exposure to THC has long-lasting deleterious consequences in the adult offspring solely mediated by its ability to disrupt the neurodevelopmental role of CB1 signaling. PMID:26460022

  16. Prenatal exposure to cannabinoids evokes long-lasting functional alterations by targeting CB1 receptors on developing cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    de Salas-Quiroga, Adán; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; García-Rincón, Daniel; Remmers, Floortje; Vega, David; Gómez-Cañas, María; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2015-11-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most prominent psychoactive compound of marijuana, plays a crucial regulatory role in brain development as evidenced by the neurodevelopmental consequences of its manipulation in animal models. Likewise, recreational cannabis use during pregnancy affects brain structure and function of the progeny. However, the precise neurobiological substrates underlying the consequences of prenatal THC exposure remain unknown. As CB1 signaling is known to modulate long-range corticofugal connectivity, we analyzed the impact of THC exposure on cortical projection neuron development. THC administration to pregnant mice in a restricted time window interfered with subcerebral projection neuron generation, thereby altering corticospinal connectivity, and produced long-lasting alterations in the fine motor performance of the adult offspring. Consequences of THC exposure were reminiscent of those elicited by CB1 receptor genetic ablation, and CB1-null mice were resistant to THC-induced alterations. The identity of embryonic THC neuronal targets was determined by a Cre-mediated, lineage-specific, CB1 expression-rescue strategy in a CB1-null background. Early and selective CB1 reexpression in dorsal telencephalic glutamatergic neurons but not forebrain GABAergic neurons rescued the deficits in corticospinal motor neuron development of CB1-null mice and restored susceptibility to THC-induced motor alterations. In addition, THC administration induced an increase in seizure susceptibility that was mediated by its interference with CB1-dependent regulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neuron development. These findings demonstrate that prenatal exposure to THC has long-lasting deleterious consequences in the adult offspring solely mediated by its ability to disrupt the neurodevelopmental role of CB1 signaling.

  17. Effects of Adolescent Ethanol Exposure on Sleep in Adults Rats

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Wills, Derek N.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    Although adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure has been associated with long-lasting changes in brain function, little is known as to whether EtOH exposure during adolescence alters sleep and cortical arousal. This study examined protracted alterations in sleep in adult rats exposed to EtOH during adolescence. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to EtOH vapor for 12 hr/day for five weeks. Cortical electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained during 4-hr recording sessions after five weeks of withdrawal from EtOH. Adolescent EtOH exposure significantly reduced the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS in EtOH-exposed rats, compared to controls. Spectral analysis revealed that adolescent EtOH exposure significantly increased cortical peak frequencies during SWS in the 2-4 Hz, 4-6 Hz and 6-8 Hz bands. Taken together, our findings suggest that chronic EtOH exposure in adolescent rats reduces measures of SWS, an effect also seen as part of normal aging. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the consequences of EtOH exposure on the aging process are not known, the similarities between adolescent EtOH exposure and aging merits further investigation. PMID:18922666

  18. The impact of adolescent social isolation on dopamine D2 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the adult rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Megan L.; Mackie, Kenneth; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent experiences of social deprivation result in profound and enduring perturbations in adult behavior, including impaired sensorimotor gating. The behavioral deficits induced by adolescent social isolation in rats can be ameliorated by antipsychotic drugs blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or by chronic administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. The patterning and abundance of D2 receptors in the PFC evolves concurrently with CB1 receptors through the period of adolescence. This evidence suggests that mature expression and/or surface distribution of D2 and CB1 receptors may be influenced by the adolescent social environment. We tested this hypothesis using electron microscopic immunolabeling to compare the distribution of CB1 and D2 receptors in the PFC of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were isolated or socially reared throughout the adolescent transition period. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was assessed as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Social isolation reduced PPI and selectively decreased dendritic D2 immunogold labeling in the PFC. However, the decrease was only evident in dendrites that were not contacted by axon terminals containing CB1. There was no apparent change in the expression of CB1 or D2 receptors in presynaptic terminals. The D2 deficit therefore may be tempered by local CB1-mediated retrograde signaling. This suggests a biological mechanism whereby the adolescent social environment can persistently influence cortical dopaminergic activity and resultant behavior. PMID:23333674

  19. Long lasting consequences of cannabis exposure in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2008-04-16

    Despite the increasing use of cannabis among adolescents, there are little and often contradictory studies on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabis consumption in juveniles. Adolescence is a critical phase for cerebral development, where the endocannabinoid system plays an important role influencing the release and action of different neurotransmitters. Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. The literature here summarized by use of experimental animal models, puts forward that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle changes in the adult brain circuits ending in altered emotional and cognitive performance, enhanced vulnerability for the use of more harmful drugs of abuse in selected individuals, and may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Therefore, the potential problems arising in relation to marijuana consumption in adolescence suggest that this developmental phase is a vulnerable period for persistent adverse effects of cannabinoids.

  20. Juvenile cannabinoid treatment induces frontostriatal gliogenesis in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Bini, Valentina; Frau, Roberto; Devoto, Paola; Pardu, Alessandra; Fan, Yijun; Solbrig, Marylou V

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with a broad array of phenotypical consequences, including a higher risk for schizophrenia and other mental disturbances related to dopamine (DA) imbalances. The great variability of these sequelae likely depends on the key influence of diverse genetic vulnerability factors. Inbred rodent strains afford a highly informative tool to study the contribution of genetic determinants to the long-term effects of juvenile cannabinoid exposure. In this study, we analyzed the phenotypical impact of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 2mg/kg/day from postnatal day 35-48) in adolescent Lewis rats, an inbred strain exhibiting resistance to psychotomimetic effects of environmental manipulations. At the end of this treatment, WIN-injected animals displayed increased survival of new cells (mainly oligodendroglia precursors) in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC), two key terminal fields of DAergic pathways. To test whether these changes may be associated with enduring behavioral alterations, we examined the consequences of adolescent WIN treatment in adulthood (postnatal days 60-70), with respect to DA levels and metabolism as well as multiple behavioral paradigms. Rats injected with WIN exhibited increased turnover, but not levels, of striatal DA. In addition, cannabinoid-treated animals displayed increases in acoustic startle latency and novel-object exploration; however, WIN treatment failed to induce overt deficits of sensorimotor gating and social interaction. These results indicate that, in Lewis rats, juvenile cannabinoid exposure leads to alterations in frontostriatal gliogenesis, as well as select behavioral alterations time-locked to high DAergic metabolism, but not overt schizophrenia-related deficits.

  1. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  2. Biomarker evaluation of Greek adolescents' exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, C I; Tzatzarakis, M N; Plada, M; Tsatsakis, A M; Papadaki, A; Saris, W H; Moreno, L A; Kafatos, A G

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a significant threat to public health, and represents a danger for both the development and health status of children and adolescents. Taking the above into account, our aim was to quantify Greek adolescents' exposure to SHS using serum cotinine levels. During 2006, 341 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from high schools in Heraklion and agreed to participate as part of the European Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Blood samples were drawn from a random sample of 106 adolescents, while serum cotinine/nicotine concentrations were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean levels of serum cotinine and nicotine were calculated at 1.60 +/- 2.18 ng/mL and 4.48 +/- 4.00 ng/mL, respectively, while 97.7% of the non-smoker adolescents were found to have measureable levels of serum cotinine indicating exposure to SHS. The analysis revealed that their paternal (p = .001) and maternal smoking habits (p = .018) as also the existence of a younger brother or sister (p = .008) were the main modifiers of SHS exposure during adolescence. Conclusively, almost all of the measured Greek adolescents were exposed to SHS, even when their parents were non-smokers. This finding indicates the need for both community and school-based educational programmes as also the implementation of a comprehensive ban on smoking in public places.

  3. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  4. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  5. Adolescent nicotine exposure disrupts context conditioning in adulthood in rats.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Barnet, Robert C; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2010-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of smoking among adolescents, few studies have assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood. In particular, it remains unclear whether adolescent nicotine exposure has effects on hippocampus-dependent learning that persist into adulthood. The present experiment examined whether there were effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on context conditioning, a form of learning dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus, when tested during adulthood. Rats were exposed to nicotine during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 28-42) via osmotic minipump (0, 3.0 or 6.0mg/kg/day). Context conditioning occurred in early adulthood (PD 65-70). Animals were exposed to an experimental context and were given 10 unsignaled footshocks or no shock. Additional groups were included to test the effects of adolescent nicotine on delay conditioning, a form of learning that is not dependent upon the hippocampus. Conditioning was assessed using a lick suppression paradigm. For animals in the context conditioning groups, adolescent nicotine resulted in significantly less suppression of drinking in the presence of context cues compared with vehicle-pretreated animals. For animals in the delay conditioning groups, there was a trend for adolescent nicotine (3.0mg/kg/day) to suppress drinking compared to vehicle-pretreated animals. There were no differences in extinction of contextual fear or cued fear between rats previously exposed to vehicle or nicotine. The data indicate that adolescent nicotine administration impairs context conditioning when animals are trained and tested as adults. The present data suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may disrupt hippocampus-dependent learning when animals are tested during adulthood.

  6. Exposure of US Adolescents to Extremely Violent Movies

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Keilah A.; Chambers, Jennifer Gibson; Nassau, Daniel H.; Rakhra, Balvinder K.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. Methods We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. Results The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. Conclusions This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system. PMID:18676548

  7. Blood cannabinoids. II. Models for the prediction of time of marijuana exposure from plasma concentrations of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH)

    PubMed

    Huestis, M A; Henningfield, J E; Cone, E J

    1992-01-01

    Two mathematical models are described for the prediction of time of marijuana use from the analysis of a single plasma sample for cannabinoids. The models were derived from cannabinoid data obtained from a controlled clinical study of acute marijuana smoking. Model I was based on plasma delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations and Model II was based on the ratio of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) to THC in plasma. The two models were validated with cannabinoid data from nine published and unpublished clinical studies. The data included plasma samples obtained from infrequent and frequent marijuana smokers and after oral marijuana administration. Cannabinoid plasma concentrations had been determined by a variety of analytical methods. The accuracy of model prediction was evaluated by comparison of the predicted time of prior drug use to the actual time of exposure. Predictions of time of exposure were generally accurate but tended to overestimate time immediately after smoking and tended to underestimate later times. A second assessment of the validity of the models was made by determining if actual time of use was within the 95% confidence interval. Model I correctly predicted the time of exposure within the 95% confidence interval for 235 of 261 samples (90.0%), and Model II was correct in 232 of 260 samples (89.2%). These prediction models may be beneficial to forensic scientists in the interpretation of cannabinoid plasma levels.

  8. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  9. Neurobehavioral performance in adolescents is inversely associated with traffic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kicinski, Michal; Vermeir, Griet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Sioen, Isabelle; Bijnens, Esmée; Roels, Harry A; Baeyens, Willy; Viaene, Mineke K; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-02-01

    On the basis of animal research and epidemiological studies in children and elderly there is a growing concern that traffic exposure may affect the brain. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between traffic exposure and neurobehavioral performance in adolescents. We examined 606 adolescents. To model the exposure, we constructed a traffic exposure factor based on a biomarker of benzene (urinary trans,trans-muconic acid) and the amount of contact with traffic preceding the neurobehavioral examination (using distance-weighted traffic density and time spent in traffic). We used a Bayesian structural equation model to investigate the association between traffic exposure and three neurobehavioral domains: sustained attention, short-term memory, and manual motor speed. A one standard deviation increase in traffic exposure was associated with a 0.26 standard deviation decrease in sustained attention (95% credible interval: -0.02 to -0.51), adjusting for gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, level of education of the mother, socioeconomic status, time of the day, and day of the week. The associations between traffic exposure and the other neurobehavioral domains studied had the same direction but did not reach the level of statistical significance. The results remained consistent in the sensitivity analysis excluding smokers and passive smokers. The inverse association between sustained attention and traffic exposure was independent of the blood lead level. Our study in adolescents supports the recent findings in children and elderly suggesting that traffic exposure adversely affects the neurobehavioral function. PMID:25461422

  10. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  11. Neurobehavioral adaptations to methylphenidate: the issue of early adolescent exposure.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Ruocco, Lucia A; Canese, Rossella; Sadile, Adolfo G; Laviola, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to psychostimulants, including both abused and therapeutic drugs, can occur first during human adolescence. Animal modeling is useful not only to reproduce adolescent peculiarities but also to study neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulant consumption. Human adolescence (generally considered as the period between 9/12 and 18 years old) has been compared with the age window between postnatal days (pnd) 28/35 and 50 in rats and mice. These adolescent rodents display basal hyperlocomotion and higher rates of exploration together with a marked propensity for sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, peculiar responses to psychostimulants, including enhanced locomotor sensitization, no drug-induced stereotypy and reduced place conditioning have been described in adolescent rodents. During this age window, forebrain dopamine systems undergo profuse remodeling, thus providing a neuro-biological substrate to explain behavioral peculiarities observed during adolescence, as well as the reported vulnerabilities to several drugs. Further, methylphenidate (MPH, better known as Ritalin®), a psychostimulant extensively prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), raises concerns for its long-term safety. Using magnetic resonance techniques, MPH-induced acute effects appear to be different in adolescent rats compared to adult animals. Moreover, adolescent exposure to MPH seems to provoke persistent neurobehavioral consequences: long-term modulation of self-control abilities, decreased sensitivity to natural and drug reward, enhanced stress-induced emotionality, together with an enhanced cortical control over sub-cortical dopamine systems and an enduring up-regulation of Htr7 gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In summary, additional studies in animal models are necessary to better understand the long-term consequences of adolescent MPH, and to further investigate the safety of

  12. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  13. Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Pietr, Maciej; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Apart from their effects on mood and reward, cannabinoids exert beneficial actions such as neuroprotection and attenuation of inflammation. The immunosuppressive activity of cannabinoids has been well established. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously showed that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signalling pathways. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To characterize the transcriptional effects of CBD and THC, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with these compounds and performed comparative microarray analysis using the Illumina MouseRef-8 BeadChip platform. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify functional subsets of genes and networks regulated by CBD and/or THC. KEY RESULTS Overall, CBD altered the expression of many more genes; from the 1298 transcripts found to be differentially regulated by the treatments, 680 gene probe sets were up-regulated by CBD and 58 by THC, and 524 gene products were down-regulated by CBD and only 36 by THC. CBD-specific gene expression profile showed changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, normally occurring under nutrient limiting conditions or proteasome inhibition and involving the GCN2/eIF2α/p8/ATF4/CHOP-TRIB3 pathway. Furthermore, CBD-stimulated genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors known to be involved in the regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via the (EpRE/ARE)-Nrf2/ATF4 system and the Nrf2/Hmox1 axis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These observations indicated that CBD, but much less than THC, induced a cellular stress response in microglial cells and suggested that this effect could underlie its anti-inflammatory activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012

  14. Age, puberty, and exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-12-01

    This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing age in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological age and maturational age in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of age effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence.

  15. Changes in cannabinoid receptors, aquaporin 4 and vimentin expression after traumatic brain injury in adolescent male mice. Association with edema and neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence rises during adolescence because during this critical neurodevelopmental period some risky behaviors increase. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), blood brain barrier proteins (AQP4) and astrogliosis markers (vimentin) to neurological deficit and brain edema formation in a TBI weight drop model in adolescent male mice. These molecules were selected since they are known to change shortly after lesion. Here we extended their study in three different timepoints after TBI, including short (24h), early mid-term (72h) and late mid-term (two weeks). Our results showed that TBI induced an increase in brain edema up to 72 h after lesion that was directly associated with neurological deficit. Neurological deficit appeared 24 h after TBI and was completely recovered two weeks after trauma. CB1 receptor expression decreased after TBI and was negatively correlated with edema formation and behavioral impairments. CB2 receptor increased after injury and was associated with high neurological deficit whereas no correlation with edema was found. AQP4 increased after TBI and was positively correlated with edema and neurological impairments as occurred with vimentin expression in the same manner. The results suggest that CB1 and CB2 differ in the mechanisms to resolve TBI and also that some of their neuroprotective effects related to the control of reactive astrogliosis may be due to the regulation of AQP4 expression on the end-feet of astrocytes.

  16. Changes in Cannabinoid Receptors, Aquaporin 4 and Vimentin Expression after Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescent Male Mice. Association with Edema and Neurological Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence rises during adolescence because during this critical neurodevelopmental period some risky behaviors increase. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), blood brain barrier proteins (AQP4) and astrogliosis markers (vimentin) to neurological deficit and brain edema formation in a TBI weight drop model in adolescent male mice. These molecules were selected since they are known to change shortly after lesion. Here we extended their study in three different timepoints after TBI, including short (24h), early mid-term (72h) and late mid-term (two weeks). Our results showed that TBI induced an increase in brain edema up to 72 h after lesion that was directly associated with neurological deficit. Neurological deficit appeared 24 h after TBI and was completely recovered two weeks after trauma. CB1 receptor expression decreased after TBI and was negatively correlated with edema formation and behavioral impairments. CB2 receptor increased after injury and was associated with high neurological deficit whereas no correlation with edema was found. AQP4 increased after TBI and was positively correlated with edema and neurological impairments as occurred with vimentin expression in the same manner. The results suggest that CB1 and CB2 differ in the mechanisms to resolve TBI and also that some of their neuroprotective effects related to the control of reactive astrogliosis may be due to the regulation of AQP4 expression on the end-feet of astrocytes. PMID:26039099

  17. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  18. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  19. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  20. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  1. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  2. Cannabinoid modulation of chronic mild stress-induced selective enhancement of trace fear conditioning in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Reich, Christian G; Iskander, Anthony N; Weiss, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a chronic-mild-unpredictable stress (CMS) protocol. Immediately following the CMS, the animals were subjected to hippocampal-dependent (trace and contextual) and hippocampal-independent (delay) fear conditioning. CMS exposure enhanced trace freezing behavior compared to non-stress controls. This effect was not observed in contextual or delay conditioned animals. Given that the endocannabinoid system is negatively affected by CMS procedures, separate groups of stressed rats were administered the CB1 receptor agonist, ACEA (0.1 mg/kg), prior to trace fear conditioning or a memory-recall test. Regardless of administration time, ACEA significantly reduced freezing behavior in stressed animals. Furthermore, when administered during the first memory recall test, ACEA enhanced long-term extinction in both stress and non-stress groups. The results demonstrate that chronic unpredictable stress selectively enhances hippocampal-dependent episodic fear memories. Pathologies of the episodic memory and fear response may increase the susceptibility of developing PTSD. Reduction in fear responses via exogenous activation of the CB1 receptor suggests that a deficiency in the endocannabinoid system contributes to this pathology.

  3. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  4. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  5. Brain processes in discounting: consequences of adolescent methylphenidate exposure.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Walter; Zoratto, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Traits of inattention, impulsivity, and motor hyperactivity characterize children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whose inhibitory control is reduced. In animal models, crucial developmental phases or experimental transgenic conditions account for peculiarities, such as sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors, and reproduce the beneficial effects of psychostimulants. An "impulsive" behavioral profile appears to emerge more extremely in rats when forebrain dopamine (DA) systems undergo remodeling, as in adolescence, or with experimental manipulation tapping onto the dopamine transporter (DAT). Ritalin(®) (methylphenidate, MPH), a DAT-blocking drug, is prescribed for ADHD therapy but is also widely abused by human adolescents. Administration of MPH during rats' adolescence causes a long-term modulation of their self-control, in terms of reduced intolerance to delay and diminished proneness for risk when reward is uncertain. Exactly the opposite profile emerges when exogenous alteration of DAT levels is achieved via lentiviral transfection. Both adolescent MPH exposure and DAT-targeting transfection lead to enduring hyperfunction of dorsal striatum and hypofunction of ventral striatum. Together with upregulation of prefronto-cortical phospho-creatine, striatal upregulation of selected genes (like serotonin 7 receptor gene) suggests that enhanced inhibitory control is generated by adolescent MPH exposure. Operant tasks, which assess the balance between motivational drives and inhibitory self-control, are thus useful for investigating reward-discounting processes and their modulation by DAT-targeting tools. In summary, due to the complexity of human studies, preclinical investigations of rodent models are necessary to understand better both the neurobiology of ADHD-like symptoms' etiology and the long-term therapeutic safety of adolescent MPH exposure.

  6. Elucidating cannabinoid biology in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Krug, Randall G; Clark, Karl J

    2015-10-10

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9% of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model-focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation.

  7. Elucidating Cannabinoid Biology in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Clark, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9 % of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model—focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation. PMID:26192460

  8. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Respiratory Health among Adolescent Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Catherine L.; Al-Batanony, Manal; Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Bonner, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). In adults, exposure to OPs has been inconsistently associated with reduced lung function. OP exposure and lung function has not been assessed in adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess CPF exposure and lung function among Egyptian adolescents. We conducted a 10-month study of male adolescent pesticide applicators (n = 38) and non-applicators of similar age (n = 24). Urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCy), a CPF-specific metabolite, was analyzed in specimens collected throughout the study. Spirometry was performed twice after pesticide application: day 146, when TCPy levels were elevated and day 269, when TCPy levels were near baseline. Applicators had higher levels of TCPy (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 33,217.6; standard deviation (SD) = 49,179.3) than non-applicators (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 3290.8; SD = 3994.9). Compared with non-applicators, applicators had higher odds of reporting wheeze, odds ratio = 3.41 (95% CI: 0.70; 17.41). Cumulative urinary TCPy was inversely associated with spirometric measurements at day 146, but not at day 269. Although generally non-significant, results were consistent with an inverse association between exposure to CPF and lung function. PMID:25522051

  9. Chronic exposure to WIN55,212-2 affects more potently spatial learning and memory in adolescents than in adult rats via a negative action on dorsal hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abboussi, Oualid; Tazi, Abdelouahhab; Paizanis, Eleni; El Ganouni, Soumaya

    2014-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies show an increase in cannabis use among adolescents, especially in Morocco for being one of the major producers in the world. The neurobiological consequences of chronic cannabis use are still poorly understood. In addition, brain plasticity linked to ontogeny portrays adolescence as a period of vulnerability to the deleterious effects of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral neurogenic effects of chronic exposure to the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 during adolescence, by evaluating the emotional and cognitive performances, and the consequences on neurogenesis along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus in adult rats. WIN55,212 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 20 days to adolescent (27-30 PND) and adult Wistar rats (54-57 PND) at the dose of 1mg/kg. Following a 20 day washout period, emotional and cognitive functions were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the two-way active avoidance test. Twelve hours after, brains were removed and hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed using the doublecortin (DCX) as a marker for cell proliferation. Our results showed that chronic WIN55,212-2 treatment significantly increased thigmotaxis early in the training process whatever the age of treatment, induced spatial learning and memory deficits in adolescent but not adult rats in the Morris water maze test, while it had no significant effect in the active avoidance test during multitrial training in the shuttle box. In addition, the cognitive deficits assessed in adolescent rats were positively correlated to a decrease in the number of newly generated neurons in dorsal hippocampus. These data suggest that long term exposure to cannabinoids may affect more potently spatial learning and memory in adolescent compared to adult rats via a negative action on hippocampal plasticity.

  10. Fluoxetine exposure during adolescence increases preference for cocaine in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Riggs, Lace M.; Nieto, Steven J.; Wright, Katherine N.; Zamora, Norma N.; Cruz, Bryan; Zavala, Arturo R.; Robison, Alfred J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a high prevalence of antidepressant prescription rates within juvenile populations, yet little is known about the potential long-lasting consequences of such treatments, particularly on subsequent responses to drugs of abuse. To address this issue at the preclinical level, we examined whether adolescent exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in changes to the sensitivity of the rewarding properties of cocaine in adulthood. Separate groups of male c57bl/6 mice were exposed to FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days either during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 35–49) or adulthood (PD 65–79). Twenty-one days after FLX treatment, behavioral responsivity to cocaine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference was assessed. Our data shows that mice pretreated with FLX during adolescence, but not during adulthood, display an enhanced dose-dependent preference to the environment paired with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) when compared to age-matched saline pretreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that adolescent exposure to FLX increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of cocaine, later in life. PMID:26449406

  11. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  12. Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: a brief review of the preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior.

  13. Rat models of prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.

    PubMed

    Dinieri, Jennifer A; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the illicit drug most commonly used by two vulnerable populations relevant to neurodevelopment-pregnant women and teenagers. Human longitudinal studies have linked prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure with long-term behavioral abnormalities as well as increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Animal models provide a means of studying the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects. This chapter provides an overview of the animal models we have used to study the developmental impact of cannabis.

  14. Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Seaver, Laurie H

    2002-06-01

    A teratogen is any drug, chemical, infectious or physical agent, or maternal disease or altered metabolic state that causes a structural or functional disability by acting on the embryo or fetus. Teratogens are responsible for approximately 10% of all human birth defects. Education of physicians caring for children and adolescents in the basic principles of teratology, the spectrum of human teratogens, and the recognition of associated anomalies is essential, because many maternal exposures and resultant fetal defects are completely preventable.

  15. Effects of Pubertal Cannabinoid Administration on Attentional Set-Shifting and Dopaminergic Hyper-Responsivity in a Developmental Disruption Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Francisco S.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids in vulnerable individuals is proposed to be a risk factor for psychiatric conditions later in life, particularly schizophrenia. Evidence from studies in animals has indicated that a combination of repeated pubertal cannabinoid administration with either neonatal prefrontocortical lesion, isolation rearing, or chronic NMDA receptor antagonism administration induces enhanced schizophrenia-like behavioral disruptions. The effects of adolescent exposure to CB1 receptor agonists, however, have not been tested in a developmental disruption model of schizophrenia. Methods: This was tested in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model, in which repeated treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2mg/kg) was extended over 25 days throughout puberty (postnatal days 40–65) in control and MAM rats. The rats received 20 injections, which were delivered irregularly to mimic the human condition. Adult rats were tested for attentional set-shifting task and locomotor response to amphetamine, which was compared with in vivo recording from ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Results: MAM-treated rats showed impairment in the attentional set-shifting task, augmented locomotor response to amphetamine administration, and an increased number of spontaneously active DA neurons in the VTA. Interestingly, pubertal WIN treatment in normal animals induced similar changes at adulthood as those observed in MAM-treated rats, supporting the notion that adolescence exposure to cannabinoids may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia-like signs at adulthood. However, contrary to expectations, pubertal WIN administration did not exacerbate the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in MAM-treated rats beyond that observed in WIN-treated saline rats (Sal). Indeed, WIN treatment actually attenuated the locomotor response to amphetamine in MAM rats without impacting DA neuron activity states

  16. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents.

  17. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  18. Television and music video exposure and adolescent 'alcopop' use.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen; Mulder, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents is a cause for concern. Around 1995 alcopops (sweetened alcoholic drinks) entered the scene and caused even more concern. Many fear that the sweet taste makes is easier to start drinking for those not yet used to drinking alcohol and the marketing appears aimed at adolescents. Because alcohol use has been linked to television viewing in general and music video viewing in particular this article examined whether a relationship existed between television and music video exposure and the consumption of alcopops. Data were collected with a questionnaire focused on television exposure and alcohol behavior. Respondents were a random sample of 2,546 first- and fourth year schoolchildren of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of Belgium (60% of the Belgian population). Self reported general TV viewing, music video exposure and drinking of alcopops at home and/or while going out were measured. 68.4% of the respondents watched music videos at least several times a week. The odds of being an alcopop drinker at home increased by 196% for those, who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 1.961). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 17% more likely to be drinkers of altopops at home (OR = 1.169). The odds of being an alcopop drinker, when going out increased by 239% for those who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 2.394). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 19% more likely to be drinkers of alcopops when going out (OR = 1.186). These findings suggest that there is an association between music video exposure and use of alcopops not explained by overall exposure to television. This relationship merits further attention as it is a better predictor of alcopop use, than the control variables and overall TV viewing.

  19. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Eade, Amber M; Sheehe, Paul R; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E; Youngentob, Lisa M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1) augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2) perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers) experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators) that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37) or adulthood (P90). The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent) show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult females. We found no

  20. Prolonged Exposure versus Dynamic Therapy for Adolescent PTSD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Foa, Edna B.; Shafran, Naama; Aderka, Idan M.; Powers, Mark B.; Rachamim, Lilach; Rosenbach, Lea; Yadin, Elna; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy and maintenance of developmentally adapted prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents (PE-A) compared with active control time-limited dynamic therapy (TLDP-A) for decreasing posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in adolescent victims of single-event traumas. Method: Thirty-eight adolescents (12 to 18 years old)…

  1. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. I. Plasma cannabinoid and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations and clinical chemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Paule, M G; Ali, S F; Scallet, A C; Bailey, J R

    1991-08-01

    This report is the first in a series about a large multidisciplinary study designed to determine whether chronic marijuana (MJ) smoke exposure results in residual behavioral and/or neuropathological alterations in the rhesus monkey. Prior to the initiation of a year of chronic MJ smoke exposure, 64 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys were trained for 1 year to perform five operant behavioral tasks and then divided, according to their performance in these tasks, into four exposure groups (n = 15-16/group): (1) a high dose (HI) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one standard MJ cigarette; (2) a low dose (LO) group, exposed on weekend days only to the smoke of a standard MJ cigarette; (3) an extracted MJ cigarette (EX) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one ethanol-extracted MJ cigarette; and (4) a sham group (SH), exposed 7 days/week to sham exposure conditions. Daily exposures for 1 year were accomplished using a mask that covered the subjects' nose and mouth. Average body weights (initially 3.7 +/- 0.5 kg, mean +/- SD) and rates of weight gain (approximately 0.1 kg/month) were the same for all groups throughout the entire experiment. During the first week of exposure, plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in the HI group were 59 +/- 7 (mean +/- SE) and 5.5 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, respectively, 45 min after MJ smoke administration and did not change significantly at similar times after exposure throughout the remainder of the year. Whole blood carboxyhemoglobin levels increased to approximately 13% 1 min after exposure to smoke in either the MJ or the EX groups. Comparison of blood chemistry and hematology values before, during, and after exposure indicated no differences for most parameters. During exposure, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were depressed in the HI group compared to in the SH group. During exposure, aspartate aminotransferase was elevated for both the HI and EX groups

  2. The contribution of personal and exposure characteristics to the adjustment of adolescents following war.

    PubMed

    Lavi, T; Green, O; Dekel, R

    2013-02-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires assessing personal characteristics of gender and early traumatic events, subjective exposure (i.e., measures of fear and shortage of basic necessities during the war), objective exposure (i.e., exposure to missile attacks, knowing someone who was wounded or killed) and media exposure. Fifteen percent of the adolescents reported moderate or severe post-traumatic symptoms. Girls and adolescents who experienced earlier traumatic events were at higher risk for distress. While the level of direct exposure contributed to greater distress, the contribution of subjective exposure was significantly stronger. The discussion deals with the unique contribution of both subjective and objective characteristics to post-war adjustment.

  3. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  4. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed. PMID:23253205

  5. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  6. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents.

  7. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents. PMID:24955668

  8. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…

  9. Adolescent ethanol exposure: does it produce long-lasting electrophysiological effects?

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Criado, José R

    2010-02-01

    This review discusses evidence for long-lasting neurophysiological changes that may occur following exposure to ethanol during adolescent development in animal models. Adolescence is the time that most individuals first experience ethanol exposure, and binge drinking is not uncommon during adolescence. If alcohol exposure is neurotoxic to the developing brain during adolescence, not unlike it is during fetal development, then understanding how ethanol affects the developing adolescent brain becomes a major public health issue. Adolescence is a critical time period when cognitive, emotional, and social maturation occurs and it is likely that ethanol exposure may affect these complex processes. To study the effects of ethanol on adolescent brain, animal models where the dose and time of exposure can be carefully controlled that closely mimic the human condition are needed. The studies reviewed provide evidence that demonstrates that relatively brief exposure to high levels of ethanol, via ethanol vapors, during a period corresponding to parts of adolescence in the rat is sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in functional brain activity. Disturbances in waking electroencephalogram and a reduction in the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP) have been demonstrated in adult rats that were exposed to ethanol vapor during adolescence. Adolescent ethanol exposure was also found to produce long-lasting reductions in the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS, a finding consistent with a premature aging of sleep. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, in a range of strains, and to link those findings to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure.

  10. An NMDA antagonist (LY 235959) attenuates abstinence-induced withdrawal of planarians following acute exposure to a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55212-2).

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Gomez, Teresa; Raffa, Robert B

    2007-03-01

    The mechanisms that facilitate the development and expression of cannabinoid physical dependence in humans and other mammals are poorly understood. The present experiments used a planarian model to provide evidence that pharmacological antagonism of NMDA receptors significantly attenuates the development of cannabinoid physical dependence. Abstinence-induced withdrawal from the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) was manifested as a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the rate of planarian spontaneous locomotor velocity (pLMV) when WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians were placed into drug-free water. No change in pLMV occurred when WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians were placed into water containing WIN 55212-2 (10 microM). WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians placed into water containing LY 235959 (1 or 10 microM) did not display withdrawal (no significant difference, P>0.05, in pLMV). In addition, withdrawal was not observed (no significant difference, P>0.05, in pLMV) in planarians that were co-exposed to a solution containing WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) and LY 235959 (10 microM). The present results reveal that NMDA receptor activation mediates the development of cannabinoid physical dependence and the expression of cannabinoid withdrawal in planarians.

  11. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  12. Patterns in sun exposure and sunscreen use among Puertorrican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, G; Ortiz, R; Suárez, R

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 245 adolescents visiting different San Juan area beaches was conducted to determine the frequency with which they used sunscreens lotions. Seventy-two percent of the teenager in the survey stated that they spent most weekends in the sun; however, only 68% always used sunscreen, while 31% never did. Prevalence factors found to be associated with the sunscreen use included male sex (odd ratio = 1.01 P < 0.01), having a friend who routinely used the lotion (odds ratio = 0.06, P < 0.05), and having parents who strongly recommend the sunscreen use, (odds ratio = o.g, P > 0.05). This survey substantiates poor compliance with sunscreen lotion use by teenagers despite increasing evidence of the dangers of sun exposure.

  13. Counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Our recent results suggest that cannabinoid exposure induces conditioned place preference (CPP) through facilitated induction of synaptic long-term depression at dopamine circuitry of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that chronic nicotine exposure also induces CPP, but facilitates the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation in the VTA. Coadministration of cannabinoid and nicotine leads to a blockade of facilitated long-term depression and long-term potentiation induction in these neurons and elimination of CPP. These findings point to counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior through opposite changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine circuitry of the VTA.

  14. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  15. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  16. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  17. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  18. Contributions of Music Video Exposure to Black Adolescents' Gender and Sexual Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Hansbrough, Edwina; Walker, Eboni

    2005-01-01

    Although music videos feature prominently in the media diets of many adolescents, little is known of their impact on viewers' conceptions of femininity and masculinity. Accordingly, this study examines the impact of both regular and experimental music video exposure on adolescent viewers' conceptions about gender. Across two testing sessions, 152…

  19. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  20. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  1. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  2. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  3. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.

  4. Beyond Exposure: A Person-Oriented Approach to Adolescent Media Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Sorsoli, C. Lynn; Kim, Janna L.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on adolescents' use of sexual media has been dominated by a variable-oriented perspective, focusing on incremental effects of media exposure on sexual behavior. The present investigation examines the ways in which adolescents select and organize their television viewing. This study used cluster analysis to identify, validate, and describe…

  5. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  6. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  7. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  8. The Contribution of Personal and Exposure Characteristics to the Adjustment of Adolescents Following War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavi, T.; Green, O.; Dekel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires…

  9. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  10. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  11. Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.

  12. Tone conditioning potentiates rather than overshadows context fear in adult animals following adolescent ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    We have shown that adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence exhibit a deficit in the retention of context fear, reminiscent of that normally seen in preweanling rats. However, preweanlings have been reported to exhibit a potentiation of context fear when they are conditioned in the presence of a tone. Therefore, this study examined context retention 24 hr after tone or context conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intragastrically to 4 g/kg ethanol or water every 48 hr (total of 11 exposures) during adolescence [Postnatal day (P) 28-48] or adulthood (P70-90). Approximately 3 weeks following exposure, retention of fear to the context in animals exposed to ethanol during adolescence was attenuated after context conditioning, but enhanced after tone conditioning. Comparable adult ethanol exposure groups showed typical overshadowing of context fear retention after tone conditioning. These data suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure may induce an immature pattern of cognitive processing.

  13. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. PMID:26519575

  14. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Jonathan A.; Sawaya, Ronald Andari; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2013-01-01

    Coinciding with the increasing rates of cannabis abuse has been the recognition of a new clinical condition known as Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is characterized by chronic cannabis use, cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting, and frequent hot bathing. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome occurs by an unknown mechanism. Despite the well-established anti-emetic properties of marijuana, there is increasing evidence of its paradoxical effects on the gastrointestinal tract and CNS. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabigerol are three cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant with opposing effects on the emesis response. The clinical course of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome may be divided into three phases: prodromal, hyperemetic, and recovery phase. The hyperemetic phase usually ceases within 48 hours, and treatment involves supportive therapy with fluid resuscitation and anti-emetic medications. Patients often demonstrate the learned behavior of frequent hot bathing, which produces temporary cessation of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The broad differential diagnosis of nausea and vomiting often leads to delay in the diagnosis of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome shares several similarities with CHS and the two conditions are often confused. Knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and natural course of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is limited and requires further investigation. PMID:22150623

  15. Adolescent vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure: findings from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Barron, Susan; White, Aaron; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Slawecki, Craig J; Ehlers, Cindy L; Levin, Edward D; Rezvani, Amir H; Spear, Linda P

    2005-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the proceedings from a symposium entitled "Is adolescence special? Possible age-related vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure," organized by Susan Barron and Linda Spear and held at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. This symposium, co-sponsored by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Study Group and the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, focused on our current knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of ethanol and/or nicotine exposure during adolescence with the emphasis on data from rodent models. The support from these two societies represents the understanding by these research groups that adolescence represents a unique developmental stage for the effects of chronic drug exposure and also marks an age in which many risky behaviors including alcohol consumption and smoking typically begin. The speakers included (1) Aaron White, who presented data on the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequent motor or cognitive response to an ethanol challenge in adulthood; (2) Richard Bell, who presented data suggesting that genetic differences could play a role in adolescent vulnerability to ethanol; (3) Craig Slawecki, who presented data looking at the effects of chronic exposure to alcohol or nicotine on neurophysiologic and behavioral end points; and (4) Ed Levin, who presented data on acute and long-term consequences of adolescent nicotine exposure. Finally, Linda Spear provided some summary points and recommendations regarding unresolved issues and future directions.

  16. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  17. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  18. Self-Reported Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Yoon, Susan; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent internalizing, externalizing and attention problems, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Method At 12 and 15 years of age, 371 adolescents (189 PCE, 182 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, participating in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth were assessed for behavioral adjustment using the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results Longitudinal mixed model analyses indicated that PCE was associated with greater externalizing behavioral problems at ages 12 and 15 and more attention problems at age 15, after controlling for confounders. PCE effects were not found for internalizing behaviors. PCE adolescents in adoptive/foster care reported more externalizing and attention problems than PCE adolescents in biological mother/relative care at age 12 or NCE adolescents at both ages. No PCE by gender interaction was found. Prenatal marijuana exposure, home environment, parental attachment and monitoring, family conflict, and violence exposure were also significant predictors of adolescent behavioral adjustment. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure is a risk factor for poor behavioral adjustment in adolescence. PMID:24581794

  19. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  20. Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Velasco, G; Sánchez, C; Guzmán, M

    2016-03-01

    In addition to the well-known palliative effects of cannabinoids on some cancer-associated symptoms, a large body of evidence shows that these molecules can decrease tumour growth in animal models of cancer. They do so by modulating key cell signalling pathways involved in the control of cancer cell proliferation and survival. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of cannabinoids as antitumour agents, focusing on recent discoveries about their molecular mechanisms of action, including resistance mechanisms and opportunities for their use in combination therapy. Those observations have already contributed to the foundation for the development of the first clinical studies that will analyze the safety and potential clinical benefit of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.

  1. Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, G.; Sánchez, C.; Guzmán, M.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the well-known palliative effects of cannabinoids on some cancer-associated symptoms, a large body of evidence shows that these molecules can decrease tumour growth in animal models of cancer. They do so by modulating key cell signalling pathways involved in the control of cancer cell proliferation and survival. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of cannabinoids as antitumour agents, focusing on recent discoveries about their molecular mechanisms of action, including resistance mechanisms and opportunities for their use in combination therapy. Those observations have already contributed to the foundation for the development of the first clinical studies that will analyze the safety and potential clinical benefit of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. PMID:27022311

  2. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception —awareness of surrounding objects and conditions symptoms of ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception symptoms of psychosis Synthetic cannabinoids can also cause ...

  3. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  4. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  5. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  6. Cannabinoids and haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Grędziński, Tomasz; Kisiel, Wioleta; Chabielska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Elements of the endocannabinoid system (cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, CBPT and CBED, endocannabinoids, enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids) are located on the structures involved in the process of hemostasis. An increasing level of endocannabinoids was also observed in some pathological conditions, which may occur in disorders of hemostasis. At the same time, disconcertingly, there is an increased number of reports about incidents of cardiovascular events in smokers of marijuana. Experimental and clinical studies demonstrated multidirectional, often contradictory, effects of cannabinoids on hemostasis, including effects of the compounds on platelets, vascular endothelium, fibrinolysis and plasma coagulation systems. The mechanisms of action of cannabinoids on homeostasis depend on the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, CBPT and CBED, receptors of other systems stimulated by endocannabinoids, as well as metabolites of endocannabinoids and nitrogen oxide. The range of biological functions of endo- and plant cannabinoids, expanded to include the process of hemostasis, may constitute a condition for their recognition as a new factor responsible for thromboembolism in smokers of marijuana, in pathological disorders with increased levels of endocannabinoids and in individuals with polymorphisms of FAAH C385A and A385A. On the other hand, there are compelling reasons for anti‑hemostatic action of cannabinoids. PMID:27383573

  7. Early adolescent nicotine exposure affects later-life cocaine reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Alajaji, Mai; Lazenka, Matthew F; Kota, Dena; Wise, Laura E; Younis, Rabha M; Carroll, F Ivy; Levine, Amir; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Damaj, M Imad

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence represents a unique developmental period associated with increased risk-taking behavior and experimentation with drugs of abuse, in particular nicotine. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine during early adolescence might increase the risk for drug reward in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, male ICR mice were treated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine or saline during adolescence, and their preference for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine was examined using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in adulthood. Long-term behavioral changes induced by nicotine suggested a possible role of altered gene transcription. Thus, immunoblot for ΔFosB, a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, was conducted in the nucleus accumbens of these mice. Mice treated with nicotine during early but not late adolescence showed an increase in CPP for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine later in adulthood. This effect was not seen in mice pretreated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine as adults, suggesting that exposure to nicotine specifically during early adolescence increases the rewarding effects of other drugs in adulthood. However, adolescent nicotine exposure did not alter highly palatable food conditioning in mice. The enhancement of cocaine CPP by nicotine was strain-dependent and was blocked by pretreatment with nicotinic antagonists. In addition, nicotine exposure during early adolescence induced ΔFosB expression to a greater extent than identical nicotine exposure in adulthood, and enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization later in adulthood. These results suggest that nicotine exposure during early adolescence increases drug-induced reward in adulthood through mechanisms that may involve the induction of ΔFosB. PMID:26808314

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  9. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:15468343

  10. Qualitative Assessment of Adolescents Views about Improving Exposure to Internet-Delivered Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain first insight into factors which might be associated with exposure to internet-delivered interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of Dutch adolescents (n = 54), aged 12-17 years. Several aspects of exposure: a first visit;…

  11. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  12. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  13. Exposure to Community Violence and Political Socialization among Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of adolescent exposure to cross-community violence, intense paramilitary operations, aggression, and intimidation in Northern Ireland. Using publicly available survey data gathered by agencies in Northern Ireland, the research examines the effects of exposure to political violence with focus upon the manner by…

  14. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…

  15. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  16. Gender and Family as Moderators of the Relationship between Music Video Exposure and Adolescent Sexual Permissiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, Jeremiah S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined family environment and gender as moderators of an hypothesized relationship between exposure to rock music videos and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results of a survey of 214 adolescents revealed a stronger association between permissive sexual attitudes and behavior and reported exposure to music videos for females than for…

  17. Impact of Exposure to Violence in School on Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Wester, Kelly L.; Singer, Mark I.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to violence at school remains a significant problem for children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between exposure to violence at school and child reports of psychological trauma symptoms and violent behavior. The sample consisted of children in grades 3 through 12 in 17 public schools from two different states. Rates…

  18. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  19. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  20. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  1. Cannabinoid mitigation of neuronal morphological change important to development and learning: insight from a zebra finch model of psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Ken; Gilbert, Marcoita T

    2013-03-19

    Normal CNS development proceeds through late-postnatal stages of adolescent development. The activity-dependence of this development underscores the significance of CNS-active drug exposure prior to completion of brain maturation. Exogenous modulation of signaling important in regulating normal development is of particular concern. This mini-review presents a summary of the accumulated behavioral, physiological and biochemical evidence supporting such a key regulatory role for endocannabinoid signaling during late-postnatal CNS development. Our focus is on the data obtained using a unique zebra finch model of developmental psychopharmacology. This animal has allowed investigation of neuronal morphological effects essential to establishment and maintenance of neural circuitry, including processes related to synaptogenesis and dendritic spine dynamics. Altered neurophysiology that follows exogenous cannabinoid exposure during adolescent development has the potential to persistently alter cognition, learning and memory.

  2. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  3. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  4. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  5. Does self-complexity moderate the effects of exposure to political violence for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Roziner, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of self-complexity (SC) on well-being (WB) and psychopathology among Israeli adolescents exposed to the Second Lebanon War (2006). Adolescents (N=584, mean age 16.41) completed a SC measure, Political and Negative Life Events (NLE) scales, Brief Symptom Inventory and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The theoretical model analyzed the function of SC as a moderator of exposure effects to political life events (PLE), while controlling for general NLE. Results corroborated the model with SC moderating the effects of the war-related PLE. Adolescents with low SC are at risk for damaged WB and psychiatric consequences from political violence exposure. This opens a diagnostic avenue for identification of at-risk adolescents in this socio-political context toward whom clinical programs should be directed.

  6. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  7. Cannabinoids: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, B; Tyndale, R F

    2015-06-01

    This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics focuses on cannabinoids. Our understanding of these interesting endogenous and synthetic compounds, and their role in the cannabinoid system, has evolved dramatically, in part because of the acquisition of new research tools. Cannabis has been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use can expose people to varying complications (e.g., risk of addiction, cognitive impairment), thus, it is important to determine the benefit/risk of cannabis with precision and to implement policy measures based on evidence to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm. Novel cannabinoid drugs are emerging for medicinal use (e.g., dronabinol, nabiximols) and as illicit drugs (e.g., Spice, K2) perpetuating the perception that cannabinoid drugs can be a friend or foe. This special issue will cover these various aspects of cannabinoid pharmacology and therapeutics ranging from basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trial results, to policy and education efforts in this area. PMID:25801347

  8. Cannabinoids: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, B; Tyndale, R F

    2015-06-01

    This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics focuses on cannabinoids. Our understanding of these interesting endogenous and synthetic compounds, and their role in the cannabinoid system, has evolved dramatically, in part because of the acquisition of new research tools. Cannabis has been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use can expose people to varying complications (e.g., risk of addiction, cognitive impairment), thus, it is important to determine the benefit/risk of cannabis with precision and to implement policy measures based on evidence to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm. Novel cannabinoid drugs are emerging for medicinal use (e.g., dronabinol, nabiximols) and as illicit drugs (e.g., Spice, K2) perpetuating the perception that cannabinoid drugs can be a friend or foe. This special issue will cover these various aspects of cannabinoid pharmacology and therapeutics ranging from basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trial results, to policy and education efforts in this area.

  9. Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S

    2009-06-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension, probing whether pornography consumers differed from other Internet users, as well as the social characteristics of adolescent frequent pornography consumers. Data from a 2004 survey of a national representative sample of the adolescent population in Israel were used (n=998). Adolescent frequent users of the Internet for pornography were found to differ in many social characteristics from the group that used the Internet for information, social communication and entertainment. Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour. PMID:18694593

  10. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  11. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems.

  12. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  13. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  14. Adolescents' mental health outcomes according to different types of exposure to ongoing terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.

  15. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Non-detained Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966

  16. Regional Brain Morphometry and Impulsivity in Adolescents Following Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lester, Barry M.; Neyzi, Nurunisa; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Gracia, Luis; Kekatpure, Minal; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Animal studies have suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) deleteriously influences the developing nervous system, in part attributable to its site of action in blocking the function of monoamine reuptake transporters, increasing synaptic levels of serotonin and dopamine. Objective To examine the brain morphologic features and associated impulsive behaviors in adolescents following prenatal exposure to cocaine and/or tobacco. Design Magnetic resonance imaging data and behavioral measures were collected from adolescents followed up longitudinally in the Maternal Lifestyle Study. Setting A hospital-based research center. Participants A total of 40 adolescent participants aged 13 to 15 years were recruited, 20 without PCE and 20 with PCE; a subset of each group additionally had tobacco exposure. Participants were selected and matched based on head circumference at birth, gestational age, maternal alcohol use, age, sex, race/ethnicity, IQ, family poverty, and socioeconomic status. Main Outcome Measures Subcortical volumetric measures of the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens; cortical thickness measures of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral medial prefrontal cortex; and impulsivity assessed by Conners' Continuous Performance Test and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children. Results After controlling for covariates, cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was significantly thinner in adolescents following PCE (P=.03), whereas the pallidum volume was smaller in adolescents following prenatal tobacco exposure (P=.03). Impulsivity was correlated with thalamic volume following either PCE (P=.05) or prenatal tobacco exposure (P=.04). Conclusions and Relevance Prenatal cocaine or tobacco exposure can differentially affect structural brain maturation during adolescence and underlie enhanced susceptibility to impulsivity. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are

  17. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  18. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  19. Medicinal chemistry of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, A

    2015-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system comprises the two well characterized Gi/o -protein coupled receptors (cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2), their endogenous lipid ligands, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and biotransformation. Drug discovery efforts relating to the endocannabinoid system have been focused mainly on the two cannabinoid receptors and the two endocannabinoid deactivating enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). This review provides an overview of cannabinergic agents used in drug research and those being explored clinically.

  20. Medicinal Chemistry of Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, A

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system comprises the two well characterized Gi/o-protein coupled receptors (cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2), their endogenous lipid ligands, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and biotransformation. Drug discovery efforts relating to the endocannabinoid system have been focused mainly on the two cannabinoid receptors and the two endocannabinoid deactivating enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). This review provides an overview of cannabinergic agents used in drug research and those being explored clinically. PMID:25801236

  1. Medicinal chemistry of cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, V Kiran

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system comprises the two well characterized Gi/o‐protein coupled receptors (cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2), their endogenous lipid ligands, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and biotransformation. Drug discovery efforts relating to the endocannabinoid system have been focused mainly on the two cannabinoid receptors and the two endocannabinoid deactivating enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). This review provides an overview of cannabinergic agents used in drug research and those being explored clinically. PMID:25801236

  2. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  3. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  4. Cannabinoid receptors in developing rats: detection of mRNA and receptor binding.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C R; Martin, B R; Compton, D R; Abood, M E

    1994-08-01

    Despite a large body of research directed at assessing the effects of perinatal cannabinoid exposure, little is known about the development of the cannabinoid receptor. Recent advances, including the cloning of the cannabinoid receptor, have afforded us the opportunity to plot the postnatal ontogeny of the cannabinoid receptor and its mRNA in whole brain using the methods of receptor binding and RNA blot hybridization, respectively. Our results indicate that cannabinoid receptor mRNA is present at adult levels as early as postnatal day 3. The Bmax, on the other hand, increases almost fifty percent with increasing postnatal age, while the affinity does not change. The Hill coefficients for all ages studied were approximately 1. These findings suggest the possibility of a developmental progression for cannabinoid receptor development with receptor mRNA appearing first, followed by a period of rapid proliferation of the receptors themselves. PMID:7988356

  5. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of adolescent MDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Vaccaro, Sonia; Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2015-03-15

    Exposure to drugs such as ethanol or cocaine during adolescence induces alterations in the central nervous system that are modulated by the novelty-seeking trait. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of this trait on the long-term effects of MDMA administration during adolescence on spontaneous behavior and conditioned rewarding effects in adulthood. Adolescent mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS or LNS) according to the hole-board test and received either MDMA (0, 10 or 20mg/kg PND 33-42) or saline. Three weeks later, having entered adulthood (PND>68), one set of mice performed the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests, while another set performed the conditioning place preference (CPP) test induced by cocaine-(1mg/kg) or MDMA-(1mg/kg). Only HNS mice treated with MDMA during adolescence acquired CPP in adulthood with a non-effective dose of cocaine or MDMA. Although it did not produce changes in motor activity, exposure to MDMA during adolescence was associated with more aggressive behaviors (threat and attack) and increased social contacts in HNS mice, while an anxiolytic effect was noted in LNS mice pre-treated with the highest dose of MDMA (20mg/kg). Administration of MDMA (10 or 20mg/kg) induced a decrease in DA levels in the striatum in LNS mice only and lower striatal serotonin levels in mice treated with the highest MDMA dose. Our findings show that adolescent MDMA exposure results in higher sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing properties of MDMA and cocaine in adult HNS mice, which suggests that the relationship between exposure to MDMA in adolescence and a higher probability of substance is a feature of high novelty seekers only.

  6. Repeated Ketamine Exposure Induces an Enduring Resilient Phenotype in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Eric M.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Wright, Katherine N.; Hadad, Roey; Sial, Omar K.; Kroeck, Kyle G.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) afflicts up to 10% of adolescents. However, nearly 50% of those afflicted are considered non-responsive to available treatments. Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist has shown potential as a rapid-acting and long-lasting treatment for MDD in adults. Thus, the effectiveness and functional consequences of ketamine exposure during adolescence were explored. Methods Adolescent male rats (postnatal day [PD] 35) received two ketamine (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) injections, 4 hours apart, after exposure to day 1 of the forced swim test (FST). The next day, rats were re-exposed to the FST to assess ketamine-induced antidepressant-like responses. Separate groups were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to confirm findings from the FST. After these initial experiments, adolescent naïve rats were exposed to either 1 or 15 consecutive days (PD35–49) of ketamine (20 mg/kg) twice/daily. Ketamine's influence on behavioral reactivity to rewarding (i.e., sucrose preference) and aversive (i.e., elevated plus-maze, FST) circumstances was then assessed 2 months after treatment. To control for age-dependent effects, adult rats (PD75–89) were exposed to identical experimental conditions. Results Ketamine (20 mg/kg) reversed the CUS-induced depression-like behaviors in the FST. Repeated ketamine exposure resulted in anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses 2 months after drug exposure. None of the ketamine doses used were capable of inducing drug-seeking behaviors as measured by place preference conditioning. Conclusions Repeated ketamine exposure induces enduring resilient-like responses regardless of age of exposure. These findings point to ketamine, and its repeated exposure, as a potentially useful antidepressant during adolescence. PMID:23790225

  7. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  8. Exposure to Community Violence in Adolescence: Trauma Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner

    2000-01-01

    Considerable exposure to recurring community violence with considerable variation in the amount of exposure was found in a sample of 455 first-year students at an urban college. Exposure to recurring community violence was moderately correlated with the manifestation of psychological trauma symptoms. Further, being victimized and witnessing…

  9. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    PubMed

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  10. Early adolescent Depo-Provera exposure increases stillbirths in adult sooty mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Ethun, Kelly; Meeker, Tracy; Von Scherr, Gretchen; Wallen, Kim

    2015-12-01

    The 3-month injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Depo-Provera) is a synthetic progestin that protects against pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Studies have focused on the resumption of ovulation after MPA-treatment cessation but neglected potential long-term effects of MPA exposure on future successful reproduction. MPA is frequently administered to adolescent girls; however, long-term fertility effects of adolescent MPA exposure have not been explored. We investigated fertility after extended MPA exposure in a species of old world primate, the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). Female sooty mangabeys (n=31) received chronic MPA-treatment for 4-8 years. At MPA-treatment onset, subjects were either parous adults (n=14) or nulliparous adolescents (n=17), with adolescent-treated subjects being further divided into those who had reached first ovulation (n=10) and those who had not (n=7). After MPA-treatment cessation, adolescent-treated females had a significantly higher incidence of stillbirth than did age-matched and parity-matched controls, whereas adult-treated females did not differ from their matched controls. Females placed on MPA-treatment prior to first ovulation had a significantly higher incidence of stillbirth post-treatment than did females placed on MPA-treatment after first ovulation. Diabetic females had an increased incidence of stillbirth as compared to nondiabetic females; however, when controlling for diabetes, MPA exposure prior to first ovulation was still a significant positive predictor of stillbirth. These findings suggest that the post-treatment fertility effects of chronic MPA exposure vary with the developmental timing of treatment onset and raise concern about the use of MPA as a contraceptive for adolescent girls.

  11. Fluoxetine Exposure during Adolescence Alters Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Riggs, Lace M.; Parise, Eric M.; Vialou, Vincent; Wright, Katherine N.; Dayrit, Genesis; Nieto, Steven J.; Wilkinson, Matthew B.; Lobo, Mary K.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the enduring neurobiological consequences of antidepressant exposure during adolescence are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the long-term effects of exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during adolescence on behavioral reactivity to emotion-eliciting stimuli. We administered FLX (10 mg/kg, bi-daily, for 15 d) to male adolescent [postnatal day 35 (P35) to P49] C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after treatment (P70), reactivity to aversive stimuli (i.e., social defeat stress, forced swimming, and elevated plus maze) was assessed. We also examined the effects of FLX on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2-related signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of adolescent mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Adolescent FLX exposure suppressed depression-like behavior, as measured by the social interaction and forced swim tests, while enhancing anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus maze in adulthood. This complex behavioral profile was accompanied by decreases in ERK2 mRNA and protein phosphorylation within the VTA, while stress alone resulted in opposite neurobiological effects. Pharmacological (U0126) inhibition, as well as virus-mediated downregulation of ERK within the VTA mimicked the antidepressant-like profile observed after juvenile FLX treatment. Conversely, overexpression of ERK2 induced a depressive-like response, regardless of FLX pre-exposure. These findings demonstrate that exposure to FLX during adolescence modulates responsiveness to emotion-eliciting stimuli in adulthood, at least partially, via long-lasting adaptations in ERK-related signaling within the VTA. Our results further delineate the role ERK plays in regulating mood-related behaviors across the lifespan. PMID:24431458

  12. Opposite regulation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of rats treated with cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2016-02-26

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine addiction, although it is not clear how cocaine regulates brain CB1 and CB2 receptors, especially during adolescence, a critical moment for shaping adult response to drug use. This study evaluated CB1 and CB2 protein levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) by western blot analysis with specific and validated antibodies: (1) basally during adolescence (post-natal day PND 40, PND 47, PND 54), (2) by a sensitizing regimen of cocaine (15mg/kg, 7 days, i.p.) during different windows of adolescence vulnerability (PND 33-39, PND 40-46, PND 47-53), and (3) following repeated cocaine administration during adolescence (PND 33-39) in adulthood (PND 64). The results demonstrated a dynamic and opposite basal modulation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PFC and HC during adolescence. CB1 receptor levels were increased while CB2 receptors were decreased as compared to adulthood with asymptotes values around mid adolescence (PND 47) both in PFC (CB1: +45±22, p<0.05; CB2: -24±6%, p<0.05) and HC (CB1: +53±23, p<0.05; CB2: -20±8%, p<0.05). Interestingly, cocaine only altered CB1 (+55±10%, p<0.05) and CB2 (-25±10%, p<0.05) receptors when administered during early adolescence and only in PFC. However, the changes observed in PFC by repeated cocaine administration in adolescence were transient and did not endure into adulthood. These results identified a period of vulnerability during adolescence at which cocaine dysregulated the content of CB receptors in PFC, suggesting an opposite role for these receptors in the effects mediated by cocaine.

  13. Opposite regulation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of rats treated with cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2016-02-26

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine addiction, although it is not clear how cocaine regulates brain CB1 and CB2 receptors, especially during adolescence, a critical moment for shaping adult response to drug use. This study evaluated CB1 and CB2 protein levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) by western blot analysis with specific and validated antibodies: (1) basally during adolescence (post-natal day PND 40, PND 47, PND 54), (2) by a sensitizing regimen of cocaine (15mg/kg, 7 days, i.p.) during different windows of adolescence vulnerability (PND 33-39, PND 40-46, PND 47-53), and (3) following repeated cocaine administration during adolescence (PND 33-39) in adulthood (PND 64). The results demonstrated a dynamic and opposite basal modulation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PFC and HC during adolescence. CB1 receptor levels were increased while CB2 receptors were decreased as compared to adulthood with asymptotes values around mid adolescence (PND 47) both in PFC (CB1: +45±22, p<0.05; CB2: -24±6%, p<0.05) and HC (CB1: +53±23, p<0.05; CB2: -20±8%, p<0.05). Interestingly, cocaine only altered CB1 (+55±10%, p<0.05) and CB2 (-25±10%, p<0.05) receptors when administered during early adolescence and only in PFC. However, the changes observed in PFC by repeated cocaine administration in adolescence were transient and did not endure into adulthood. These results identified a period of vulnerability during adolescence at which cocaine dysregulated the content of CB receptors in PFC, suggesting an opposite role for these receptors in the effects mediated by cocaine. PMID:26797579

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  15. Cannabinoids: Medical implications.

    PubMed

    Schrot, Richard J; Hubbard, John R

    2016-01-01

    Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a physician who "certifies" that a benefit may result. Physicians must consider important patient selection criteria such as failure of standard medical treatment for a debilitating medical disorder. Medical cannabis patients must be informed about potential adverse effects, such as acute impairment of memory, coordination and judgment, and possible chronic effects, such as cannabis use disorder, cognitive impairment, and chronic bronchitis. In addition, social dysfunction may result at work/school, and there is increased possibility of motor vehicle accidents. Novel ways to manipulate the endocannbinoid system are being explored to maximize benefits of cannabinoid therapy and lessen possible harmful effects.

  16. Cannabinoids: Medical implications.

    PubMed

    Schrot, Richard J; Hubbard, John R

    2016-01-01

    Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a physician who "certifies" that a benefit may result. Physicians must consider important patient selection criteria such as failure of standard medical treatment for a debilitating medical disorder. Medical cannabis patients must be informed about potential adverse effects, such as acute impairment of memory, coordination and judgment, and possible chronic effects, such as cannabis use disorder, cognitive impairment, and chronic bronchitis. In addition, social dysfunction may result at work/school, and there is increased possibility of motor vehicle accidents. Novel ways to manipulate the endocannbinoid system are being explored to maximize benefits of cannabinoid therapy and lessen possible harmful effects. PMID:26912385

  17. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior.

  18. The impact of violence exposure on aggressive behavior through social information processing in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to violence (EV) in several contexts predicts aggressive behavior through social information processing (SIP) in adolescents. Six hundred and fifty adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 participated in a 3-wave longitudinal study. The participants completed measures of proactive and reactive aggression at all waves, SIP measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and violence exposure at Time 1. It was expected that SIP would mediate the predictive relationship between EV and aggressive behavior. We found that total Time 1 EV predicted Time 3 reactive aggression. The influence of EV on proactive aggression was direct. Slight differences emerged, however, for victimization and witnessing violence. Witnessing was associated with reactive aggression via both hostile attribution and response selection, whereas victimization predicted reactive aggression via hostile attribution only. Results also suggested that the types of exposure that are most relevant for the development of aggressive behavior are community and school violence. Finally, male adolescents experienced more EV than female adolescents in all contexts except in the home. The findings indicate that intervention in social-cognitive mechanisms is important to reduce aggressive behavior in adolescents who have been exposed to violence.

  19. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  20. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Violence Exposure: Contributors to Repeat Pregnancies Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A.; Pierce, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Depressive symptoms and violence exposure (VE) often cooccur and have been recognized to influence childbearing; contribution to repeat pregnancy is unclear and examined in this article. This cross-sectional, descriptive, study screened for depressive symptoms and VE among 193 adolescent mothers at a large county hospital in Southwestern United States. Repeat pregnancy and depressive symptoms characterized one-third and one-quarter of adolescents, respectively. Despite minimal disclosure of VE, repeat pregnancy was significantly influenced by child abuse and past traumatic life experiences. Assessments and interventions with adolescents should focus on frequency of repeat pregnancies and symptoms of depression and VE. Nurses and childbirth educators are poised to offer birth control information and education, support, and resources highlighting depression and VE to adolescents. PMID:26834444

  2. Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

  3. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media.

  4. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media. PMID:20677858

  5. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  6. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  7. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  8. Sudden Gains in Prolonged Exposure for Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Appelbaum-Namdar, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to examine sudden gains during developmentally adjusted prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. We hypothesized that sudden gains would be detected and would be predictive of treatment outcome and follow-up. Method: Sixty-three youngsters (ages 8-17) completed a…

  9. Exposure to Neighborhood Affluence and Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence and Academic Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sara; Leventhal, Tama; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to associations between the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and children's and adolescents' development. A minimal amount of research, however, examines how timing of exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions matters. This study used longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  10. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  11. Reexamining the Correlates of Adolescent Violent Victimization: The Importance of Exposure, Guardianship, and Target Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Miller, Holly Ventura; Pangrac, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative contributions of various theoretical constructs to violent victimization by operationalizing multiple measures of exposure to motivated offenders, guardianship, and target characteristics. Using a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, we conducted principal components factor analysis and…

  12. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  13. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  14. Longitudinal Assessment of Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Effect Biomarkers in Adolescent Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Alice L.; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Ismail, Ahmed A.; Hendy, Olfat; Bonner, Matthew R.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Al-Batanony, Manal; Singleton, Steven T.; Khan, Khalid; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is applied seasonally in Egypt by adolescent agricultural workers and the extent of occupational exposure and the potential for environmental CPF exposure in this population is poorly understood. Adolescent pesticide applicators (n=57; 12–21 years of age) and age matched non-applicators (n=38) from the same villages were followed for 10 months in 2010, spanning pre-application through post-application. Eight urine and 5 blood samples were collected from participants within this time period. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (exposure/effect biomarker) and urine 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) (exposure biomarker) were used to assess occupational CPF exposures in pesticide applicators and environmental exposures in non-applicators. Applicators demonstrated significantly higher TCPy concentration and BChE depression than non-applicators throughout CPF application. This difference persisted for 4–7 weeks after the cessation of agricultural spraying. However, both groups exhibited significantly elevated TCPy and depressed BChE, compared to their respective baseline. The peak TCPy levels during the spray season (95% confidence interval) for non-applicators and applicators reached 16.8 (9.87–28.5) and 137 (57.4–329) ug/g creatinine, respectively. BChE levels (95% confidence intervals) during the spray were 1.47 (1.28–1.68) for non-applicators and 0.47 (0.24–0.94) U/ml for applicators. The longitudinal assessment of CPF biomarkers provided robust measures of exposure and effect throughout CPF application in adolescents and revealed significant exposures in both applicators and non-applicators. Biomarker data in the non-applicators, which mirrored that of the applicators, indicated that non-applicators received environmental CPF exposures. This suggests that similar exposures may occur in other residents of this region during periods of pesticide application. PMID:23321857

  15. Atrial fibrillation after taser exposure in a previously healthy adolescent.

    PubMed

    Multerer, Sara; Berkenbosch, John W; Das, Bibhuti; Johnsrude, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    We are reporting a previously healthy adolescent who developed atrial fibrillation after being tased. He has a structurally normal heart on echocardiogram, normal electrolyte level and thyroid function test results, and a urine toxicology screen positive for marijuana. The patient ultimately required external defibrillation to convert his cardiac rhythm to normal sinus rhythm and has had no recurrent arrhythmias since hospital discharge (approximately 1 year). This is the first reported case of atrial fibrillation developing after a Taser shot, occurring in an adolescent without other risk factors. This case illustrates the arrhythmogenic potential of a Taser in otherwise healthy young individuals, and further study of occurrence of Taser-induced arrhythmias is warranted. PMID:20016356

  16. Assessment of Violence Exposure among Residential Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood victimization is an important factor in assessing children in residential treatment. These children often have extensive histories of abuse and neglect, and are of high risk for violence exposure in their schools and neighborhoods. This article describes the concept of exposure to community violence, and its importance in assessing and…

  17. Safety in Cyberspace: Adolescents' Safety and Exposure Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michele J.; Greentree, Shane; Cocotti-Muller, Dayana; Elias, Kristy A.; Morrison, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 692 Australian 13-to 16-year-olds to examine aspects of their Internet use and, in particular, their exposure to inappropriate material and behaviors online and their online safety practices. Significant differences were found in the amount of exposure to inappropriate material or behaviors online according to sex and…

  18. Adolescent pre-exposure to ethanol or MDMA prolongs the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Do Couto, B Ribeiro; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Fuentes, S; Gagliano, H; Armario, A; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2011-07-01

    Adolescents often take ethanol (EtOH) in combination with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine). In the present work we studied the effect of repeated intermittent adolescent pre-exposure to both drugs on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in mice. Sixteen days after pre-treatment, the rewarding and reinstating effects of MDMA in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were evaluated, along with the levels of biogenic amines, basal motor activity and corticosterone response to different challenges. Pre-exposure to EtOH, MDMA or EtOH+MDMA did not affect the CPP induced by 10mg/kg of MDMA. However, adolescent exposure to EtOH or MDMA increased the duration of the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA. Following extinction of the CPP, a priming dose of 5mg/kg of MDMA elicited reinstatement in all the groups, with the duration of this reinstated CPP being longer in mice pre-treated with MDMA. After reinstatement, an increase in monoamine levels was observed in mice pre-exposed to EtOH (DA, DOPAC and 5-HT in the striatum and 5-HIAA in the cortex and hippocampus) or MDMA (5-HT in the hippocampus). Basal motor activity and basal levels of corticosterone were not affected by any of these pre-treatments, but the group pre-exposed to MDMA showed higher levels of corticosterone in response to the administration of 10mg/kg of MDMA. Behavioral and hormonal effects of adolescent exposure to MDMA were reversed by co-administration of EtOH. Our results suggest that exposure to EtOH or MDMA during adolescence prolongs the rewarding properties of MDMA.

  19. Childhood Exposure to Violence and Chronic Physical Conditions in a National Sample of US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Basu, Archana; Walsh, Kate; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in adults. Although violence exposure is common among youths, it is unknown whether violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in childhood and adolescence. We examined the associations of violence exposure with chronic physical conditions in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and determined whether associations were explained by co-occurring mental disorders. Methods Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national cross-sectional survey of 6,483 adolescents (ages 13–17). Lifetime exposure to violence; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mood, anxiety, and substance disorders; and self-reported arthritis, frequent headaches, back or neck problems, other chronic pain, asthma, and allergies were assessed. Results One in 4 (24.99%) adolescents reported exposure to violence. Violence exposure was associated with elevated odds of back/neck pain, headaches, chronic pain, allergies, and asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.5–2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.5) after adjustment for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, and lifetime mental disorders. Regarding new onsets, violence exposure was associated with greater hazard for subsequent first-onset only of back/neck pain (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–3.0) and headaches (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.8), and these associations were explained by early-onset mental disorders. Conclusions Childhood violence exposure is associated with chronic physical conditions that emerge early in the life course, although associations are stronger for prevalent than incident conditions. Violence exposure predicts incident pain conditions only, and these associations are explained by mental disorders that begin after violence exposure. Interventions and policies aimed at preventing violence and detecting and treating early

  20. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed Central

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents’ sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens’ engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  1. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  2. Adolescent exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rowan, James D; McCarty, Madison K; Kundey, Shannon M A; Osburn, Crystal D; Renaud, Samantha M; Kelley, Brian M; Matoushek, Amanda Willey; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, adolescent exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast adolescent exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, adolescent MPD exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD exposure ended.

  3. Identification of Trauma Exposure and PTSD in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Jennifer F.; Gudiño, Omar G.; Biggs, Emily A.; Diamond, Ursula N.; Weis, J. Rebecca; Cloitre, Marylene

    2013-01-01

    Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though prevalent among adolescent psychiatric inpatients, are under-identified in standard clinical practice. In a retrospective chart review of 140 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit, we examine associations between probable PTSD identified through the Child PTSD Symptom Scale and adolescents' service use and clinical characteristics. Results suggest a large discrepancy between rates of probable PTSD identified through standardized assessment and during the emergency room psychiatric evaluation (28.6% vs. 2.2%). Adolescents with probable PTSD had greater clinical severity and service utilization, an increased likelihood of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (27.5% vs. 9.2%) and being prescribed antipsychotic medications (47.5% vs. 27.6%), and were prescribed more psychotropic medications. Upon discharge, those with probable PTSD were more likely to be assigned a diagnosis of PTSD (45% vs. 7.1%), a comorbid diagnoses of major depressive disorder (30% vs. 14.3%), to be prescribed an antidepressant medication (52.5% vs. 33.7%), and they continued to be prescribed more medications. The under-identification of trauma exposure and PTSD have important implications for the care of adolescents given that accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for providing effective care. Improved methods for identifying trauma-related problems in standard clinical practice are needed. PMID:22522731

  4. Adolescent exposure to the World Trade Center attacks, PTSD symptomatology, and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Madan, Anita; Berger, Pinchas; Abramovitz, Robert

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the associations between different types of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and suicidal ideation among New York City adolescents 1 year after the World Trade Center attacks. A sample of 817 adolescents, aged 13-18, was drawn from 2 Jewish parochial high schools (97% participation rate). We assessed 3 types of trauma exposure, current (within the past month) and past (within the past year) suicidal ideation, and current PTSD symptoms. Findings indicated that probable PTSD was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation. Exposure to attack-related traumatic events increased risk for both suicidal ideation and PTSD. However, specific types of trauma exposure differentially predicted suicidal ideation and PTSD: knowing someone who was killed increased risk for PTSD, but not for suicidal ideation, and having a family member who was hurt but not killed, increased risk for suicidal ideation, but not for PTSD. This study extends findings from the adult literature showing associations between trauma exposure, PTSD, and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents. PMID:21882245

  5. An examination of exposure and avoidance behavior related to second-hand cigarette smoke among adolescent girls in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although rates of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) are declining in Canada, SHS exposure among non-smoking adolescents remains high. This study aimed to describe frequency, locations, and avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure among adolescent girls in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data were analyzed from 841 adolescent girls aged 13 to 15 years old who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of a cohort study examining SHS exposure and substance use. Measures assessed demographics, smoking behavior and intentions, frequency and locations of SHS exposure, and avoidance behavior related to SHS. Results Excluding their own smoking, 27% of girls reported exposure at least once a week and an additional 17% reported daily or almost daily exposure over the past month. Among girls who reported daily or almost daily exposure, the locations of most frequent levels of high exposure were in the home, at or near school, inside a vehicle, and outdoor public places. Avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure significantly differed by overall SHS exposure in the past month. Conclusions Despite historically low smoking rates, many adolescent girls continue to report regular SHS exposure in multiple locations in British Columbia. Girls with the most frequent exposure were significantly less likely to report habitual avoidance behavior related to SHS compared to those less frequently exposed. This study elucidates settings of high SHS exposure among adolescent girls that could be targeted in future policy interventions. Additionally, future interventions could target adolescent girls who are frequently exposed to SHS and report infrequent avoidance behavior around their SHS exposure. PMID:24885176

  6. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Mariam; Sánchez, Laura; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana; Mela, Virginia; Alén, Francisco; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Chowen, Julie; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia; Viveros, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats

  7. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  8. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  9. ADOLESCENT EXPOSURE TO DRINK DRIVING AS A PREDICTOR OF YOUNG ADULTS’ DRINK DRIVING

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1,956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12 – 17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18 to 24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68 – 2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23 – 2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted. PMID:23246711

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Alters GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Samuel W.; Teppen, Tara; Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Moss, Julia L.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Chandler, L. Judson; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol abuse that persist into adulthood are poorly understood and have not been widely investigated. We have shown that intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in hippocampal dentate granule cells in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enduring effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence or adulthood on the expression of hippocampal GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Methods We used a previously characterized tissue fractionation method to isolate detergent resistant membranes and soluble fractions, followed by western blots to measure GABAAR protein expression. We also measured mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Although the protein levels of α1-, α4- and δ-GABAAR subunits remained stable between postnatal day (PD) 30 (early adolescence) and PD71 (adulthood), the α5-GABAAR subunit was reduced across that period. In rats that were subjected to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure between PD30–46, there was a significant reduction in the protein levels of the δ-GABAAR, in the absence of any changes in mRNA levels, at 48 hours and 26 days after the last ethanol exposure. Protein levels of the α4-GABAAR subunit were significantly reduced, but mRNA levels were increased, 26 days (but not 48 hours) after the last AIE exposure. Protein levels of α5-GABAAR were not changed by AIE, but mRNA levels were reduced at 48hrs but normalized 26 days after AIE. In contrast to the effects of AIE, chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol during adulthood (CIE) had no effect on expression of any of the GABAAR subunits examined. Conclusions AIE produced both short- and long-term alterations of GABAAR subunits mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, whereas CIE produced no long lasting effects on those measures. The observed reduction of protein

  11. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  12. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  13. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  14. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  15. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks.

  16. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  17. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  18. Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Goycolea, Claudio; Obrietan, Karl; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2010-07-28

    Cannabinoids, the primary active agent in drugs of abuse such as marijuana and hashish, tend to generate a distorted sense of time. Here we study the effect of cannabinoids on the brain's circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), using patch clamp and cell-attached electrophysiological recordings, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and behavioral analysis. The SCN showed strong expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1R, as detected with RT-PCR. SCN neurons, including those using GABA as a transmitter, and axons within the SCN, expressed CB1R immunoreactivity. Behaviorally, cannabinoids did not alter the endogenous free-running circadian rhythm in the mouse brain, but did attenuate the ability of the circadian clock to entrain to light zeitgebers. In the absence of light, infusion of the CB1R antagonist AM251 caused a modest phase shift, suggesting endocannabinoid modulation of clock timing. Interestingly, cannabinoids had no effect on glutamate release from the retinohypothalamic projection, suggesting a direct action of cannabinoids on the retinohypothalamic tract was unlikely to explain the inhibition of the phase shift. Within the SCN, cannabinoids were excitatory by a mechanism based on presynaptic CB1R attenuation of axonal GABA release. These data raise the possibility that the time dissociation described by cannabinoid users may result in part from altered circadian clock function and/or entrainment to environmental time cues. PMID:20668190

  19. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  20. Exposure to alcohol among adolescent students and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. METHODS The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p < 0.10 were used in the final multivariate analysis model. RESULTS The highest alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon. PMID:24789637

  1. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  2. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  3. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  4. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity. PMID:26638764

  5. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity.

  6. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  7. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  8. Effects of adolescent nicotine and SR 147778 (Surinabant) administration on food intake, somatic growth and metabolic parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Lamota, Laura; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Marco, Eva-María; Llorente, Ricardo; Gallego, Araceli; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Viveros, María-Paz

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and obesity are worldwide important health problems with a growing impact in adolescent and young adults. One of the consequences of nicotine withdrawal is an increase in body weight that can act as a risk factor to relapse. Experimental therapies with a cannabinoid receptor antagonist have been recently proposed for both cigarette smoking and complicated overweight. In the present study, we aimed to investigate metabolic and hormonal effects of chronic nicotine treatment (during treatment and in abstinence) in an animal model of adolescence as well as to address the pharmacological effects of the novel selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 147778 (Surinabant). Adolescence (postnatal days 37-44) and/or post-adolescence (postnatal days 45-59) administration of Surinabant reduced body weight gain, as well as plasma glucose levels and triglycerides. The drug also reduced insulin and leptin secretion, and increased adiponectin and corticosterone levels. The effects showed sexual dimorphisms and, in general, were more pronounced in females. Chronic exposure to nicotine (0.8 mg/kg), from postnatal days 30-44 did not result in overt effects on food intake or body weight gain. However, it altered certain responses to the administration of Surinabant, both when the two drugs were given simultaneously and when Surinabant was administered during the post-adolescence period, along nicotine withdrawal. The present results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system is active as a metabolic modulator during adolescence and that nicotine exposure can induce long-lasting effects on metabolic regulation, altering cannabinoid modulation of energy expenditure and metabolism.

  9. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental “acceptance” of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes. PMID:21765624

  10. Exposure to Tobacco on the Internet: Content Analysis of Adolescents' Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Salazar, Laura F.; Daluga, Nichole A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We performed a content analysis of all Web pages viewed by a random sample of adolescents to describe exposure to tobacco- and smoking-related text and images. METHODS Adolescents (14 –17 years of age) with home Internet access were recruited. Internet-tracking software was installed on home computers used by 346 eligible consenting participants. All Web pages viewed by adolescent participants were captured during a 30-day period for each subject. Keywords on smoking and tobacco were used to identify tobacco images or text. RESULTS The 346 participants viewed 1.2 million Web pages, of which 8702 (0.72%) contained tobacco or smoking content. Exposure to tobacco content did not vary according to smoking status. Content was protobacco on 1916 pages, antitobacco on 1572, and complex or unclear on 5055. Social networking sites, mainly MySpace, represented 53% of pages (n = 4612) on which tobacco content was found. All pages with smoking content contained references in text, and 256 (3%) contained images. Many (43%) of the adolescents were exposed to pro-tobacco imagery (median: 3 pages per month). Cigarettes were mentioned on 20% of pages. Tobacco products were sold on 50 pages, and 242 pages contained links to tobacco products sold on other pages. On social networking sites, 4121 pages included a mention of smoking status in the authors' individual profiles, with 23% of authors identifying themselves as smokers. CONCLUSIONS Many adolescents are consistently exposed to tobacco content on the Internet, but the volume of exposure is limited and not all content represents protobacco content. PMID:19620193

  11. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  12. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood.

  13. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood. PMID:26215918

  14. Atypical cortical gyrification in adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Migliorini, Robyn; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can adversely affect brain development, although little is known about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on gyrification. Gyrification reflects cortical folding complexity and is a process by which the surface of the brain creates sulci and gyri. Prior studies have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with reduced gyrification in childhood, but no studies have examined adolescents. Subjects (12-16 years) comprised two age-equivalent groups: 30 adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and 19 non-exposed controls (CON). A T1-weighted image was obtained for all participants. Local gyrification index (LGI) was estimated using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to determine between group differences in LGI controlling for age and sex. Age-by-group interactions were also investigated while controlling for sex. The AE group displayed reduced LGI relative to CON in the bilateral superior parietal region, right postcentral region, and left precentral and lateral occipital regions (ps<.001). Significant age-by-group interactions were observed in the right precentral and lateral occipital regions, and in the left pars opercularis and inferior parietal regions (ps<.01). The AE group showed age-related reductions in gyrification in all regions whereas the CON group showed increased gyrification with age in the lateral occipital region only. While cross-sectional, the age-related reduction in gyrification observed in the AE group suggests alterations in cortical development throughout adolescence and provides further insight into the pathophysiology and brain maturation of adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:26275919

  15. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  16. Consequences of ethanol exposure on cued and contextual fear conditioning and extinction differ depending on timing of exposure during adolescence or adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

    2013-11-01

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to ethanol-induced cognitive deficits and that these effects may be long-lasting. The purpose of Exp 1 was to determine if early-mid adolescent [postnatal day (P) 28-48] intermittent ethanol exposure would affect later learning and memory in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm differently than comparable exposures in adulthood (P70-90). In Exp 2 animals were exposed to ethanol during mid-late adolescence (P35-55) to assess whether age of initiation within the adolescent period would influence learning and memory differentially. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h for a total of 11 exposures. After a 22 day non-ethanol period, animals were fear conditioned to a context (relatively hippocampal-dependent task) or tone (amygdala-dependent task), followed by retention tests and extinction (mPFC-dependent) of this conditioning. Despite similar acquisition, a deficit in context fear retention was evident in animals exposed to ethanol in early adolescence, an effect not observed after a comparable ethanol exposure in mid-late adolescence or adulthood. In contrast, animals that were exposed to ethanol in mid-late adolescence or adulthood showed enhanced resistance to context extinction. Together these findings suggest that repeated ethanol imparts long-lasting consequences on learning and memory, with outcomes that differ depending on age of exposure. These results may reflect differential influence of ethanol on the brain as it changes throughout ontogeny and may have implications for alcohol use not only throughout the developmental period of adolescence, but also in adulthood.

  17. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  18. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  19. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    , no corresponding elevations were seen in adolescents after LPS; and (ii) neither adolescents nor adults demonstrated increases in plasma endotoxin concentrations following i.p. or i.g. ethanol administration. Analysis of BECs indicated that, for both routes of exposure, adolescents exhibited lower BECs than adults. Taken together, these data suggest that categorically different mechanisms are involved in the central cytokine response to antigen exposure versus ethanol administration. Furthermore, these findings confirm once again that acute ethanol intoxication is a potent activator of brain cytokines, and calls for future studies to identify the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in the cytokine response observed during ethanol intoxication.

  20. [Cannabinoid-induced hyperemesis].

    PubMed

    Lieb, Martin; Palm, Ulrich; Nicolaus, Mathias; Reibke, Roland; Baghai, Thomas C

    2011-04-01

    In this case report, we describe a 29 year-old male patient with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. Abstinence from cannabis resolved both vomiting and abdominal pain. We conclude that in case of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with severe and chronic nausea, vomiting, accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive behaviour (hot bathing), in the absence of other obvious causes, the diagnosis of cannabinoid-induced hyperemesis syndrome should be considered. PMID:21462097

  1. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Autophagy activation by novel inducers prevents BECN2-mediated drug tolerance to cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Kenta; Wang, Nan; Fan, Yuying; Zhang, Weiran; Schoenen, Frank J; Frankowski, Kevin J; Marugan, Juan; Zhou, Yifa; Huang, Sui; He, Congcong

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoids and related drugs generate profound behavioral effects (such as analgesic effects) through activating CNR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1 [brain]). However, repeated cannabinoid administration triggers lysosomal degradation of the receptor and rapid development of drug tolerance, limiting the medical use of marijuana in chronic diseases. The pathogenic mechanisms of cannabinoid tolerance are not fully understood, and little is known about its prevention. Here we show that a protein involved in macroautophagy/autophagy (a conserved lysosomal degradation pathway), BECN2 (beclin 2), mediates cannabinoid tolerance by preventing CNR1 recycling and resensitization after prolonged agonist exposure, and deletion of Becn2 rescues CNR1 activity in mouse brain and conveys resistance to analgesic tolerance to chronic cannabinoids. To target BECN2 therapeutically, we established a competitive recruitment model of BECN2 and identified novel synthetic, natural or physiological stimuli of autophagy that sequester BECN2 from its binding with GPRASP1, a receptor protein for CNR1 degradation. Co-administration of these autophagy inducers effectively restores the level and signaling of brain CNR1 and protects mice from developing tolerance to repeated cannabinoid usage. Overall, our findings demonstrate the functional link among autophagy, receptor signaling and animal behavior regulated by psychoactive drugs, and develop a new strategy to prevent tolerance and improve medical efficacy of cannabinoids by modulating the BECN2 interactome and autophagy activity. PMID:27305347

  3. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

  4. An examination of the relation between traumatic event exposure and panic-relevant biological challenge responding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Erin; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Jones, Rachel

    2011-09-01

    The current study uniquely extended research that has linked traumatic event exposure to panic-spectrum problems among adolescents. It was hypothesized that among 127 adolescents (age range: 10 to 17 years; M = 14.63, SD = 2.24), those who endorsed a history of traumatic event exposure would evidence significantly greater anxious and fearful reactivity to a well-established 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure compared to nonexposed individuals. Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting traumatic event exposure is associated with anxious and fearful reactivity to abrupt increases in bodily arousal among adolescents. Moreover, consistent with hypotheses, anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relations between traumatic event exposure and both self-reported panic symptoms and panic symptoms elicited by the challenge. Future prospective research is now needed to better understand temporal relations between traumatic event exposure and indices of panic and related vulnerability.

  5. Nicotine and cannabinoids: parallels, contrasts and interactions.

    PubMed

    Viveros, Maria-Paz; Marco, Eva M; File, Sandra E

    2006-01-01

    After a brief outline of the nicotinic and cannabinoid systems, we review the interactions between the pharmacological effects of nicotine and cannabis, two of the most widely used drugs of dependence. These drugs are increasingly taken in combination, particularly among the adolescents and young adults. The review focuses on addiction-related processes, gateway and reverse gateway theories of addiction and therapeutic implications. It then reviews studies on the important period of adolescence, an area that is in urgent need of further investigation and in which the importance of sex differences is emerging. Three other areas of research, which might be particularly relevant to the onset and/or maintenance of dependence, are then reviewed. Firstly, the effects of the two drugs on anxiety-related behaviours are discussed and then their effects on food intake and cognition, two areas in which they have contrasting effects. Certain animal studies suggest that reinforcing effects are likely to be enhanced by joint consumption of nicotine and cannabis, as also may be anxiolytic effects. If this was the case in humans, the latter might be viewed as an advantage particularly by adolescent girls, although the increased weight gain associated with cannabis would be a disadvantage. The two drugs also have opposite effects on cognition and the possibility of long-lasting cognitive impairments resulting from adolescent consumption of cannabis is of particular concern.

  6. Adolescent exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate cross-sensitizes adults to methamphetamine with drug- and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Ross, Jordan M; Doyle, Hillary H; Helton, Amanda K; Picou, Brittany N; Schulz, Jordyn; Tavares, Chris; Bryant, Sarah; Dawson, Bryan L; Lloyd, Steven A

    2015-03-15

    The increasing availability, over-prescription, and misuse and abuse of ADHD psychostimulant medications in adolescent populations necessitates studies investigating the long-term effects of these drugs persisting into adulthood. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), methylphenidate (MPD) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), or cocaine (COC) (5.0 mg/kg) from postnatal day 22 to 31, which represents an early adolescent period. After an extended period of drug abstinence, adult mice were challenged with a subacute methamphetamine (METH) dose (0.5 mg/kg), to test the long-term effects of adolescent drug exposures on behavioral cross-sensitization using an open field chamber. There were no sex- or dose-specific effects on motor activity in adolescent, saline-treated controls. However, AMPH, MPD, and COC adolescent exposures induced cross-sensitization to a subacute METH dose in adulthood, which is a hallmark of addiction and a marker of long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. Of additional clinical importance, AMPH-exposed male mice demonstrated increased cross-sensitization to METH in contrast to the female-specific response observed in MPD-treated animals. There were no sex-specific effects after adolescent COC exposures. This study demonstrates differential drug, dose, and sex-specific alterations induced by early adolescent psychostimulant exposure, which leads to behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood.

  7. Chronic nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence affects emotional behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Quentin; Speziali, Simona; Rubino, Tiziana; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella; Parolaro, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgen steroid (AAS) illicitly used by adult and adolescent athletes to enhance physical performance and body image, induces psychiatric side effects, such as aggression, depression as well as a spectrum of adverse physiological impairments. Since adolescence represents a neurodevelopmental window that is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of drug abuse, we investigated the long-term behavioral and neurophysiological consequences of nandrolone abuse during adolescence. Adolescent rats received daily injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg, i.m.) for 14 days (PND 40-53). At early adulthood (PND 68), forced swim, sucrose preference, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to assess behavioral changes. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried out to monitor changes in electrical activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Our results show that after early exposure to nandrolone, rats display depression-related behavior, characterized by increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. In addition, adult rats presented anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time and number of entries in the central zone of the open field and decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Nandrolone decreased the firing rate of spontaneously active serotonergic neurons in the DRN while increasing the firing rate of noradrenergic neurons in the LC. These results provide evidence that nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence alters the emotional profile of animals in adulthood and significantly modifies both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  8. Neonatal exposure to LPS leads to heightened exploratory activity in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Rico, Javier Leonardo Rodríguez; Ferraz, Denise Brufato; Ramalho-Pinto, Francisco Juarez; Morato, Silvio

    2010-12-20

    Although several reports have demonstrated physiological and behavioral changes in adult rats due to neonatal immune challenges, little is known about their effects in adolescence. Since neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the neural substrates involved in cognitive disorders, we tested the hypothesis that it may also alter the response to novel environments in adolescent rats. At 3 and 5 days of age, male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle solution or E. coli LPS (0.05mg/kg) or were left undisturbed. In the mid-adolescent period, between 40 and 46 days of age, the rats were exposed to the following behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field, novel-object exploration task, hole-board and the modified Porsolt forced swim test. The results showed that, in comparison with control animals, LPS-treated rats exhibited (1) less anxiety-related behaviors and enhanced patterns of locomotion and rearing in the plus-maze and the open-field tests, (2) high levels of exploration of both objects in the novel-object task and of corner and central holes in hole-board test, and (3) more time spent diving, an active behavior in the forced swim test. The present findings suggest that neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects on the behavior profile adolescent rats exhibit in response to novelty. This behavioral pattern, characterized by heightened exploratory activity in novel environments, also suggests that early immune stimulation may contribute to the development of impulsive behavior in adolescent rats.

  9. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence. PMID:24785000

  10. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the “adolescent phenotype” to be retained into adulthood. However, the “adolescent phenotype” has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the “adolescent phenotype” in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34–42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can “lock-in” all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more “disinhibited” and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence. PMID:24785000

  11. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  12. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey–controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Results Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. Discussion In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents’ reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving

  13. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child's risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in adolescence. When accounting for risk factors associated with additional stressors in the family and surrounding environment, only those children with dual exposure had an elevated risk of the tested outcomes compared to non-exposed youth. However, while there were some observable differences in the prediction of outcomes for children with dual exposure compared to those with single exposure (i.e., abuse only or exposure to domestic violence only), these difference were not statistically significant. Analyses showed that the effects of exposure for boys and girls are statistically comparable.

  14. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  15. Synthetic cannabinoids as drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2012-06-01

    In the last decade a number of products have appeared in various countries that contain synthetic cannabinoids. This article reviews the history of the sale of these drugs, and the evidence that they contain synthetic cannabinoids. The biochemistry of the synthetic cannabinoids identified thus far is discussed, including a discussion of chemical structures and biochemical targets. The cannabinoid receptor targets for these drugs are discussed, as well as other possible targets such as serotonin receptors. Evidence for the abuse potential of these drugs is reviewed. The toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid products is reviewed and compared to that of the phytocannabinoid Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). As cannabinoids are a structurally diverse class of drugs, it is concluded that synthetic cannabinoids should be classified by biological activity rather than by structure, and that if this isn't done, novel synthetic cannabinoids will continue to emerge that fall outside of current regulatory classification models.

  16. Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and exposure to violence: parents' opinion1

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Scherer, Zeyne Alves Pires; Scherer, Edson Arthur; Cavalin, Luciana Aparecida; Guazzelli, Mariana Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the opinion of parents or guardians of adolescents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) about their children's exposure as perpetrators or victims of violence situations in family life or outside. Method: qualitative study with use of thematic oral history. Nine parents of 07 adolescents with ADHD participated. Data were collected from April to September of 2013 using thematic interview. The interviews were recorded at scheduled times at the participants' home, with an average duration of 30 minutes. The findings were submitted to inductive thematic analysis. Results: data analysis allowed the identification of the occurrence of "Conflicts in family life" and "Conflicts in the context of school and community". Parents reported the involvement of their children as victims, perpetrators and witnesses of physical and psychological violence, and the difficulty of them and the school to understand and handle these situations. Conclusion: violence occurs in ADHD adolescents' interpersonal relationships. Communication between health professionals, school and families is precarious. Through the systematization of nursing care, nurses can plan strategies that articulate support networks and interpersonal relationships of adolescents with the disorder (family and school). PMID:26626000

  17. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Banz, Barbara C; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  18. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banz, Barbara C.; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  19. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z=2.35, p=0.019) and stressful life events (z=2.32, p=0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  20. Dietary exposure to acrylamide in adolescents from a Canadian urban center.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Louise; Bouchard, Michèle; Ayotte, Pierre; Blanchet, Carole; Becalski, Adam; Bonvalot, Yvette; Phaneuf, Denise; Lapointe, Caroline; Gagné, Michelle; Courteau, Marilène

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of acrylamide in food items frequently consumed by Canadian adolescents was determined along with estimates of their contribution to the overall dietary intake of acrylamide. A total of 196 non-smoking adolescents (10-17 years old) were recruited in Montreal Island population, Canada. Participants were invited to fill out a 2-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire over the last month. 146 samples of foods most frequently consumed by participants were analyzed for acrylamide contents. The highest acrylamide contents were measured in deep-fried french fries and potato chips (mean ± SD: 1053 ± 657 and 524 ± 276 ng/g respectively). On the basis of the 2-day food diary, median total daily intake of acrylamide was estimated at 0.29 μg/kg bw/d, as compared to 0.17 μg/kg bw/d on the basis of the food frequency questionnaire. These values are similar to those reported in comparable populations. Deep-fried french fries consumption contributed the most to daily acrylamide intake (50%) followed by potato chips (10%), oven-baked french fries (8%) and breakfast cereals (8%). Margins of exposure based on genotoxic benchmark dose limits were estimated to be low (≈<100) in high-consumer adolescents, indicating the need to continue efforts to reduce dietary acrylamide exposure. PMID:23517909

  1. Dietary exposure to acrylamide in adolescents from a Canadian urban center.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Louise; Bouchard, Michèle; Ayotte, Pierre; Blanchet, Carole; Becalski, Adam; Bonvalot, Yvette; Phaneuf, Denise; Lapointe, Caroline; Gagné, Michelle; Courteau, Marilène

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of acrylamide in food items frequently consumed by Canadian adolescents was determined along with estimates of their contribution to the overall dietary intake of acrylamide. A total of 196 non-smoking adolescents (10-17 years old) were recruited in Montreal Island population, Canada. Participants were invited to fill out a 2-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire over the last month. 146 samples of foods most frequently consumed by participants were analyzed for acrylamide contents. The highest acrylamide contents were measured in deep-fried french fries and potato chips (mean ± SD: 1053 ± 657 and 524 ± 276 ng/g respectively). On the basis of the 2-day food diary, median total daily intake of acrylamide was estimated at 0.29 μg/kg bw/d, as compared to 0.17 μg/kg bw/d on the basis of the food frequency questionnaire. These values are similar to those reported in comparable populations. Deep-fried french fries consumption contributed the most to daily acrylamide intake (50%) followed by potato chips (10%), oven-baked french fries (8%) and breakfast cereals (8%). Margins of exposure based on genotoxic benchmark dose limits were estimated to be low (≈<100) in high-consumer adolescents, indicating the need to continue efforts to reduce dietary acrylamide exposure.

  2. Memory ability and hippocampal volume in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Tracy; Cacic, Kelsey; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Scaletti, Laura A; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on memory performance and supporting brain structures (i.e., hippocampus) during adolescence. To achieve this goal, declarative memory ability and hippocampal volume were examined in a well-characterized sample of 138 adolescents (76 with a history of PDE and 62 from a non-exposed comparison group recruited from the same community, mean age=14 years). Analyses were adjusted for: age at time of the assessments, gender, IQ, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, and indices of early childhood environment (i.e., caregiver depression, potential for child abuse, and number of caregiver changes through 7 years of age). Results revealed that adolescents with a history of PDE performed worse on the California Verbal Learning Test-Child Version (CVLT-C), and story recall from the Children's Memory Scale (CMS), and had larger hippocampal volumes, even after covariate adjustment. Hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with memory performance on the CVLT-C, with lower memory scores associated with larger volumes. These findings provide support for long-term effects of PDE on memory function and point to neural mechanisms that may underlie these outcomes. PMID:22652523

  3. Exposure to Violence, Social Cognitive Processing, and Sleep Problems in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 yrs, SD = 0.59; Range 11 to 14 yrs; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children’s age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396

  4. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

  5. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26282242

  7. Exposure to violence and intentions to engage in moralistic violence during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Barkin, S; Kreiter, S; DuRant, R H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male-female differences. Sixth-grade students (n=702) from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status. The dependent variable, intention to use moralistic violence, was measured with an 11-item scale. Linear regression models were run separately for males and females. Males had significantly higher mean intention to use moralistic violence than females (p=0.002). Males reported being exposed to violence more than females, but exposure decreased as attendance to religious services increased. For these 11-12-year-olds, unconventional peer social norms, such as witnessing violence, increased their intention to use violence while involvement in conventional activities, such as church attendance, decreased it. The protective effect was greater for males than females.

  8. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence–substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence—direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)—independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences. PMID:23520836

  9. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Postnatal Acceptability of Nicotine Odor and Taste in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  10. Occupational and environmental lead exposure to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb), as other environmental neurotoxicant substances, has the capability to interfere with many biochemical events present in cells throughout the body. In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure to Pb has been assessed by analyzing the scalp hair samples of male adolescents aged 12-15 years, who have worked for the last 12-36 months in Pb battery recycling workshops (BRWs). For comparative purposes, gender and age-matched subjects living in the vicinity of recycling workshops as well as in areas without industrial activity were used as controls. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven prior to determination of Pb by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that both workers and nonworking exposed subjects had higher levels of Pb than nonexposed controls. The contents of Pb in scalp hair of adolescent workers in the present study were compared with those reported in other studies.

  11. Changes in the Adult GluN2B Associated Proteome following Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H Scott; Risher, Mary-Louise; Miller, Kelsey M; Colbran, Roger J; Winder, Danny G; Wills, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is the strongest predictor for alcohol use disorders. In rodents, adolescents have distinct responses to acute ethanol, and prolonged alcohol exposure during adolescence can maintain these phenotypes into adulthood. One brain region that is particularly sensitive to the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) produces long lasting changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology, as well as in the susceptibility to acute ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment. Given the pattern of changes in hippocampal structure and function, one potential target for these effects is the ethanol sensitive GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is known to be involved in synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology. Thus we sought to determine if there were persistent changes in hippocampal GluN2B signaling cascades following AIE. We employed a previously validated GluN2B-targeted proteomic strategy that was used to identify novel signaling mechanisms altered by chronic ethanol exposure in the adult hippocampus. We collected adult hippocampal tissue (P70) from rats that had been given 2 weeks of AIE from P30-45. Tissue extracts were fractionated into synaptic and non-synaptic pools, immuno-precipitated for GluN2B, and then analyzed using proteomic methods. We detected a large number of proteins associated with GluN2B. AIE produced significant changes in the association of many proteins with GluN2B in both synaptic and non-synaptic fractions. Intriguingly the number of proteins changed in the non-synaptic fraction was double that found in the synaptic fraction. Some of these proteins include those involved in glutamate signaling cytoskeleton rearrangement, calcium signaling, and plasticity. Disruptions in these pathways may contribute to the persistent cellular and behavioral changes found in the adult hippocampus following AIE. Further, the robust change in

  12. Changes in the Adult GluN2B Associated Proteome following Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Risher, Mary-Louise; Miller, Kelsey M.; Colbran, Roger J.; Winder, Danny G.; Wills, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is the strongest predictor for alcohol use disorders. In rodents, adolescents have distinct responses to acute ethanol, and prolonged alcohol exposure during adolescence can maintain these phenotypes into adulthood. One brain region that is particularly sensitive to the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) produces long lasting changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology, as well as in the susceptibility to acute ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment. Given the pattern of changes in hippocampal structure and function, one potential target for these effects is the ethanol sensitive GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is known to be involved in synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology. Thus we sought to determine if there were persistent changes in hippocampal GluN2B signaling cascades following AIE. We employed a previously validated GluN2B-targeted proteomic strategy that was used to identify novel signaling mechanisms altered by chronic ethanol exposure in the adult hippocampus. We collected adult hippocampal tissue (P70) from rats that had been given 2 weeks of AIE from P30-45. Tissue extracts were fractionated into synaptic and non-synaptic pools, immuno-precipitated for GluN2B, and then analyzed using proteomic methods. We detected a large number of proteins associated with GluN2B. AIE produced significant changes in the association of many proteins with GluN2B in both synaptic and non-synaptic fractions. Intriguingly the number of proteins changed in the non-synaptic fraction was double that found in the synaptic fraction. Some of these proteins include those involved in glutamate signaling cytoskeleton rearrangement, calcium signaling, and plasticity. Disruptions in these pathways may contribute to the persistent cellular and behavioral changes found in the adult hippocampus following AIE. Further, the robust change in

  13. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  14. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception

    PubMed Central

    Post, Ryan J.; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M.; O’Loughlin, Lauren E.; Bloom, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unconditioned fear-eliciting stimulus in order to induce stress in juvenile rats aged postnatal day (PND) 23 through 27. After further physical maturation characteristic of the adolescent stage (PND 42), animals were tested using an elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and plantar test (Hargreaves method) for pain to assess any lingering effects of the juvenile stress. To assess how an additional stress later in life affects anxiety and pain nociception, PND 43 rats were exposed to inescapable shock (0.8 mA) and again tested on EPM and plantar test. A final testing period was conducted in the adult (PND 63) rats to assess resulting changes in adult behaviors. TMT-exposed rats were significantly more anxious in adolescence than controls, but this difference disappeared after exposure to the secondary stressor. In adulthood, but not in adolescence, TMT-exposed rats demonstrated lower pain sensitivity than controls. These results suggest that early life stress can play a significant role in later anxiety and pain nociception, and offer insight into the development and manifestation of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. PMID:24732419

  15. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception.

    PubMed

    Post, Ryan J; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M; O'Loughlin, Lauren E; Bloom, Christopher M

    2014-05-28

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unconditioned fear-eliciting stimulus in order to induce stress in juvenile rats aged postnatal day (PND) 23 through 27. After further physical maturation characteristic of the adolescent stage (PND 42), animals were tested using an elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and plantar test (Hargreaves method) for pain to assess any lingering effects of the juvenile stress. To assess how an additional stress later in life affects anxiety and pain nociception, PND 43 rats were exposed to inescapable shock (0.8mA) and again tested on EPM and plantar test. A final testing period was conducted in the adult (PND 63) rats to assess resulting changes in adult behaviors. TMT-exposed rats were significantly more anxious in adolescence than controls, but this difference disappeared after exposure to the secondary stressor. In adulthood, but not in adolescence, TMT-exposed rats demonstrated lower pain sensitivity than controls. These results suggest that early life stress can play a significant role in later anxiety and pain nociception, and offer insight into the development and manifestation of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.

  16. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. )

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  17. Israeli adolescents with ongoing exposure to terrorism: suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Madan, Anita; Pitman, Seth R; Wang, Yanping; Doppelt, Osnat; Burns, Kelly Dugan; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationships among terrorism exposure, functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and probable partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from exposure to terrorism in adolescents continuously exposed to this threat in Israel. A convenience sample of 2,094 students, aged 12 to 18, was drawn from 10 Israeli secondary schools. In terms of demographic factors, older age was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation, OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.62], p < .01, but was protective against probable partial or full PTSD, OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.54, 0.95], p < .05; female gender was associated with greater likelihood of probable partial or full PTSD, OR = 1.57, 95% CI [1.02, 2.40], p < .05. Exposure to trauma due to terrorism was associated with increased risk for each of the measured outcomes including probable partial or full PTSD, functional impairment, and suicidal ideation. When age, gender, level of exposure to terrorism, probable partial or full PTSD, and functional impairment were examined together, only terrorism exposure and functional impairment were associated with suicidal ideation. This study underscores the importance and feasibility of examining exposure to terrorism and functional impairment as risk factors for suicidal ideation.

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent stress: Unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Wendy L; Winstanley, Catharine A; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a five day period of variable chronic mild stress (CMS) or no CMS (Non CMS) in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once rats acquired the 5-CSRTT (stable accuracy), rats were tested in three challenge conditions, 1) increased sustained attention, 2) selective attention and, 3) varying doses of d- amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced body weight. Moreover, although PAE were comparable to Con animals in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals as well. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. PMID:25059261

  19. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shusen; Zimmermann, Anthony E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to describe cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), which is thought to be induced by long-term cannabis use, and provide clinical pharmacists with information to manage the hyperemetic phase of CHS. Method: Published literature was searched and reviewed using PubMed. Results: CHS is characterized by intractable nausea and vomiting without an obvious organic cause and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Patients often seek care in the emergency department (ED) for symptomatic relief. Conclusion: CHS is potentially underrecognized and underdiagnosed in the ED, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis in long-term cannabis use patients with CHS symptoms to avoid unnecessary extensive diagnostic workup including invasive radiologic imaging. Pharmacists have an important role in CHS recognition, education, and symptom management. PMID:24421535

  20. Neurobehavioral evaluation of adolescent male rats following repeated exposure to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, You-Zhi; Yuan, Li; Li, Yun-Feng; Li, Jin

    2014-06-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a highly effective organophosphate pesticide (OP), is extensively used worldwide. However, its agricultural use was extensively reduced in 2001. Several studies have suggested an association between mood disorders and CPF exposure in humans, especially in children, a subgroup that is highly susceptible to xenobiotics. We investigated the hypothesis that repeated CPF exposure in animals would elicit depressive-like behavioral alterations that reflected depression-related symptoms. Adolescent male rats were subcutaneously injected with either olive oil or 2.5, 5, 10, or 20mg/kg CPF from postnatal day 27 to 36, then were followed by a series of neurobehavioral evaluation. Our studies revealed depressive-like alterations that were manifested by increased despair behavior in the forced swimming test, increased escape failure in the learned helplessness test, and altered approach-avoidance conflict in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. There was no effect on locomotor activity in the open-field activity test. This study indicates that repeated exposure to CPF elicits depressive-like behavioral alterations in adolescent male rats. PMID:24708925

  1. Repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence alters inhibitory tone in the medial prefrontal cortex following drug re-exposure in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kush; Kang, Shuo; Cox, Charles L; Gulley, Joshua M

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure is associated with changes in GABA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats exposed to AMPH during adolescence compared to adulthood, there are unique patterns of sensitization that may reflect age-dependent differences in drug effects on prefrontal GABAergic function. In the current study, we used a sensitizing regimen of repeated AMPH exposure in adolescent and adult rats to determine if a post-withdrawal AMPH challenge would alter inhibitory transmission in the mPFC in a manner that depends on age of exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or 3mg/kg AMPH (i.p.) during adolescence [postnatal day (P) 27-P45] or adulthood (P85- P103) and were sacrificed either at similar ages in adulthood (∼P133; experiment 1) or after similar withdrawal times (3-4 weeks; experiment 2). Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in vitro from deep layer pyramidal cells in the mPFC using the whole-cell configuration. We found no effect of AMPH pre-exposure on baseline sIPSC frequency. Subsequent application of AMPH (25μM) produced a stable increase in sIPSC frequency in controls, suggesting that AMPH increases inhibitory tone in the mPFC. However, AMPH failed to increase sIPSCs in adolescent- or adult-exposed rats. In experiment 2, where withdrawal period was kept similar for both exposure groups, AMPH induced a suppression of sIPSC activity in adolescent-exposed rats. These results suggest that sensitizing treatment with AMPH during adolescence or adulthood dampens inhibitory influences on mPFC pyramidal cells, but potentially through different mechanisms.

  2. Adolescent cocaine exposure causes enduring macroscale changes in mouse brain structure.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Anne L; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Friedel, Miriam; Sled, John G; Fletcher, Paul J; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2013-01-30

    Cocaine dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain structure in humans. However, it is unclear whether these differences in brain structure predispose an individual to drug use or are a result of cocaine's action on the brain. This study investigates the impact of chronic cocaine exposure on brain structure and drug-related behavior in mice. Specifically, mice received daily cocaine or saline injections for 20 d during two developmental time periods: adolescence (27-46 d old) and young adulthood (60-79 d old). Following 30 d of abstinence, either fixed brain T2 weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired on a 7 T scanner at 32 μm isotropic voxel dimensions or mice were assessed for sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Three automated techniques (deformation-based morphometry, striatum shape analysis, and cortical thickness assessment) were used to identify population differences in brain structure in cocaine-exposed versus saline-exposed mice. We found that cocaine induced changes in brain structure, and these were most pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. Many of these changes occurred in brain regions previously implicated in addiction including the nucleus accumbens, striatum, insular cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial forebrain bundle. Furthermore, exposure to the same cocaine regimen caused sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine, and these effects were again more pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. These results suggest that altered brain structure following 1 month of abstinence may contribute to these persistent drug-related behaviors, and identify cocaine exposure as the cause of these morphological changes. PMID:23365219

  3. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system. PMID:26092091

  4. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system.

  5. ADOLESCENT BINGE ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS HIPPOCAMPAL PROGENITOR CELL PROLIFERATION IN RATS: EFFECTS ON CELL CYCLE KINETICS

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Justin A.; Hayes, Dayna M.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Binge alcohol exposure in adolescent rats potently inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis by altering neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and survival; however, it is not clear whether alcohol results in an increase or decrease in net proliferation. Thus, the effects of alcohol on hippocampal NPC cell cycle phase distribution and kinetics were assessed in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Cell cycle distribution was measured using a combination of markers (Ki-67, bromo-deoxy-uridine incorporation, and phospho-histone H3) to determine the proportion of NPCs within G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics were calculated using a cumulative bromo-deoxy-uridine injection protocol to determine the effect of alcohol on cell cycle length and S-phase duration. Binge alcohol exposure reduced the proportion of NPCs in S-phase, but had no effect on G1 or G2/M phases, indicating that alcohol specifically targets S-phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics studies revealed that alcohol reduced NPC cell cycle duration by 36% and shortened S-phase by 62%, suggesting that binge alcohol exposure accelerates progression through the cell cycle. This effect would be expected to increase NPC proliferation, which was supported by a slight, but significant increase in the number of Sox-2+ NPCs residing in the hippocampal subgranular zone following binge alcohol exposure. These studies suggest the mechanism of alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis but also reveal the earliest evidence of the compensatory neurogenesis reaction that has been observed a week after binge alcohol exposure. PMID:21484803

  6. In Utero Exposure to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Brenner, Alina V.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m2 per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However

  7. In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However

  8. The association between exposure to "Tips" and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    The Tips From Former Smokers ("Tips") campaign in the United States primarily targets adult smokers, but considers adolescents an important secondary audience. This study examines the association between exposure to Tips and smoking outcomes in the adolescent population in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of middle- and high-school students in the United States (n = 18 406). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between exposure to Tips advertisements and quitting intentions among current smokers and smoking susceptibility among experimenters and never smokers. Among current smokers, exposure to one Tips ad (versus no exposure) was positively associated with intending to quit. Similar associations also emerged for higher levels of exposure but did not reach significance. Among never smokers, exposure to four and more ads (versus no exposure) was associated with lower smoking susceptibility. Exposure to Tips ads was unrelated to smoking susceptibility among experimenters. The associations observed in the study suggest an intricate, and generally favorable, relationship between campaign exposure and smoking-related outcomes among current smokers and never smokers. Close monitoring of the Tips' impact on the adolescent population is needed. PMID:27422897

  9. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  10. A comparison of the short- and long-term effects of corticosterone exposure on extinction in adolescence versus adulthood.

    PubMed

    Den, Miriam Liora; Altmann, Sarah R; Richardson, Rick

    2014-12-01

    Human and nonhuman adolescents have impaired retention of extinction of learned fear, relative to juveniles and adults. It is unknown whether exposure to stress affects extinction differently in adolescents versus adults. These experiments compared the short- and long-term effects of exposure to the stress-related hormone corticosterone (CORT) on the extinction of learned fear in adolescent and adult rats. Across all experiments, adolescent and adult rats were trained to exhibit good extinction retention by giving extinction training across 2 consecutive days. Despite this extra training, adolescents exposed to 1 week of CORT (200 μg/ml) in their drinking water showed impaired extinction retention when trained shortly after the CORT was removed (Experiment 1a). In contrast, adult rats exposed to CORT (200 μg/ml) for the same duration did not exhibit deficits in extinction retention (Experiment 1b). Exposing adolescents to half the amount of CORT (100 μg/ml; Experiment 1c) for 1 week similarly disrupted extinction retention. Extinction impairments in adult rats were only observed after 3 weeks, rather than 1 week, of CORT (200 μg/ml; Experiment 1d). Remarkably, however, adult rats showed impaired extinction retention if they had been exposed to 1 week of CORT (200 μg/ml) during adolescence (Experiment 2). Finally, exposure to 3 weeks of CORT (200 μg/ml) in adulthood led to long-lasting extinction deficits after a 6-week drug-free period (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that although CORT disrupts both short- and long-term extinction retention in adolescents and adults, adolescents may be more vulnerable to these effects because of the maturation of stress-sensitive brain regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  12. An animal model of adolescent nicotine exposure: effects on gene expression and macromolecular constituents in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Trauth, J A; Seidler, F J; Slotkin, T A

    2000-06-01

    Nearly all smokers begin tobacco use in adolescence, and approximately 25% of US teenagers are daily smokers. Prenatal nicotine exposure is known to produce brain damage, to alter synaptic function and to cause behavioral anomalies, but little or no work has been done to determine if the adolescent brain is also vulnerable. We examined the effect of adolescent nicotine exposure on indices of cell damage in male and female rats with an infusion paradigm designed to match the plasma levels found in human smokers or in users of the transdermal nicotine patch. Measurements were made of DNA and protein as well as expression of mRNAs encoding genes involved in differentiation and apoptosis (p53, c-fos) in cerebral cortex, midbrain and hippocampus. Following nicotine treatment from postnatal days 30-47.5, changes in macromolecular constituents indicative of cell loss (reduced DNA) and altered cell size (protein/DNA ratio) were seen across all three brain regions. In addition, expression of p53 showed region- and gender-selective alterations consistent with cell damage; c-fos, which is constitutively overexpressed after gestational nicotine exposure, was unaffected with the adolescent treatment paradigm. Although these measures indicate that the fetal brain is more vulnerable to nicotine than is the adolescent brain, the critical period for nicotine-induced developmental neurotoxicity clearly extends into adolescence. Effects on gene expression and cell number, along with resultant or direct effects on synaptic function, may contribute to increased addictive properties and long-term behavioral deficits. PMID:10837795

  13. Domestic violence exposure in Colombian adolescents: pathways to violent and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Roberto; Kliewer, Wendy; Williams, Larry

    2006-04-01

    Associations between domestic violence exposure and violent and prosocial behavior were tested in a sample of Colombian adolescents, with attention to impulsivity and substance use problems as mediators of these associations. A representative sample of 1,152 school youths and a convenience group of 148 juvenile offenders aged 11-19 years participated. Results using structural equation modeling showed indirect effects of impulsivity and substance use problems between family violence (i.e., exposure to interparental violence) and violent behavior. Maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting) was directly associated with violent behavior, though impulsivity and substance use problems also mediated this relation. Maltreatment directly and inversely contributed to prosocial behavior but there was no evidence of mediation. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive and behavioral factors that explain violent and prosocial behavior among Colombian youths. Limitations and implications for prevention are described. PMID:16612821

  14. Prenatal tobacco exposure is related to neurobehavioral modifications in infants of adolescent mothers

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marina C. M.; Mitsuhiro, Sandro S.; Chalem, Elisa; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R.; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prenatal tobacco exposure interferes with neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the neonatal neurobehavioral effects of in utero tobacco exposure. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy, term, with birth weight appropriate for gestacional age neonates without exposure to alcohol, drugs, or infections, born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders or post-traumatic stress. Infants were classified according to in utero tobacco exposure, as identified by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered to mothers. Neurobehavior was assessed by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Both tools were administered between 24 and 72 hours after birth. Neurobehavioral outcomes were compared between exposed and non-exposed infants by ANOVA. The associations between neurobehavioral scores and number of cigarettes smoked were studied by linear correlation. RESULTS: During the study, 928 newborns of adolescent mothers were born, and 388 were included in the study. Of these, 23 were exposed to tobacco, and 365 neonates were not exposed. There were no differences between the groups in gestational age, birth weight, post-natal age at the exam, or time between last feeding and exam. Exposed neonates showed higher scores on arousal (p = 0.004), excitability (p = 0.003), and stress/abstinence signals (p = 0.019) and a lower score on regulation (p = 0.025). After adjusting for the type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, gender, age at neurologic exam, exam duration and time between last feeding and exam, differences in arousal and excitability remained significant. The mean number of cigarettes consumed daily was positively correlated with lethargy (p = 0.013) and inversely with attention (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Neonates exposed in utero to tobacco showed worse neurobehavioral performance between 24 and 48 hours of life. PMID:22179166

  15. Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a

  16. Chronic methylphenidate exposure during adolescence reduces striatal synaptic responses to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Nicole A; Cody, Patrick A; Davis, Margaret I; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays an important role in integrative functions contributing to adaptive behaviors. In support of this essential function, DA modulates synaptic plasticity in different brain areas, including the striatum. Many drugs used for cognitive enhancement are psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which enhance DA levels. MPH treatment is of interest during adolescence, a period of enhanced neurodevelopment during which the DA system is in a state of flux. Recent epidemiological studies report the co-abuse of MPH and ethanol in adolescents and young adults. Although repeated MPH treatment produces enduring changes that affect subsequent behavioral responses to other psychostimulants, few studies have investigated the interactions between MPH and ethanol. Here we addressed whether chronic therapeutic exposure to MPH during adolescence predisposed mice to an altered response to ethanol and whether this was accompanied by altered DA release and striatal plasticity. C57BL/6J mice were administered MPH (3-6 mg/kg/day) via the drinking water between post-natal days 30 and 60. Voltammetry experiments showed that sufficient brain MPH concentrations were achieved during adolescence in mice to increase the DA clearance in adulthood. The treatment also increased long-term depression and reduced the effects of ethanol on striatal synaptic responses. Although the injection of 0.4 or 2 g/kg ethanol dose-dependently decreased locomotion in control mice, only the higher dose decreased locomotion in MPH-treated mice. These results suggested that the administration of MPH during development promoted long-term effects on synaptic plasticity in forebrain regions targeted by DA. These changes in plasticity might, in turn, underlie alterations in behaviors controlled by these brain regions into adulthood.

  17. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, Jung Woo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Noh, Ji Heon; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie Hongjian; Ryu, Jae Chun; Ahn, Young Min; Min, Jin-Hye; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Nam, Suk Woo

    2009-05-15

    The amphetamine derivative ({+-})-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  18. Adolescents who intend to change multiple health behaviours choose greater exposure to an internet-delivered intervention.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Nanne K

    2008-10-01

    Despite a growth of Internet-delivered interventions, exposure rates to such interventions are still low. In total, 35,104 adolescents participated in the E-MOVO project: an Internet-delivered lifestyle intervention aimed at multiple health behaviours. By means of multilevel analyses, we demonstrated the relationship between intention to change behaviour and adolescents' exposure to E-MOVO's functionalities. There was a clustering of intention to change risk taking behaviours in an unhealthy way and energy balance-related behaviours in a healthy way. This should be taken into account with the design of Internet-delivered interventions.

  19. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid During Adolescence Produces Memory Deficits in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Akagbosu, Cynthia O.; Evans, Gretchen C.; Gulick, Danielle; Suckow, Raymond F.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The glia-derived molecule kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the glycineB binding site on n-methyl-d-aspartateglutamate receptors, both of which have critical roles in neural plasticity as well as learning and memory. KYNA levels are increased in the brains and cerebral spinal fluid of persons with schizophrenia, leading to the notion that changes in KYNA concentration might contribute to cognitive dysfunction associated with this disorder. Indeed, recent studies indicate that increasing endogenous KYNA concentration by administering l-kynurenine (L-KYN, the precursor of KYNA) impairs spatial as well as contextual learning and memory in adult rats. In the present study, rats were treated with L-KYN (100 mg/kg) throughout adolescence to increase endogenous KYNA concentration during this critical time in brain development. Rats were then tested drug-free as adults to test the hypothesis that exposure to elevated levels of KYNA during development may contribute to cognitive dysfunction later in life. Consistent with prior studies in which adult rats were treated acutely with L-KYN, juvenile rats exposed to increased KYNA concentration during adolescence exhibited deficits in contextual fear memory, but cue-specific fear memory was not impaired. In addition, rats treated with L-KYN as adolescents were impaired on a novel object recognition memory task when tested as adults. The memory deficits could not be explained by drug-induced changes in locomotor activity or shock sensitivity. Together, these findings add to the growing literature supporting the notion that exposure to increased concentration of KYNA may contribute to cognitive deficits typically observed in schizophrenia. PMID:21172906

  20. Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2005-10-01

    Estimates suggest that up to 90% or more youth between 12 and 18 years have access to the Internet. Concern has been raised that this increased accessibility may lead to a rise in pornography seeking among children and adolescents, with potentially serious ramifications for child and adolescent sexual development. Using data from the Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional telephone survey of 1501 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years), characteristics associated with self-reported pornography seeking behavior, both on the Internet and using traditional methods (e.g., magazines), are identified. Seekers of pornography, both online and offline, are significantly more likely to be male, with only 5% of self-identified seekers being female. The vast majority (87%) of youth who report looking for sexual images online are 14 years of age or older, when it is developmentally appropriate to be sexually curious. Children under the age of 14 who have intentionally looked at pornography are more likely to report traditional exposures, such as magazines or movies. Concerns about a large group of young children exposing themselves to pornography on the Internet may be overstated. Those who report intentional exposure to pornography, irrespective of source, are significantly more likely to cross-sectionally report delinquent behavior and substance use in the previous year. Further, online seekers versus offline seekers are more likely to report clinical features associated with depression and lower levels of emotional bonding with their caregiver. Results of the current investigation raise important questions for further inquiry. Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences.

  1. Cannabinoids in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Natalya M; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. However, concern over the dangers of abuse led to the banning of the medicinal use of marijuana in most countries in the 1930s. Only recently, marijuana and individual natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as chemically related compounds, whose mechanism of action is still obscure, have come back to being considered of therapeutic value. However, their use is highly restricted. Despite the mild addiction to cannabis and the possible enhancement of addiction to other substances of abuse, when combined with cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases, such as anorexia, emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease), epilepsy, glaucoma, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders, to name just a few, are being treated or have the potential to be treated by cannabinoid agonists/antagonists/cannabinoid-related compounds. In view of the very low toxicity and the generally benign side effects of this group of compounds, neglecting or denying their clinical potential is unacceptable--instead, we need to work on the development of more selective cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists and related compounds, as well as on novel drugs of this family with better selectivity, distribution patterns, and pharmacokinetics, and--in cases where it is impossible to separate the desired clinical action and the psychoactivity--just to monitor these side effects carefully.

  2. Cannabinoids in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Natalya M.; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. However, concern over the dangers of abuse led to the banning of the medicinal use of marijuana in most countries in the 1930s. Only recently, marijuana and individual natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as chemically related compounds, whose mechanism of action is still obscure, have come back to being considered of therapeutic value. However, their use is highly restricted. Despite the mild addiction to cannabis and the possible enhancement of addiction to other substances of abuse, when combined with cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases, such as anorexia, emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease), epilepsy, glaucoma, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders, to name just a few, are being treated or have the potential to be treated by cannabinoid agonists/antagonists/cannabinoid-related compounds. In view of the very low toxicity and the generally benign side effects of this group of compounds, neglecting or denying their clinical potential is unacceptable - instead, we need to work on the development of more selective cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists and related compounds, as well as on novel drugs of this family with better selectivity, distribution patterns, and pharmacokinetics, and - in cases where it is impossible to separate the desired clinical action and the psychoactivity - just to monitor these side effects carefully. PMID:18286801

  3. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Elikottil, Jaseena; Gupta, Pankaj; Gupta, Kalpna

    2013-01-01

    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents. However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain. PMID:20073408

  4. Comparison of the deleterious effects of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David

    2015-03-01

    A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. PMID:25556946

  5. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression.

  6. [The use of saliva for exposure assessments on designer drugs among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Tezyk, Artur; Piznal, Małgorzata; Bogusiewicz, Joanna; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Drug use is one of the fundamental problems of the contemporary world. Due to the debilitating effects on physical and mental health and the possibility of impaired social functions, it is extremely important to assess exposure to psychoactive substances among high-risk groups. Taking into account characteristics of adolescence, one of them includes young people. To assess the exposure of young people to drugs, survey research is the most commonly use. To establish reliability of the information indicated by the students, toxicological studies could be a good manner. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is currently one of the most common techniques use for the detection and determination of psychoactive substances in biological material. In practice, an important issue in toxicological studies is the selection of a suitable biological material. Taking into account economic considerations and the method of sampling, the saliva is an increasingly used alternative material. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of junior high school students on psychoactive substances--designer drugs, through the analysis of surveys and qualitative analysis of saliva taken from teenagers. It has been shown that surveys are a relatively quick and easy form of assessing the exposure of young people to psychoactive substances, but require verification through toxicological analysis of biological material for the presence of psychoactive substances for their reliability. Poznan secondary school students experimented with designer drugs at a similar level as respondents of nationwide survey from 2013. PMID:26946561

  7. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression. PMID:19016226

  8. Relationships Between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Miu, Angela

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the U.S., and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2010) reanalyzed data from one of these studies (Brown et al., 2006) using a propensity-score approach, arguing that this method better addresses the possibility of unobserved confounders. Based on their reanalysis, which found no relationship between media exposure and sexual behavior, they concluded that "Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse." We subject data from the second study (Collins et al., 2004; Chandra et al., 2008) to reanalysis using a propensity-score approach. We find only modest reductions in two of the three previously documented associations, and no reduction in the third. Based on these findings, we conclude that there is an association between exposure to sex in the media and adolescent sexual outcomes. While the evidence does not prove causality, it is sufficient to advise caution among parents, develop interventions for youth, and work with media producers and distributors to reduce youth exposure to sexual content. PMID:24839301

  9. Socioeconomic Inequality in Exposure to Bullying During Adolescence: A Comparative, Cross-Sectional, Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; soc, Mag scient; Holstein, Bjørn E.; soc, Mag scient; Hetland, Jørn; Currie, Candace; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Lynch, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the socioeconomic distribution of adolescent exposure to bullying internationally and documented the contribution of the macroeconomic environment. Methods. We used an international survey of 162 305 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years from nationally representative samples of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001–2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. Results. Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic inequality (as measured by the Gini coefficient) at the national level were associated with an increased prevalence of exposure to bullying. Conclusions. There is socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying among adolescents, leaving children of greater socioeconomic disadvantage at higher risk of victimization. Adolescents who attend schools and live in countries where socioeconomic differences are larger are at higher risk of being bullied. PMID:19299676

  10. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time.

  11. Synthetic cannabinoids: analysis and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Wanas, Amira S; Radwan, Mohamed M

    2014-02-27

    Cannabimimetics (commonly referred to as synthetic cannabinoids), a group of compounds encompassing a wide range of chemical structures, have been developed by scientists with the hope of achieving selectivity toward one or the other of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. The goal was to have compounds that could possess high therapeutic activity without many side effects. However, underground laboratories have used the information generated by the scientific community to develop these compounds for illicit use as marijuana substitutes. This chapter reviews the different classes of these "synthetic cannabinoids" with particular emphasis on the methods used for their identification in the herbal products with which they are mixed and identification of their metabolites in biological specimens.

  12. Acute Poisonings from Synthetic Cannabinoids - 50 U.S. Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry Sites, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Campleman, Sharan L; Carlson, Robert G; Boyer, Edward W; Manini, Alex F; Wax, Paul M; Brent, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that acute intoxications by synthetic cannabinoids are increasing in the United States (1,2). Synthetic cannabinoids, which were research compounds in the 1980s, are now produced overseas; the first shipment recognized to contain synthetic cannabinoids was seized at a U.S. border in 2008 (3). Fifteen synthetic cannabinoids are Schedule I controlled substances (3), but enforcement is hampered by the continual introduction of new chemical compounds (1,3). Studies of synthetic cannabinoids indicate higher cannabinoid receptor binding affinities, effects two to 100 times more potent than Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis), noncannabinoid receptor binding, and genotoxicity (4,5). Acute synthetic cannabinoid exposure reportedly causes a range of mild to severe neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, and other effects (4,6,7); chronic use might lead to psychosis (6,8). During 2010-2015, physicians in the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) treated 456 patients for synthetic cannabinoid intoxications; 277 of the 456 patients reported synthetic cannabinoids as the sole toxicologic agent. Among these 277 patients, the most common clinical signs of intoxication were neurologic (agitation, central nervous system depression/coma, and delirium/toxic psychosis). Relative to all cases logged by 50 different sites in the ToxIC Case Registry, there was a statistically significant association between reporting year and the annual proportion of synthetic cannabinoid cases. In 2015, reported cases of synthetic cannabinoid intoxication increased at several ToxIC sites, corroborating reported upward trends in the numbers of such cases (1,2) and underscoring the need for prevention. PMID:27413997

  13. HPA function in adolescence: role of sex hormones in its regulation and the enduring consequences of exposure to stressors.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Mathews, Iva Z

    2007-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the physiological systems involved in coping with stressors. There are functional shifts in the HPA axis and its regulation by sex hormones over the lifespan that allow the animal to meet the challenges of the internal and external environment that are specific to each stage of development. Sex differences in HPA function emerge over adolescence, a phenomenon reflecting the concomitant initiation of regulatory effects of sex hormones. The focus of this review is recent research on differences between adolescents and adults in HPA function and the enduring effects of exposure to stressors in adolescence. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Although research has been scarce, there is a growing evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence may alter behavioural responses to drugs and cognitive performance in adulthood. However, the effects reported appear to be stressor-specific and sex-specific. Such research may contribute toward understanding the increased risk for drug abuse and psychopathology that occurs over adolescence in people.

  14. Cerebral radiofrequency exposures during adolescence: Impact on astrocytes and brain functions in healthy and pathologic rat models.

    PubMed

    Petitdant, Nicolas; Lecomte, Anthony; Robidel, Franck; Gamez, Christelle; Blazy, Kelly; Villégier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones by adolescents raises concerns about possible health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF 900 MHz) on the immature brain. Neuro-development is a period of particular sensitivity to repeated environmental challenges such as pro-inflammatory insults. Here, we used rats to assess whether astrocyte reactivity, perception, and emotionality were affected by RF EMF exposures during adolescence. We also investigated if adolescent brains were more sensitive to RF EMF exposures after neurodevelopmental inflammation. To do so, we either performed 80 μg/kg intra-peritoneal injections of lipopolysaccharides during gestation or 1.25 μg/h intra-cerebro-ventricular infusions during adolescence. From postnatal day (P)32 to 62, rats were subjected to 45 min RF EMF exposures to the brain (specific absorption rates: 0, 1.5, or 6 W/kg, 5 days/week). From P56, they were tested for perception of novelty, anxiety-like behaviors, and emotional memory. To assess astrocytic reactivity, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein was measured at P64. Our results did not show any neurobiological impairment in healthy and vulnerable RF EMF-exposed rats compared to their sham-exposed controls. These data did not support the hypothesis of a specific cerebral sensitivity to RF EMF of adolescents, even after a neurodevelopmental inflammation. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:338-350, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272062

  15. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  16. Accuracy and Concordance in Reporting for Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Adolescents Undergoing Treatment for Cancer and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Jody S.; Tyc, Vida L.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined adolescent reporting accuracy for secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), and never for youth with cancer. SHSe reporting from adolescents being treated for cancer (Mage=14.92 years, SD=1.67) was examined against parent/guardian reports and urine cotinine among 42 adolescent–parent dyads. Number of days in hospital-based lodgings prior to assessment emerged as the strongest predictor of urine cotinine (β=−0.46, p=0.003) and adolescent SHSe reporting significantly predicted urine cotinine (β=0.37, p=0.011) beyond relevant demographic and contextual variables (overall R2=0.40, F(6, 35)=3.90, p=0.004). Findings support adolescents as accurate reporters of discrete SHSe occurrences. PMID:24066272

  17. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20981623

  18. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  19. Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: a five year longitudinal test.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Bolland, John M

    2012-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed: (1) a trajectory of declining parental monitoring for 48% of youth; and (2) four distinct trajectories of exposure to violence. Multivariate findings were largely consistent with the ecological-transactional model of community violence. Youth with stable and/or increasing trajectories of exposure to violence were more likely than youth with stable-low exposure to violence to have declining parental monitoring, but additional analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings for younger adolescents (age 9-11 T1), but no evidence of linkages between trajectories of exposure to violence and parental monitoring for older adolescents (age 12-16 T1). The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  20. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure in adolescent mice on the future ovarian reserve in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qu, Guoqiang; Dong, Xiyuan; Huang, Kai; Kumar, Molly; Ji, Licheng; Wang, Ya; Yao, Junning; Yang, Shulin; Wu, Ruxing; Zhang, Hanwang

    2016-02-01

    Currently, there is an increasing prevalence of adolescent exposure to methamphetamine (MA). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the long-term impact of early exposure to MA upon female fertility and ovarian reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term MA exposure in adolescents on their ovarian reserve in adulthood. Adolescent mice received intraperitoneal injections of MA (5mg/kg, three times per week) or saline from the 21st postnatal day for an 8 week period. Morphological, histological, biochemical, hormonal and ethological parameters were evaluated. An impaired ovarian reserve and vitality was found in the group treated with MA, manifesting in morphological-apparent mitochondrial damage, an activated apoptosis pathway in the ovarian tissue, a downward expression of ovarian anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a decreased number of primordial and growing follicles, an increased number of atretic follicles, and a depressed secretion of AMH, estradiol and progesterone from granulosa cells. However, no significant difference was noticed regarding the estrous cycle, the mating ability and the fertility outcome in the reproductive age of the mice after a period of non-medication. The present results confirmed that a long term exposure to methamphetamine in adolescent mice does have an adverse impact on their ovarian reserve, which indicates that such an early abuse of MA might influence the fertility lifespan of the female mouse.

  1. Adolescent nicotine exposure fails to impact cocaine reward, aversion and self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Bostwick, Tamaara A; Wetzell, B Bradley; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-10-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of adolescent nicotine pre-exposure on the rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine and on cocaine self-administration in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 28-43) were given once daily injections of nicotine (0.6mg/kg) or vehicle and then tested for the aversive and rewarding effects of cocaine in a combined conditioned taste avoidance (CTA)/conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in adulthood. In Experiment 2, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to nicotine then tested for cocaine self-administration (0.25 or 0.75mg/kg), progressive ratio (PR) responding, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement in adulthood. In Experiment 1, rats showed significant dose-dependent cocaine-induced taste avoidance with cocaine-injected subjects consuming less saccharin over trials, but no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. For place preferences, cocaine induced significant place preferences with cocaine injected subjects spending significantly more time on the cocaine-paired side, but again there was no effect of nicotine history. All rats in Experiment 2 showed clear, dose-dependent responding during cocaine acquisition, PR testing, extinction and reinstatement with no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. These studies demonstrate that adolescent nicotine pre-exposure does not have an impact on cocaine's affective properties or its self-administration at least with the specific parametric conditions under which these effects were tested.

  2. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Marital Violence on Adolescent Gender-Role Beliefs and Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Erika L.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to marital violence in childhood are at risk for engaging in dating violence as adolescents or young adults. Using a longitudinal prospective design, mother--child pairs from violent and nonviolent homes (N = 208) were interviewed about exposure to marital violence twice over a 7--9 year time span. Responses to questions about…

  3. Adolescent nicotine exposure fails to impact cocaine reward, aversion and self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Bostwick, Tamaara A; Wetzell, B Bradley; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-10-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of adolescent nicotine pre-exposure on the rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine and on cocaine self-administration in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 28-43) were given once daily injections of nicotine (0.6mg/kg) or vehicle and then tested for the aversive and rewarding effects of cocaine in a combined conditioned taste avoidance (CTA)/conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in adulthood. In Experiment 2, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to nicotine then tested for cocaine self-administration (0.25 or 0.75mg/kg), progressive ratio (PR) responding, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement in adulthood. In Experiment 1, rats showed significant dose-dependent cocaine-induced taste avoidance with cocaine-injected subjects consuming less saccharin over trials, but no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. For place preferences, cocaine induced significant place preferences with cocaine injected subjects spending significantly more time on the cocaine-paired side, but again there was no effect of nicotine history. All rats in Experiment 2 showed clear, dose-dependent responding during cocaine acquisition, PR testing, extinction and reinstatement with no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. These studies demonstrate that adolescent nicotine pre-exposure does not have an impact on cocaine's affective properties or its self-administration at least with the specific parametric conditions under which these effects were tested. PMID:26255152

  4. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  5. Is Exposure to Domestic Violence and Violent Crime Associated with Bullying Behaviour among Underage Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustanoja, Susanna; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Saavala, Hannu; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship of exposure to domestic violence and violence occurring outside home to bullying behaviour in a sample (508; 40.9% males, 59.1% females) of underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Participants were interviewed using K-SADS-PL to assess DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses and to gather information about domestic and other…

  6. The Effect of Exposure to Pro-Tobacco Advertising on Experimentation with Emerging Tobacco Products among U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaku, Israel T.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study assessed the influence of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements on experimentation with emerging tobacco products among U.S. adolescents aged =9 years, in Grades 6 to 12. Method: Data were obtained from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the association between…

  7. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  8. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  9. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  10. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  11. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  12. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  13. Relationships between Media Exposure, Violent Images, and Attitude towards the U.S.: Contradictions in Japanese Adolescents' Images and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yasuhiro

    A study examined the relationship between Japanese adolescents' media exposure, images of the United States, and their attitudes towards the United States and its people by surveying Japanese junior high school students. By using cultivation theory, the study hypothesized that an image of a dangerous America would be partly attributed to Japanese…

  14. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  15. The effects of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on the neurobehavioral development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Song-Yen; Chou, Hung-Yi; The, Hee-Wen; Chen, Chao-Meei; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the possible influence on the development of cognitive function among adolescents due to long-term arsenic exposure. Forty-nine junior school students drinking arsenic-containing well water and 60 controls matched with age, sex, education, body height, body weight, body mass index, and socioeconomic status were compared. The former was divided into two groups: high and low exposure, with mean cumulative arsenic levels of 520629.0+/-605824.2 and 13782.2+/-12886.0 ppm, respectively. Four neurobehavioral tests including continuous performance test (CPT), symbol digit (SD), pattern memory (PM) and switching attention (SA) were applied. A strong correlation between age and education caused collinearity in the multiple regression model (r=0.84, P<0.0001). Only education and sex, excluding age, were entered into the model as covariates. Pattern memory and switching attention were significantly affected by long-term cumulative exposure to arsenic after adjusting for education and sex. It is suggested that the arsenic levels in the well water may be monitored extensively, but if there is no intervention, then neurobehavioral function will not be protected. Limitations of the current study require replication of this effect in other studies to confirm this conclusion.

  16. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. PMID:27521777

  17. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study.

  18. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  19. Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache.

    PubMed

    McGeeney, Brian E

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogens and most cannabinoids are classified under schedule 1 of the Federal Controlled Substances Act 1970, along with heroin and ecstacy. Hence they cannot be prescribed by physicians, and by implication, have no accepted medical use with a high abuse potential. Despite their legal status, hallucinogens and cannabinoids are used by patients for relief of headache, helped by the growing number of American states that have legalized medical marijuana. Cannabinoids in particular have a long history of use in the abortive and prophylactic treatment of migraine before prohibition and are still used by patients as a migraine abortive in particular. Most practitioners are unaware of the prominence cannabis or "marijuana" once held in medical practice. Hallucinogens are being increasingly used by cluster headache patients outside of physician recommendation mainly to abort a cluster period and maintain quiescence for which there is considerable anecdotal success. The legal status of cannabinoids and hallucinogens has for a long time severely inhibited medical research, and there are still no blinded studies on headache subjects, from which we could assess true efficacy.

  20. Typologies of Violence Exposure and Cognitive Processing in Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Suzanne C.; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Ametrano, Rebecca M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated youth experience high rates of violence exposure (VE), cognitive processing (CP) deficits, and mental health (MH) problems. It is not clear whether VE combined with CP deficits are particularly salient risk factors for MH dysfunction. Male incarcerated youth offenders (n = 115) completed standardized self-reports of MH and VE. CP was measured with executive functioning tasks and academic assessments. Person-centered Ward’s Squared Euclidian Distance cluster analysis was used to examine unique patterns of CP and VE. Cluster analysis defined five distinct profiles of MH functioning, CP, and VE rates within incarcerated adolescents. Two groups, with high rates of VE and CP deficits, showed high rates of MH problems. Linear techniques may obscure important differences within this population. PMID:25104877

  1. Exposures of lead to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops and surrounding communities.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure of lead (Pb) has been assessed by analyzing the whole-blood samples of early adolescents (boys) aged 12-15 years working for the past 1-3 years in battery recycling workshops (BRW). For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group residing in the vicinity of BRW (exposed non-workers) and who lived in domestic areas devoid of any industrial activity (referents boys) were selected. The blood samples were analyzed for Pb, along with biochemical parameters of blood. Both biological samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven before determination of Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean value of Pb concentration in blood samples of working boys was threefold higher as compared with referent boys. The significant negative correlations of blood Pb level with % Hb (r=-0.862) were observed in working boys.

  2. Risky business: trauma exposure and rate of posttraumatic stress disorder in African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristin L; Martens, Patricia M; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2011-06-01

    Demographics, parental risk factors, and experiencing interpersonal trauma (domestic violence, community violence, and physical and sexual abuse) are related to childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these factors and the risk of PTSD in African American children. This study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and gender, age, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, and interpersonal trauma in African American children. Participants were 257 children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years (M = 11.7, SD = 2.5), who received outpatient mental health treatment. Being female and witnessing domestic violence was associated with more PTSD symptoms. Exposure to community violence and physical abuse increased the odds of clinically significant PTSD symptomatology by more than 2 times. The rate of PTSD (16%) was lower in the current study than in other same-age study populations (25%-40%). Risk factors and identification strategies for PTSD are discussed.

  3. Effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence or in adulthood on Pavlovian conditioned approach in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    McClory, Alexander James; Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-12-01

    Human studies have shown that adolescents who repeatedly use alcohol are more likely to be dependent on alcohol and are more likely to suffer from psychological problems later in life. There has been limited research examining how ethanol exposure in adolescence might contribute to later abuse or addiction in adulthood. The present experiment examined effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on sign-tracking behavior in adulthood, indexed by a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) task wherein an 8s lever presentation served as a cue predicting subsequent delivery of a flavored food pellet. Although no response was required for food delivery, after multiple pairings, 1 of 2 different responses often emerged during the lever presentation: goal tracking (head entries into the food trough) or sign tracking (engagement with the lever when presented). Sign tracking is thought to reflect the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues and has been previously correlated with addiction-like behaviors. Following the last PCA session, blood samples were collected for analysis of post-session corticosterone levels. Sixty-two rats (n = 10-12/group) were pseudo-randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intragastric (i.g.) exposure groups (water or 4 g/kg ethanol) or a non-manipulated (NM) control group. Animals were intubated with ethanol or water every other session from postnatal session (PND) 28-48 or PND 70-90. Rats were then tested in adulthood (PND 71-79 or PND 113-122) on the PCA task. Animals exposed chronically to ethanol during adolescence exhibited significantly higher levels of sign-tracking behavior in adulthood than NM and water-treated animals, and showed higher corticosterone than NM control animals. These effects were not seen after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. These results suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure has long-term consequences on the expression of potential addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  4. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H Scott; Acheson, Shawn K; Miller, Kelsey M; Sexton, Hannah G; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE. PMID:26529506

  5. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.; Miller, Kelsey M.; Sexton, Hannah G.; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T.; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE. PMID:26529506

  6. [Function of cannabinoids in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Rudź, Radosław; Baranowska, Urszula; Malinowska, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoids, substances derived from Cannabis sativa, have been used by humans as therapeutic agents for thousands of years. They act through the cannabinoid CB(1), CB(2), vanilloid TRPV1, and the as yet undefined putative endothelial cannabinoid receptors. Intensive research on the influence of cannabinoids on the cardiovascular system has been conducted since the 1990s after the discovery that cannabinoids are involved in hypotension connected with septic, cardiogenic, and hemorrhagic shock. One cannot exclude the future possibility of using cannabinoids as new therapeutic agents in diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the present paper the mechanisms of cannabinoids on heart failure are described. In the acute phase of myocardial infarction, cannabinoids protect the endothelium of coronary vessels and decrease the heart's necrotic area and the risk of arrhythmia. Cannabinoids also act in the chronic phase of myocardial infarction in the process of the heart remodeling. However, the present knowledge of the effects of cannabinoids on the acute and chronic phases of myocardial infarction and the possibility of using these agents in cardiovascular disease therapy is still insufficient. PMID:18464680

  7. Multiple Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence and Values: Unique and Interactive Relationships With Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bacchini, Dario; Affuso, Gaetana; Aquilar, Serena

    2015-10-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between multiple forms and settings of exposure to violence (ETV) as well as personal values and antisocial behavior (ASB) in adolescence. The association of ETV as witness or victim in different contexts (family, school, or neighborhood) and the association of the selected values of power, universalism, and conformity with ASB were analyzed. In addition, the role of ETV in moderating the relationship between values and ASB was tested. A total of 369 adolescents participated in the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Results revealed that ASB was independently affected by exposure to family violence as a victim, exposure to school violence as a witness, exposure to neighborhood violence as a witness, and by all three selected values. The associations of ASB with universalism and conformity were negative. Conversely, the association of ASB with power was positive. One interaction had statistically significant effects. Results revealed that exposure to school violence as a witness moderates the relationship between universalism and ASB. The results highlight a high percentage of explained variance by ETV and values on ASB and suggest the importance of adopting a socio-ecological framework in interpreting adolescent behavior.

  8. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas.

  9. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. PMID:26690329

  10. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. Methods We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. Results 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating ‘15’ and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA (‘R’) are classified as suitable for youths in the UK (‘15’ or ‘12A’). Conclusion Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an ‘18’ classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths. PMID:20197360

  11. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  12. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity and dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Fabio, M C; Vivas, L M; Pautassi, R M

    2015-08-20

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) promotes alcohol intake during adolescence, as shown in clinical and pre-clinical animal models. The mechanisms underlying this effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on postnatal ethanol intake remain, however, mostly unknown. Few studies assessed the effects of moderate doses of prenatal ethanol on spontaneous and ethanol-induced brain activity on adolescence. This study measured, in adolescent (female) Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (0.0 or 2.0g/kg/day, gestational days 17-20) or non-manipulated (NM group) throughout pregnancy, baseline and ethanol-induced cathecolaminergic activity (i.e., colocalization of c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase) in ventral tegmental area (VTA), and baseline and ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity (ir) in nucleus accumbens shell and core (AcbSh and AcbC, respectively) and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex. The rats were challenged with ethanol (dose: 0.0, 1.25, 2.5 or 3.25g/kg, i.p.) at postnatal day 37. Rats exposed to vehicle prenatally (VE group) exhibited reduced baseline dopaminergic tone in VTA; an effect that was inhibited by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE group). Dopaminergic activity in VTA after the postnatal ethanol challenge was greater in PEE than in VE or NM animals. Ethanol-induced Fos-ir at AcbSh was found after 1.25g/kg and 2.5g/kg ethanol, in VE and PEE rats, respectively. PEE did not alter ethanol-induced Fos-ir at IL but reduced ethanol-induced Fos-ir at PrL. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure heightens dopaminergic activity in the VTA and alters the response of the mesocorticolimbic pathway to postnatal ethanol exposure. These effects may underlie the enhanced vulnerability to develop alcohol-use disorders of adolescents with a history of in utero ethanol exposure.

  14. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  15. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake. PMID:23266368

  16. The use of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Guillermo; Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia; Dávila, David; Lorente, Mar

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that cannabinoids exert palliative effects on some cancer-associated symptoms. In addition evidences obtained during the last fifteen years support that these compounds can reduce tumor growth in animal models of cancer. Cannabinoids have been shown to activate an ER-stress related pathway that leads to the stimulation of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease cancer cell migration. The mechanisms of resistance to cannabinoid anticancer action as well as the possible strategies to develop cannabinoid-based combinational therapies to fight cancer have also started to be explored. In this review we will summarize these observations (that have already helped to set the bases for the development of the first clinical studies to investigate the potential clinical benefit of using cannabinoids in anticancer therapies) and will discuss the possible future avenues of research in this area.

  17. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  18. Metabolism of classical cannabinoids and the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018.

    PubMed

    Su, M K; Seely, K A; Moran, J H; Hoffman, R S

    2015-06-01

    Although the putative pharmacological targets of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) abused in "K2" and "Spice" are similar to Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), it remains unclear why SCB toxicity is similar yet different from marijuana. There are obvious potency and efficacy differences, but also important metabolic differences that help explain the unique adverse reactions associated with SCBs. This brief review discusses the limited research on the metabolism of the SCB JWH-018 and contrasts that with the metabolism of Δ(9) -THC.

  19. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain.

  20. Cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2007-05-01

    Cannabinoids are effective at suppressing immune and inflammation functions in leukocytes in vitro, and in animal models of acute inflammation, such as the mouse hind paw, ear and air pouch models, as well as gastrointestinal, pulmonary, myocardial, vascular, periodontal, neural, hepatic, pancreatic and arthritic inflammation models. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid receptor CB2 is emerging as a critical target for cannabinoid regulation of inflammation, and thus CB2-selective agonists are undergoing intense investigation and research. This review discusses the evidence for cannabinoid regulation of inflammation across a range of models and highlights the most promising drug candidates.

  1. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  2. Cannabinoids: potential targets for bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are the active chemical components of Cannabis sativa (marijuana). The medical use of cannabis goes back over 5,000 years. Cannabinoids produce a very wide array of central and peripheral effects, some of which may have beneficial clinical applications. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors has spawned great interest within the pharmaceutical industry with the hopes of capitalizing on the beneficial effects of cannabis without the unwanted psychotropic effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. This chapter presents an overview of the pharmacology of cannabinoids and their derivatives. It reviews the current literature on central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors as related to effects on the lower urinary tract and the role of these receptors in normal and abnormal urinary tract function. An objective evaluation of the published results of clinical trials of cannabis extracts for the treatment of bladder dysfunction resulting from multiple sclerosis is also presented. It is clear that cannabinoid receptors are present in the lower urinary tract as well as spinal and higher centers involved in lower urinary tract control. Systemic cannabinoids have effects on the lower urinary tract that may be able to become clinically useful; however, a much greater understanding of the mechanisms of cannabinoid receptors in control of the human lower urinary tract is necessary to facilitate development of novel cannabinoid drugs for treatment of pelvic disorders.

  3. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations.

  4. Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Markevych, Iana; Brüske, Irene; Fuertes, Elaine; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Sugiri, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between air pollution and green space access with type 2 diabetes in adults. However, it remains unclear to what extent associations with greenness are attributable to air pollution exposure. Objectives: We aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in adolescents. Methods: A total of 837 participants of two German birth cohorts (LISAplus and GINIplus) were included in the analysis. Generalized additive models were used to determine the association of individual satellite-derived greenness defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), long-term air pollution exposure estimated by land-use regression (LUR) models with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 15-year-old adolescents. Models were adjusted for study area, cohort, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. Results: Increases of 2 SDs in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 8.9 μg/m3) and particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10; 6.7 μg/m3) were significantly associated with 11.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 18.9) and 11.4% (95% CI: 0.4, 23.7) higher HOMA-IR. A 2-SD increase in NDVI in a 1,000-m buffer (0.2 units) was significantly associated with a lower HOMA-IR (–7.4%; 95% CI: –13.3, –1.1). Associations tended to be stronger in adolescents who spent more time outside and in those with lower socioeconomic status. In combined models including both air pollution and greenness, only NO2 remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas effect estimates for all other exposures attenuated after adjustment for NO2. Conclusions: NO2, often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be attributable mainly to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air

  5. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  6. Serotonin modulates anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal from adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2012-11-01

    From the U.S. to Europe and Australia anabolic steroid abuse remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of pathological anxiety that often appears during withdrawal from use. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of anxiety during AAS withdrawal that is modulated by serotonin (5HT) neural signaling. In the first two sets of experiments, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were tested for anxiety 21 days after the cessation of AAS administration (i.e., during AAS withdrawal) using the elevated plus maze (EPM), dark/light (DL), and seed finding (SF) tests and then examined for differences in 5HT afferent innervation to select areas of the brain important for anxiety. In the EPM and DL tests, adolescent AAS exposure leads to significant increases in anxiety-like response during AAS withdrawal. AAS-treated hamsters showed long-term reductions in 5HT innervation within several areas of the hamster brain implicated in anxiety, most notably the anterior hypothalamus and the central and medial amygdala. However, no differences in 5HT were found in other anxiety areas, e.g., frontal cortex and lateral septum. In the last experiment, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were scored for anxiety on the 21st day of AAS withdrawal following the systemic administration of saline or one of three doses of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Saline-treated hamsters showed high levels of AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety, while treatment with fluoxetine reduced AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety. These findings indicate that early AAS exposure has potent anxiogenic effects during AAS withdrawal that are modulated, in part, by 5HT signaling.

  7. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; Torre, Adrianna De La; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-07-15

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner.

  8. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; Torre, Adrianna De La; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-07-15

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  9. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    PubMed

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders. PMID:24006213

  10. Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.

  11. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status.

  12. Chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol during adolescence provokes sex-dependent changes in the emotional profile in adult rats: behavioral and biochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Vigano', Daniela; Realini, Natalia; Guidali, Cinzia; Braida, Daniela; Capurro, Valeria; Castiglioni, Chiara; Cherubino, Francesca; Romualdi, Patrizia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Sala, Mariaelvina; Parolaro, Daniela

    2008-10-01

    Few and often contradictory reports exist on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabinoid consumption in adolescents. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role during the different stages of brain development as cannabinoids influence the release and action of different neurotransmitters and promote neurogenesis. This study tested whether long-lasting interference by cannabinoids with the developing endogenous cannabinoid system during adolescence caused persistent behavioral alterations in adult rats. Adolescent female and male rats were treated with increasing doses of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 11 days (postnatal day (PND) 35-45) and left undisturbed until adulthood (PND 75) when behavioral and biochemical assays were carried out. CB1 receptor level and CB1/G-protein coupling were significantly reduced by THC exposure in the amygdala (Amyg), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of female rats, whereas male rats had significant alterations only in the amygdala and hippocampal formation. Neither female nor male rats showed any changes in anxiety responses (elevated plus maze and open-field tests) but female rats presented significant 'behavioral despair' (forced swim test) paralleled by anhedonia (sucrose preference). In contrast, male rats showed no behavioral despair but did present anhedonia. This different behavioral picture was supported by biochemical parameters of depression, namely CREB alteration. Only female rats had low CREB activity in the hippocampal formation and prefrontal cortex and high activity in the NAc paralleled by increases in dynorphin expression. These results suggest that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle alterations in the emotional circuit in female rats, ending in depressive-like behavior, whereas male rats show altered sensitivity to rewarding stimuli.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2003-01-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main source of the pharmacological effects caused by the consumption of cannabis, both the marijuana-like action and the medicinal benefits of the plant. However, its acid metabolite THC-COOH, the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), several cannabinoid analogues and newly discovered modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system are also promising candidates for clinical research and therapeutic uses. Cannabinoids exert many effects through activation of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors in the brain and peripheral tissues. Additionally, there is evidence for non-receptor-dependent mechanisms. Natural cannabis products and single cannabinoids are usually inhaled or taken orally; the rectal route, sublingual administration, transdermal delivery, eye drops and aerosols have only been used in a few studies and are of little relevance in practice today. The pharmacokinetics of THC vary as a function of its route of administration. Pulmonary assimilation of inhaled THC causes a maximum plasma concentration within minutes, psychotropic effects start within seconds to a few minutes, reach a maximum after 15-30 minutes, and taper off within 2-3 hours. Following oral ingestion, psychotropic effects set in with a delay of 30-90 minutes, reach their maximum after 2-3 hours and last for about 4-12 hours, depending on dose and specific effect. At doses exceeding the psychotropic threshold, ingestion of cannabis usually causes enhanced well-being and relaxation with an intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. The most important acute adverse effects caused by overdosing are anxiety and panic attacks, and with regard to somatic effects increased heart rate and changes in blood pressure. Regular use of cannabis may lead to dependency and to a mild withdrawal syndrome. The existence and the intensity of possible long-term adverse effects on psyche and cognition, immune system, fertility and pregnancy remain controversial

  14. INVERSE ASSOCIATION OF INTELLECTUAL FUNCTION WITH VERY LOW BLOOD LEAD BUT NOT WITH MANGANESE EXPOSURE IN ITALIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44 – 10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00 – 24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ = 102, performance IQ = 109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall’s tau rank correlation = 0.074, p =0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels. PMID:22925625

  15. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-19

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  16. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN STORES, OWNING ALCOHOL PROMOTIONAL ITEMS, AND ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    HURTZ, SHANNON Q.; HENRIKSEN, LISA; WANG, YUN; FEIGHERY, ELLEN C.; FORTMANN, STEPHEN P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper describes adolescents’ exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. Results Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items. Conclusions This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study. PMID:17218364

  18. How does exposure to cigarette advertising contribute to smoking in adolescents? The role of the developing self-concept and identification with advertising models.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S

    2009-11-01

    Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not well established. This study evaluated whether self-concept development (operationalized as level of self-conflict) and identifying with the models used in cigarette print advertising contributed to smoking intentions among adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (ages 11-17) participated in this two session study. In session 1, they rated the extent to which they identified with the models used in 10 current cigarette print ads (the models were isolated digitally from the cigarette advertisements) and their level of self-conflict was assessed. In session 2, participants viewed each of the 10 cigarette advertisements from which the models were drawn and rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Model identification was associated with similar levels of post ad exposure smoking intentions for both younger and older adolescents when they also exhibited no self-conflict. A contrasting set of findings emerged for younger and older adolescents when they exhibited high levels of self-conflict: Young adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had higher post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in the advertisements; in contrast, older adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had stronger post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to older adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in the advertisements. These results point to the importance of examining developmentally-relevant moderators for the effects of cigarette advertising exposure.

  19. How does exposure to cigarette advertising contribute to smoking in adolescents? The role of the developing self-concept and identification with advertising models.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S

    2009-11-01

    Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not well established. This study evaluated whether self-concept development (operationalized as level of self-conflict) and identifying with the models used in cigarette print advertising contributed to smoking intentions among adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (ages 11-17) participated in this two session study. In session 1, they rated the extent to which they identified with the models used in 10 current cigarette print ads (the models were isolated digitally from the cigarette advertisements) and their level of self-conflict was assessed. In session 2, participants viewed each of the 10 cigarette advertisements from which the models were drawn and rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Model identification was associated with similar levels of post ad exposure smoking intentions for both younger and older adolescents when they also exhibited no self-conflict. A contrasting set of findings emerged for younger and older adolescents when they exhibited high levels of self-conflict: Young adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had higher post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in the advertisements; in contrast, older adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had stronger post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to older adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in the advertisements. These results point to the importance of examining developmentally-relevant moderators for the effects of cigarette advertising exposure. PMID:19505768

  20. Gestational nicotine exposure modifies myelin gene expression in the brains of adolescent rats with sex differences.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Wang, J; Dwyer, J B; Gautier, N M; Wang, S; Leslie, F M; Li, M D

    2013-04-16

    Myelination defects in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. As these disorders are often observed in individuals prenatally exposed to cigarette smoking, we tested the hypothesis that such exposure impairs central myelination in adolescence, an important period of brain development and the peak age of onset of psychiatric disorders. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg kg(-1) per day; gestational nicotine (GN)) or gestational saline via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4-18. Both male and female offsprings were killed on postnatal day 35 or 36, and three limbic brain regions, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens, were removed for measurement of gene expression and determination of morphological changes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) array, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. GN altered myelin gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, with striking sex differences. Aberrant expression of myelin-related transcription and trophic factors was seen in GN animals, which correlated highly with the alterations in the myelin gene expression. These correlations suggest that these factors contribute to GN-induced alterations in myelin gene expression and also indicate abnormal function of oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-producing cells in the CNS. It is unlikely that these changes are attributable solely to an alteration in the number of OLGs, as the cell number was changed only in the PFC of GN males. Together, our findings suggest that abnormal brain myelination underlies various psychiatric disorders and drug abuse associated with prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke.

  1. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  2. Adolescent MDMA exposure diminishes the physiological and neurotoxic consequences of an MDMA binge in female rats.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Henderson, Christina S; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent MDMA pretreatment blocked the reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) binding induced by an MDMA binge in a prior study in adolescent male rats. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical responses to MDMA are sexually dimorphic. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received MDMA (10 mg/kg × 2) or Saline on every fifth day from postnatal day (PD) 35-60 and an MDMA binge (5 mg/kg × 4) on PD 67. The MDMA binge induced a pronounced temperature dysregulation in MDMA-naïve, but not MDMA-pretreated, groups. Similarly, MDMA-pretreated animals were resistant to the binge-induced SERT reductions, especially in the hippocampus. Motor activity at PD 68 was not reduced by the binge, unlike the responses found in males. These results show that female rats differ from males in their responses to an MDMA binge but are similar with respect to preconditioning from prior MDMA exposure.

  3. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: Ramifications for brain development and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance, and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders. PMID:23274699

  4. 21 CFR 862.3870 - Cannabinoid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cannabinoid test system. 862.3870 Section 862.3870....3870 Cannabinoid test system. (a) Identification. A cannabinoid test system is a device intended to..., saliva, and urine. Cannabinoid compounds include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol,...

  5. The association between exposure to violence, alcohol, and drugs and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes among Mexican-American adolescents of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Jesus; Theresa Villanos, Maria; Singh, Namrata; Leiner, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association exposure to violence, drugs and alcohol has in shaping the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of Mexican American adolescents of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 881 Mexican-American adolescents described their exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol, while their parents responded to a questionnaire about their children’'s behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Participant information was extracted from electronic record databases maintained in six university-based clinics in El Paso, Texas on the U.S. side of the border with Mexico. A total of 463 (52.6%) adolescents reported they had not been exposed to violence, alcohol, or drugs. The remaining 418 (47.4%) adolescents indicated only a single category of exposure: violence (25.1%), alcohol (24.9%), or drugs (8.6%). In addition, some adolescents reported combined exposure to violence and alcohol (13.4%), alcohol and drugs (14.6%), or violence, alcohol, and drugs (13.4%). The association between combined exposure to violence, drugs, and/or alcohol and the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of these Mexican-American adolescents showed an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about the mental health of Mexican Americans who are exposed to alcohol, violence, and drugs, especially adolescents living in poverty in neighborhoods along the U.S.-Mexico border, who are at a high risk for these exposures. These findings highlight the risks associated with adolescent exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol and the need for effective interventions within this subgroup of Mexican-American youth and their families. PMID:24652396

  6. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aia; van der Marck, M A; van den Elsen, Gah; Olde Rikkert, Mgm

    2015-06-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicinal uses of cannabinoids, the bioactive components of the cannabis plant, including the treatment of LOAD and other physical conditions that are common in older people. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the key hallmarks of LOAD. In addition, in population-based studies, cannabinoids reduced dementia-related symptoms (e.g., behavioral disturbances). The current article provides an overview of the potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of LOAD and related neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people. We also discuss the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cannabinoid-based drugs in older people with dementia.

  7. Exposure to Violence, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Borderline Personality Pathology Among Adolescents in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: The Influence of Emotion Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Weiss, Nicole H; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to violence during adolescence is a highly prevalent phenomenon associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Theoretical literature suggests that emotion dysregulation is one consequence of exposure to violence associated with the manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and borderline personality (BP) pathology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology in a sample of 144 adolescents (age 10- to 17-years; 51% male; 55% African American) admitted to a psychiatric residential treatment center. Exposure to violence was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, was associated with greater PTSS and BP pathology. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation mediated the associations between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology. Findings suggest the importance of assessing and treating emotion dysregulation among violence-exposed adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment.

  8. Sexually dimorphic alterations in locomotion and reversal learning after adolescent tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Lauren C.; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that use and abuse of marijuana can be especially harmful if it occurs during adolescence, a period of vast developmental changes throughout the brain. We examined the effects of 2 mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered daily via intra-peritoneal injections during juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal day 22–40) or late adolescence (postnatal day 41–60) on locomotor activity, development of tolerance, and acquisition/retention of spatial avoidance in adulthood. THC caused locomotor depression in both male and female animals dosed during early adolescence but only in female animals dosed during late adolescence. Evidence of reverse tolerance to THC was seen in early adolescent animals only. In the active place avoidance test (APA), male and female animals administered THC during early adolescence made more errors on the reversal trial requiring flexibility in learning, but in animals dosed during late adolescence there were no significant sex or treatment differences. The results of the locomotor activity study indicate that females may be more sensitive to the effects of THC than males, while results of both locomotor activity and APA studies suggest that early adolescents appear to be more vulnerable to these effects than late adolescents/young adults. PMID:20460150

  9. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent

  10. Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background.

  11. Effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: exposure to SO/sub 2/ alone or SO/sub 2/ + sodium chloride droplet aerosol during rest and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Pierson, W.E.; Horike, M.; Frank, R.

    1982-01-01

    Statistically significant changes in pulmonary functional measurements in asthmatic adolescents exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at reset and during exercise were recently reported. To determine whether those results were due to the subjects' adolescence or to their asthma, the identical exposures were repeated in healthy adolescents. The healthy subjects showed small, statistically significant changes after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but these changes were slight compared to those seen in the asthmatic adolescents. It was concluded that asthmatic adolescents are much more sensitive to the effects of inhaled SO/sub 2/ than are healthy adolescents. (JMT)

  12. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid during Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Todd, Travis P.; Chang, Stephen E.; Yeh, Hermes H.; Yeh, Pamela W.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently, there are few treatments for persons with a dual diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which are critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were treated throughout adolescence with L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the precursor of KYNA. As adults, the rats were tested drug-free in an autoshaping procedure in which a lever was paired with food. Rats treated with L-KYN during adolescence exhibited increased sign-tracking behavior (lever pressing) when they were tested as adults. Sign-tracking is thought to reflect the lever acquiring incentive salience (motivational value) as a result of its pairing with reward. Thus, KYNA exposure may increase the incentive salience of cues associated with reward, perhaps contributing to an increase in sensitivity to drug-related cues in persons with schizophrenia. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of exposure to KYNA during adolescence on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Rats treated with L-KYN exhibited no LTP after a burst of high-frequency stimulation that was sufficient to produce robust LTP in vehicle-treated rats. This finding represents the first demonstrated consequence of elevated KYNA concentration during development and provides insight into the basis for cognitive and behavioral deficits that result from exposure to KYNA during adolescence

  13. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: a 26–year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years. Methods The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU). We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15–19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18–19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts. Results Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974–91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men. Conclusions This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women. PMID:22716027

  14. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.

  15. Postnatal Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cognitive Impairment and Abnormal Histone Acetylation of Glutamatergic Systems in the Hippocampus of Adolescent Rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Fang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Isoflurane can elicit cognitive impairment. However, the pathogenesis in the brain remains inconclusive. The present study investigated the mechanism of glutamate neurotoxicity in adolescent male rats that underwent postnatal isoflurane exposure and the role of sodium butyrate (NaB) in cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure. Seven-day-old rats were exposed to 1.7 % isoflurane for 35 min every day for four consecutive days, and then glutamate neurotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus. Morris water maze analysis showed cognitive impairments in isoflurane-exposed rats. High-performance liquid chromatography found higher hippocampal glutamate concentrations following in vitro and in vivo isoflurane exposure. The percentage of early apoptotic hippocampal neurons was markedly increased after isoflurane exposure. Decreased acetylation and increased HDAC2 activity were observed in the hippocampus of isoflurane-exposed rats and hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, postnatal isoflurane exposure decreased histone acetylation of hippocampal neurons in the promoter regions of GLT-1 and mGLuR1/5, but not mGLuR2/3. Treatment with NaB not only restored the histone acetylation of the GLT-1 and mGLuR1/5 promoter regions and glutamate excitatory neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons, but also improved cognitive impairment in vivo. Moreover, NaB may be a potential therapeutic drug for cognitive impairment caused by isoflurane exposure. These results suggest that postnatal isoflurane exposure contributes to cognitive impairment via decreasing histone acetylation of glutamatergic systems in the hippocampus of adolescent rats. PMID:27307148

  16. Potentiation of the antitumor activity of adriamycin against osteosarcoma by cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2

    PubMed Central

    NIU, FENG; ZHAO, SONG; XU, CHANG-YAN; SHA, HUI; BI, GUI-BIN; CHEN, LIN; YE, LONG; GONG, PING; NIE, TIAN-HONG

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor that occurs in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to identify novel therapeutic strategies for osteosarcoma, by assessing the antitumor activity of the cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 and its combined effect with adriamycin (ADM) against the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line. To evaluate the antiproliferative action of these molecules, a Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used. The ability of cannabinoid to inhibit the migration, invasion and angiogenic activity of MG-63 cells were assessed by scratch, Transwell® chamber and angiogenesis assays, respectively, in vitro. To examine the alterations in expression of targeted genes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used. The administration of cannabinoid combined with ADM was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of MG-63 cells, resulting in a cell viability of 32.12±3.13%, which was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared with the cell viability following treatment with cannabinoid (70.86±7.55%) and ADM (62.87±5.98%) alone. Greater antimetastasis and antiangiogenic activities were also observed following the coadministration of the two agents compared with individual treatments and controls. In addition, the expression levels of Notch-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MG-63 cells were downregulated following the treatments with cannabinoid alone or in combination with ADM. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 may significantly potentiate the antiproliferative, antimetastasis and antiangiogenic effects of ADM against MG-63 cells via the downregulation of Notch-1, MMP-2 and VEGF. These findings may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:26622862

  17. Environmental enrichment alters structural plasticity of the adolescent brain but does not remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to both drugs of abuse and environmental enrichment (EE) are widely studied experiences that induce large changes in dendritic morphology and synaptic connectivity. As there is an abundance of literature using EE as a treatment strategy for drug addiction, we sought to determine whether EE could remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure. Using Golgi-Cox staining, we examined eighteen neuroanatomical parameters in four brain regions [medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumben, and Par1] of Long-Evans rats. EE in adolescence dramatically altered structural plasticity in the male and female brain, modifying 60% of parameters investigated. EE normalized three parameters (OFC spine density and dendritic branching and mPFC dendritic branching) in male offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally but did not remediate any measures in female offspring. PN exposure interfered with adolescent EE-induced changes in five neuroanatomical measurements (Par1 spine density and dendritic branching in both male and female offspring, and mPFC spine density in male offspring). And in four neuroanatomical parameters examined, PN exposure and EE combined to produce additive effects [OFC spine density in females and mPFC dendritic length (apical and basilar) and branching in males]. Despite demonstrated efficacy in reversing drug addiction, EE was not able to reverse many of the PN-induced changes in neuronal morphology, indicating that modifications in neural circuitry generated in the prenatal period may be more resistant to change than those generated in the adult brain.

  18. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  19. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours.

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  1. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  2. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  3. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children.

  4. Watching and drinking: Expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media with adolescent alcohol use. Design Structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally-representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Results Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior. PMID:19594272

  5. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  6. Strategies to Facilitate Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adolescents or Young Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is…

  7. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  8. Cannabinoid system in the budgerigar brain.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ferrero, M E; Paniagua, M A; Mostany, R; Pilar-Cuéllar, F; Díez-Alarcia, R; Pazos, A; Fernández-López, A

    2006-05-01

    Cannabinoid receptor density and cannabinoid receptor-mediated G protein stimulation were studied by autoradiographic techniques throughout the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain. The maximal CB(1) receptor density value (using [(3)H]CP55,940 as radioligand) was found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum (Mol), and high binding values were observed in the nucleus taeniae amygdalae (TnA), nucleus preopticus medialis, and nucleus pretectalis. The highest net-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding values induced by the selective CB(1) receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 were observed in the nucleus paramedianus internus thalami, and high values of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding were observed in the TnA, Mol, arcopallium dorsale and arcopallium intermedium. The distribution data suggest that in the budgerigar, as previously indicated in mammals, cannabinoid receptors may be related to the control of several brain functions in the motor system, memory, visual system, and reproductive behavior. The discrepancies between the cannabinoid receptor densities and the cannabinoid receptor-mediated stimulation found in several budgerigar brain nuclei support the hypothesis, previously described for mammals, of the existence of different G(i/o) protein populations able to associate with the cannabinoid receptors, depending on the brain structure, and could reflect the relative importance that cannabinoid transmission could exerts in each cerebral area.

  9. Signal transduction activated by cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia

    2005-07-01

    Since the discovery that cannabinoids exert biological actions through binding to specific receptors, signal mechanisms triggered by these receptors have been focus of extensive study. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signalling events produced by cannabinoids from membrane receptors to downstream regulators. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date: CB(1) and CB(2) both belonging to the heptahelichoidal receptor family but with different tissue distribution and signalling mechanisms. Coupling to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and thus inhibition of adenylyl cyclase has been observed in both receptors but other signal transduction pathways that are regulated or not by these G proteins are differently activated upon ligand-receptor binding including ion channels, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation, phospholipases activation and downstream targets as MAP kinase cascade, PI3K, FAK or NOS regulation. Cannabinoids may also act independently of CB(1)or CB(2) receptors. The existence of new unidentified putative cannabinoid receptors has been claimed by many investigators. Endocannabinoids activate vanilloid TRPV1 receptors that may mediate some of the cannabinoid effects. Other actions of cannabinoids can occur through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  10. Repeated ethanol exposure affects the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim K; Sircar, Debashish

    2009-09-14

    Ethanol has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ethanol on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated ethanol or saline treatments, and spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. For comparison, adult female rats were subjected to similar ethanol treatment and behavioral assessments as for adolescent rats. Ethanol-treated adolescent rats took longer and swam greater distances to find the hidden platform than saline controls. In the probe trial, ethanol-treated adolescent rats showed a trend towards reduced time spent in the target quadrant, and made significantly fewer target location crossings than saline-treated controls. Adult saline-treated control rats did not learn the spatial memory task as well as the adolescent saline-treated rats. Although ethanol in adult rats increased both latency and swim distance to find the platform, in the probe trial there was no difference between ethanol-treated adult rats and age-matched saline controls. Ethanol did not alter swim speed or performance in the cued visual task at either age. Together, these data suggest that ethanol specifically impairs the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Since adult females did not learn the task, ethanol-induced alterations in water maze performance may not reflect true learning and memory dysfunction. PMID:19463705

  11. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  12. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  13. Neuronal changes and oxidative stress in adolescent rats after repeated exposure to mephedrone

    SciTech Connect

    López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Rodrigo, Teresa; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Mephedrone is a new designer drug of abuse. We have investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes after mephedrone administration to adolescent rats (3 × 25 mg/kg, s.c. in a day, with a 2 h interval between doses, for two days) at high ambient temperature (26 ± 2 °C), a schedule that intends to model human recreational abuse. In addition, we have studied the effect of mephedrone in spatial learning and memory. The drug caused a transient decrease in weight gain. After the first dose, animals showed hypothermia but, after the subsequent doses, temperature raised over the values of saline-treated group. We observed the development of tolerance to these thermoregulatory effects of mephedrone. Mephedrone induced a reduction of the densities of dopamine (30% in the frontal cortex) and serotonin (40% in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus and 48% in the striatum) transporters without microgliosis. These deficits were also accompanied by a parallel decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2. These changes matched with a down-regulation of D{sub 2} dopamine receptors in the striatum. Mephedrone also induced an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex, and accompanied by a rise in glutathione peroxidase levels in all studied brain areas. Drug-treated animals displayed an impairment of the reference memory in the Morris water maze one week beyond the cessation of drug exposure, while the spatial learning process seems to be preserved. These findings raise concerns about the neuronal long-term effects of mephedrone. - Highlights: • We studied the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity of mephedrone in rats. • Mephedrone induced a transient hypothermia following sustained hyperthermia. • In a weekend consumption pattern, mephedrone induced selective neurotoxicity. • Mephedrone generated oxidative stress. • Mephedrone induced an impairment in memory function.

  14. Neuronal changes and oxidative stress in adolescent rats after repeated exposure to mephedrone.

    PubMed

    López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Rodrigo, Teresa; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Mephedrone is a new designer drug of abuse. We have investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes after mephedrone administration to adolescent rats (3×25 mg/kg, s.c. in a day, with a 2 h interval between doses, for two days) at high ambient temperature (26±2 °C), a schedule that intends to model human recreational abuse. In addition, we have studied the effect of mephedrone in spatial learning and memory. The drug caused a transient decrease in weight gain. After the first dose, animals showed hypothermia but, after the subsequent doses, temperature raised over the values of saline-treated group. We observed the development of tolerance to these thermoregulatory effects of mephedrone. Mephedrone induced a reduction of the densities of dopamine (30% in the frontal cortex) and serotonin (40% in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus and 48% in the striatum) transporters without microgliosis. These deficits were also accompanied by a parallel decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2. These changes matched with a down-regulation of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. Mephedrone also induced an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex, and accompanied by a rise in glutathione peroxidase levels in all studied brain areas. Drug-treated animals displayed an impairment of the reference memory in the Morris water maze one week beyond the cessation of drug exposure, while the spatial learning process seems to be preserved. These findings raise concerns about the neuronal long-term effects of mephedrone.

  15. Association of exposure to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate replacements with increased blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M

    2015-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental chemicals widely used in consumer and personal care products. In this study, we examined associations of urinary phthalates with blood pressure, triglycerides, and lipoproteins in children and adolescents, performing a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children 6 to 19 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between the years 2009 and 2012. We quantified exposure to common environmental phthalates, with a focus on the dietary contaminant di-2-ethylhexylphthalate and 2 increasingly used replacements, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate, based on micromolar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, univariate, and multivariable associations with blood pressure and lipids. Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate, di-isononyl phthalate, and di-isodecyl phthalate were associated with higher age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure. For each log unit increase in di-isodecyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.105 standard deviation unit increase in systolic blood pressure z score was identified (P=0.004); for di-isononyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.113 standard deviation unit increment was identified (P=0.008). For di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites, a 0.103 standard deviation unit increment (P=0.013) was detected. Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products showed an association with blood pressure (≥90th percentile) in univariate analysis, but this was no longer significant in our full multivariable model, suggesting specificity. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglycerides or high-density lipoproteins. Further, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations and to assess opportunities for intervention. PMID:26156503

  16. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Eustachian Tube Disorders in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mira A.; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Agrawal, Yuri; Lin, Sandra Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the association between active, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and the prevalence of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) in the U.S. pediatric population. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting U.S. representative demographic and audiometric data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES);2005–2010. Subjects and Methods The study consisted of 2,977 children aged 12–19 years. ETD was defined as middle ear pressure <100mm H20. ETS was defined as non-active smoking in individuals with serum cotinine over the limit of detection (≥0.015 ng/mL) and <10 ng/mL(N = 1559). Results The prevalence of ETD was 6.1%. After multivariate adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, education level, ethnicity, or having a cold, sinus problem or earache during the last 24 hours, compared to unexposed children, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 12–15 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.38 (0.53–3.60), 0.99 (0.53–3.60) and 2.67 (1.12–6.34). Similarly, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 16–19 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.28 (0.48–3.41), 0.99 (0.40–2.48) and 2.86 (1.19–6.88). Conclusion These data suggest that children and adolescents exposed to high concentrations of ETS may have an increased prevalence of ETD. PMID:27711178

  17. Neuronal changes and oxidative stress in adolescent rats after repeated exposure to mephedrone.

    PubMed

    López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Rodrigo, Teresa; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Mephedrone is a new designer drug of abuse. We have investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes after mephedrone administration to adolescent rats (3×25 mg/kg, s.c. in a day, with a 2 h interval between doses, for two days) at high ambient temperature (26±2 °C), a schedule that intends to model human recreational abuse. In addition, we have studied the effect of mephedrone in spatial learning and memory. The drug caused a transient decrease in weight gain. After the first dose, animals showed hypothermia but, after the subsequent doses, temperature raised over the values of saline-treated group. We observed the development of tolerance to these thermoregulatory effects of mephedrone. Mephedrone induced a reduction of the densities of dopamine (30% in the frontal cortex) and serotonin (40% in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus and 48% in the striatum) transporters without microgliosis. These deficits were also accompanied by a parallel decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2. These changes matched with a down-regulation of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. Mephedrone also induced an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex, and accompanied by a rise in glutathione peroxidase levels in all studied brain areas. Drug-treated animals displayed an impairment of the reference memory in the Morris water maze one week beyond the cessation of drug exposure, while the spatial learning process seems to be preserved. These findings raise concerns about the neuronal long-term effects of mephedrone. PMID:25817894

  18. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-10-14

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  19. Human Laboratory Studies on Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Mohamed; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most compelling evidence supporting an association between cannabinoid agonists and psychosis comes from controlled laboratory studies in humans. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory studies demonstrate that cannabinoid agonists, including phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, produce a wide range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms and psychophysiologic deficits in healthy human subjects that resemble the phenomenology of schizophrenia. These effects are time locked to drug administration, are dose related, and are transient and rarely necessitate intervention. The magnitude of effects is similar to the effects of ketamine but qualitatively distinct from other psychotomimetic drugs, including ketamine, amphetamine, and salvinorin A. Cannabinoid agonists have also been shown to transiently exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in laboratory studies. Patients with schizophrenia are more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to the acute behavioral and cognitive effects of cannabinoid agonists and experience transient exacerbation of symptoms despite treatment with antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, laboratory studies have failed to demonstrate any "beneficial" effects of cannabinoid agonists in individuals with schizophrenia-challenging the cannabis self-medication hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests that polymorphisms of several genes related to dopamine metabolism (e.g., COMT, DAT1, and AKT1) may moderate the effects of cannabinoid agonists in laboratory studies. Cannabinoid agonists induce dopamine release, although the magnitude of release does not appear to be commensurate to the magnitude and spectrum of their acute psychotomimetic effects. Interactions between the endocannabinoid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate systems and their individual and interactive effects on neural oscillations provide a plausible mechanism underlying the psychotomimetic effects of

  20. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti, Prakash; Pandey, Rupal; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Hegde, Venkatesh L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors. The discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the major psychoactive principle in marijuana, as well as the identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, has led to a significant growth in research aimed at understanding the physiological functions of cannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors include CB1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, which is primarily found on the cells of the immune system. The fact that both CB1 and CB2 receptors have been found on immune cells suggests that cannabinoids play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Recent studies demonstrated that administration of THC into mice triggered marked apoptosis in T cells and dendritic cells, resulting in immunosuppression. In addition, several studies showed that cannabinoids downregulate cytokine and chemokine production and, in some models, upregulate T-regulatory cells (Tregs) as a mechanism to suppress inflammatory responses. The endocannabinoid system is also involved in immunoregulation. For example, administration of endocannabinoids or use of inhibitors of enzymes that break down the endocannabinoids, led to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury to organs such as the liver. Manipulation of endocannabinoids and/or use of exogenous cannabinoids in vivo can constitute a potent treatment modality against inflammatory disorders. This review will focus on the potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T cells or other cellular immune components. PMID:20191092

  1. Behavioral and neuronal recording of the nucleus accumbens in adolescent rats following acute and repetitive exposure to methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Frolov, Alexander; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to play a key role in the brain's response to methylphenidate (MPD). The present study focuses on neuronal recording from this structure. The study postulates that repetitive exposure to the same dose of MPD will elicit in some rats behavioral sensitization and in others tolerance. Furthermore, the study postulates that NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance after repetitive MPD exposure will be significantly different from NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization after repetitive MPD exposure at doses of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg. To test this, behavioral and neuronal activity was recorded concomitantly from the NAc of freely behaving adolescent rats (postnatal day 40) before and after acute and repetitive administration of four different MPD doses. Comparing the acute MPD effect to the repetitive MPD effect revealed that the acute response to MPD exhibited dose-response characteristics: an increase in behavioral activity correlated with increasing MPD doses. On the other hand, following repetitive MPD exposure, some animals exhibited attenuated behavior (tolerance), while others exhibited further increases in the recorded behavior (sensitization). Moreover, the neuronal activity following repetitive MPD exposure recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization was significantly different from neuronal activity recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. This implies that when studying the effects of repetitive MPD administration on adolescent rats, it is advisable to simultaneously record both neuronal and behavioral activity and to evaluate all data based on the animals' behavioral response to the repetitive MPD exposure. PMID:25318764

  2. Cannabinoid system and cyclooxygenases inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Coman, OA; Coman, L; Ghiţă, I; Georgescu, SR; Drăia, F; Fulga, I

    2011-01-01

    Rationale. The cannabinoid system consists of a complex array of receptors, substances with agonist/antagonist properties for those receptors, biosynthetic machineries and mechanisms for cellular uptake and degradation for endocannabinoids. This system is in interrelation with other systems that comprise lipid mediators like prostaglandins/leukotrienes systems. A clear antagonist, additive or synergic effect of nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)–cannabinoid associations was not yet demonstrated. Aim. The present study tried to summarize the existent data on NSAIDS-cannabinoid system interactions. Methods and results A bibliographic research in Medline, Scirus, Embase was made using as keywords cannabinoid, nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs, aspirin, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, acetaminophen, coxibs, antinociceptive, antinociception, analgesia DiscussionsA systematization of the results focusing on the NSAIDs drugs interaction with the cannabinoid system was presented. Out of all the substances analyzed in the present review, acetaminophen was studied the most regarding its interferences with the cannabinoid system, mainly due to contradictory results. Conclusions Some NSAIDs have additional influences on the cannabinoid system either by inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by inhibiting a possible intracellular transporter of endocannabinoids. All the NSAIDs that inhibit COX2 can influence the cannabinoid system because a possible important degradative pathway for anandamide and 2–arachidonoyl glycerol might involve COX 2. One of the causes for the variety of experimental results presented might be due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, depending on the route of administration and the dose Abbreviationsdelta9 THC, (–)–(6aR,10aR)–6,6,9–trimethyl–3–pentyl–6a,7,8,10a–tetrahydro–6H–benzo[c]chromen–1–ol; delta9–THC–11–oic acid, 1–hydroxy–6,6–dimethyl–3–pentyl–6a,7,8,10a

  3. Effect of intermittent exposure to ethanol and MDMA during adolescence on learning and memory in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heavy binge drinking is increasingly frequent among adolescents, and consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is often combined with ethanol (EtOH). The long-lasting effects of intermittent exposure to EtOH and MDMA during adolescence on learning and memory were evaluated in adult mice using the Hebb-Williams maze. Methods Adolescent OF1 mice were exposed to EtOH (1.25 g/kg) on two consecutive days at 48-h intervals over a 14-day period (from PD 29 to 42). MDMA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was injected twice daily at 4-h intervals over two consecutive days, and this schedule was repeated six days later (PD 33, 34, 41 and 42), resulting in a total of eight injections. Animals were initiated in the Hebb-Williams maze on PND 64. The concentration of brain monoamines in the striatum and hippocampus was then measured. Results At the doses employed, both EtOH and MDMA, administered alone or together, impaired learning in the Hebb-Williams maze, as treated animals required more time to reach the goal than their saline-treated counterparts. The groups treated during adolescence with EtOH, alone or plus MDMA, also presented longer latency scores and needed more trials to reach the acquisition criterion score. MDMA induced a decrease in striatal DA concentration, an effect that was augmented by the co-administration of EtOH. All the treatment groups displayed an imbalance in the interaction DA/serotonin. Conclusions The present findings indicate that the developing brain is highly vulnerable to the damaging effects of EtOH and/or MDMA, since mice receiving these drugs in a binge pattern during adolescence exhibit impaired learning and memory in adulthood. PMID:22716128

  4. Contextualizing Exposures and Experiences of Behaviors That Influence the Risk of Crash Injury in Latino Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Trevino, Sandra; Riera, Antonio; Meyer, Emily; Anderson, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The largest proportion of mortality burden for U.S. Latino adolescent males is attributed to motor vehicle crashes. In a traffic safety context, relatively little is known about how these youth regularly interface within their own culture and how developmental factors as well as behavior choices influence their risk of crash injury. This complex sociobehavioral interface has implications for how this group perceives, interprets, and navigates the adolescent period that is coupled with passenger and driver experiences. We conducted a mixed method study with triangulation design inclusive of in-depth ethnically concordant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to select Latino adolescent males (15–18 years old). Validated measures of acculturation, sensation and reward seeking, and threat avoidance were administered. Using a standard discussion guide with prompts, we explored respondents’ perceptions of Latino cultural themes, ideas, attitudes, and experiences regarding passenger and driver safety. Codes were created and defined as concepts emerging from the data in an inductive fashion. Using the constant comparative method, we compared coded text to identify novel themes and expand existing themes until thematic saturation was reached. Despite Latino adolescent males expressing a high value of passenger and driver safety, this did not uniformly manifest in their reports of real-life behaviors. Their experiences reflected a dense frequency of exposure to risky behavior modeling and crash injury risk. Opportunities for Latino youth and family-focused risk reduction skill strategies are plentiful. Further research should explore how culture influences parent perceptions of safety and risk and the extent to which family structure shapes the modeling of risk that their adolescent faces. PMID:23169119

  5. Dendritic Cell Regulation by Cannabinoid-Based Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Mattias; Chen, Puran; Hammarfjord, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoid pharmacology has made important advances in recent years after the cannabinoid system was discovered. Studies in experimental models and in humans have produced promising results using cannabinoid-based drugs for the treatment of obesity and cancer, as well as neuroinflammatory and chronic inflammatory diseases. Moreover, as we discuss here, additional studies also indicates that these drugs have immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties including modulation of immune cell function. Thus, manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in vivo may provide novel therapeutic strategies against inflammatory disorders. At least two types of cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors are expressed on immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC). Dendritic cells are recognized for their critical role in initiating and maintaining immune responses. Therefore, DC are potential targets for cannabinoid-mediated modulation. Here, we review the effects of cannabinoids on DC and provide some perspective concerning the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of human diseases involving aberrant inflammatory processes.

  6. Toxicological profiles of selected synthetic cannabinoids showing high binding affinities to the cannabinoid receptor subtype CB₁.

    PubMed

    Koller, Verena J; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Auwärter, Volker; Fuchs, Sabine; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2013-07-01

    Products containing synthetic cannabinoids are consumed as a surrogate for marihuana due to their non-detectability with commonly used drug tests and their strong cannabimimetic effects. Because data concerning their toxicological properties are scarce, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, immunomodulatory, and hormonal activities of four naphthoylindole compounds (JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-122 and JWH-210) and of one benzoylindole (AM-694) were studied in human cell lines and primary cells; tetrahydrocannabinol was included as the classical non-endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand. All compounds induced damage to the cell membranes of buccal (TR146) and breast (MCF-7) derived cells at concentrations of ≥75-100 μM. No cytotoxic responses were seen in other assays which reflect mitochondrial damage, protein synthesis, and lysosomal activities. JWH-073 and JWH-122 induced DNA migration in buccal and liver cells (HepG2) in single cell gel electrophoresis assays, while JWH-210 was only in the latter cell line active. No estrogenic activities were detected in bone marrow cells (U2-OS), but all compounds caused anti-estrogenic effects at levels between 2.1 and 23.0 μM. Furthermore, no impact on cytokine release (i.e., on IL-10, IL-6, IL-12/23p40 and TNFα levels) was seen in LPS-stimulated human PBMCs, except with JWH-210 and JWH-122 which caused a decrease of TNFα and IL-12/23p40. All toxic effects were observed with concentrations higher than those expected in body fluids of users. Since genotoxic effects are in general linear over a wide concentration range and the exposure levels may be higher in epithelial cells than [corrected] in serum, further experimental work is required to find out if DNA damage takes place in drug users.

  7. Synthetic cannabinoids: the multi-organ failure and metabolic derangements associated with getting high

    PubMed Central

    Sherpa, Dolkar; Paudel, Bishow M.; Subedi, Bishnu H.; Chow, Robert Dobbin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), though not detected with routine urine toxicology screening, can cause severe metabolic derangements and widespread deleterious effects in multiple organ systems. The diversity of effects is related to the wide distribution of cannabinoid receptors in multiple organ systems. Both cannabinoid-receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated effects can result in severe cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic manifestations. We report the case of a 45-year-old African American male with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage, reversible cardiomyopathy, acute rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic derangement associated with the use of K2, an SC. Though each of these complications has been independently associated with SCs, the combination of these effects in a single patient has not been heretofore reported. This case demonstrates the range and severity of complications associated with the recreational use of SCs. Though now banned in the United States, use of systemic cannabinoids is still prevalent, especially among adolescents. Clinicians should be aware of their continued use and the potential for harm. To prevent delay in diagnosis, tests to screen for these substances should be made more readily available. PMID:26333853

  8. The effects of age, gender, hopelessness, and exposure to violence on sleep disorder symptoms and daytime sleepiness among adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, Anneliese C; Bolland, Kathleen A; Tomek, Sara; Bolland, John M

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep problems are associated with negative outcomes among adolescents, studies have not focused on sleep disorder symptoms among adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods and how sleep problems may be related to two factors common in those environments: hopelessness and exposure to violence. This study used data from the longitudinal Mobile Youth Survey (MYS; N = 11,838, 49% female, 93% African-American) to examine trajectories of sleep problems by age (10-18 years) among impoverished adolescents as a function of gender, feelings of hopelessness, and exposure to violence. The results indicate that sleep problems associated with traumatic stress decline with age, with four notable distinctions. First, the steepest decline occurs during the early adolescent years. Second, the rate of decline is steeper for males than for females. Third, exposure to violence impedes the rate of decline for all adolescents, but more dramatically for females than for males. Fourth, the rate of decline is smallest for adolescents with feelings of hopelessness who also had been exposed to violence. To explore the generalizability of these results to other types of sleep disorders, we analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a subsample of 14- and 15-year-old MYS participants (N = 263, 49% female, 100% African-American) who completed a sleep symptoms questionnaire. Four results from the cross-sectional analysis extend the findings of the longitudinal analysis. First, the cross-sectional results showed that symptoms of apnea, insomnia, nightmares, and restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (RLS/PLMD), as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as a function of hopelessness. Second, symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and nightmares, as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as function of exposure to violence. Third, symptoms of insomnia and RLS/PLMD are greater under conditions of combined hopelessness and exposure to violence than for either condition alone

  9. The Role of Cannabinoids in Neuroanatomic Alterations in Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Yücel, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have seen a marked change in the composition of commonly smoked cannabis. These changes primarily involve an increase of the psychoactive compound ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a decrease of the potentially therapeutic compound cannabidiol (CBD). This altered composition of cannabis may be linked to persistent neuroanatomic alterations typically seen in regular cannabis users. In this review, we summarize recent findings from human structural neuroimaging investigations. We examine whether neuroanatomic alterations are 1) consistently observed in samples of regular cannabis users, particularly in cannabinoid receptor-high areas, which are vulnerable to the effects of high circulating levels of THC, and 2) associated either with greater levels of cannabis use (e.g., higher dosage, longer duration, and earlier age of onset) or with distinct cannabinoid compounds (i.e., THC and CBD). Across the 31 studies selected for inclusion in this review, neuroanatomic alterations emerged across regions that are high in cannabinoid receptors (i.e., hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cerebellum). Greater dose and earlier age of onset were associated with these alterations. Preliminary evidence shows that THC exacerbates, whereas CBD protects from, such harmful effects. Methodologic differences in the quantification of levels of cannabis use prevent accurate assessment of cannabis exposure and direct comparison of findings across studies. Consequently, the field lacks large "consortium-style" data sets that can be used to develop reliable neurobiological models of cannabis-related harm, recovery, and protection. To move the field forward, we encourage a coordinated approach and suggest the urgent development of consensus-based guidelines to accurately and comprehensively quantify cannabis use and exposure in human studies. PMID:26858212

  10. The schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 modulates tolerance to the effects of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Aurélie A; Hunt, Glenn E; Micheau, Jacques; Huang, Xufeng; McGregor, Iain S; Karl, Tim; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2011-06-01

    Cannabis increases the risk of schizophrenia in genetically vulnerable individuals. In this study we aim to show that the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) modulates the development of tolerance to cannabinoids in mice. Nrg1 heterozygous (HET) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated daily for 15 d with the synthetic analogue of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CP55,940 (0.4 mg/kg). We measured the impact of this exposure on locomotor activity, anxiety, prepulse inhibition (PPI), body temperature and FosB/ΔFosB immunohistochemistry. Tolerance to CP55,940-induced hypothermia and locomotor suppression developed more rapidly in Nrg1 HET mice than WT mice. Conversely in the light-dark test, while tolerance to the anxiogenic effect of CP55,940 developed in WT mice over days of testing, Nrg1 hypomorphs maintained marked anxiety even after 15 d of treatment. Repeated cannabinoid exposure selectively increased FosB/ΔFosB expression in the lateral septum, ventral part (LSV) of Nrg1 HET but not WT mice. On day 1 of exposure opposite effects of CP55,940 treatment were observed on PPI, i.e. it was facilitated in Nrg1 hypomorphs and impaired in WT mice, despite the drug significantly impairing the acoustic startle reflex equally in both genotypes. These effects of CP55,940 on PPI were not maintained as both genotypes became tolerant to cannabinoid action with repeated exposure. Our results highlight that Nrg1 modulates the development of cannabinoid tolerance dependent on the parameter being measured. Furthermore, these data reinforce the notion that the VLS is an important brain region involved in Nrg1-cannabinoid interactions.

  11. Neural stem cell apoptosis after low-methylmercury exposures in postnatal hippocampus produce persistent cell loss and adolescent memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Katie; Obiorah, Maryann; Robinson, Kelsey; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Buckley, Brian; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2013-12-01

    The developing brain is particularly sensitive to exposures to environmental contaminants. In contrast to the adult, the developing brain contains large numbers of dividing neuronal precursors, suggesting that they may be vulnerable targets. The postnatal day 7 (P7) rat hippocampus has populations of both mature neurons in the CA1-3 region as well as neural stem cells (NSC) in the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus, which actively produce new neurons that migrate to the granule cell layer (GCL). Using this well-characterized NSC population, we examined the impact of low levels of methylmercury (MeHg) on proliferation, neurogenesis, and subsequent adolescent learning and memory behavior. Assessing a range of exposures, we found that a single subcutaneous injection of 0.6 µg/g MeHg in P7 rats induced caspase activation in proliferating NSC of the hilus and GCL. This acute NSC death had lasting impact on the DG at P21, reducing cell numbers in the hilus by 22% and the GCL by 27%, as well as reductions in neural precursor proliferation by 25%. In contrast, non-proliferative CA1-3 pyramidal neuron cell number was unchanged. Furthermore, animals exposed to P7 MeHg exhibited an adolescent spatial memory deficit as assessed by Morris water maze. These results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of MeHg exposure may decrease NSC populations and, despite ongoing neurogenesis, the brain may not restore the hippocampal cell deficits, which may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory deficits during adolescence.

  12. The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on adolescent substance use and violence following exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2014-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661 to 1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range 8-16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  13. Internal exposure to pollutants measured in blood and urine of Flemish adolescents in function of area of residence.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, C; Baeyens, W; Schoeters, G; Den Hond, E; Koppen, G; Bruckers, L; Nelen, V; Van De Mieroop, E; Bilau, M; Covaci, A; Keune, H; Loots, I; Kleinjans, J; Dhooge, W; Van Larebeke, N

    2008-04-01

    The Centre for Environment and Health in Flanders, the Northern part of Belgium, started a biomonitoring program on adolescents in 2003. 1679 adolescents residing in nine areas with different patterns of pollution participated in the study. Possible confounding effects of lifestyle and personal characteristics were taken into account. The geometric mean levels of cadmium and lead in whole blood amounted to 0.36 and 21.7 microg l(-1), those of PCBs, DDE and HCB in serum to 68, 94 and 20.9 ng g(-1) fat, and those of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t'-muconic acid in urine to 88 ng g(-1) creatinine and 72 microg g(-1) creatinine. Significant regional differences in internal lead, cadmium, PCBs, DDE and HCB exposure were observed in function of area of residence, even after adjustment for age, sex, smoking (and body mass index for the chlorinated compounds). Compared to a reference mean, internal exposure was significantly higher in one or more of the areas: Cd and Pb in the Antwerp agglomeration, Cd in the Antwerp harbour, PCBs in the Ghent agglomeration, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the Ghent harbour, Cd, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the rural area, DDE in Olen and in the Albert canal areas. Adolescents living in an area with intensive fruit cultivation (showing overall the lowest values) and, surprisingly, in areas around household waste incinerators (average of six areas), had no significantly increased internal exposures. Subjects from separate areas around waste incinerators showed significant differences in body load of various environmental contaminants. PMID:18221770

  14. A history of chronic morphine exposure during adolescence increases despair-like behaviour and strain-dependently promotes sociability in abstinent adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, PE; Reiss, D; Ouagazzal, AM; Kieffer, BL

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in treating opiate addiction, a chronic relapsing disorder, is to maintain a drug-free abstinent state. Prolonged abstinence associates with mood disorders, strongly contributing to relapse. In particular, substance use disorders occurring during adolescence predispose to depression later in adulthood. Using our established mouse model of opiate abstinence, we characterized emotional consequences into adulthood of morphine exposure during adolescence. Our results indicate that morphine treatment in adolescent mice has no effect on anxiety-like behaviours in adult mice, after abstinence. In contrast, morphine treatment during adolescence increases behavioural despair in adult mice. We also show that morphine exposure strain-dependently enhances sociability in adult mice. Additional research will be required to understand where and how morphine acts during brain maturation to affect emotional and social behaviours into adulthood. PMID:23295400

  15. G-protein Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates the Cannabinoid Receptor 2-induced Up-regulation of Serotonin 2A Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Jade M.; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cannabinoid agonists can up-regulate and enhance the activity of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Increased expression and activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Here we report that repeated CP55940 exposure selectively up-regulates GRK5 proteins in rat PFCx and in a neuronal cell culture model. We sought to examine the mechanism underlying the regulation of GRK5 and to identify the role of GRK5 in the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced activity of 5-HT2A receptors. Interestingly, we found that cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5 involves CB2 receptors, β-arrestin 2, and ERK1/2 signaling because treatment with CB2 shRNA lentiviral particles, β-arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles, or ERK1/2 inhibitor prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5. Most importantly, we found that GRK5 shRNA lentiviral particle treatment prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced 5-HT2A receptor-mediated calcium release. Repeated cannabinoid exposure was also associated with enhanced phosphorylation of CB2 receptors and increased interaction between β-arrestin 2 and ERK1/2. These latter phenomena were also significantly inhibited by GRK5 shRNA lentiviral treatment. Our results suggest that sustained activation of CB2 receptors, which up-regulates 5-HT2A receptor signaling, enhances GRK5 expression; the phosphorylation of CB2 receptors; and the β-arrestin 2/ERK interactions. These data could provide a rationale for some of the adverse effects associated with repeated cannabinoid agonist exposure. PMID:23592773

  16. Methylphenidate and MDMA adolescent exposure in mice: long-lasting consequences on cocaine-induced reward and psychomotor stimulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Achat-Mendes, C; Anderson, K L; Itzhak, Y

    2003-07-01

    Pre-exposure to psychostimulants enhances the rewarding and psychomotor stimulating effects of subsequent drug exposure. Currently, there is a prevalence of adolescent exposure to the psychostimulants methylphenidate (MPD) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, there is a paucity of investigation concerning the long-term behavioral consequences of exposure to these stimulants during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MPD and MDMA exposure in adolescence on cocaine-induced reward and psychomotor stimulation in adulthood. Adolescent Swiss-Webster mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline, MPD (10 mg/kg) or MDMA (10 mg/kg) from PD 26 to PD 32. Animal weights were monitored during and after drug administration. One month later, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor activity (LMA) were investigated. MPD and MDMA inhibited weight increase from PD 28 to PD 39 compared to the saline group, but weights amongst the three groups equalized by PD 46. MDMA exposure resulted in the same magnitude of cocaine (20 mg/kg)-induced CPP as saline exposure; however, MPD exposure caused significantly less CPP. Two weeks following extinction of CPP and withdrawal from cocaine, a priming injection of cocaine (5 mg/kg) reinstated significantly higher CPP in the MPD and MDMA groups than in the saline group. In the LMA experiments, cocaine (15 mg/kg) was administered for 5 consecutive days. On days 1 and 5, cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion in the MPD group was significantly higher than in the saline and MDMA groups. After a 2-week withdrawal period, cocaine (5 mg/kg) evoked significantly higher LMA responses in the MPD and MDMA groups compared to the saline group. Results suggest that exposure of mice to both MPD and MDMA during adolescence involves long-lasting neural adaptations, manifested as sensitized responses to cocaine-induced reward and psychomotor stimulation following cocaine withdrawal.

  17. Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Jennifer; Hazra, Rohan; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Abrams, Elaine J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Discussion Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status. It is necessary to weigh the benefits and harms which could occur with disclosure in each of the following domains: psychosocial impact, long-term physical health of the HEU individual and the public health impact. Does disclosure improve or worsen the psychological health of the HEU individual and extended family unit? Do present data on the long-term safety of in utero HIV/ARV exposure reveal potential health risks which merit disclosure to the HEU adolescent? What research and public health programmes or systems need to be in place to afford monitoring of HEU individuals and which, if any, of these require disclosure? Conclusions At present, it is not clear that there is sufficient evidence on whether long-term adverse effects are associated with in utero HIV/ARV exposures, making it difficult to mandate universal disclosure. However, as more countries adopt electronic medical record systems, the HEU status of an individual should be an important piece of the health record which follows the infant not only through childhood and adolescence but also adulthood. Clinicians and researchers should continue to approach the dialogue around mother–child disclosure with sensitivity and a cogent consideration of the evolving risks and benefits as new information becomes available while also working to maintain documentation of an individual's perinatal HIV/ARV exposures as a vital part of his

  18. [Cannabinoids for symptomatic therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Husseini, L; Leussink, V I; Warnke, C; Hartung, H-P; Kieseier, B C

    2012-06-01

    Spasticity represents a common troublesome symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment of spasticity remains difficult, which has prompted some patients to self-medicate with and perceive benefits from cannabis. Advances in the understanding of cannabinoid biology support these anecdotal observations. Various clinical reports as well as randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have now demonstrated clinical efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of spasticity in MS patients. Sativex is a 1:1 mix of delta-9-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol extracted from cloned Cannabis sativa chemovars, which recently received a label for treating MS-related spasticity in Germany. The present article reviews the current understanding of cannabinoid biology and the value of cannabinoids as a symptomatic treatment option in MS. PMID:22080198

  19. Quantitation of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Plant Materials Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection (Validated Method).

    PubMed

    Ciolino, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Plant based products laced with synthetic cannabinoids have become popular substances of abuse over the last decade. Quantitative analysis for synthetic cannabinoid content in the laced materials is necessary for health hazard assessments addressing overall exposure and toxicity when the products are smoked. A validated, broadly applicable HPLC-UV method for the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in plant materials is presented, using acetonitrile extraction and separation on a commercial phenylhexyl stationary phase. UV detection provides excellent sensitivity with limits of quantitation (LOQs) less than 10 μg/g for many cannabinoids. The method was validated for several structural classes (dibenzopyrans, cyclohexylphenols, naphthoylindoles, benzoylindoles, phenylacetylindoles, tetramethylcyclopropylindoles) based on spike recovery experiments in multiple plant materials over a wide cannabinoid contents range (0.1-81 mg/g). Average recovery across 32 cannabinoids was 94% for marshmallow leaf, 95% for damiana leaf, and 92% for mullein leaf. The method was applied to a series of case-related products with determined amounts ranging from 0.2 to >100 mg/g. PMID:26175160

  20. Quantitation of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Plant Materials Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection (Validated Method).

    PubMed

    Ciolino, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Plant based products laced with synthetic cannabinoids have become popular substances of abuse over the last decade. Quantitative analysis for synthetic cannabinoid content in the laced materials is necessary for health hazard assessments addressing overall exposure and toxicity when the products are smoked. A validated, broadly applicable HPLC-UV method for the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in plant materials is presented, using acetonitrile extraction and separation on a commercial phenylhexyl stationary phase. UV detection provides excellent sensitivity with limits of quantitation (LOQs) less than 10 μg/g for many cannabinoids. The method was validated for several structural classes (dibenzopyrans, cyclohexylphenols, naphthoylindoles, benzoylindoles, phenylacetylindoles, tetramethylcyclopropylindoles) based on spike recovery experiments in multiple plant materials over a wide cannabinoid contents range (0.1-81 mg/g). Average recovery across 32 cannabinoids was 94% for marshmallow leaf, 95% for damiana leaf, and 92% for mullein leaf. The method was applied to a series of case-related products with determined amounts ranging from 0.2 to >100 mg/g.

  1. Cannabinoids inhibit T-cells via cannabinoid receptor 2 in an in vitro assay for graft rejection, the mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Rebecca Hartzell; Meissler, Joseph J; Breslow-Deckman, Jessica M; Gaughan, John; Adler, Martin W; Eisenstein, Toby K

    2013-12-01

    Cannabinoids are known to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed mainly on leukocytes and is the receptor implicated in mediating many of the effects of cannabinoids on immune processes. This study tested the capacity of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and of two CB2-selective agonists to inhibit the murine Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR), an in vitro correlate of graft rejection following skin and organ transplantation. Both CB2-selective agonists and Δ(9)-THC significantly suppressed the MLR in a dose dependent fashion. The inhibition was via CB2, as suppression could be blocked by pretreatment with a CB2-selective antagonist, but not by a CB1 antagonist, and none of the compounds suppressed the MLR when splenocytes from CB2 deficient mice were used. The CB2 agonists were shown to act directly on T-cells, as exposure of CD3(+) cells to these compounds completely inhibited their action in a reconstituted MLR. Further, the CB2-selective agonists completely inhibited proliferation of purified T-cells activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. T-cell function was decreased by the CB2 agonists, as an ELISA of MLR culture supernatants revealed IL-2 release was significantly decreased in the cannabinoid treated cells. Together, these data support the potential of this class of compounds as useful therapies to prolong graft survival in transplant patients.

  2. [Adolescent cannabis consumption and schizophrenia: epidemiological and experimental evidences].

    PubMed

    Parolaro, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is consistently the most widely used illicit drug among teenagers and most users first experiment it in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical period between childhood and adulthood, including not only reproductive maturation, but also cognitive, emotional and social maturation. In this period adolescent brain is still in transition differing anatomically and neurochemically from the adult's one. The endocannabinoid system is an important determinant for cerebral maturation, therefore its strong stimulation by the delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol, that acts through the endocannabinoid system, might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. We summarize the more recent researches investigating the relationships between adolescent exposure to cannabinoids and increased risk for psychotic disease such as schizophrenia, as highlighted by both human and animal studies. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cannabis use is a risk factor for schizophrenia, and an exacerbation of symptoms and worsening of the schizophrenic prognosis may occur in individuals with a predisposition for schizophrenia. The characteristic of adolescent brain probably makes it more vulnerable to cannabis effect producing psychotic like symptoms and possibly cause schizophrenia.

  3. Cannabinoids inhibit angiogenic capacities of endothelial cells via release of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 from lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Robert; Fischer, Sascha; Haustein, Maria; Manda, Katrin; Hinz, Burkhard

    2014-09-15

    Cannabinoids inhibit tumor neovascularization as part of their tumorregressive action. However, the underlying mechanism is still under debate. In the present study the impact of cannabinoids on potential tumor-to-endothelial cell communication conferring anti-angiogenesis was studied. Cellular behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) associated with angiogenesis was evaluated by Boyden chamber, two-dimensional tube formation and fibrin bead assay, with the latter assessing three-dimensional sprout formation. Viability was quantified by the WST-1 test. Conditioned media (CM) from A549 lung cancer cells treated with cannabidiol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, R(+)-methanandamide or the CB2 agonist JWH-133 elicited decre