Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.
A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.
Churchwell, John C; Carey, Paul D; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
It has been hypothesized that changes in striatal-mediated dopamine modulation during adolescence may increase the risk for initiating substance abuse as a result of its fundamental role in arbitrating reward sensitivity and motivation during learning and decision making. However, substance abuse during adolescence may also significantly modify striatal structure and function and concomitantly alter reward sensitivity and action control while this brain region is undergoing remodeling. In the present investigation, to assess the relationship of methamphetamine (Meth) or Meth and cannabis (CA) abuse to regional striatal morphology, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from three groups of adolescents composed of healthy controls (n = 10), Meth abusers (n = 9) and combined Meth and CA abusers (Meth+CA, n = 8). We also assessed novelty seeking using the novelty seeking subscale of Cloninger's Tridimensional Character Inventory. The results indicate that adolescent Meth+CA abusers have increased regional striatal volume and show intensified novelty seeking in contrast to the controls. The degree of Meth exposure was also positively correlated with regional striatal volume and novelty seeking in both the Meth and Meth+CA users. These preliminary findings support theories that propose a role for the striatum in adolescent substance abuse and further indicate that novelty seeking may be related to the initiation of, or sustained, drug use.
Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah
Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791
Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles
The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…
Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena
A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.
Rubino, T; Parolaro, D
Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior.
Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya
Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela
This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…
Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.
Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…
This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.
Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F
This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.
Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat
Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.
Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy
Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…
Duncan, Alexis E.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen Keenan
Aims This study examines the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and sexual abuse (CSA) and the development of cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults while controlling for genetic and environmental risk factors. Design To control for familial risk differences related to paternal drug dependence that might confound the relationship between CSA and CPA and cannabis abuse/dependence, we created four groups based on father’s and uncle’s substance use dependence (SUD) status reflecting different degrees of genetic and environmental risks to offspring: 1) high genetic, high environmental risk; 2) high genetic, low environmental risk, 3) medium genetic, low environmental risk; and 4) low genetic, low environmental risk. Participants Adolescent and young adult offspring of monozygotic and dizygotic US military veteran twin fathers (n= 819). Measurements Data on CPA and CSA, DSM-IV offspring cannabis abuse/dependence, other SUD and psychopathology, and maternal and paternal SUD and psychopathology were collected via semi-structured telephone interview. Findings Twenty-three percent of the offspring sample met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse/dependence, 8.55% and 12.82% reported CSA and CPA, respectively. Offspring exposed to CSA, but not CPA, were at significantly greater risk of developing cannabis abuse/dependence compared to those who had not experienced CSA (HR=2.16; 95% CI=1.48–3.16) after controlling for genetic and familial environmental risk and offspring gender, alcohol abuse and dependence and conduct disorder. Conclusions These results indicate that there are effects of CSA on development of cannabis abuse/dependence in addition to the genetic and familial environmental risk imparted by having a drug dependent father. PMID:18482422
Palmer, Glen A.; Daiss, Doyle D.
A comparison of personality factors on scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) was conducted with a sample of adolescents referred to a residential substance abuse treatment program. A total of sixty adolescents identified with hallucinogen (n = 20), cannabis (n = 20), or methamphetamine (n = 20) as their drug…
Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald
This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…
Kristensen, Karin; Cadenhead, Kristin S
The goal of the present study was to examine the rate of cannabis use among participants in the Cognitive Assessment and Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program, a longitudinal program for individuals who are "at risk" for developing a psychotic disorder. Cannabis abuse was assessed in 48 individuals identified as at risk for psychosis based on subsyndromal psychotic symptoms and/or family history. At 1 year follow-up, 6 of the 48 (12.5%) at risk subjects had made the transition to psychosis. Of the 32 subjects who had no use or minimal cannabis use, one subject (3.1%) converted to psychosis. Of the 16 subjects who met criteria for cannabis abuse/dependence, five (31.3%) converted to psychosis. The results show a significant association between cannabis abuse and conversion to psychosis in this sample. Nicotine use was also found to be significantly associated with later conversion. The significant associations between cannabis and nicotine abuse and conversion to psychosis in individuals at risk for schizophrenia suggest that early identification and intervention programs should screen for and provide education about the deleterious effects of these substances.
Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves
Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remain elusive. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however, neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak.
Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Mead, Hilary K.; Yezhuvath, Uma; DeWitt, Sam; Hutchison, Kent E.; Filbey, Francesca M.
Given the link between depression, anxiety, and cannabis abuse, a serotonin receptor (rs6311) and transporter polymorphism (rs2020936) were examined as moderators of neural response following a psychosocial treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). While the proposed hypotheses wereunsupported, we found that the rs6311 C allelewas significantly related to brain activation (medial frontal gyrus, precuneus), indicating the role of this serotonin receptor in adolescent treatment response. PMID:23217578
Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.
Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860
Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Konings, M; Maharajh, Hari D
Notwithstanding the increase use of cannabis among adolescents in both developing and developed countries, few studies have looked at cannabis use and mood disorders. In a series of case studies, this research project seeks to investigate patterns of clinical presentations seen among cannabis users in psychiatric outpatients in Trinidad. Five clinical patterns of presentations are identified among cannabis users and abusers based on variables of dosing, age of initial use, duration of use, tolerance and reverse tolerance and poly-drug abuse. All patients in these case studies were standardized for method of use and potency of cannabis used. Patients were screened by urine tests to determine co-morbid use of other substances. Other variables such as environmental factors and genetic vulnerability were reviewed as far as possible from historical accounts of family members. The five patterns described are low, controlled use with mild euphoria and heightened awareness, moderate use with mixed depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour, heavy, short term use with manic symptoms, long term incremental use with psychotic symptoms due to the trumping of depressive symptoms and cannabis mixed with other substances resulting in florid psychosis. Mood disorders appear to be a common finding among adolescents using cannabis. Sensitization to symptomatic presentation and early detection of cannabis use in young adolescents are necessary. Further research is needed on the effect of cannabinoids on emotions, behaviour and thinking and its relationship to mental disorders. This study is useful as a guideline for the implementation of public health strategies and legislation concerning the use of cannabis in youths.
The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng
Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and
Peyret, Emmanuelle; Delorme, Richard
A health policy for the prevention and treatment of cannabis-related disorders is urgently needed in France, given the high prevalence of cannabis use among children and adolescents. Such a policy will require a better understanding of the endo-cannabinoid system and the impact of exogenous cannabinoids in this fragile population. The brain continues to undergo significant development until the age of about 25 years, and cannabis consumption by young people therefore carries specific risks of dependence (frequency and intensity), and of neuroanatomical, cognitive and emotional damage. This article summarizes the available data and offers a medical view of the risks and consequences of cannabis use by children and adolescents.
McClure, Erin A.; Lydiard, Jessica B.; Goddard, Scott D.; Gray, Kevin M.
Background and Objectives Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exists exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. Methods The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N=112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. Results A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a “serious problem” with memory loss. Those participants reporting “no problem” or “serious problem” scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. Conclusions and Scientific Significance This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. PMID:25823635
Blecha, L; Benyamina, A; Reynaud, M
Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal drug in France. In 2007, the average age for a first use was 15.1 years. Most teenagers will limit their use to a few experiences or controlled use. However, for those who do become dependent, the lapse between the first use and dependence is brief (approximately 18 months) with an average of 28 months compared to tobacco (3-5 years) and alcohol (5-9 years). In light of this brief delay, it is crucial to quickly recognize adolescents who have problem cannabis use and to educate parents to warning signs and to teach them how to efficiently discuss the subject with their teenager. Multidimensional Family Therapy, Cognitive and Behavioral Family Therapy and Brief Strategic Family Therapy have shown their efficacy in clinical trials. Improving family dynamics represents not only a motivational opportunity to help the adolescent to adhere to drug dependence treatment, but may also facilitate reintegration into a drug-free social environment and maintenance in a drug-free existence. Family interventions have been shown to be even more effective when community family assistance relations (social workers, educational counselors) are optimized. Family therapy should also be combined with personal empowerment and life planning interventions which enable the adolescent to increase his self-esteem through scholastic and professional achievement.
Dinieri, Jennifer A; Hurd, Yasmin L
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the illicit drug most commonly used by two vulnerable populations relevant to neurodevelopment-pregnant women and teenagers. Human longitudinal studies have linked prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure with long-term behavioral abnormalities as well as increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Animal models provide a means of studying the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects. This chapter provides an overview of the animal models we have used to study the developmental impact of cannabis.
Liddle, Howard A.
The purpose of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project Cooperative Agreement was to test the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a variety of interventions designed to eliminate marijuana use and associated problems in…
Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L
Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.
Investigated possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health, and the use of cannabis in prospective longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescents (n=1,311). Findings indicated that the group that experimented with cannabis was mainly characterized by political and normative "oppositional" engagement, but heavy…
Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory
The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.
MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A
Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.
Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.
Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…
Cervellione, Kelly; Cottone, John; Ardekani, Babak A.; Kumra, Sanjiv
Background There is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) would have brain structure abnormalities in similar brain regions that undergo development during late adolescence, particularly the fronto-temporal connection. Method Fourteen young adult males in residential treatment for cannabis dependence and 14 age-matched healthy male control subjects were recruited. Patients had a history of HCU throughout adolescence; 5 had concurrent alcohol abuse. Subjects underwent structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. White matter integrity was compared between subject groups using voxelwise and fiber tractography analysis. Results Voxelwise and tractography analyses revealed that adolescents with HCU had reduced fractional anisotropy, increased radial diffusivity, and increased trace in the homologous areas known to be involved in ongoing development during late adolescence, particularly in the fronto-temporal connection via arcuate fasciculus. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use during adolescence may affect the trajectory of normal brain maturation. Due to concurrent alcohol consumption in five HCU subjects, conclusions from this study should be considered preliminary, as the DTI findings reported here may be reflective of the combination of alcohol and marijuana use. Further research in larger samples, longitudinal in nature, and controlling for alcohol consumption is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of the effect of cannabis on the developing brain. PMID:19111160
Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.
Adolescents' risk-taking behavior has been linked to a maturational imbalance between reward (“go”) and inhibitory-control (“stop”) related brain circuitry. This may drive adolescent drug-taking, such as cannabis use. In this study we assessed the non-acute effects of adolescent cannabis use on reward-related brain function. We performed a two-site (United States and Netherlands; pooled data) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a cross-sectional design. Twenty-one abstinent but frequent cannabis-using boys were compared with 24 non-using peers on reward-related brain function, using a monetary incentive delay task with fMRI. Focus was on anticipatory and response stages of reward and brain areas critically involved in reward processing like the striatum. Performance in users was normal. Region-of-interest analysis indicated striatal hyperactivity during anticipatory stages of reward in users. Intriguingly, this effect was most pronounced during non-rewarding events. Striatal hyperactivity in adolescent cannabis users may signify an overly sensitive motivational brain circuitry. Frequent cannabis use during adolescence may induce diminished ability to disengage the motivational circuit when no reward can be obtained. This could strengthen the search for reinforcements like drugs of abuse, even when facing the negative (non-rewarding) consequences. PMID:23909003
Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich
Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.
Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.
There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hoyle, Rick H.
Due to changes in cannabis policies, concerns about cannabis use (CU) in adolescents have increased. The population of nonwhite groups is growing quickly in the United States. We examined perceived CU norms and their association with CU and CU disorder (CUD) for White, Black, Hispanic, Native-American, Asian-American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NH/PI), and mixed-race adolescents. Data were from adolescents (12–17 years) in the 2004–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=163,837). Substance use and CUD were assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. Blacks, Hispanics, Native-Americans, and mixed-race adolescents had greater odds of past-year CU and CUD than Whites. Among past-year cannabis users (CUs), Hispanics and Native-Americans had greater odds of having a CUD than Whites. Asian-Americans had the highest prevalence of perceived parental or close friends’ CU disapproval. Native-Americans and mixed-race adolescents had lower odds than Whites of perceiving CU disapproval from parents or close friends. In adjusted analyses, adolescent’s disapproval of CU, as well as perceived disapproval by parents or close friends, were associated with a decreased odds of CU in each racial/ethnic group, except for NHs/PIs. Adolescent’s disapproval of CU was associated with a decreased odds of CUD among CUs for Whites (personal, parental, and close friends’ disapproval), Hispanics (personal, parental, and close friends’ disapproval), and mixed-race adolescents (personal, close friends’ disapproval). Racial/ethnic differences in adolescent CU prevalence were somewhat consistent with adolescents’ reports of CU norm patterns. Longitudinal research on CU health effects should oversample nonwhite adolescents to assure an adequate sample for analysis and reporting. PMID:25795093
Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier
The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.
Phagava, H; Bakashvili, I; Chanturishvili, T; Abashidze, G; Pagava, K
To estimate the substance abuse and thus assess the basic indicators of health risk behavior of the adolescents in Georgia: frequencies of their tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was adapted from the Swiss Survey (SMASH2002), translated into Georgian and other languages mainly used in schools (Russian, Armenian and Azeri). It contained 87 questions. Two-stage cluster sampling was devised. Weight was adjusted. A total of 599 classes were selected. Field work took place in 2004. All questionnaires (n=9499; 56,8% filled out by girls, 39,6% - by boys; the mean age was 15,5+/-1,1 years) before being processed into the Epidata were edited. The final data were analysed by SPSS 11.0. 10,4% of adolescents have reported to smoke. The average age of starting to smoke is 13,4 years. 61,2% girls and 67.8% boys drink vine. 56,7% out of the total number of respondents claimed to have been never drunk, 30,0% - answered positively. 2,3% said that they had intravenous drug injection. The drug of preference is cannabis - 6,8%. 72,2% of those who have had intravenous drug injections answered positively to the question "Have you ever been really drunk?" Performed survey is a first one done among adolescents in Georgia. It gave us basic information for planning and implementation of necessary measures in order to improve the health of adolescents and raise awareness of professionals involved in health care and prevention settings for adolescents.
James, Anthony; James, Christine; Thwaites, Thomas
Cannabis is widely used in adolescence; however, the effects of cannabis on the developing brain remain unclear. Cannabis might be expected to have increased effects upon brain development and cognition during adolescence. There is extensive re-organisation of grey (GM) and white matter (WM) at this time, while the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is involved in the normal physiological regulation of neural transmission, is still developing. In healthy adolescent cannabis users there is a suggestion of greater memory loss and hippocampal volume changes. Functional studies point to recruitment of greater brain areas under cognitive load. Structural and DTI studies are few, and limited by comorbid drug and alcohol use. The studies of cannabis use in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) differ, with one study pointing to extensive GM and WM changes. There is an intriguing suggestion that the left parietal lobe may be more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis in AOS. As in adult schizophrenia cognition does not appear to be adversely affected in AOS following cannabis use. Given the limited number of studies it is not possible to draw firm conclusions. There is a need for adequately powered, longitudinal studies.
Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Scherer, Emily A.; Norton, Gray E.; Budney, Alan J.
Objective To conduct a randomized test comparing two multicomponent, contingency management interventions, one with and one without a full parent training curriculum, and an individual treatment for adolescent cannabis use disorders. Method 153 adolescents who met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence were randomized to motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT), MET/CBT+abstinence-based contingency management (CM), or MET/CBT+CM+Parent Training (PT). Results Overall, during treatment, abstinence was greater for youth receiving clinic- and home-based CM without PT compared to those who received individual MET/CBT. There was no additional benefit of the full parent training curriculum on marijuana use, youth externalizing problems, or parenting. Conclusion These results suggest that clinic- plus home-based CM for cannabis use disorders can increase rates of abstinence during treatment over and above an evidence-based treatment (individual MET/CBT), but the addition of a comprehensive parenting training curriculum did not further enhance efficacy. PMID:26004659
Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.
Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378
Sethi, B.B.; Tiwari, S.C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Trivedi, J.K.
SUMMARY The Indian literature related to drug abuse in general and Cannabis in particular has been reviewed and possible implications discussed. In this regard to solve the existing controversy, 50 pure chronic cannabis users were evaluated for their physical, mental, cognitive and socio economic functions and the results were compared with a matched control group. Results of this study did not reveal any impairment in these areas It is concluded that cannabis, in India, may not be as much injurious to health as has often been mentioned in Western Countries. Future areas of research have been suggested. PMID:21965957
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.
This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…
Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Bo; Larsen, Sofus C.; Heitmann, Berit L.
Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001) and alcohol intake (p<0.001) and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife. PMID:28060830
Hamilton, Nancy L.; Brantley, Laura Bunch; Tims, Frank M.; Angelovich, Nancy; McDougall, Barbara
Substance-abusing adolescents experiencing inadequate family structure and functioning will be at a serious disadvantage with regard to recovery. The family support network (FSN) intervention seeks to extend the focus of treatment beyond the world of the adolescent by engaging the family, a major system in his or her life. Designed to increase…
Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram
We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…
Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H
In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.
Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y
The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.
Walburg, Vera; Moncla, Dany; Mialhes, Aurélie
Background: Cannabis is a substance frequently consumed by adolescents, which is a risk factor for many psychopathological disorders. At the same time, adolescents in high-schools are likely to be exposed to significant stress from school that can sometimes lead to a burnout syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the impact…
Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J
There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.
Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…
Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann
The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…
Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Valerio; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Tonioni, Federico; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bria, Pietro
Chronic cannabis use produces effects within the central nervous system (CNS) which include deficits in learning and attention tasks and decreased brain volume. Neurotrophins, in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are proteins that serve as survival factors for CNS neurons. Deficits in the production and utilization of these proteins can lead to CNS dysfunctions including those associated with cannabis abuse. In this study we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the NGF and BDNF serum levels in two groups of subjects: cannabis-dependent patients and healthy subjects. We found that NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in cannabis abusers as compared to healthy subjects. These findings indicate that NGF may have a role in the central action of cannabis and potentially in the neurotoxicity induced by this drug. These data also suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may be a risk factor for developing psychosis among drug users.
Harvey, Megan A; Sellman, John D; Porter, Richard J; Frampton, Christopher M
Research indicates that cannabis continues to be a popular illegal drug internationally. Furthermore, adolescent rates of use appear to be significant. Whilst the non-acute effect of cannabis use on adult cognition has been extensively researched, there has been less examination of adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the non-acute relationship between cannabis and cognitive function in a sample of adolescents with a continuum of cannabis use, taking into account additional predictor variables (psychiatric functioning, general functioning, demographics and other drug use). Seventy adolescents were recruited from clinical and community sources as well as through newspaper advertisements. After 12 hours abstinence from cannabis, adolescents completed a two-hour interview covering: demographics; alcohol and drug use history; drug use in the past 28 days; depression; further psychiatric functioning (including ADHD and Conduct Disorder); and cognitive functioning as measured by computerised tasks (CANTAB) and traditional pen and paper tests. Adolescents who were regular cannabis users (more than once a week) had a significantly poorer performance on four measures of cognitive function reflecting attention, spatial working memory and learning. Cannabis use remained an independent predictor of performance on the working memory and strategy measures after additional predictor variables were included in a multivariate regression analysis. The results suggest that aspects of adolescent cognitive function are independently related to the frequency of cannabis use beyond acute intoxication.
Albertella, Lucy; Norberg, Melissa M
The present study examined mental health symptoms and their relationship to cannabis use and treatment outcomes in a sample of adolescents who received treatment for cannabis dependence through a residential substance use program. The sample included 132 adolescents who nominated cannabis as their primary drug of concern upon admission and who completed at least 30 days of treatment. This study found that mental health symptoms of young cannabis users reduced significantly from admission to three-month follow-up. Further, pretreatment symptoms of anxiety were associated with greater pretreatment cannabis use, while symptoms of phobic anxiety were associated with less pretreatment cannabis use. Pretreatment obsessive-compulsive and somatization symptoms were associated with greater follow-up cannabis use, whereas pretreatment paranoid ideation symptoms were associated with less follow-up cannabis use. Further, follow-up somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hostility, and phobic anxiety were associated with greater follow-up cannabis use while follow-up symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity were associated with less follow-up cannabis use. These findings highlight a variety of areas for further investigation in order to enhance current treatment for cannabis use.
Introduction The self-mutilating patient is an unusual psychiatric presentation in the emergency room. Nonetheless, serious underlying psychiatric pathology and drug abuse are important background risk factors. A careful stepwise approach in the emergency room is essential, although the prognosis, follow-up, and eventual rehabilitation can be problematic. We present a unique and original case of bilateral self-castration caused by cannabis abuse. Case Presentation We report a case of a 40-year-old Berber man, who was presented to our emergency room with externalization of both testes using his long fingernails, associated with hemodynamic shock. After stabilization of his state, our patient was admitted to the operating room where hemostasis was achieved. Conclusion The clinical characteristics of self-mutilation are manifold and there is a lack of agreement about its etiology. The complex behavior associated with drug abuse may be one cause of self-mutilation. Dysfunction of the inhibitory brain circuitry caused by substance abuse could explain why this cannabis-addicted patient lost control and self-mutilated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which presents an association between self-castration and cannabis abuse. PMID:21861879
Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne
Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed.
Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin
Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…
Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.
The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)
Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna
Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…
Butters, Jennifer E.
Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…
Maharajh, Hari D; Konings, Monique
Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (p<0.01). Our findings suggest that there is a convincing relationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.
TERZIC SUPIC, Zorica; SANTRIC MILICEVIC, Milena; SBUTEGA, Isidora; VASIC, Vladimir
Background Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption. Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft) during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user. Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05). Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture. PMID:23641402
Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L
Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.
Williamson, J M; Borduin, C M; Howe, B A
This study examined the individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Dyads were divided into 4 demographically similar groups: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and nonmaltreatment control. Results show that adolescent neglect was primarily associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation. Adolescent physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child developmental skills, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. In contrast, adolescent sexual abuse was related to maternal emotional problems and adolescent internalizing behaviors. In general, each group of maltreated adolescents experienced lower levels of family cohesion, more attention problems, and more daily stress than did their nonmaltreated counterparts. Findings are consistent with an ecological model of adolescent maltreatment.
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn
The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Amini, Fariboz; And Others
Issues involved in treating adolescent drug abusers and literature describing abuser personality traits are examined. The Youth Service at Langley Porter Institute and the problems encountered and solutions attempted there are discussed. The importance of residential as opposed to outpatient treatment and honesty in staff-patient relationships is…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano
Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background.
Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…
Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.
Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Maniglio, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco
To provide a comprehensive picture of the whole spectrum of psychosocial factors potentially associated with adolescent cannabis use, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess a variety of social, demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of last-month cannabis use and age of first use among 6,838 students. Results showed that only family problems, alcohol and/or other drug use/misuse, deviant behavior, and victimization were independently associated with either recent cannabis use or early onset of cannabis use when multiple, interacting factors were considered. Certain family and behavioral factors might be more important than other psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use.
Ashtari, Manzar; Avants, Brian; Cyckowski, Laura; Cervellione, Kelly L; Roofeh, David; Cook, Philip; Gee, James; Sevy, Serge; Kumra, Sanjiv
Converging lines of evidence suggest an adverse effect of heavy cannabis use on adolescent brain development, particularly on the hippocampus. In this preliminary study, we compared hippocampal morphology in 14 "treatment-seeking" adolescents (aged 18-20) with a history of prior heavy cannabis use (5.8 joints/day) after an average of 6.7 months of drug abstinence, and 14 demographically matched normal controls. Participants underwent a high-resolution 3D MRI as well as cognitive testing including the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Heavy-cannabis users showed significantly smaller volumes of the right (p < 0.04) and left (p < 0.02) hippocampus, but no significant differences in the amygdala region compared to controls. In controls, larger hippocampus volumes were observed to be significantly correlated with higher CVLT verbal learning and memory scores, but these relationships were not observed in cannabis users. In cannabis users, a smaller right hippocampus volume was correlated with a higher amount of cannabis use (r = -0.57, p < 0.03). These data support a hypothesis that heavy cannabis use may have an adverse effect on hippocampus development. These findings, after an average 6.7 month of supervised abstinence, lend support to a theory that cannabis use may impart long-term structural and functional damage. Alternatively, the observed hippocampal volumetric abnormalities may represent a risk factor for cannabis dependence. These data have potential significance for understanding the observed relationship between early cannabis exposure during adolescence and subsequent development of adult psychopathology reported in the literature for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.
Ashtari, Manzar; Avants, Brian; Cyckowski, Laura; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Roofeh, David; Cook, Philip; Gee, James; Sevy, Serge; Kumra, Sanjiv
Converging lines of evidence suggest an adverse effect of heavy cannabis use on adolescent brain development, particularly on the hippocampus. In this preliminary study, we compared hippocampal morphology in 14 “treatment-seeking” adolescents (aged 18-20) with a history of prior heavy-cannabis use (5.8 joints/day) after an average of 6.7 months of drug abstinence, and 14 demographically matched normal controls. Participants underwent a high-resolution 3D MRI as well as cognitive testing including the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Heavy-cannabis users showed significantly smaller volumes of the right (p< .04) and left (p< .02) hippocampus, but no significant differences in the amygdala region compared to controls. In controls, larger hippocampus volumes were observed to be significantly correlated with higher CVLT verbal learning and memory scores, but these relationships were not observed in cannabis users. In cannabis users, a smaller right hippocampus volume was correlated with a higher amount of cannabis use (r= - .57, p< .03). These data support a hypothesis that heavy-cannabis use may have an adverse effect on hippocampus development. These findings, after an average 6.7 month of supervised abstinence, lend support to a theory that cannabis use may impart long-term structural and functional damage. Alternatively, the observed hippocampal volumetric abnormalities may represent a risk factor for cannabis dependence. These data have potential significance for understanding the observed relationship between early cannabis exposure during adolescence and subsequent development of adult psychopathology reported in the literature for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. PMID:21296361
Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network
McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.
Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587
McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Leon-Verdin, MaGuadalupe; Bloomfield, Karen; Wood, Sharon; Winters, Esther; Smith, Jennifer
An evidence-based treatment for adolescent cannabis users, Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach with Assertive Continuing Care, was implemented in a rural county and small city in the USA. A total of 147 adolescents, ages 12-18, were enrolled and assessed at baseline and three time points: 3, 6, and 12 months using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs and related measures. Program effectiveness was confirmed. The treatment was equally effective for youth from the city versus the county. More than two-thirds (68.7%) of the adolescents reported quitting use of cannabis by 12 months. The days of cannabis use in the last 90 days decreased significantly from the first follow-up, controlling for age (p value < .01), and shows consistent decline until the end of the treatment. In addition to reduction in substance use, the average number of days missing school and expelled from school decreased significantly from baseline to the end of the treatment.
Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo
This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Tang, Sephora M.; Ansarian, Aylar; Courtney, Darren B.
Objectives To examine the association between clozapine treatment and frequency of cannabis use in adolescents with co-occurring psychotic and cannabis use disorder in a retrospective cohort chart review. Method We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and concurrent cannabis use disorder admitted to a tertiary care youth inpatient unit from 2010–2012. Longitudinal exposure and outcome data was coded month-by-month. Frequency of cannabis use was measured using a 7-point ordinal scale. Severity of psychosis was measured on a 3-point ordinal scale. Mixed effects regression modeling was used to describe the relationship between exposure and outcome variables. Results Thirteen patients had exposure to clozapine and fourteen had no exposure to clozapine. Cannabis use decreased in patients treated with clozapine, compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.97–7.9). Compared to no medication, clozapine exposure was associated with significantly less cannabis use (OR 7.1; 95% CI 2.3–22.3). Relative to treatment with other antipsychotics, clozapine exposure was significantly associated with lower severity of psychotic symptoms (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2–11.8). Conclusions Clozapine may lead to decreased cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in adolescents with concurrent psychosis and substance use. Clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28331504
Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071
Apostolidis, Thémis; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Soulé, Florence
This study explored the relation of Future time perspective (FTP) to cannabis use and tested the potential mediating role of cannabis perception, with a sample of 276 French adolescents. FTP was assessed using ZTPI subscale, cannabis perception was evaluated from a list of nine items related to drug-oriented perception (DOP), and participants were asked to report both their cannabis use and the level of use. Results showed that FTP acts as a significant predictor of cannabis use, and is significantly linked to DOP. A significant relationship between DOP and cannabis use also appeared. Regression analyses showed that DOP acts as a mediator in the link between FTP and cannabis use. These findings confirm the protective role of FTP in cannabis use and suggest the indirect nature of this role.
Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira
There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.
Camchong, Jazmin; Lim, Kelvin O; Kumra, Sanjiv
Cannabis is widely perceived as a safe recreational drug and its use is increasing in youth. It is important to understand the implications of cannabis use during childhood and adolescence on brain development. This is the first longitudinal study that compared resting functional connectivity of frontally mediated networks between 43 healthy controls (HCs; 20 females; age M = 16.5 ± 2.7) and 22 treatment-seeking adolescents with cannabis use disorder (CUD; 8 females; age M = 17.6 ± 2.4). Increases in resting functional connectivity between caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior frontal gyrus across time were found in HC, but not in CUD. CUD showed a decrease in functional connectivity between caudal ACC and dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices across time. Lower functional connectivity between caudal ACC cortex and orbitofrontal cortex at baseline predicted higher amounts of cannabis use during the following 18 months. Finally, high amounts of cannabis use during the 18-month interval predicted lower intelligence quotient and slower cognitive function measured at follow-up. These data provide compelling longitudinal evidence suggesting that repeated exposure to cannabis during adolescence may have detrimental effects on brain resting functional connectivity, intelligence, and cognitive function.
Womack, Sean R.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Forbes, Erika E.
Objective: Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Method: Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Results: Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Conclusions: Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:26997187
Hanna, Rebecca C; Shalvoy, Alexandra; Cullum, C Munro; Ivleva, Elena I; Keshavan, Matcheri; Pearlson, Godfrey; Hill, S Kristian; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Ghose, Subroto
Prior cannabis use, compared to nonuse, is reported to be associated with less cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. The age of cannabis use and the persistent influence of cannabis use on cognitive function has not been examined across the psychosis dimension. Ninety-seven volunteers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar psychosis) and 64 controls were recruited at the Dallas site of the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes consortium. Cannabis use history obtained in a semi-structured manner was used to categorize subjects into nonusers, adolescent-onset users, and late-onset users. The a priori hypothesis tested was that individuals with psychosis and a history of adolescent cannabis use (ACU) would have better global neuropsychological performance, as measured by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) battery, compared to those with psychosis and no cannabis use history. BACS Composite scores were significantly higher in individuals with psychosis with ACU compared to individuals with psychosis and no prior cannabis use. In subgroup analyses, ACU influenced global cognition in the schizophrenia/schizoaffective (SCZ) subgroup but not the bipolar psychosis subgroup. Exploratory analyses within the SCZ group, suggest that ACU was associated with better performance in specific domains compared to non-ACU groups. There are distinct associations between age of cannabis use and neuropsychological function across psychotic illnesses. Specifically, ACU is associated with better cognitive function in SCZ but not bipolar psychosis. This age-dependent and diagnosis-specific influence of cannabis may need to be factored into the design of future cognitive studies in SCZ.
Battle, Judy Shepps
Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is currently increasing. Three out of four adolescents report regular drinking. Significant alcohol, inhalant, and cigarette use is reported as early as fourth grade, and alcohol experimentation increases from 6 to 17 percent between fourth and sixth grades. Adolescence is a high risk stage for…
Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica
Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'.
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Staggs, Frank M., Jr.; Nyberg, Kenneth L.
Drug abuse and the differences in drug use patterns and related behavior between rural blacks and whites were examined. Questionnaires were administered to 993 (369 black and 624 white) rural adolescents in grades 7-12 in randomly selected schools in Texas. The instrument totaled 15 pages containing 65 items which yielded 178 quantifiable…
Williamson, Jeffrey M.; And Others
Examined individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Adolescent neglect was associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation; physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child development, and adolescent…
French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R.; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C. John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W. L.; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš
IMPORTANCE Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12–21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. RESULTS Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in
Exposure to drugs of abuse during adolescence may lead to developmental disturbances, which may have functional consequences as well. Especially detrimental to the brain is substantial binge drinking, which may in the worst case lead to loss of the brain's gray matter gray substance and reduced integrity of the white matter. These changes are reflected in many cognitive functions. Also cannabis interferes with brain maturation and causes impairment of cognitive functioning. Although the structural changes induced by drugs are likely to largely return to normal after cessation of use, their overall effect on the functional capacity of the young may be significant.
Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Protti, Michele; Conti, Matteo; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Raggi, Maria Augusta
An advanced analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), has been developed for the identification and determination in hair of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol together with its major metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Since the latter is formed endogenously, it allows the assessment of chronic use excluding passive exposure to Cannabis. The sample pre-treatment procedure is based on a feasible incubative extraction followed by a liquid-liquid extraction step. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution with a formic acid/acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The limits of quantitation and of detection were 3pg/mg and 1pg/mg, respectively, for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples from Cannabis abusers; the analyte concentrations found ranged from 55 to 100pg/mg for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and from 5 to 10pg/mg for 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Accuracy studies also gave satisfactory results (recovery>87%), thus confirming the suitability of the assay for chronic consumption monitoring.
Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt
Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…
Bossong, Matthijs G; Niesink, Raymond J M
Cannabis use during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychotic disorders later in life. However, the neurobiological processes underlying this relationship are unknown. This review reports the results of a literature search comprising various neurobiological disciplines, ultimately converging into a model that might explain the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia. The article briefly reviews current insights into brain development during adolescence. In particular, the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in experience-dependent maturation of specific cortical circuitries is examined. The review also covers recent hypotheses regarding disturbances in strengthening and pruning of synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex, and the link with latent psychotic disorders. In the present model, cannabis-induced schizophrenia is considered to be a distortion of normal late postnatal brain maturation. Distortion of glutamatergic transmission during critical periods may disturb prefrontal neurocircuitry in specific brain areas. Our model postulates that adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive substance in cannabis, transiently disturbs physiological control of the endogenous cannabinoid system over glutamate and GABA release. As a result, THC may adversely affect adolescent experience-dependent maturation of neural circuitries within prefrontal cortical areas. Depending on dose, exact time window and duration of exposure, this may ultimately lead to the development of psychosis or schizophrenia. The proposed model provides testable hypotheses which can be addressed in future studies, including animal experiments, reanalysis of existing epidemiological data, and prospective epidemiological studies in which the role of the dose-time-effect relationship should be central.
de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia
Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.
... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.
Gillespie, NA; Henders, AK; Davenport, TA; Hermens, DF; Wright, MJ; Martin, NG; Hickie, IB
We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded project Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks. PMID:23187020
Rubio, Gabriel; Marín-Lozano, Jesús; Ferre, Francisco; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Sanz, Javier; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, José Luis; Lora, David; Jurado, Rosa; López-Trabada, José Ramón; Palomo, Tomás
The study aims to identify psychopathologic variables in cannabis-induced psychosis and recent-onset primary psychoses using the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. A sample of 181 subjects with psychotic symptoms and cannabis use referred to the psychiatry inpatient units of 3 university general hospitals were assessed. The final sample included 50 subjects with a diagnosis of cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD) and 104 subjects with primary psychotic disorders. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the most efficient psychopathologic variables for classifying CIPD were interpersonal sensitivity, "depression," phobic anxiety, and Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders subscales. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model including depression and "misattribution" scores was 96.78% (95% confidence interval, 94.43-99.13). Depressive symptoms could be used to distinguish CIPD from other primary psychotic disorders. Clinical variables related to "neurotic" symptoms could be involved in the susceptibility to cannabis-induced psychosis.
García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.
Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J
Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABAA, glycine and 5HT3 receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABAA receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858
Gordon, Susan M.
This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…
McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.
Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…
Mayet, Aurélie; Legleye, Stéphane; Chau, Nearkasen; Falissard, Bruno
Licit substance use could be an early stage leading on to cannabis use. The aim of the study was to test a hypothetical sequential process leading from socializing to cannabis use so as to evaluate the mediator role of tobacco and alcohol. Data was derived from a French nationwide survey carried out in 2005 involving 29,393 teenagers aged 17. The analysis used structural equation modelling. The sequence tested was: socializing with friends-tobacco/alcohol use-cannabis use-cannabis use disorders (CUD). Tobacco and alcohol consumptions appeared to be similarly influenced by the time spent with friends. However, tobacco mediation explained 57% of the sequence leading to cannabis use and 61% of the sequence leading to CUD, while the role of alcohol was weaker, at around 13%. Our results underline the effect of peer influence, in the course of night-out socializing, on substance use among adolescents, and the importance of tobacco mediation in the process leading to cannabis use and misuse. This suggests that prevention in places frequented by adolescents should primarily target tobacco consumption, which explains the largest part of cannabis use variance. However, processes linking substance uses seem to be more complex, with the existence of reverse pathways from cannabis to licit drugs. Thus, the gateway effects of tobacco and alcohol require further exploration in relation to simultaneous polysubstance use.
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
Gray, Kevin M.; Riggs, Paula D.; Min, Sung-Joon; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Winhusen, Theresa
Background Cigarette smoking is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUD). However, little is known about the relationship between cigarette and cannabis use trajectories in the context of treatment for both ADHD and SUD. To address this research gap, we report collateral analyses from a 16-week randomized, controlled trial (n=303) of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adolescents with ADHD concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting non-nicotine SUD. Methods Participants completed cigarette and cannabis use self-report at baseline and throughout treatment. Analyses were performed to explore the relationships between cigarette smoking, cannabis use, and other factors, such as medication treatment assignment (OROS-MPH versus placebo). Results Baseline (pre-treatment) cigarette smoking was positively correlated with cannabis use. Negligible decline in cigarette smoking during treatment for non-nicotine SUD was observed in both medication groups. Regular cigarette and cannabis users at baseline who reduced their cannabis use by >50% also reduced cigarette smoking (from 10.8±1.1 to 6.2±1.1 cigarettes per day). Conclusions Findings highlight the challenging nature of concurrent cannabis and cigarette use in adolescents with ADHD, but demonstrate that changes in use of these substances during treatment may occur in parallel. PMID:21411243
Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832
Friedman, Alfred S.; Utada, Arlene
Describes development of Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD), a 150-item instrument with a structured interview format, which produces a comprehensive evaluation of the life problem areas pertinent to the needs of adolescent drug abuse clients. A series of validity and reliability tests are described, along with characteristics of the…
Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Young, Amy
OBJECTIVES Our goals were to (1) determine adolescents' motivations (reasons) for engaging in the nonmedical (illicit) use of 4 classes of prescription medications and (2) examine whether motivations were associated with a higher risk for substance abuse problems. RESPONDENTS The 2005 sample (N = 1086) was derived from one ethnically diverse school district in southeastern Michigan and included 7th- through 12th-grade students. METHODS Data were collected by using a self-administered, Web-based survey that included questions about drug use and the motivations to engage in nonmedical use of prescription medication. RESULTS Twelve percent of the respondents had engaged in nonmedical use of opioid pain medications in the past year: 3% for sleeping, 2% as a sedative and/or for anxiety, and 2% as stimulants. The reasons for engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription medications varied by drug classification. For opioid analgesics, when the number of motives increased, so too did the likelihood of a positive Drug Abuse Screening Test score. For every additional motive endorsed, the Drug Abuse Screening Test increased by a factor of 1.8. Two groups of students were compared (at-risk versus self-treatment); those who endorsed multiple motivations for nonmedical use of opioids (at-risk group) were significantly more likely to have elevated Drug Abuse Screening Test scores when compared with those who were in the self-treatment group. Those in the at-risk group also were significantly more likely to engage in marijuana and alcohol use. CONCLUSION The findings from this exploratory study warrant additional research because several motivations for the nonmedical use of prescription medications seem associated with a greater likelihood of substance abuse problems. PMID:17142533
Discusses what makes an aftercare group for adolescent substance abusers function productively and describes the format that seems to work best for young adolescents in an aftercare group. Emphasizes importance of group facilitator skills in areas of leadership, safety, and structure in helping adolescents gain re-identification as abstaining…
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Halebsky, Mark A.
Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…
Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.
The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…
Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C
The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.
Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H.; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan
Background Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. Methods We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male–male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. Results A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18–20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. Conclusions In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. PMID:25660314
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong
The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.
Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret
Cannabis use disorders have been recently identified as a relevant clinical issue: a subset of cannabis smokers seeks treatment for their cannabis use, yet few succeed in maintaining long-term abstinence. The rewarding and positive reinforcing effects of the primary psychoactive component of smoked cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. The CB1 receptor has also been shown to mediate cannabinoid dependence and expression of withdrawal upon cessation of drug administration, a phenomenon verified across species. This paper will review findings implicating the CB1 receptor in the behavioural effects of exogenous cannabinoids with a focus on cannabinoid dependence and reinforcement, factors that contribute to the maintenance of chronic cannabis smoking despite negative consequences. Opioidergic modulation of these effects is also discussed.
Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio
Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554
Spotts, J V; Shontz, F C
This report applies a theory of psychological individuation to inferences drawn from an 8-year series of clinical studies of men who practice heavy, chronic use of different drugs. Each man was studied intensively over a period of 4-5 months, using interviews and a comprehensive battery of dimensional and morphogenic assessment procedures. Users of barbiturates and sedative hypnotics were found to be least mature, followed by users of opiates, users of amphetamine, users of cocaine, and nonusers of drugs, who were found to be most mature. A theory is described which conceives adolescent substance abuse as rooted in dysfunctional relationships with parental figures which block or delay the normal individuation process. Comparable sets of representative case studies of heavy, chronic users of alcohol and marihuana are recommended to facilitate the development of treatment programs that take into account the special needs of persons who practice heavy, chronic use of different substances.
Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.
Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…
Jordan, Karen M.
Studies indicate that substance abuse is a growing problem among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Prevention and intervention efforts can be successful in working with sexual minority adolescents in jeopardy of developing substance abuse problems. School psychologists are uniquely poised to address this problem through…
Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.
Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…
de la Serna, Elena; Mayoral, María; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; Andrés, Patricia; Bombin, Igor; González, Cristina; Rapado, Marta; Robles, Olalla; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose Manuel; Zabala, Arantzazu; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
To investigate the relationship between cognition and prior cannabis use in children and adolescents presenting a first episode of psychosis. A total of 107 patients with first episode of psychosis and 96 healthy controls, aged 9 to 17 years, were interviewed about their previous substance use and to assess their cognitive functions. Patients were assessed while not using cannabis by means of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the history of prior cannabis use: cannabis users (CU) and cannabis nonusers (CNU). Significant differences were found in all areas evaluated between the 3 groups. Both CU and CNU patients obtained lower scores than controls on verbal learning and memory and working memory. Patients with prior cannabis use performed better on some tests of attention (Continuous performance test (CPT) number of correct responses, p = 0.002; CPT average reaction time, p < 0.001) and executive functions (Trail Making Test, part B (TMT-B) number of mistakes, p < 0.001; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) number of categories completed, p < 0.001) than CNU patients. CU patients performed better than CNU subjects on some cognitive measures. This may indicate lower individual vulnerability for psychosis in CU patients in whom cannabis use can be a precipitating factor of psychotic episodes.
Elawad, Nagi; Misau, Yusuf A.; Shaikh, Tarteel M.; Allam, Nedal
Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM) to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%), cannabis (7-60.0%), cocaine (5-70.7%), and opiates (4-88%). The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2) or had mild (OR=8.1), moderate (OR=20.0), or severe dependence (OR=14.0) on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms. PMID:28299079
Balogh, R; Bretherton, K; Whibley, S; Berney, T; Graham, S; Richold, P; Worsley, C; Firth, H
The present authors conducted a study of the occurrence of victimization and the perpetration of sexual abuse among 43 in-patients with intellectual disability aged between 9 and 21 years who were admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient department over a period of 5 years. A retrospective case-note review was employed that explored the nature and severity of abuse in relation to the age, gender and level of disability. The prevalence of abuse or abusive behaviour, i.e. 14% of 300 admissions, did not change over time. In 13 out of the 43 cases, the issue of sexual abuse was identified after admission. Victimization alone occurred in 21 cases, perpetration alone in six cases, and both victimization and perpetration in 16 cases. Fifty per cent of the victims had been abused by a member of their close or extended family. Most cases (62%) were adolescents. There was only one instance of a victim being abused by a female. However, there were five girls who were perpetrators, all of whom had previously been victims. By contrast, 11 out of the 17 male perpetrators had been victims. Despite difficulties of disclosure, it was possible to establish that severely disabled patients had suffered sexual abuse. The present data support theories which (1) recognize gender differences in sexual abuse patterns and (2) have a developmental perspective, incorporating the influence of adolescence.
Epstein, Katherine A; Kumra, Sanjiv
During late adolescence, progressive cortical thinning occurs in heteromodal association cortex (HASC) that is thought to subserve cognitive development. However, the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) upon cortical gray matter development in both healthy adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is unclear. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 79 adolescents at baseline and after an 18-month follow-up: 17 with EOS, 17 with CUD, 11 with EOS+CUD, and 34 healthy controls (HC). Mean age at baseline was 16.4years (CUD+) and 17.0years (CUD-). Using FreeSurfer, measures of cortical thickness for ROIs within HASC were obtained. A 2 (EOS versus no EOS)×2 (CUD versus no CUD) multivariate analysis of covariance was applied to change scores from baseline to follow-up to test for main effects of EOS and CUD and an interaction effect. After adjusting for covariates, a significant main effect of CUD was observed. Adolescents with CUD showed an attenuated loss of cortical thickness in the left and right supramarginal, left and right inferior parietal, right pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left superior frontal, and left superior temporal regions compared to non-using subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that greater cumulative cannabis exposure predicted greater cortical thickness in both the left (p=.008) and right (p=.04) superior frontal gyri at study endpoint after adjusting for baseline cortical thickness for the entire sample. These preliminary longitudinal data demonstrate an atypical pattern of cortical development in HASC in adolescents with CUD relative to non-using subjects, across diagnostic groups. Additional studies are needed to replicate these data and to clarify the clinical significance of these findings.
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.
Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…
Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Kwon, Josephine A; Zeichner, Amos; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S
Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults' substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 %-African American, 14.7 %-Hispanic). Growth mixture modeling analyses supported declining, ascending, and stable high self-esteem trajectories. The declining and ascending trajectories reported greater neglect and alcohol abuse (but not use) as well as cannabis use and abuse. The findings suggest that compromised development of self-esteem underlies associations between neglect and substance use and abuse. Preventive interventions may benefit from targeting self-esteem among neglected youth.
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Caspersen, Shannon; Tau, Gregory Z; Ammerman, Seth
This clinical case conference discusses the case of an adolescent presenting with a marijuana use disorder. Information about a real patient is presented to expert clinicians, who respond to the information by sharing their reasoning and recommendations, followed by a summary of the clinical discussion.
Mushanyu, J; Nyabadza, F; Muchatibaya, G; Stewart, A G R
Adolescence methamphetamine use is an issue of considerable concern due to its correlation with later delinquency, divorce, unemployment and health problems. Understanding how adolescents initiate methamphetamine abuse is important in developing effective prevention programs. We formulate a mathematical model for the spread of methamphetamine abuse using nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is assumed that susceptibles are recruited into methamphetamine use through imitation. An epidemic threshold value, [Formula: see text], termed the abuse reproduction number, is proposed and defined herein in the drug-using context. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation. This means that methamphetamine problems may persist in the population even if [Formula: see text] is less than one. Sensitivity analysis of [Formula: see text] was performed to determine the relative importance of different parameters in methamphetamine abuse initiation. The model is then fitted to data on methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse in the treatment centres of Cape Town and parameter values that give the best fit are chosen. Results show that the proportion of methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse will continue to decrease in Cape Town of South Africa. The results suggest that intervention programs targeted at reducing adolescence methamphetamine abuse, are positively impacting methamphetamine abuse.
Spann, Marisa N; Mayes, Linda C; Kalmar, Jessica H; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.
Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christoper S.
This study examined the latent class structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) symptoms used to diagnose cannabis, hallucinogen, cocaine, and opiate disorders among 501 adolescents recruited from addictions treatment. Latent class results were compared with the…
Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others
Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…
Hüsler, Gebhard; Plancherel, Bernard; Werlen, Egon
This research has tested a social disintegration model in conjunction with risk and protection factors that have the power to differentiate relative, weighted interactions among variables in different socially disintegrated groups. The model was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 1082 at-risk youth in Switzerland. Structural equation analyses show significant differences between the social disintegration (low, moderate, high) groups and gender, indicating that the model works differently for groups and for gender. For the highly disintegrated adolescents results clearly show that the risk factors (negative mood, peer network, delinquency) are more important than the protective factors (family relations, secure sense of self). Family relations lose all protective value against negative peer influence, but personal variables, such as secure self, gain protective power.
Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151
McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K
Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.
Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G
Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.
Wilkinson, Samuel T; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril
The link between cannabis use and psychosis comprises three distinct relationships: acute psychosis associated with cannabis intoxication, acute psychosis that lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication, and persistent psychosis not time-locked to exposure. Experimental studies reveal that cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids reliably produce transient positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in healthy volunteers. Case-studies indicate that cannabinoids can induce acute psychosis which lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication but resolves within a month. Exposure to cannabis in adolescence is associated with a risk for later psychotic disorder in adulthood; this association is consistent, temporally related, shows a dose-response, and is biologically plausible. However, cannabis is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause a persistent psychotic disorder. More likely it is a component cause that interacts with other factors to result in psychosis. The link between cannabis and psychosis is moderated by age at onset of cannabis use, childhood abuse and genetic vulnerability. While more research is needed to better characterize the relationship between cannabinoid use and the onset and persistence of psychosis, clinicians should be mindful of the potential risk of psychosis especially in vulnerable populations, including adolescents and those with a psychosis diathesis.
Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…
Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles
The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors.
Farmer, Richard F.; Seeley, John R.; Kosty, Derek B.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.
Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed four diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods prior to CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. PMID:25799438
Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M
Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk.
Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637
Vik, Peter W.; And Others
Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…
Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others
Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to…
Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…
Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.
Basic research and programs in substance abuse dealing directly with rural and small town populations lag far behind those aimed at urban groups, in both quality and quantity. A study was conducted to identify factors related to substance use by a preadolescent and early adolescent rural and small town population. Data were collected from 496…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee
The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…
Kinnier, Richard T.; And Others
Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…
Friedman, Alfred S.; And Others
Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescent drug abuser's motivation to seek treatment and treatment outcome in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Found moderate relationship between motivation and problem reduction. Found that motivation to seek assistance with other life problems correlated positively with problem…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Smith, Thomas E.
The Fresh Start Program was an experiment in providing a comprehensive educational and therapeutic program for sexually abused and exploited adolescents. The program was based on the theory and practice of experiential, outdoor-challenge adventure education. The experiment involved 16 youth in a living and learning environment in the north woods…
Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…
Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel
The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.
Gillespie, Nathan A; Henders, Anjali K; Davenport, Tracy A; Hermens, Daniel F; Wright, Margie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B
We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project, Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment, and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail, along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders, and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis…
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo
Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096
YÜCE, Murat; KARABEKİROĞLU, Koray; YILDIRIM, Zeynep; ŞAHİN, Serkan; SAPMAZ, Dicle; BABADAĞI, Zehra; TURLA, Ahmet; AYDIN, Berna
Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse and its associated factors in children and adolescents referred to our child and adolescent psychiatry clinic from official medico–legal units. Methods All victims of sexual abuse (n=590) aged 1–18 (mean: 13.56±3.38) referred from forensic units to Ondokuz Mayis University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic over a period of 2 years [boys: 83 (14.1%); girls: 507 (85.9%)] were included. Child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic medicine specialists evaluated all the cases. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Form (WISC-R) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version-Turkish Version (K-SADS-PL-T) were applied. Results Abuse-related psychiatric diagnoses (of which 45.9% were major depressive disorder and 31.7% were post-traumatic stress disorder cases) were made in 75.2% of the cases. In 80.3% of the cases, the perpetrators were known to their victims [incest, n=91 (15.1%)], and intercourse took place in 48.8%. Although gender and age were not significantly associated with the appearance of any psychiatric disorders, severity of abuse (e.g., intercourse; p=.006), additional physical assault (p<.001), and incest (p<.001) had a significant correlation with psychiatric disorders. To explore the predictive value of multiple factors in the appearance of any sexual assault-related psychiatric disorder, a logistic regression model was used to determine the best linear combination of age, gender, abuse severity, incest, involvement of any other victim, additional physical assault, and length of time from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation. This combination of variables (occurrence of incest, additional physical assault, and a long duration from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation) significantly predicted the appearance of a psychiatric disorder of any kind (χ2
Rushlow, Walter J.; Laviolette, Steven R.
Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse among adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for brain development, during which time various neurotransmitter systems such as the glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems undergo extensive reorganization to support the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). ▵-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, acts as a partial agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1Rs are abundant in the CNS and are central components of the neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence. Thus, overactivation of CB1Rs by cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has the ability to dramatically alter brain maturation, leading to persistent and enduring changes in adult cerebral function. Increasing preclinical evidence lends support to clinical evidence suggesting that chronic adolescent marijuana exposure may be associated with a higher risk for neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. In this review, we present a broad overview of current neurobiological evidence regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on adult neuropsychiatric-like disorders. PMID:27254841
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G
Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.
Pearish, Pamela L.
This document reviews literature which analyzes factors of adolescent drug use/abuse and the effectiveness of various drug abuse prevention programs. After a brief introduction to the topic of drug abuse, 16 terms such as "adolescence" and "drug abuse" are defined. Ten papers and articles on the topic of motivations and factors for drug use are…
Eggleston, William; Stork, Christine
NMDA receptor antagonists include the prescription medication ketamine, the illicit xenobiotics PCP, MXE, and other novel PCP analogs, and the OTC medication DXM. The NMDA receptor antagonist most commonly abused by adolescents in the United States is DXM. These xenobiotics cause dissociative effects by non-competitively inhibiting the action of glutamate at the NMDA receptor. Additionally, these agents modulate the actions of monoamine neurotransmitters, agonize opioid receptors, and inhibit nitric oxide synthase. Patients typically present with sympathomimetic and neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations after abuse of NMDA receptor antagonists. Treatment is generally symptomatic and supportive. Interventions include benzodiazepines, propofol, fluids, antiemetics, aggressive cooling, and respiratory support.
Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald
Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…
Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Cole, Rebekah F.; Lauka, Justin
Inhalant and prescription medication abuse, particularly among adolescents, are serious problems in our society. Several risk factors associated with inhalant and medication abuse among adolescents have been identified. As a result, adolescents may suffer multiple consequences in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article is to…
Joanning, Harvey; And Others
Assessed differential effectiveness of three models of adolescent drug abuse treatment: Family Systems Therapy (FST), Adolescent Group Therapy (AGT), and Family Drug Education (FDE). FST appeared more effective in stopping adolescent drug abuse than AGT or FDE, registering twice as many apparently drug-free clients as FDE and three times as many…
Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.
Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…
This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…
Loveland-Cherry, C J
Substance abuse often begins in adolescence and is a major factor determining health outcomes for adolescents and adults; thus, it is an important focus for prevention strategies. The use of drugs, especially alcohol, can lead to chronic addiction to substances as well as contribute to a number of common chronic conditions. These conditions include cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability from accidents or violence, and unplanned pregnancy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. As the major social unit responsible for socialization of children and stabilization of adult personalities, the family has been the target of prevention efforts. In this chapter the empirical literature on family interventions to prevent substance use in adolescents is critically reviewed, generalizations and implications for practice identified, and directions for future research projected.
Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista
Background The heaviest period of cannabis use coincides with ongoing white matter (WM) maturation. Further, cannabis-related changes may be moderated by FAAH genotype (rs324420). We examined the association between cannabis use and FAAH genotype on frontolimbic WM integrity in adolescents and emerging adults. We then tested whether observed WM abnormalities were linked with depressive or apathy symptoms. Methods Participants included 37 cannabis users and 37 healthy controls (33 female; ages 18–25). Multiple regressions examined the independent and interactive effects of variables on WM integrity. Results Regular cannabis users demonstrated reduced WM integrity in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UNC) (MD, right: p = .009 and left: p = .009; FA, right: p = .04 and left: p = .03) and forceps minor (fMinor) (MD, p = .03) compared to healthy controls. Marginally reduced WM integrity in the cannabis users was found in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) (FA, p = .08). Cannabis group ∗ FAAH genotype interaction predicted WM integrity in bilateral ATR (FA, right: p = .05 and left: p = .001) and fMinor (FA, p = .02). In cannabis users, poorer WM integrity was correlated with increased symptoms of depression and apathy in bilateral ATR and UNC. Conclusions Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users. PMID:26106535
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma
Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol. PMID:19303761
The UK has the highest rate of cannabis use among young people worldwide. Dr. Alan Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse reports, "Every year more than 100,000 people, most of them adolescents, seek treatment for their inability to control their marijuana use." According to the Scottish Drug Misuse Statistics in…
Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; Demarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda
Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified.
Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus
Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.
Background MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy) is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland), MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment) for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. Methods INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b) randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU) at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris. Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse), and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed) into INCANT. Results We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time). In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity). There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU) for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by variations in treatment
A large number of adolescents in a psychiatric population, particularly those who are chemically dependent, prefer to listen to heavy metal music. Young people who do not identify with traditional values may find simple but unconventional answers to complex problems in the lyrics of this type of music. While a clearcut relationship cannot be established between heavy metal music and destructive behavior, evidence shows that such music promotes and supports patterns of drug abuse, promiscuous sexual activity, and violence.
Wilkinson, S; Hough, G
Two case examples of abused adopted adolescents are discussed to highlight tension within the treatment relationship when the therapist is expected to accept without question a clearly unbelievable story. These examples illustrate how the lies of such youths can function as narrative truth. The unbelievable tales that emerge in the therapeutic work effectively alter the adolescents' perceptions about the perplexing loss of continuity, both internal and external, that occurred when they were removed from their homes. Characters in the stories represent fragmented self- and object-representations as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker. Counterparts to the patient as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker can be recognized in the therapist's subjective responses. If the therapist can use countertransference to inform an understanding of the treatment process, an appreciation emerges that the truth of the lie is in its impact. Decisions about how to intervene can then be crafted. The second separation-individuation intrinsic to adolescent development is understood to provide a ripe opportunity for this working-through process.
Shervette, Robert E., III; And Others
Over a 3-year period, 29 adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Jimson weed ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of atropine/scopolamine toxicity, clinical course, treatment, and outcome. Journal availability: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue,…
Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste
Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use.
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and suicidal attempt were associated with childhood abuse, and increased risk for attempt was associated also with abuse at adolescence. No associations with sex or sex by abuse interactions were observed. The higher frequency of childhood abuse among women could account in part for their higher rates of suicidal attempts as compared to men.
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.
Bratter, Thomas Edward
Suggests that the psychotherapist working with families of adolescent drug abuser must work for parental involvement, strengthening of the family group, and increased adolescent responsibility and independence from parents who unwittingly encourage a prolonged symbiotic relationship. (Author/CJ)
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C
This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12.
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.
Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony
Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.
Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John
The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.
Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU.
de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom
Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.
Pela, Ona A.
Used unobtrusive methods to collect data on substance use from 320 Nigerian partygoers aged 14 through 25. Found that adolescents tended to use following drugs in decreasing order of frequency: alcohol, cigarettes. stimulants, cannabis, and sedative-hypnotics. Polydrug use, especially of alcohol, stimulants, and cigarettes, was common. (Author/NB)
Wilcox, Holly C; Storr, Carla L; Benoit, Mike Z; Anthony, James C
Working knowledge or vocabulary of drug slang, as a manifestation of learned behavior, might help predict or explain risk of starting to use cannabis in early adolescence. To study this issue, an epidemiologic sample of 1,255 11- to 12-year-olds was assessed for knowledge of cannabis slang terms in 1992, with follow-up in 1993 and 1994. The basic design is that of a prospective and longitudinal study, with recruitment of an epidemiologic sample of children as they entered primary school in a single metropolitan area, also with baseline assessments and randomization to intervention conditions, and subsequent multiple waves of follow-up assessment. Youths assessed in 1992 and who were familiar with terms such as blunts, Mary Jane, roach, and herb were more likely to start using cannabis within the subsequent two years of the follow-up interval, as compared to other youths (estimated relative risk, RR=11.0; 95% CI 3.6-33.7; P<.001). A youth's working vocabulary may signal important variations in health- and disease-related behavior, such as illegal drug use.
C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.
Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Rohr, Michael E.; And Others
The physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents has been gaining attention as a national problem of social and clinical significance. In this study a model was developed in order to identify abuse (victimization) in an adolescent population (n=52). Four scales (Adjustment, Delinquency, Family Relations, and Anxiety) of the Personality…
Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula
This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's  ecological systems theory is…
Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas
Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…
Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit
The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina
Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Johnson, Rebecca; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the representation of internal states in childhood recollections of male and female adolescents with and without abuse histories. Participants' (N = 71) exposure to spousal violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and 6 years later when they were 12 to 18 years old. At the Year…
Copeland, Jan; Pokorski, Izabella
Cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated drug in the world, with increasing trends of use being reported in the US, Australia, Asia, and Africa. Evidence has shown a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence among more recent users. Cannabis use is associated with numerous health risks and long-term morbidity, as well as risk of developing cannabis-use disorders. Cannabis users infrequently seek professional treatment, and normally do so after a decade of use. Cannabis-use disorders are currently treated using a selection of psychosocial interventions. Severity of withdrawal is a factor that increases the risk of relapse, and is the target of pharmacotherapy studies. Currently, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for cannabis-use disorders. A number of approaches have been examined, and trials are continuing to find a safe and effective medication with little abuse liability. PMID:27217809
France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.
Raphael, Beverley; Wooding, Sally; Stevens, Garry; Connor, Jason
Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and its effects have traditionally been seen as less harmful than outcomes associated with the highly prevalent use of alcohol and other illicit substances (e.g., cocaine and amphetamines), and injecting drugs. Consequently, less attention has been focused on developing and evaluating interventions in this area. However, current research supports the idea that cannabis does pose a number of acute and chronic health risks to the individual and to society. The authors review findings concerning the physiological and neurological effects of cannabis, prevalence of use, and studies concerning its possible role as a "gateway" drug. Diagnostic criteria for cannabis dependence and abuse are discussed, with a focus on whether a cannabis withdrawal syndrome exists and if so how it can be diagnosed. There is strong support for a link between cannabis and the development and exacerbation of psychosis and other mental health conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression). Further research is needed to determine the underlying neurochemical processes and their possible contribution to etiology, as well as the social factors that contribute to the increasing use of cannabis by young people. In addition there is a need for systematic evaluation using randomized controlled trials to determine effective prevention and treatment strategies. A number of public health programs that address cannabis use are reviewed along with available evidence for their effectiveness.
Temple, Jeff R.; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents’ use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58% female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration one year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts. PMID:26525389
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele
This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.
Hill, Shirley Y; Jones, Bobby L; Steinhauer, Stuart R; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott
Cannabis use is common among adolescents. Identification of the factors associated with continued heavy use into young adulthood and development of cannabis abuse and dependence is of considerable importance. The role of familial risk for addiction and an associated endophenotype, P300 amplitude, has not previously been related to cannabis use and dependence. A prospective longitudinal study spanning childhood and young adulthood provided the opportunity for exploring these factors, along with genetic variation, in the cannabis use behaviors of 338 young adult offspring from high and low familial risk for alcohol dependence families (ages 19-30). P300 data were collected multiple times in childhood. The association between young adult patterns of cannabis use or cannabis abuse/dependence was tested with genetic variation in the cannabinoid gene, CNR1, the ANKK1-DRD2 gene, and childhood developmental trajectories of P300. Young adult patterns of cannabis use was characterized by three patterns: (i) no use throughout; (ii) declining use from adolescence through young adulthood; and (iii) frequent use throughout. Following the low P300 trajectory in childhood predicted cannabis abuse and dependence by young adulthood. A four SNP ANKK1-DRD2 haplotype (G-G-G-C) was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of use patterns (P = 0.0008). Although CNR1 variation overall was not significantly associated with these patterns, among individuals with cannabis abuse/dependence the presence of one or both copies of the rs806368 A > G minor allele conferred a 5.4-fold increase (P = 0.003) in the likelihood that they would be in the frequent and persistent use group rather than the declining use group.
Gorman, Dennis M; Charles Huber, J
Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others.
Garner, Bryan R.; Godley, Susan H.; Funk, Rodney R.
Evaluated streamlined admission procedures for adolescents entering outpatient substance abuse treatment, comparing 128 adolescents receiving existing procedures with 149 receiving the new admission and admission tracking procedures. Results show that adolescents were admitted to treatment sooner under the new procedures, but the percentage who…
Hendin, Herbert; And Others
Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…
Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to
Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally; Humphreys, Janice C
The mental health impact of abusive adolescent dating relationships has not been well described, but fear related to abuse has been reported. We elaborate the theme of fear in women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse. A sample of community-based women, ages 19-34, who experienced an abusive dating relationship during adolescence (ages 11-20) was used. Data were analyzed via thematic analysis. Fear was a consistent and resonant theme. Three types of fear were identified: fear for self, fear for other relationships, and fearful expectation. These results offer important insights into the impact of abusive adolescent relationships on women's mental health.
Moreno-López, Laura; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Fernández-Serrano, Maria José; Gómez-Río, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio
Introduction Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. Methods Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM) (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB) whole-brain analyses). In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. Results The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. Conclusions Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:22768136
Kreuter, M; Nowak, D; Rüther, T; Hoch, E; Thomasius, R; Vogelberg, C; Brockstedt, M; Hellmann, A; Gohlke, H; Jany, B; Loddenkemper, R
In this position paper, the adverse health effects of cannabis are reviewed based on the existing scientific literature; in addition possible symptom-relieving effects on some diseases are depicted. In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Approximately 600,000 adult persons show abusive or addictive cannabis consumption. In 12 to 17 year old adolescents, cannabis use increased from 2011 to 2014 from 2.8 to 6.4%, and the frequency of regular use from 0.2 to 1.5%. Currently, handling of cannabinoids is much debated in politics as well as in general public. Health aspects have to be incorporated into this debate. Besides analysing mental and neurological side effects, this position paper will mainly focus on the influences on the bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular system. There is strong evidence for the induction of chronic bronchitis. Allergic reactions including asthma are known, too. Associations with other diseases like pulmonary emphysema, lung cancer and pneumonia are not sufficiently proven, however cannot be excluded either. In connection with the use of cannabis cardiovascular events such as coronary syndromes, peripheral vascular diseases and cerebral complications have been noted. Often, the evidence is insufficient due to various reasons; most notably, the overlapping effects of tobacco and cannabis use can frequently not be separated adequately. Empirically, early beginning, high-dosed, long-lasting and regular cannabis consumption increase the risk of various psychological and physical impairments and negatively affect age-based development. Concerns therefore relate especially to children and adolescents. There is only little scientific evidence for medical benefits through cannabis as a remedy; systematic research of good quality, in particular prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blinded studies are rare. The medical societies signing this position paper conclude that cannabis consumption is linked to adverse health
Rowe, Cynthia L.
Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221
de Jager, Andrew D; Bailey, Neville L
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for confirmatory testing of five major categories of drugs of abuse (amphetamine-type substances, opiates, cocaine, cannabis metabolites and benzodiazepines) in urine has been developed. All drugs of abuse mandated by the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4308:2008 are quantified in a single chromatographic run. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards. An on-line trap-and-flush approach, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS has been successfully used to process samples in a functioning drugs of abuse laboratory. Following injection of diluted urine samples, compounds retained on the trap cartridge are flushed onto a reverse-phase C18 HPLC column (5-μm particle size) with embedded hydrophylic functionality. A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio (IR) and retention times (Rt). The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of drugs in urine at and below the confirmation cut-off concentrations prescribed by AS/NZS 4308:2008.
Lemos, N P; Anderson, R A; Robertson, J R
Fingernail clippings were evaluated as analytical specimens for the detection and quantitation of cannabinoids. Specimens were obtained from consenting adults attending a drug clinic, along with information concerning the drugs which they had used over the previous six months. Methods for the surface decontamination and extraction of the specimens were evaluated. Detergent, water, and methanol washes followed by alkaline hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction were selected for use in the study. Extracts were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantitate cannabinoids present in fingernail clippings. Positive RIA results were obtained from specimens from six known cannabis users. The mean cannabinoid concentration in fingernail clippings determined by RIA was 1.03 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the mean delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration in fingernail clippings from a further 14 known cannabis users was 1.44 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the average 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid concentration in fingernail clippings from three known cannabis users extracted in acidic pH was 19.85 ng/mg. Based on these results, fingernails are potentially useful biological specimens for the detection of past cannabis use in cases of medicolegal interest.
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashjmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as, compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. PMID:16933433
Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana
This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.
Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J
In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse.
The author reviews the basic features, nature of action and the effects of the canabis drugs (hashish and marijuana) on human organism. The review starts with the well known fact that these kinds of drugs are the oldest ones and the most widely known to the civilization. It reviews in details very wide effects of the canabis drugs on the mental functions as well as the clinical expression of that action, where the basic mechanisms dominate: euphorogenic, sedative and psychodelic. With a detailed description of all psychopathological phenomena that appear in the chronic hashish and marijuana addicts, where the amotivation syndrome and flash back are particularly pointed out.
Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi
The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.
Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.
AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691
Background Research regarding socio-economic differences in alcohol and drug use in adolescence yields mixed results. This study hypothesizes that (1) when using education type as a proxy of one's social status, clear differences will exist between students from different types of education, regardless of students' familial socio-economic background; (2) and that the effects of education type differ according to their cultural background. Methods Data from the Brussels youth monitor were used, a school survey administered among 1,488 adolescents from the 3rd to 6th year of Flemish secondary education. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. Results Controlling for their familial background, the results show that native students in lower educational tracks use alcohol and cannabis more often than students in upper educational tracks. Such a relationship was not found for students from another ethnic background. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that research into health risks should take into account both adolescents' familial background and individual social position as different components of youngsters' socio-economic background. PMID:22433291
Singer, Merrill; Garcia, Roberto
Although there is a strong experiential sense among people in the substance abuse prevention field that Hispanic adolescents may be particularly at-risk for the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, this concern has produced only limited research or culturally sensitive, ethnically targeted prevention efforts. The following factors hinder the…
Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A.; Richardson, Angela S.; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen
Objective: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents. Method: Students aged 14 years on average (N=2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of…
Lindon, Jillian; Nourse, Carol A.
A treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls, using a group work model, incorporated three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. Abused girls demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives. The six participants showed improvement according to self-statements and…
Sikes, April; Cole, Rebekah F.; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Lauka, Justin
As individuals with multiple needs, substance abusing adolescents may seek the support and assistance of school counselors. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to assist students with substance abuse issues. Specifically, this article examines (a) complexity of addressing substance…
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Beasley, Carol; Christenberry, Nola J.
The harmful effects of sexual abuse on children are no longer debatable, yet adequate legal action and protective services often are not provided for child and adolescent victims. With the rate of confirmed child sexual abuse victims escalating to more than 350,000 cases per year, the role of schools in meeting the specific needs of these children…
Bogdaniak, Roman C.
Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…
Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard
A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…
Hawkins, J. David; And Others
Reviews the etiology of chemical use and abuse among children and adolescents. Discusses progression of youth drug behavior from initial to occasional and/or regular use. Identifies the following predictors of chemical abuse: (1) antisocial behavior; (2) school acquiescence; (3) peer influence; and (4) age at onset of use. (Author/LHW)
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
Kim, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young
Background: Recreational drug abuse control has long been a major goal of global health and social welfare organizations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible associations between recreational drug abuse and Korean adolescents' school records. Methods: In 2012, 74,186 seventh- through twelfth-grade students participated…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Walker, R. Dale; And Others
A 10-year study identified risk factors and measured prevalence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and psychopathology in 523 urban American Indian adolescents and 276 urban Indian women. Describes study aims, research design, methods, sample characteristics, assessment instruments, substance use prevalence, and methodological issues related to…
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.
This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…
Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene
Study of 176 adolescent drug abusers found that greater psychopathology at pretreatment was not found to be related to less improvement in drug treatment. For the male subsample, greater paranoid trends predicted to less reduction in substance use/abuse. Borderline psychotic symptomatology predicted to more improvement. (RJM)
Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.
The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This third chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" contains four articles on peer pressure and drug abuse in early adolescence. "Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Midel School Years," by Robert Hubbard, Rebecca Brownlee, and Ron Anderson, presents a study designed to provide a prospective assessment of the nature and…
Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett
In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540
In contemporary societies, risk culture and risk profiling lead to the stigmatization of unhealthy behaviours as 'risky'. Risk denial theory refers to a cognitive way to deal with risky behaviours and can be considered as an updated variant of Sykes and Matza's neutralization theory. People neutralize the 'risky' label using specific techniques that must be added to those previously enlisted by Sykes and Matza. This paper introduces and discusses three techniques of risk denial: scapegoating, self-confidence and comparison between risks. As it is usually defined and studied as a 'risky behaviour', cannabis use provides a relevant example to illustrate these types of risk denial, thanks to various ethnographic studies (including Becker's seminal work on marijuana smokers) and quantitative French data from the 1999 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). In order to deny the 'risky' label, cannabis users scapegoat 'hard drugs' users, they emphasize their own ability to control their consumption personally, or they compare cannabis and alcohol risks. The paper concludes with suggestions for further analyses of risk denial.
von Mandach, U; Rabner, M M; Wisser, J; Huch, A
This is a case report of a 27-year-old patient who had smoked a joint (cannabis) and 20 cigarettes (tobacco) daily up to the time of a positive pregnancy test at 7 4/7 weeks (p.c.). On day 20 p.c. she had an LSD minitrip. There are reports of chromosome aberrations in in vitro animal studies with LSD. In humans the main consequences are malformations of the fetal extremities and dysplasias of the eye. In both animals and humans cannabis causes changes in dopaminergic activity. Our recommendation was to continue the pregnancy, but to monitor it closely. The patient had a spontaneous term delivery-a lively boy with weight between the 5th and the 50th percentile, length between the 50th and the 90th percentile, normal umbilical arterial and venous pH values, and Apgar scores 7/9/10. There were no visible abnormalities, and behaviour was normal. If it is suspected that a pregnant patient consumes LSD, dysplasias of the fetal skeleton and eye should be checked for. With respect to LSD and to cannabis, too, the intellectual development of the child should be closely followed.
Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.
This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane
Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…
Apodaca, T R; Moser, N C
Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.
Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.
Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…
Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.
The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…
The paper examines the literature concerning drug and alcohol abuse among handicapped adolescents. An introductory section noting the relative lack of research on this problem is followed by a review of adolescent drug research identifying longitudinal studies involving more than 70,000 subjects, studies of associated personality variables, and…
van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.
Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula
This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's  ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.
Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.
Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S
The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan
This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.
Williams, James; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth
Objectives Our aim was to determine the association between childhood academic ability and the onset and persistence of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use across adolescence in a representative sample of English schools pupils. Previous research has produced conflicting findings. Design Data from 7 years of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), 2004–2010 (age 13/14–19/20). Setting Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires. Participants Data from 6059 participants (3093 females) with information on academic ability around age 11 and health behaviours from age 13/14 to 16/17 (early adolescence) and from age 18/19 to 19/20 (late adolescence). Outcome measures Regularity of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use from early to late adolescence. Results In multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for a range of covariates, the high (vs low) academic ability reduced the risk of persistent cigarette smoking (RR=0.62; CI 95% 0.48 to 0.81) in early adolescence. High (vs low) academic ability increased the risk of occasional (RR=1.25; CI 95% 1.04 to 1.51) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) regular alcohol drinking in early adolescence and persistent (RR=2.28; CI 95% 1.84 to 2.82) but not occasional regular alcohol drinking in late adolescence. High academic ability was also positively associated with occasional (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) and persistent (RR=1.83; CI 95% 1.50 to 2.23) cannabis use in late adolescence. Conclusions In a sample of over 6000 young people in England, high childhood academic at age 11 is associated with a reduced risk of cigarette smoking but an increased risk of drinking alcohol regularly and cannabis use. These associations persist into early adulthood, providing evidence against the hypothesis that high academic ability is associated with temporary ‘experimentation’ with substance use. PMID:28228447
Mura, P; Chatelain, C; Dumestre, V; Gaulier, J M; Ghysel, M H; Lacroix, C; Kergueris, M F; Lhermitte, M; Moulsma, M; Pépin, G; Vincent, F; Kintz, P
A collaborative study was conducted in France in order to determine the prevalence of cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine metabolites and amphetamines in blood samples from drivers killed in road accidents in 2003 and 2004 and to compare these values with those of a previous study performed during the period 2000-2001 involving 900 drivers. Blood samples were provided from 2003 under 30-year-old drivers, killed in a traffic accident. Drugs of abuse were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same analytical procedures in all the 12 laboratories. The most frequently observed compounds were by far cannabinoids, that tested positive in 39.6% of the total number of samples. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most active of the principle constituents in marijuana (cannabis sativa), was detected in the blood of 28.9% drivers and was the single drug of abuse in 80.2% of the positive cases. It was associated with amphetamines in 7.4% and with opiates and cocaine in 1.9 and 4.8%, respectively. Amphetamines were present in 3.1% of the total number of samples, cocaine metabolites in 3.0% and opiates in 3.5%. When comparing these results with those of a previous study performed 3 years before, a significant increase is observed for THC (28.9% versus 16.9%), cocaine metabolites (3.0% versus 0.2%) and amphetamines (3.1% versus 1.4%). This study demonstrates the critical necessity of implementing in France as soon as possible systematical roadside testing for drugs of abuse.
Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.
Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren
The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys.
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components.
Mena, Maite P.; Dillon, Frank R.; Mason, Craig A.; Santisteban, Daniel A.
Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues. PMID:25411479
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Bootzin, Richard R; Stevens, Sally J
Adolescence is a time of change that can be both exciting and stressful. In this review, we focus on the central role that disturbed sleep and daytime sleepiness occupies in interactions involving substance abuse and negative health, social, and emotional outcomes. As a means of improving sleep and lowering risk for recidivism of substance abuse, we developed and implemented a six-session group treatment to treat sleep disturbances in adolescents who have received treatment for substance abuse. The components of the treatment are stimulus control instructions, use of bright light to regularize sleep, sleep hygiene education, cognitive therapy, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Preliminary evidence indicates that participants who completed four or more sessions in the treatment program showed improved sleep and that improving sleep may lead to a reduction in substance abuse problems at the 12-month follow-up.
DiPietro, S B
The purpose of this study was to compare female adolescent victims of sexual abuse and their nonabused adolescent sisters with matched nonvictim control subject sister sets on measures of personality adjustment and attitudes. The study involved 60 girls between the ages of 11 and 21: 15 victims of child sexual abuse, 15 nonabused adolescent sisters, and 15 nonvictim control sisters sets who were matched to the victim sister sets on age, socioeconomic status, birth order of daugthers, number of children in family, and race. This is the first study that has attempted to assess the adjustment of siblings in sexually abusive families. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed no differences among the four groups. Results of 12 paired t-tests revealed only one significant difference between the victim sister and control sister groups. These unexpected findings are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are made.
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu
Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support.
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Out, Dorothee; Granger, Douglas A.; Putnam, Frank W.
Abstract Objective: Little is known regarding neuroendocrine responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have experienced sexual abuse. Therefore, we collected saliva samples three times daily for 3 days to assess concentrations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) – a surrogate marker for autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, in particular, sympathetic activity – in sexually abused adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-four girls (mean age: 15±1.4 years) who had experienced recent sexual abuse (i.e., sexual abuse occurred 1–6 months prior to study enrollment) and 12 healthy comparison subjects (mean age: 14.8±1.3 years) completed a structured interview and assessments to ascertain symptoms of posttraumatic stress, then collected saliva at home upon awakening, 30 minutes after waking, and at 5 p.m. on three consecutive school days. Results: For sexually abused girls, total PTSD symptoms were associated with higher overall morning levels of sAA (r=0.51, p=0.02), a finding driven by intrusive symptoms (r=0.43, p<0.05) and hyperarousal symptoms (r=0.58, p=0.01). There were no significant differences in diurnal sAA secretion between the sexually abused girls and healthy comparison adolescents. Conclusions: Overall morning concentrations of sAA in sexually abused girls are associated with overall PTSD severity as well as symptoms of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, possibly reflecting symptom-linked increases in ANS tone. These data raise the possibility that alterations in ANS activity are related to the pathophysiology of sexual abuse-related PTSD in adolescent girls, and may inform therapeutic interventions (e.g., antiadrenergic medications). PMID:25803321
Schonberg, S K
Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.
Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A
The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and
Children and adolescents in Germany show a high rate of substance use, esp. concerning tobacco and alcohol. Taking these and other drugs can be seen as a juvenile risk behaviour associated with adverse effects, e. g. violence, unsafe sexuality, early pregnancy, underachievement in school. Prevention and intervention measures should begin early and be designed comprehensively in order to gain decisive and long-lasting effects. Children and adolescents of addicted parents and those with substance abusing peers have to be viewed as especially in danger for increased substance abuse and associated risk behaviours. One of the main preventive tasks is the acquisition of affective self-control and self-management competences.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…
Cook, J; Lloyd-Jones, D M; Ogden, E; Bonomo, Y
The use of cannabis for medical purposes, evident throughout history, has become a topic of increasing interest. Yet on the present medical evidence, cannabis-based treatments will only be appropriate for a small number of people in specific circumstances. Experience with cannabis as a recreational drug, and with use of psychoactive drugs that are prescribed and abused, should inform harm reduction in the context of medical cannabis.
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.
Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista
Background Regions undergoing maturation with CB1 receptors may be at increased risk for cannabis-induced alterations. Here, we examine the relationships between cannabis use and prefrontal (PFC) and inferior parietal gyrification and surface area (SA) in youth. Methods Participants included 33 cannabis users and 35 controls (ages 18–25). Exclusions included co-morbid psychiatric/neurologic disorders and heavy other drug use. Multiple regressions and Pearson r correlations examined the effects of cannabis use on gyrification, SA and cognition. Results Cannabis use was associated with decreased gyrification in: ventral-medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02] LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); and frontal poles (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]). No differences were observed in bilateral hemispheres, PFC, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, or inferior parietal ROIs. Cannabis use was associated with marginally decreased SA in left: medial PFC [FDR corrected p=.09], and ventral lateral PFC: [FDR corrected p=.09]. In cannabis users, increased gyrification was associated with improved working-memory performance in right medial (p=.003), ventral-medial (p=.03), and frontal pole ROIs (p=.007). Conclusions Cannabis use was associated with reduced gyrification in PFC regions implicated in self-referential thought and social cognition. Results suggest that these gyrification characteristics may have cognitive implications. PMID:26233614
Russo, Ethan B
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.
Russo, Ethan B.
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558
Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.
Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…
Al-Shidhani, Thuraya A.; Arora, Vinita
We report a confirmed case of cannabis exposure in an Omani female child with developmental delay. Cannabis exposure in children can lead to many consequences; for example, chronic use can result in developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, and hyperactivity while there is a risk of coma with acute exposure. It is important for clinicians to consider substance abuse as a differential diagnosis for similar presentations in paediatric patients, noting that children are at risk of cannabis exposure if their parents/caregivers are cannabis users. PMID:22087402
Alexander, Stephen P H
In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.
Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males (n = 21) and females (n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.
Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J
The isolation and identification, in 1964, of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, opened the door to a whole new field of medical research. The exploration of the therapeutic potential of THC and other natural and synthetic cannabinoid compounds was paralleled by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, comprising cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, which offered exciting new insights into brain function. Besides its well-known involvement in specific brain functions, such as control of movement, memory and emotions, the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. For this reason, changes in its activity during stages of high neuronal plasticity, such as the perinatal and the adolescent period, can have long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences. Here, we summarize human and animal studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological effects of in utero and adolescent exposure to cannabis. Since cannabis preparations are widely used and abused by young people, including pregnant women, understanding how cannabinoid compounds affect the developing brain, leading to neurobehavioral alterations or neuropsychiatric disorders later in life, is a serious health issue. In addition, since the endocannabinoid system is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases, a detailed investigation of possible adverse effects of cannabinoid compounds on the central nervous system (CNS) of immature individuals is warranted.
Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia
Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed.
Riddle, C R
The development and implementation of an adolescent sexual abuse group on an inpatient psychiatric unit is described. Steps of Kurt Lewin's model of change are used as a framework for this planned change. Specific issues concerning group procedure and process are detailed. Recommendations for this group and broader use of the Lewin model are included.
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.
The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…
Kennedy, Joycee; McCarthy, Carol J.
Descriptions of past social attitudes and policies that influence the present structure and thinking in the areas of child protection, juvenile justice, education, and mental health are provided by this handbook designed to aid in understanding and helping adolescents traumatized by abuse. This foundation is interwoven with current news examples…
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Friedrich, William N.; Jaworski, Theresa M.; Huxsahl, John E.; Bengtson, Brad S.
Evaluated children (N=350) to assess the degree to which dissociation and sexual behavior discriminated sexually abused children and adolescents from nonpsychiatric and psychiatric comparison groups. Results show that psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples differed in their reports of sexual concerns and dissociation, whereas psychiatric abused…
Smith, Thomas Edward; Sells, Scott P.; Rodman, Jeffrey; Reynolds, Lisa Rene
Ninety-three parents and 102 adolescents were referred by juvenile court and treated for substance abuse and a co-morbid diagnosis of either oppositional defiant or conduct disorder using a parent education program over a six-week period. The goals of this study were to assess whether or not active parent involvement and the concurrent treatment…
Rainey, David Y.; And Others
The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…
Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda
Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…
Hovdestad, Wendy E.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Thornton, Tiffany
Childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance abuse are important health issues that have been linked by research and theory for at least 50 years. Considering the intricacies of child maltreatment research, this paper aims to answer the question: which models show the most promise to explain why child maltreatment is a risk indicator for…
Crisma, M.; Bascelli, E.; Paci, D.; Romito, P.
Objective:: Understanding the impediments that prevented sexually abused adolescents from disclosure to their family or to professionals, and analyzing the responses they received when they did disclose. Methods:: In depth anonymous interviews were conducted in Italy through a toll-free telephone line with 36 young people who experienced sexual…
Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.
This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…
Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.
This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…
Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig
The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Reardon, Barbara; Griffing, Penelope
Examined factors related to the self-concept of institutionalized male drug abusers (N=140). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, a family questionnaire, and an interview were administered. Results yielded several predictors of self-concept, including parent-adolescent relationship, number of prior status offenses, and preference for nondepressant…
Parker, Ben; Turner, William
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…
Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine
Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff
Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…
Li, Erica; Freedman, Lori R; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik; Miller, Elizabeth
Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is prevalent with significant health and social consequences. Faith-based organizations could play an important role in ARA prevention and intervention. Studies on the role of faith-based organizations in interpersonal violence have focused on adult survivor perspectives rather than adolescents. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with faith-based organization leaders, parents, and youth. Findings highlight that church leaders, parents, and youth all expect that faith-based organizations can play a role in educating teens about healthy relationships. Divergent perspectives about how faith-based organizations should address adolescent sexuality and privacy need to be addressed.
Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier
Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence.
Rynes, Kristina N.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda
Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least 4 sessions of BSFT in a multi-site clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug use days that adolescents reported in Timeline Follow-Back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent/adolescent and therapist/adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents. PMID:23438248
Dworkin, A. Gary; Stephens, Richard C.
Drawing from literature on differences between the Mexican American experience and that of other groups, offers a model to explain the higher rates of inhalant abuse among Mexican American youth. Considers cultural, ecological, structural, and economic factors. (Author/GC)
Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Lappin, Julia; Howes, Oliver D; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R
Cannabis use in adolescence is emerging as a risk factor for the development of psychosis. In animal studies, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Alterations in human striatal dopaminergic function have also been reported both in psychosis and in stimulant use. We sought to examine whether striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability was altered in volunteers with a history of cannabis use using a database of previously acquired [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Ten [(11)C]-raclopride scans from volunteers with a history of cannabis use were compared to ten control scans using a functional striatal subdivision region of interest (ROI) analysis. No significant differences in either overall striatal BP(ND) values or BP(ND) values in any functional striatal subdivision were found between the two groups. There was also no correlation between lifetime frequency of cannabis use and BP(ND) values. Limbic striatal BP(ND) values were ten percent lower in current nicotine cigarette smokers. These findings suggest that, unlike other drugs of abuse, a history of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability.
Melis, Miriam; Frau, Roberto; Kalivas, Peter W; Spencer, Sade; Chioma, Vivian; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela
Cannabis sativa preparations are the most consumed illicit drugs for recreational purposes worldwide, and the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorder has dramatically increased in the last decades. Due to the recent decriminalization or legalization of cannabis use in the Western Countries, we may predict that the number of people suffering from cannabis use disorder will increase. Despite the increasing number of cannabis studies over the past two decades, we have gaps of scientific knowledge pertaining to the neurobiological consequences of long-term cannabis use. Moreover, no specific treatments for cannabis use disorders are currently available. In this review, we explore new research that may help fill these gaps. We discuss and provide a solution to the experimental limitation of a lack of rodent models of THC self-administration, and the importance this model can play in understanding the neurobiology of relapse and in providing a biological rationale for potential therapeutic targets. We also focus our attention on glial cells, commenting on recent preclinical evidence suggesting that alterations in microglia and astrocytes might contribute to the detrimental effects associated with cannabis abuse. Finally, due to the worrisome prevalence rates of cannabis use during pregnancy, we highlight the associations between cannabis use disorders during pregnancy and congenital disorders, describing the possible neuronal basis of vulnerability at molecular and circuit level.
Molinari, Geralyn D.
This guide was developed to assist treatment providers and school personnel to identify New Jersey drug and alcohol treatment programs providing services to adolescents. Geographical areas served, days and hours of operation, admission requirements, services available for adolescents, payment information, and the name of a contact person are…
Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn
Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited.
Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn
Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational
... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to ... treatment (see Question 9 ). Questions and Answers About Cannabis What is Cannabis ? Cannabis , also known as marijuana , ...
Hollister, L E
In this updating review of research on cannabis particular attention has been paid to the increasing number of studies of the disposition of the components of cannabis in man, as well as possible effects on health. Specific binding sites for cannaboids have not been demonstrated. Approximately 80 metabolites of tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) have been discovered, of which 11-OH-THC is the main metabolite, but it contributes little to the overall effect when the drug is smoked or given intravenously. The minimum plasma level of THC associated with the psychotropic effect is 25 ng/ml. Cannabis may produce directly an acute panic reaction, a toxic delirium, and acute paranoid state, or acute mania. Cannabis use may aggrevate schizophrenia, but it is much less certain whether it can lead to sociopathy or even to "amotivational syndrome". Despite widespread use of cannabis in virtually all parts of the world, no catastrophic effects on health have been noted. Cannabis appears to be relatively safe as compared with current social drugs. It is, however, still too early in the history of the present episode of cannabis use to be sanguine about possible bad effects.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali
The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history.
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.
Burke, Andrew R.; Miczek, Klaus A.
Rationale Research on adolescence and drug abuse increased substantially in the past decade. However, drug-addiction related behaviors following stressful experiences during adolescence are less studied. We focus on rodent models of adolescent stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. Objectives Review the ontogeny of behavior, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent rodents. We evaluate evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence engender hypersensitivity to drugs of abuse and offer potential neural mechanisms. Results and Conclusions Much evidence suggests that final maturation of behavior, dopamine systems, and HPA axis occurs during adolescence. Stress during adolescence increases amphetamine- and ethanol-stimulated locomotion, preference, and self-administration under many conditions. The influence of adolescent stress on subsequent cocaine- and nicotine-stimulated locomotion and preference is less clear. The type of adolescent stress, temporal interval between stress and testing, species, sex, and the drug tested are key methodological determinants for successful cross-sensitization procedures. The sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system is proposed to underlie stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse in both adolescents and adults through modulation by CRF. Reduced levels of mesocortical dopamine appear to be a unique consequence of social stress during adolescence. Adolescent stress may reduce the final maturation of cortical dopamine through D2 dopamine receptor regulation of dopamine synthesis or glucocorticoid-facilitated pruning of cortical dopamine fibers. Certain rodent models of adolescent adversity are useful for determining neural mechanisms underlying the cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:24370534
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia
This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…
Tourigny, Marc; Hebert, Martine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Simoneau, Ann Claude
The effects of a group therapy program for teenage girls reporting child sexual abuse were evaluated by means of a pretest/post-test design with a control group. The psycho-educational intervention consisted of an average of 20 weekly two-hour meetings. Results of the repeated analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant improvement in…
Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.
Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…
Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.
Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom
Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…
Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.
Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth
This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…
Murray, B Lee
This case report is the story of my son's alleged abuse, told from my perspective. At the time, Jordan, a boy with Down syndrome, was 14 years old when his disclosure of sexual abuse by a school employee occurred. As part of the healing process, I use autoethnography to tell the story. I also describe and discuss a school-based program, which I developed and deliver, to provide sexual health promotion and sexual abuse prevention to adolescents with developmental disabilities.
Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K
Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.
Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.
Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088
Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon
Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians
Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.
This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict are associated with social problems; and in-treatment physical altercation involvement is predicted by higher peer aggression. Findings suggest that social information-processing components are valuable for treatment research. PMID:26622072
Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao
Background Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents. Method A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI. Results Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9%) reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse. PMID:26114574
Ashby, Bethany D; Kaul, Paritosh
The sexual assault of girls and women in this country is estimated at approximately 20%. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after sexual abuse and assault is one of the potential lingering aftereffects. In this article we describe PTSD after sexual abuse and its effect on presenting complaints, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and chronic pain, for the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) clinician. Treatment approaches, including the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics, as well as evidenced-based psychotherapies, are highlighted. In addition, this article will assist the PAG clinician in identifying trauma-related concerns during clinic visits and will cover specific screening tools to aid in identification of PTSD. A better understanding of PTSD after sexual abuse will allow PAG providers to deliver better care to their patients.
Since more than 30 years cannabis is the most common illicit drug in Germany and other European countries. According to different Studies conducted in representative community samples, it can be assumed, that every fifth woman and about every third man, aged 18 to 59 years had used cannabis at least once. Epidemiologic studies also show that cannabis use is strongly associated with adolescence and young adulthood, though. Thus, cannabis consumption significantly increases from age 15, while beginning with the age 23 the proportion of cannabis consumers continuously decreases. Following the results of current studies the majority of consumers uses cannabis rather occasional. Nevertheless about 10-15% of the current consumers show patterns of cannabis dependence according to international diagnostic criteria. Although counselling centres note an increasing demand for addiction specific treatment, cannabis users still remain a small group in treatment centre statistics.
Solakoglu, Ozgur; Driver, Nichola; Belshaw, Scott H
Drawing from Robert Agnew's General Strain Theory, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors, such as suicide, smoking, drinking, drug use, violent crime, and property crime, among Turkish adolescents. The article also aims to understand the mediating role of negative emotions, including depression and anger, as well as gender differences in this relationship. Findings from a series of analyses demonstrate that the experience of sexual abuse is significantly related to the likelihood of engaging in most of the deviant behaviors. In addition, the mediating role of negative emotions, particularly anger, was highlighted in the findings. Furthermore, the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors was relatively greater for Turkish males compared with Turkish females. The current study contributes to the literature on the consequences of sexual abuse by considering them within the unique Islamic-Western cultural context of Turkey. Overall, findings suggest that this particular form of strain has a substantial impact on deviant behaviors among Turkish adolescents.
This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…
Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen
The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.
The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…
Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.
This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…
... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...
Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
The influence of sexual orientation on adolescents' sexual behaviors and pregnancy histories was investigated in a subsample of 3816 female adolescents, 12-19 years old, who completed the 1987 Minnesota (US) Adolescent Health Survey. 182 identified themselves as bisexual or lesbian, 1753 were unsure of their sexual orientation, and 1881 were heterosexual. Bisexual/lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual respondents ever to have had intercourse (33.0% and 29.3%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of childhood physical abuse (19.3% vs. 11.9%) and sexual abuse (22.1% vs. 15.3%) than their heterosexual counterparts. Among sexually experienced respondents, 29.8% of bisexual/lesbian adolescents, 43.5% of those unsure about their identity, and 23.1% of heterosexuals used no contraception and 12.3%, 8.5%, and 14.5%, respectively, of those who used contraception used an ineffective method. 12.3% of bisexual/lesbian women, 6.1% of those unsure about their sexual orientation, and 5.3% of heterosexual adolescents had experienced a pregnancy; 2 or more pregnancies were reported by 23.5%, 15.1%, and 9.8%, respectively, of ever-pregnant teens. Finally, 9.7% of bisexual/lesbian women had engaged in prostitution in the year preceding the survey, compared with 1.9% of heterosexuals and 3.4% of those unsure about their orientation. These findings suggest that adolescents who identify themselves as lesbian or bisexual are at high risk of pregnancy and poor contraceptive practices. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that their pregnant adolescent patients are heterosexual or that lesbian clients or those unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of contraception.
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M
The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental education. Participants were 702 adolescents from Jammu in the age range of 13-17 years (41.5% female). We found acceptance for a four-factor intercorrelated model for the CTQ with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (5 emotional neglect and 2 physical neglect items) factors following a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Forty-one to sixty-one percent of adolescents reported maltreatment which is higher in comparison with CTQ based studies from the West. Analysis of CFA with covariates (MIMIC model) indicated that males, and adolescents of less educated mothers' and from joint families reported higher abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse, respectively, while fathers' education level was not associated with abuse or neglect. Implications of these findings are highlighted.
Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Auerbach, Randy P.; Kim, Judy C.; Chango, Joanna M.; Spiro, Westley J.; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K.
The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13–18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754
Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A
This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure.
McCormick, Cheryl M
There is increasing evidence that adolescence, like early life, is a sensitive period in which ongoing brain development can be influenced by environmental factors. This review describes our use of social instability as a model of mild adolescent social stress, its effects on social interactions and on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function over the course of the procedure and in response to new stressors. The effects of social instability are sex-specific, with qualitative differences between the sexes on HPA function over the course of the stressor procedure, and with greater effects in males on behaviour observed during the social instability and greater effects in females on behavioural responses to drugs of abuse into adulthood, long after the stress exposure. The results from investigations with this model of adolescent social stress are discussed in relation to those of studies using other stressor procedures. Elevated exposure to glucocorticoids over the course of adolescence confers sex-specific changes in behavioural responses to drugs of abuse, which may be of relevance for understanding risk factors in people.
Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18) years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%), sputum (38.7%), exercise intolerance (32.3%) and cough (22.6%). Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4%) subjects with low FVC values < 80% of predicted, indicative of restrictive ventilatory pattern in the study group. Although the difference was not statistically significant, restrictive ventilatory pattern was higher in the study group. There was no statistically significant correlation between restrictive ventilatory pattern and the age of onset/duration/frequency of inhalant abuse, respiratory symptoms and scintigraphic abnormalities. Subjects who had restrictive pattern in their pulmonary function tests were more likely to have abnormal findings at HRCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions. PMID:22958270
Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H
According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.
Background Psychostimulants and cannabis are two of the three most commonly used illicit drugs by young Australians. As such, it is important to deliver prevention for these substances to prevent their misuse and to reduce associated harms. The present study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the universal computer-based Climate Schools: Psychostimulant and Cannabis Module. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 1734 Year 10 students (mean age = 15.44 years; SD = 0.41) from 21 secondary schools in Australia. Schools were randomised to receive either the six lesson computer-based Climate Schools program or their usual health classes, including drug education, over the year. Results The Climate Schools program was shown to increase knowledge of cannabis and psychostimulants and decrease pro-drug attitudes. In the short-term the program was effective in subduing the uptake and plateauing the frequency of ecstasy use, however there were no changes in meth/amphetamine use. In addition, females who received the program used cannabis significantly less frequently than students who received drug education as usual. Finally, the Climate Schools program was related to decreasing students’ intentions to use meth/amphetamine and ecstasy in the future, however these effects did not last over time. Conclusions These findings provide support for the use of a harm-minimisation approach and computer technology as an innovative platform for the delivery of prevention education for illicit drugs in schools. The current study indicated that teachers and students enjoyed the program and that it is feasible to extend the successful Climate Schools model to the prevention of other drugs, namely cannabis and psychostimulants. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000492752. PMID:24943829
Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R
Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future.
... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...
... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...
Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C
Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.
Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC) and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment. PMID:22957019
de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; Hirata, Bruna Karina Banin; de Almeida, Felipe Campos; André, Nayara Delgado; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara
Objectives: To provide a review of published literature regarding genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene, named as 5-HTTLPR, and its potential role as a susceptibility marker for ethanol abuse in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A literature review of several databases was conducted with the following keywords: 5-HTTLPR, children or adolescents or teenagers, susceptibility, alcohol or ethanol, abuse or misuse. Results: Alcohol interacts with serotonergic synaptic transmission in several ways, and the reduced availability of serotonin transporters might foster brain dysfunction, driving to alcohol abuse. The initial use of ethanol in children and adolescents is determined primarily by environmental influences, whereas the establishment of drinking patterns is strongly controlled by genetic factors. Functional polymorphic variants in the promoter region of the 5-HTTLPR gene have age-dependent effects in alcohol abuse. This polymorphism, mapped to the 5′ region of the SLC6A4, is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and involves a direct repeat of 20–23 base pairs GC-rich sequences, comprising a short (S) allele, consisting of 14 repeats, and a long (L) allele, with 16 repeats. Additional variants have been described, although their influences on childhood and adolescence ethanol use are not clear. Conclusion: The influence of the 5-HTTLPR allelic variants in children and adolescent misuse of alcohol might be considered for clinical management, preventing long-term behavior problem. Identifying genetic markers associated to the potential alcohol misuse or abuse could be useful in guiding management and formulating effective coping strategies. PMID:27047556
Gullbrå, Frøydis; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Rortveit, Guri; Hafting, Marit
Objectives To explore significant experiences of adolescents as next of kin that the general practitioner (GP) should identify and recognize. Design Qualitative study with focus-group interviews. Subjects and setting Three focus-group interviews were conducted with a total of 15 Norwegian adolescents each with an ill or substance-abusing parent. The participants were recruited from existing support groups. Results The adolescents’ days were dominated by unpredictability in their family situation and their own exhausting efforts to keep up an ordinary youth life. Mostly, they consulted GPs for somatic complaints. In encounters with the GP, they wanted to be met both as a unique person and as a member of a family with burdens. Their expectations from the GP were partly negatively formed by their experiences. Some had experienced that both their own and their parent’s health problems were not addressed properly. Others reported that the GP did not act when he or she should have been concerned about their adverse life situation. The GP may contribute to better long-term psychosocial outcomes by ensuring that the adolescents receive information about the parent’s illness and have someone to talk to about their feelings and experiences. In addition, the GP may help by supporting their participation in relieving activities. Conclusion Burdened adolescents seek a GP most often for somatic complaints. The GP has a potential to support them by taking the initiative to talk about their life situation, and by recognizing their special efforts. Key pointsLittle is known about how a general practitioner can support adolescents with ill or substance-abusing parents.Adolescents experience unpredictability in life and strive to find balance between their own needs and the restrictions caused by parental illness.In encounters with adolescents having ill parents, the GP should take the initiative to talk about their family situation.The GP may help them by recognizing their
Sanchez, M; Phan, O
We analyzed the behavior of teenagers who use cannabis in order to identify the drive leading to cannabis abuse and the perceived benefit which apparently sustains dependency. This analysis pointed out the following issues: identification, alterity modulation, modification of thinking activity, pursual of a psychopathological state of deterioration. This short clinical dissertation should be completed by further more deeply oriented clinical research.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status. PMID:28272353
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E
Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.
Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos
This study explored the relationship between 1) child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual abuse (AASA), and both (CSA+AASA), and 2) the frequency of positive and negative sexual cognitions according to their content -intimate, exploratory, dominance, submission, and impersonal- in men and women. We also analyzed the severity of the sexual contact of individuals who had experienced AASA. We assessed a Spanish sample of 228 men and 333 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old. In the sample, 341 individuals reported having experienced some type of sexual victimization (victims group), while 220 individuals reported no victimization (non-victims group). Overall, sexual victims reported a higher frequency of positive sexual cognitions compared to non-victims, particularly when they had experienced CSA+AASA and the severity of the sexual contact was greater. Men and women who had experienced abuse reported a higher frequency of exploratory cognitions (p < .01). Male victims reported more cognitions of submission (p < .01), whereas female victims reported more cognitions of dominance (p < .05), which indicates lack of congruence with traditional gender roles. Finally, only intimate cognitions (p < .001) were experienced as negative by male victims. We discuss the relevance of the findings for therapeutic interventions with sexual abuse victims.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…
Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.
Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066
The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…
Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.
The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once…
Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy
This paper provides an overview of the epidemiology of cannabis use, cannabis use disorders and its treatment. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug internationally. While use is decreasing in the developed world, it appears to be stable or increasing in developing countries and some indigenous communities. Early initiation and regular adolescent use have been identified as particular risk factors for later problematic cannabis (and other drug) use, impaired mental health, delinquency, lower educational achievement, risky sexual behaviour and criminal offending in a range of studies. It is estimated that approximately one in ten people who had ever used cannabis will become dependent with risk increasing markedly with frequency of use. There has been an increase in the proportion of treatment provided for cannabis use. There are as yet no evidence-based pharmacotherapies available for the management of cannabis withdrawal and craving. Relatively brief cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management have the strongest evidence of success, and structured, family-based interventions, provide potent treatment options for adolescents. With criminally involved young people and those with severe, persistent mental illness, longer and more intensive therapies provided by interdisciplinary teams may be required.
van Ours, Jan C; Williams, Jenny
This paper uses duration models and self-reported cannabis histories from young Australians to study the dynamics of cannabis use. We find that low cannabis prices are associated with early initiation into cannabis use. While the decision to quit does not appear to be directly influenced by price, we find that the younger an individual is when they start using cannabis the less likely they are to quit. Therefore, low cannabis prices lead to early use and because of that they lead to a low quit rate and hence a longer duration of use.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien
It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk
Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. Results The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. Conclusion This study suggests that there are differences in
Miklowitz, David J.
The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family’s structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family’s history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress. PMID:22504610
Miklowitz, David J
The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family's structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family's history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress.
Crocker, C E; Tibbo, P G
A common viewpoint has proliferated that cannabis use is mostly harmless. Some argue that by not supporting its use, we are missing a great therapeutic opportunity. The general public view on cannabis may partially be a result of poor knowledge translation. In fact, the "war on drugs" approach has not allowed for basic education on the varied effects of cannabis on the brain, especially at highly critical phases of brain development such as adolescence.
Walsh, Kate; Basu, Archana; Monk, Catherine
Study Objective Latinas have the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in the US. Identifying means to improve the well-being among these young women is critical. The current study examined whether a history of child sexual abuse — itself a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy — was associated with more perceived stress and negative mood over the course of pregnancy and whether dysfunctional attitudes explained these associations. Design and Setting This mixed methods study involved lab-based assessments of perceived stress, sexual abuse history, and dysfunctional attitudes as well as Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) of mood states every 30 minutes during a 24-hour period once during each trimester of pregnancy. Participants Pregnant adolescents (n = 204, 85% Latina). Main Outcome Measures EMA mood states and lab-based retrospective self–reports of perceived stress. Results One in four pregnant adolescents had a history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused adolescents reported greater perceived stress during the first trimester relative to those without, though the groups did not differ on EMA negative mood ratings. Dysfunctional attitudes explained associations between sexual abuse and perceived stress. Sexual abuse was indirectly associated with the intercept and slope of negative mood through dysfunctional attitudes. Findings were circumscribed to sexual abuse and not other types of child abuse. Conclusions Identifying sexually abused pregnant adolescents and providing support and cognitive therapy to target dysfunctional beliefs may decrease stress during the first trimester as well as negative affect throughout pregnancy. PMID:26130137
Kaminer, Yifrah; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; McKay, James R; Burke, Rebecca H
Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator or mechanism of behavior change that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a 16-item measure developed to assess an individual's commitment to his/her stated treatment goal. The objectives of this study are to explore the research and clinical utility of the commitment construct as measured by the ASAGC. During sessions 3 and 9 of a 10-week SUD treatment, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 13-18 year-old adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the ATAGC items. Concurrent validity with related constructs, self-efficacy and motivation for change, was examined as well. At both sessions, the factor analysis resulted in two scales--Commitment to Recovery and Commitment to Harm Reduction. The ASAGC scales were found to demonstrate a high level of internal consistency (alpha coefficients ranged from .92 to .96 over time). In contrast to the Commitment to Harm Reduction scale, the Commitment to Recovery scale consistently correlated with scales from the Situational Confidence Questionnaire assessing self-efficacy, evidencing concurrent validity. Similarly, the Commitment to Recovery scale was related to the Problem Recognition Questionnaire, providing further evidence of the validity of the ASAGC. The ASAGC is a reliable and valid clinical research instrument for the assessment of adolescents' commitment to their substance abuse treatment goal. Clinical researchers may take advantage of the clinical utility of the ASAGC including its ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence versus commitment to harm reduction.
Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715
A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.
Stewart, Jeremy G.; Kim, Judy C.; Esposito, Erika C.; Gold, Joseph; Nock, Matthew K.; Auerbach, Randy P.
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and depressed youth are six times more likely to make suicide attempts as compared to non-depressed adolescents. The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of two well-established correlates of suicidality – childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and disinhibition – in predicting suicide attempts among depressed adolescents. Method Participants were 163 adolescents (125 females) aged 13 to 18 (M = 15.60, SD = 1.27) diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (n = 95, 58.3%) and/or Dysthymia (n = 69, 42.3%) recruited from an acute residential treatment service. Participants completed interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, self-report measures of depressive symptoms and CSA, and a computerized disinhibition task. Results Consistent with hypotheses, CSA moderated the association between disinhibition and adolescents' report of their past year and lifetime suicide attempts. Specifically, higher disinhibition was associated with a greater likelihood of having made a suicide attempt among adolescents with a history of CSA, but not among those without. The same pattern of results held in analyses of suicide attempt frequency. Limitations Primary findings were based on observational, cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. The gender imbalance in the sample precluded stratifying our analyses by gender. CSA was ascertained by self-report; replication of the results with more objective measures is warranted. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CSA and disinhibition may work together to predict elevated suicide risk, and these results have implications for early identification efforts in youth at high risk for suicide. PMID:26318268
Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele
This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability, and content quality. "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of the 94 Websites identified, 57 were included. Most were commercial sites. Based on outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned out to be poor. A global score (the sum of accountability, interactivity, content quality and esthetic criteria) appeared as a good content quality indicator. While cannabis education Websites for patients are widespread, their global quality is poor. There is a need for better evidence-based information about cannabis use and addiction on the Web.
Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.
Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; Tomaselli, Olivia; Lisdahl, Krista; Tamm, Leanne; Jernigan, Terry; Newman, Erik; Epstein, Jeffery N; Molina, Brooke S G; Greenhill, Laurence L; Potkin, Steven G; Hinshaw, Stephen; Swanson, James M
One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1) individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis (n = 23); (2) individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis (n = 22); (3) comparisons who currently use cannabis (n = 15); and (4) comparisons who do not currently use cannabis (n = 15). The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and negative outcomes
Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman
Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders.
Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana
The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.
Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David
The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)
Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.
Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…
Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.
Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…
Anderson, Shawanda W.; Moore, Paula A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents' views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro…
Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.
We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…
Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D.; Brausch, Amy M.; Montgomery, Brad S.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the independent effects of different treatment elements on a number of secondary problems related to childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, as well as investigate a number of different moderators of treatment effectiveness. Method: Twenty-eight studies that provided treatment outcome…
Riggs, Paula D.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Lohman, Michelle; Kayser, Ashley
Objective: In adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD), comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater severity of substance abuse, conduct problems, and worse treatment outcomes. Although many controlled trials have established the efficacy of psychostimulants, including pemoline, for ADHD in children and…
Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…
Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.
This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…
de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G
Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing.
Bersani, G; Orlandi, V; Kotzalidis, G D; Pancheri, P
Cannabis consuming schizophrenic patients are younger at onset, are likely to have started abuse before onset of schizophrenia and show more prominent positive symptoms than nonabusers. It has been suggested that cannabis is a risk-factor for schizophrenia. Our aim was to assess prevalence and pattern of cannabis use in 125 chronic male schizophrenic subjects and its impact on socioepidemiological and clinical variables as well as which disorder precedes the other in onset. Assessment of consumption was made with a semi-structured clinical interview. Clinical status was assessed by means of the SANS, SAPS, PANSS and BPRS scales. Cannabis consumption was found in 54 subjects (43%), 66.7% of whom started it at least three years before onset of schizophrenia. Consumers were younger and with lower negative symptoms, specially abusers and polysubstance abusers. Family history positive for psychosis was more frequent in consumers, especially when consumption started before onset of schizophrenia. Subjects whose onset of schizophrenia preceded the beginning of cannabis abuse had more positive symptoms than those who started abuse before the onset of schizophrenia. On these grounds, our sample could be subdivided into two main groups, one that uses substances to counter distressing symptoms of schizophrenia and another in which cannabis might be one of the factors predisposing to the disease; the former had less negative symptoms than nonabusers. Our data support both heterogeneity of schizophrenia and genetic susceptibility to environmental agents.
Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J
Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.
Norberg, Melissa M; Battisti, Robert A; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B
The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were used to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses, while a modified Timeline Followback interview and self-reports were used to measure cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, and impairment. Most individuals had at least two Axis I disorders in addition to cannabis dependence. Anxiety disorders were common, with posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, and generalised anxiety disorder accounting for the majority of these diagnoses. On average, young people reported a moderate degree of dependence and functional impairment, and a substantial number of cannabis-related problems. Although both males and females reported using similar quantities of cannabis per month, females reported using cannabis more frequently than males. The current data suggest that young people who present for cannabis use treatment in the context of a mental health issue may have a variety of psychiatric problems that need addressed and that males and females may have slightly different profiles. If cannabis use treatments are to advance for this population, more attention needs to be paid to the complex issues that young people present to treatment with.
This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are intended to provide a framework for physicians' awareness, to present selected facts and information, to outline current thinking regarding…
Gaete, Jorge; Araya, Ricardo
We studied the association between individual and contextual variables and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis in the last 30 days preceding the study, considering the hierarchical nature of students nested in schools. We used the 7th Chilean National School Survey of Substance Use (2007) covering 45,273 students (aged 12-21 years old) along with information from 1465 schools provided by the Chilean Ministry of Education. Multilevel univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. We found a significant intra-class correlation within schools for all substances in the study. Common (e.g., availability of pocket money, more time spent with friends, poor parental monitoring, poor school bonding, bullying others, and lower risk perception of substance use) and unique predictors (e.g., school achievement on national tests) were identified. These findings may help in planning and conducting preventive interventions to reduce substance use.
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Dillon, Frank; Mena, Maite P.; Estrada, Yannine; Vaughan, Ellen L.
SUMMARY There is great significance to improving our understanding of predictors of treatment utilization among Hispanic substance abusing youth. One hundred and ten Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents participated in a study of treatment utilization. Analyses showed that adolescents with lower numbers of externalizing disorders (χ2 = 4.18, df = 1, p < .05) and parents with better parenting strategies (χ2 = 8.73, df = 2, p < .05), predicted overall treatment utilization (residential + outpatient). Better parenting practices and higher parental years in the U.S. predicted more utilization of outpatient services and lower parenting stress predicted more utilization of residential services. Without specialized engagement strategies, adolescents and families most in need may be the least likely to engage in recommended treatment. PMID:25400514
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Penning, Susan L; Collings, Steven J
Risk factors for traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse experiences (perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury) were examined in a sample of 718 South African secondary school adolescents. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the most consistent predictors of reenactments were a history of child sexual abuse (rape and/or indecent assault) and respondents' gender, with males being significantly more likely than females to report perpetration (OR = 13.5) and females being more likely to report revictimization (OR = 3.2) and self-injury (OR = 2.5). An analysis restricted to respondents with a history of child sexual abuse indicated that negative abuse-related cognitions were the most consistent predictor of all forms of traumatic reenactment.
Muro I Rodríguez, A
Previous studies analysing personality and cannabis use in adult samples suggest that cannabis users show significant higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking and schizotypy. However, there are few studies exploring this relationship in adolescence using psychobiological models of personality. Given the relevance of identifying individual differences that lead adolescents to early cannabis use to prevent future health problems, the present study aimed to explore the relationship between age, sex, personality and early cannabis use using a psychobiological model of personality in a sample of 415 students (51.8% boys) from 12 to 18 years. Chi(2) tests showed significant higher prevalence of cannabis use in boys and in the group aged 15-18 years. Multiple analysis of variance showed significant higher scores in psychoticism, sensation seeking and in all its subscales in cannabis users group, while an interaction with age was found for extraversion and neuroticism: cannabis users scored higher than non-users in the youngest group (12-14 years) but lower in the oldest group in both dimensions. Finally, regression analysis showed that narrower traits of sensation seeking (experience seeking and disinhibition) were the most associated to early cannabis use. Results are discussed in terms of early cannabis users' personality profiles and in terms of the self-medication theory.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.
Daigneault, Isabelle; Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine
This study evaluates the mediational role of general attributions in explaining the impact of specific attributions regarding sexual abuse (SA) on six posttraumatic symptoms. One hundred three SA female adolescents (13-17 years old) completed the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children (TSCC; Briere, 1989), the blame/guilt subscale of the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale (CITES-R; Wolfe, Gentile, Michienzi, Sas, & Wolfe, 1991), and the Personal Attributions for Negative Events subscale of the Children's Attributions and Perceptions Scale (CAPS; Mannarino, Cohen, & Berman, 1994). Results indicate that general attributions act as a mediator between specific attributions and six posttraumatic symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, sexual concerns, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, and anger).
Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history.
Small, La Fleur F.; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, “What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?” This research examines African American women’s substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951
Glozah, Franklin N
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356
Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824
Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G
For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.
Brown, Jennifer L; Young, April M; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M
This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents' condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history.
Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161
Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio
Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.
Bisetto Pons, David; González Barrón, Remedios
The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological) health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n = 50) were parents from Valencia (Spain) that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI-II) were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group's self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time. PMID:27800208
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Morrison, Nancy C.; Clavenna-Valleroy, Jeanine
The relationship between perceptions of maternal support, self-concept, and depression in sexually abused adolescents in treatment was examined among victims of sexual abuse (N=50) and their mothers. Data was gathered by questionnaire over three points in time. A definition of "support" was developed based on both daughter and mother perceptions.…
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…
Marlowe, Stephanie L.
The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…
Dimitrova, Nevena; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Glatz, Nathalie; Torrisi, Raffaella; Heinrichs, Markus; Halfon, Oliver; Chouchena, Oliver
The risk of adverse psychological outcomes in adult victims of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) has been documented; however, research on possible mediating variables is still required, namely with a clinical perspective. The attachment literature suggests that secure interpersonal relationships may represent such a variable. Twenty-eight women who had experienced episodes of CSA, and 16 control women, were interviewed using Bremner's Early Trauma Inventory and the DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning; they also responded to Collins' Relationship Scales Questionnaire, evaluating adult attachment representations in terms of Closeness, Dependence and Anxiety. Subjects with an experience of severe abuse reported significantly more interpersonal distance in relationships (low index of Closeness) than other subjects. The index of psychopathological functioning was correlated with both the severity of abuse and attachment (low index of Closeness). Regression analysis on the sample of abused women revealed that attachment predicted psychopathology when abuse was controlled for, whereas abuse did not predict psychopathology when attachment was controlled for. Therefore, preserving a capacity for closeness with attachment figures in adulthood appears to mediate the consequences of CSA on subsequent psychopathological outcome.
Coons, P M
The diagnostic validity of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and its association to trauma have been questioned because corroboration of child abuse in studies of patients with MPD is scant. The purpose of this study was to determine on a retrospective basis whether external corroboration of child abuse could be found in a group of patients with MPD and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. A group of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients was chosen because of the extensive number of collateral records collected on them in a tertiary care setting. This group was also chosen because of the intense interest paid by child protective services and courts to child abuse during the past 15 years. This retrospective chart review confirmed child abuse in eight of nine patients with MPD and in all 12 cases of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. This study provides further evidence of the association of severe dissociative disorders with trauma, particularly child abuse. Future studies should be prospective and blinded to avoid the possibility of investigator bias, and should include a control group for comparison of base rate of child abuse.
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…
Evans, Richard I
For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.
Branson, Christopher E; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Clemmey, Philip; Herman, Lisa; Bhutia, Phintso
Numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for improving patient outcomes, yet it is rarely used in treatment settings due to the high cost of implementation. This quasi-experimental study (N = 52) examined the effect of a low-cost "Fishbowl" CM intervention on attendance/retention in an early intervention adolescent substance abuse program. The CM group attended significantly more sessions compared to the control group. Furthermore, the CM intervention costs $3.27 per patient per session. Our findings support the use of low-cost CM to improve adolescent attendance in clinical settings.
Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian
The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence.
Rolim, Ana Carine Arruda; Moreira, Gracyelle Alves Remigio; Gondim, Sarah Maria Mendes; Paz, Soraya da Silva; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors associated with the underreporting on the part of nurses within Primary Health Care of abuse against children and adolescents. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 616 nurses. A questionnaire addressed socio-demographic data, profession, instrumentation and knowledge on the topic, identification and reporting of abuse cases. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: female nurses, aged between 21 and 32 years old, not married, with five or more years since graduation, with graduate studies, and working for five or more years in PHC predominated. The final regression model showed that factors such as working for five or more years, having a reporting form within the PHC unit, and believing that reporting within Primary Health Care is an advantage, facilitate reporting. CONCLUSION: the study's results may, in addition to sensitizing nurses, support management professionals in establishing strategies intended to produce compliance with reporting as a legal device that ensures the rights of children and adolescents. PMID:25591102
Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.
Objective We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial (N=334) were randomized to: an alternative SSRI; an alternative SSRI plus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT); venlafaxine; or venlafaxine plus CBT. Analyses examined the effect of history of abuse on response to the pharmacotherapy and combination therapy. Results Those without a history of physical abuse (PA) or sexual abuse (SA) had a higher 12-week response rate to combination therapy compared to medication mono-therapy (62.8% vs. 37.6%; OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). Those with a history of SA had similar response rates to combination vs. medication monotherapy (48.3% vs. 42.3%; OR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.4–3.7; p=0.66), while those with history of PA had a much lower rate of response to combination therapy (18.4% vs. 52.4%, OR=0.1; 95% CI: 0.02–0.43). Even after adjusting for other clinical predictors, a history of PA moderated treatment outcome. Conclusion These results should be considered within the limitations of a post-hoc analysis, lack of detailed assessment of abuse and other forms of trauma, and neuropsychological status. Depressed patients with history of abuse, especially PA may require specialized clinical approaches. Further work is needed to understand by what mechanisms a history of abuse affects treatment response. PMID:21334569
Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da
This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse.
Carmona, José Alberto; Espínola, Moisés; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Iribarne, Luis
Mii School is a 3D school simulator developed with Blender and used by psychology researchers for the detection of drugs abuses, bullying and mental disorders in adolescents. The school simulator created is an interactive video game where the players, in this case the students, have to choose, along 17 scenes simulated, the options that better define their personalities. In this paper we present a technical characteristics description and the first results obtained in a real school.
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational deficits (e.g., age-inappropriate sexual behaviors). The trauma following such abuse can further affect neurodevelopment and physiology, aggravating mental or physical problems in adulthood. Early symptom recognition and appropriate interventional applications are important factors in successfully treating or even preventing the development of mental disorders in such cohorts. A central element of effective treatment is the selection of treatment targets. Cultural considerations are rarely or peripherally considered in sexual abuse treatment strategies. Western-trained psychiatrists and clinical psychologists tend to overlook or underestimate such factors in cross-cultural settings, resulting in interventional efforts that may interfere with traditional approaches to healing, and potentially contributing to a transgenerational cycle of trauma. By using Bali (Indonesia) as a focal culture, in this article we discuss the effects of cultural elements and showcase their potential contribution and systematic implementation into a holistic and sensitive interventional model for the treatment of mental illness in childhood and adolescence sexual traumatization.
Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Hidarnia, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed
The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents from low- and middle-income countries is increasing drastically and requires immediate intervention. The objective of this longitudinal quasi-experimental panel study was to design and implement a skill-based intervention to prevent and reduce substance use among urban adolescents who attended 2…
Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M
The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.
Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A
It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.
Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I
An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered.
Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Keimpema, Erik
Cannabis remains one of the world’s most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal “legal” highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities. PMID:24793873
Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik
Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.
The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea, and inflammation. Current research has shown cannabis to be a useful remedy for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, dystonia, and chronic pain. Cannabinoids are used to improve food intake in anorexia of AIDS patients and to prevent vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Cannabinoids reduce the size of brain infarct and cardiac reperfusion injury. However, cannabinoid treatment is not free of side effects including euphoria, psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Since the cannabinoid system is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, the therapeutic potential is great. We must not be blind to the opportunity offered to us by medical cannabis just because it is an illicit drug, nor should we be temped by the quick response of patients to the central effect of cannabis. More research is warranted to explore the full potential of cannabis as medicine.
Psychosis is one of the most serious among the adverse effects associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and psychosis has been variously explored in a series of recent meta-analyses. The results of these meta-analyses show that persons who develop psychosis experience onset of psychosis about 2-3 years earlier if they are cannabis users; this effect is not observed with alcohol or other substance use. Higher levels of cannabis use are associated with greater risk of psychosis. Current cannabis abuse or dependence (but not past use or lower levels of current use) increases the risk of transition into psychosis in persons at ultrahigh risk of psychosis. About a third of patients with first-episode psychosis are cannabis users, and, at follow-up, about half of these users are found to continue their cannabis use. Continued cannabis use (in those who are treated after developing psychosis) is associated with higher risk of relapse into psychosis, and discontinuation of cannabis use reduces the risk of relapse to that in cannabis nonusers. Finally, persons with psychosis who continue to use cannabis have more severe positive symptoms and poorer levels of functioning. Because experimental studies in humans show that cannabinoids and cannabis can induce psychotic symptoms, it is reasonable to assume that the epidemiologic data indicate a causal effect of cannabis in anticipating, triggering, or exacerbating psychosis in vulnerable individuals and in worsening the course and outcome of the illness in those who continue to use the substance. Given the public health implications of these findings, the trend to legalize medical marijuana must be viewed with concern, and efforts are necessary to educate patients and the public about the serious mental and physical health risks associated with cannabis use and abuse.
Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A
This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."
The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.
Across the Global North, adolescent-to-parent abuse (APA) is becoming recognized as a significant social problem and is receiving attention from researchers, policymakers, and practitioners who work in the intersecting fields of juvenile justice, child protection, and domestic violence. One of the key questions shaping current debates concerns the extent to which APA maps onto the contours of domestic violence, in terms of research and theory, policy, and practice. In particular, to what extent can our established ways of working with domestic violence be applied when working with APA? This article begins by reviewing definitions and prevalence rates of APA. It then considers how the problem fits into the "family conflicts" and "gender-based violence" paradigms that are most frequently used to conceptualize domestic violence. The article then examines how APA represents a similar but distinct phenomenon to adult-instigated domestic violence and identifies how its departures represent particular challenges in working toward its elimination. The article concludes by reviewing intervention programs that work with APA and exploring some of the ways in which they adopt and reject elements of good practice from the domestic violence practice field.
The debate about cannabis policy in Australia has revolved around the harms that cannabis causes to users and the community, on the one hand, and the harms that are caused by the prohibition of its use, on the other. This paper assesses evidence on: (1) the harms caused to users and the community by cannabis use (derived from the international scientific literature) and (2) the harms that arise from prohibition (as reflected in Australian research). The most probable harms caused by cannabis use include: an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents; respiratory disease; dependence; adverse effects on adolescent development; and the exacerbation of psychosis. The harms of the current prohibition on cannabis use policy are less tangible but probably include: the creation of a large blackmarket; disrespect for a widely broken law; harms to the reputation of the unlucky few cannabis users who are caught and prosecuted; lack of access to cannabis for medical uses; and an inefficient use of law enforcement resources. Cannabis policy unavoidably involves trade offs between competing values that should be made by the political process. Australian cannabis policy has converged on a solution which continues to prohibit cannabis but reduces the severity of penalties for cannabis use by either removing criminal penalties or diverting first time cannabis offenders into treatment and education.
Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, S H; Munafò, M R; Roiser, J P; Curran, H V
There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾ 50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested.
Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa
For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.
Brown, Jennifer L.; Young, April M.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Wingood, Gina M.
This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents’ condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history. PMID:25505369
Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S
Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use.
Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie
It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…
Barrowclough, Christine; Gregg, Lynsey; Lobban, Fiona; Bucci, Sandra; Emsley, Richard
Background: There are inconsistencies in findings as to whether cannabis use has a negative impact on clinical outcomes for people with established psychosis. Effects may be more evident on patients with recent onset psychosis. Aim: To investigate the relationship between cannabis use and clinical outcome, including whether change in cannabis use affects psychotic symptoms, affective symptoms, functioning and psychotic relapse in a sample of people in early psychosis with comorbid cannabis abuse or dependence. Methods: One hundred and ten participants were examined prospectively with repeated measures of substance use antecedent to psychopathology at baseline, 4.5, 9, and 18 months. We used random intercept models to estimate the effects of cannabis dose on subsequent clinical outcomes and whether change in cannabis use was associated with change in outcomes. Results: There was no evidence of a specific association between cannabis use and positive symptoms, or negative symptoms, relapse or hospital admissions. However, a greater dose of cannabis was associated with subsequent higher depression and anxiety. Change in the amount of cannabis used was associated with statistically significant corresponding change in anxiety scores, but not depression. Additionally, reductions in cannabis exposure were related to improved patient functioning. Conclusions: Reducing cannabis may be directly associated with improvements in anxiety and functioning, but not other specific symptoms. PMID:25011381
Reid, P T; Macleod, J; Robertson, J R
The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. Studies on cannabis are challenging and subject to confounding by concomitant use of tobacco and other social factors, and while many of the studies referred to in this review are beset by the difficulties inherent in undertaking epidemiological research of the effects of cannabis, there is an emerging concern among many chest physicians who would suggest that habitual smoking of cannabis may contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumothorax and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis. Special attention should be given to the risk of lung cancer, particularly as biological plausibility may precede epidemiology.
Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.
Flint, Alan J.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Objective Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Design and Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Results Over eight percent of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 units of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). Conclusions A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. PMID:23637085
The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Loening-Voysey, Heidi
Background Physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. To date, no known studies have used data directly obtained from community-based samples of children to investigate prevalence, incidence, locations and perpetrators of child abuse victimisation. This study aims to investigate prevalence and incidence, perpetrators, and locations of child abuse victimisation in South Africa using a multicommunity sample. Methods 3515 children aged 10–17 years (56.6% female) were interviewed from all households in randomly selected census enumeration areas in two South African provinces. Child self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.7% retention). Results Prevalence was 56.3% for lifetime physical abuse (18.2% past-year incidence), 35.5% for lifetime emotional abuse (12.1% incidence) and 9% for lifetime sexual abuse (5.3% incidence). 68.9% of children reported any type of lifetime victimisation and 27.1% reported lifetime multiple abuse victimisation. Main perpetrators of abuse were reported: for physical abuse, primary caregivers and teachers; for emotional abuse, primary caregivers and relatives; and for sexual abuse, girlfriend/boyfriends or other peers. Conclusions This is the first study assessing current self-reported child abuse through a large, community-based sample in South Africa. Findings of high rates of physical, emotional and sexual abuse demonstrate the need for targeted and effective interventions to prevent incidence and re-victimisation. PMID:26962202
Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.
Aim Twin studies have shown that cannabis use disorders (abuse/dependence) are highly heritable. This review aims to: (i) review existing linkage studies of cannabis use disorders and (ii) review gene association studies, to identify potential candidate genes, including those that have been tested for composite substance use disorders, and (iii) to highlight challenges in the genomic study of cannabis use disorders. Methods Peer-reviewed linkage and candidate gene association studies are reviewed. Results Four linkage studies are reviewed: results from these have homed in on regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 9, 14, 17 and 18, which harbor candidates of predicted biological relevance, such as monoglyceride lipase (MGL) on chromosome 3, but also novel genes, including ELTD1 (EGF, latrophilin and seven transmembrane domain containing 1) on chromosome 1. Gene association studies are presented for (a) genes posited to have specific influences on cannabis use disorders: CNR1, CB2, FAAH, MGL, TRPV1 and GPR55 and (b) genes from various neurotransmitter systems that are likely to exert a non-specific influence on risk of cannabis use disorders e.g. GABRA2, DRD2 and OPRM1. Conclusions There are challenges associated with (i) understanding biological complexity underlying cannabis use disorders (including the need to study gene-gene and gene-environment interactions), (ii) using diagnostic versus quantitative phenotypes, (iii) delineating which stage of cannabis involvement (e.g. use vs. misuse) genes influence and (iv) problems of sample ascertainment. PMID:19335651