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Sample records for adolescent chronic marijuana

  1. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  2. Marijuana use in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275

  3. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  4. The power of the proposition: frequency of marijuana offers, parental knowledge, and adolescent marijuana use

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jason T.; Tan, Cara N.; Navarro, Mario A.; Alvaro, Eusebio; Crano, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The frequency with which adolescents are offered marijuana has been investigated as a predictor of marijuana use. The current study was designed to test whether the number of marijuana offers received provides an indirect path between parental knowledge and adolescents’ marijuana use. Methods Data from the nationally representative National Survey of Parents and Youth were examined. Analysis 1 tested the association between frequency of being offered marijuana and adolescents’ (N = 4264) marijuana usage in the subsequent year. Analysis 2, spanning a three-year time frame, tested whether the frequency of marijuana offers at the second year of the panel study bridged the relationship between parental knowledge in Year 1 and marijuana use in Year 3. Results Analysis 1 indicated that the frequency with which adolescents were offered marijuana predicted usage one year later, after controlling for previous usage and nine other common predictors of marijuana use. Analysis 2 revealed an indirect relationship between parental knowledge and use through the number of marijuana offers the adolescent received. Conclusion There was a strong link between the number of offers received and adolescents’ future marijuana use. Higher parental knowledge predicted reductions in offer frequency, which was associated with lower levels of marijuana use. Reducing the number of marijuana offers an adolescent receives could serve as a useful focus for intervention programs targeting parents. PMID:25620730

  5. Marijuana Motivations Across Adolescence: Impacts on Use and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Sitney, Miranda; White, Helene R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivational models for marijuana use have focused on reasons to use marijuana, but rarely consider motives to abstain. Objectives We examined how both adolescent marijuana abstinence motives and use motives contribute to marijuana use and problems at the end of emerging adulthood. Methods 434 community recruited youth who had not initiated marijuana use at baseline were followed from adolescence (at ages 12, 15, and 18 years) into emerging adulthood (age 25 years). Motives to abstain and to use marijuana, marijuana consumption, and marijuana-related problems were assessed across time. Results Endorsing more motives to abstain from marijuana across adolescence predicted less marijuana use in emerging adulthood and fewer marijuana-related problems when controlling for past motives to abstain and marijuana-related behavior. Positive reinforcement use motives related to increased marijuana consumption and problems, and negative reinforcement motives predicted problems when controlling for past marijuana use motives and behaviors. Expansion motives during adolescence related to lower marijuana use in emerging adulthood. When considered together, motives to abstain buffered the effect of negative reinforcement motives on outcomes at age 25 for youth endorsing a greater number of abstinence motives. Conclusions/Implications Given these findings, inclusion of both motives to use and abstain is warranted within comprehensive models of marijuana use decision making and may provide important markers for prevention and intervention specialists. PMID:25396758

  6. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  7. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  8. Heterogeneity in Men’s Marijuana Use in the 20s: Adolescent Antecedents and Consequences in the 30s

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men’s adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men’s psychopathology in their mid 30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife. PMID:25017389

  9. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  10. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  11. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF MARIJUANA USE FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD: PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL ROLE OUTCOMES1,2

    PubMed Central

    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROWN, ELAINE N.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.; BROOK, DAVID W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outcomes than a non or low-use trajectory group. The chronic marijuana-use trajectory group was highly associated with criminal behavior and partners’ marijuana use in adulthood. Treatment programs for marijuana use should also directly address common adverse life-course outcomes which users may already be experiencing. PMID:21675549

  13. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  14. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  15. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  16. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Marijuana refers to ... drugs-abuse/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  17. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  18. State Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in The United States: 1991 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th

  19. The Early Adolescent's Personality and His Style of Marijuana Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; And Others

    Students in four metropolitan high schools participated in a survey of marijuana use. It was found that the personality traits of these early adolescents were related to the "style" of their marijuana usage, i.e., to the social conditions under which they tended to use the drug. Further, a given personality trait's relationship to the style of…

  20. Parental Involvement in Brief Interventions for Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents (aged 12–18 years) identified in a school setting as abusing marijuana and other drugs were randomly assigned to complete one of two brief interventions (BIs). Adolescents and their parent (N = 259) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A) or a 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Using a latent construct representing 6-month marijuana use outcomes, current findings supported previous research that BI-AP resulted in superior outcomes when compared to BI-A. The presence of a marijuana dependence diagnosis at baseline predicted poorer outcomes when compared to youth without a diagnosis. Both baseline diagnostic status and co-occurring conduct problems interacted with intervention condition in predicting marijuana use outcomes. A marijuana dependence diagnosis resulted in a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-A condition when compared to BI-AP. Co-occurring conduct problems had a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-AP intervention when compared to BI-A. Implications for implementing BIs given diagnostic status, parent involvement and co-occurring conduct problems are discussed. PMID:26415058

  1. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plan Search Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Revised February 2017 Photo by NIDA What is marijuana? Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, ...

  2. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population.

  3. Adolescent use and misuse of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Foley, John D

    2006-06-01

    Substance use by adolescents and young adults continues to be a serious problem. Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance with close to 50% of high school seniors admitting use at some time. Each year 2.6 million individuals in this country become new users and most are under 19 years old. Individuals who provide health care services to this age group must have an understanding of the drug, its pharmacokinetics, and the many short- and long-term adverse effects. Familiarity with risk factors associated with initiating use can be helpful in screening older children and targeting anticipatory guidance toward those most likely to benefit. This article reviews these issues and includes commentary on a recently published review of treatment programs.

  4. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  5. Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of

  6. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  7. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. Media and marijuana: A longitudinal analysis of news media effects on adolescents' marijuana use and related outcomes, 1977-1999.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This study examined how aggregate levels of news coverage about marijuana have impacted adolescents' marijuana behavior generally, and through the intervening variables of personal disapproval and perceived harmfulness of marijuana, two variables that existing research has identified as significant predictors of adolescent marijuana use at the aggregate level. It was hypothesized that news coverage of reasons why people should not use marijuana would cause increase in aggregate marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Conversely, news coverage of positive aspects of marijuana use would cause decreases in marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Results of distributed lagged time-series regression and non-linear modeling offered support for two of the three proposed hypotheses. Aggregate media coverage explained a significant portion of the variation in adolescents' abstinence from marijuana use over time. It also explained a significant portion of the variation in personal disapproval of marijuana. Personal disapproval was found to partially mediate the relationship between media coverage and marijuana abstinence. Implications for the conceptualization of media effects on health behaviors are discussed.

  9. Longitudinal Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, A.M.; Crane, Natania A.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is increasingly widespread among adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use during this important developmental period. As such, we examined adolescent trajectories of marijuana use and the psychosocial factors that may differentiate individuals who escalate their marijuana use over adolescence and young adulthood from those who do not. Methods Participants were 1,204 9th and 10th graders at baseline who were over-sampled for cigarette use and were followed over 6-years, as part of an extensive longitudinal study, the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) was used to model trajectories of marijuana use and Mixed Effects Regression analyses were used to examine psychosocial correlates of marijuana use escalation over time. Results Our results revealed three trajectories of non-escalating users (low users, medium users, and high users) and one escalating user trajectory. We found that relative to Non-escalators the Escalators had higher cigarette smoking (p<.0001), novelty-seeking (p=.02), aggressive and anti-social behavior (p<.007), and problem behavior related to peer context (p=.04). Moreover, there were important time and group by time interactions in some of these relationships. On the other hand, parental control and depression did not differ between escalators and low and medium non-escalating users. Conclusions Cigarette smoking, novelty-seeking, aggressive and anti-social behavior, and peer influence are related to ‘escalating’ marijuana use throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25792233

  10. Women's perception of adolescent marijuana use in a hispanic seasonal farm worker community: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano; Weissman, Jessica; De La Rosa, Mario; Melton, James; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Trekpa, Mary Jo

    2016-12-16

    We examined the perception of adolescent children's marijuana use and its consequences in the Hispanic seasonal farmworking community of South Florida via three focus groups with Hispanic adult female seasonal workers (n = 29). The women described how adolescents' marijuana use increased over the past five years. Social networks for marijuana use were reported near schools and bus stations. Although participants expressed concern over adolescent marijuana use and involvement in selling marijuana, they reported that their job demands preclude their ability to supervise their children. Participants do not report unlawful marijuana use due to fear of deportation.

  11. Adolescent marijuana use: risk factors and implications.

    PubMed

    Rob, M; Reynolds, I; Finlayson, P F

    1990-03-01

    A sample of 1,270 students in Years 7, 10 and 11 attending seven State high schools in a middle class area of Sydney answered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure many aspects of their family situation, school performance, spare time activities, drinking and drug taking behaviour and sexual activity. Data on the reported prevalence of marijuana use and the variables significantly associated with marijuana use are presented and discussed. Marijuana use was reported by 4.2% of 12 year olds (Year 7), 26.5% of 15 year olds (Year 10) and 26.7% of 16 year olds (Year 11). More than half of those who had ever used marijuana had used it during the week prior to the survey and there were no significant differences in the characteristics between these recent and the remaining users. Marijuana users reported significantly poorer family relationships than non-users and were about twice as likely as non-users to come from a broken home and/or to have a mother who works full-time, which is often a consequence of marital break-up. Marijuana users also displayed poorer school performance, spent less time on homework and had more school absenteeism than non-users. Marijuana users were more than three times as likely as non-users to have had heterosexual intercourse, drunk alcohol 3 or more times in the past week and to smoke cigarettes. Also, the reported use of stimulants, hallucinogens, narcotics (heroin) and sedatives was almost entirely restricted to those who reported marijuana use. Improvements in the quality of family life may prevent the use of marijuana and other probably more harmful drugs, as well as the indulgence in other acting-out behaviours.

  12. EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

  13. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  14. New Developments in Understanding and Treating Adolescent Marijuana Dependence1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States and worldwide. Marijuana use is a problem of increasing magnitude among adolescents. Use typically begins in adolescence and is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. Method This article will present an overview of trends in marijuana use, and will review the endocannabinoid system and marijuana. It will discuss recent policy developments in US and their implications, especially for adolescents. Existing treatments will be reviewed, including findings from a recent randomized double-blind trial of N-acetylcysteine, a compound that reverses the dysregulation of the glutamate system that occurs in substance dependence. Conclusions The core treatment approaches include psychosocial interventions, sometimes in combination with each other. While a reduction in days of use is often achieved with most of these approaches, abstinence is a much more elusive goal. The evidence base for effective treatments remains inadequate especially with regard to adolescents, and there is an urgent need for more research in this area. Promising new treatments include N-acetylcysteine in conjunction with contingency management. PMID:25289370

  15. Inter-and Intragenerational Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise

    1974-01-01

    A survey of a representative sample of high school students in New York State revealed that involvement with other drug using adolescents is a more important correlate of marijuana use than is parental use of psychoactive drugs or alcohol. Implications of these data for parental and peer influence, the generation gap, and social change are…

  16. Perceptions of social norms and exposure to pro-marijuana messages are associated with adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Roditis, Maria L; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use. Participants were 786 adolescents from Southern and Northern California (36.7% male, 63.21% females; mean age=16.1years; SD=1.6). Participants came from diverse ethnic backgrounds, with 207 (26.61%) White, 171 (21.98%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 232 (29.82%) Hispanic, and 168 (21.59%) other. Results indicated that marijuana and blunts were consistently perceived as more socially acceptable and less risky than cigarettes (p<0.01). Participants who reported that their friends used marijuana had a 27% greater odds of using marijuana themselves. Further, seeing messages about the good things or benefits of marijuana use was associated with a 6% greater odds of use [OR 1.06 (CI 1.00, 1.12)]. This study's findings offer a number of important public health implications, particularly as states move towards legalization of marijuana for recreational use. As this occurs, states need to take adolescents' perceptions of risks, benefits, social norms, and peer influences into account as they implement strategies to reduce youth use of marijuana and blunts.

  17. The Role of Neighborhood in Urban Black Adolescent Marijuana Use*

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Green, Kerry M.; Milam, Adam J.; Furr-Holden, Debra M.; Johnson, Renee M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined the influence of neighborhood factors on transitions in marijuana involvement during adolescence in a sample of primarily low-income, urban Black youth. Methods 556 Black adolescents were interviewed annually beginning in first grade as part of a longitudinal study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine stages of marijuana involvement from 6th to 9th grades. The influence of neighborhood disorder, drug activity, violent crime, safety and disadvantage on transitions in marijuana involvement was tested using latent transition analysis (LTA). Results There was evidence for three stages of involvement: no involvement, offered, and use and problems. Involvement increased steadily during adolescence with a slightly greater risk to transition from offers to use between 6th and 7th grades. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.04, CI=1.00, 1.08), drug activity (AOR=1.12, CI=1.02, 1.22) and disadvantage (AOR=1.44, CI=1.10, 1.92) were associated with the transition from marijuana offers to use and problems. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.07, CI=1.02, 1.11), drug activity (AOR=1.19, CI=1.10, 1.29) and violent crime (AOR=1.17, CI=1.03, 1.32) were associated with transitioning rapidly from no involvement to use and problems. Conclusions Understanding how neighborhoods could be organized and provided with supports to discourage marijuana use and promote non-drug using behaviors should be an important goal of any prevention program in low-income, urban Black neighborhoods. Enhancing citizen participation and mobilization to address the social processes of neighborhood disorder has the potential to reduce marijuana involvement in these neighborhoods. PMID:26162651

  18. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762

  19. Parenting Practices as Moderators of the Relationship between Peers and Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…

  20. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  1. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. METHODS: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. RESULTS: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. CONCLUSION: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.

  2. Predicting Young Adult Degree Attainment by Late Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Kloska, Deborah D.; Patrick, Megan E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assess whether infrequent and frequent marijuana use at age 19/20 predicts receipt of educational degrees by the mid 20s, independent of confounding age 18 adolescent risk factors. Methods Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally-representative survey of high school seniors followed into adulthood. Thirteen cohorts (1990 to 2002) of high school seniors were followed longitudinally to their mid 20s (n=4,925; 54% female). We used logistic regression and propensity score matching with successive inclusion of age 18 risk factors and substance use to compare age 19/20 frequent marijuana users (6+ occasions in past 30 days) to non-users, frequent users to infrequent users (1 to 6 occasions), and infrequent users to non-users on their likelihood of degree attainment by the mid 20s. Results Frequent marijuana users were less likely than infrequent users and non-users to earn Bachelor’s degrees, even after controlling for a host of age 18 risk factors (e.g., family socioeconomic background, academic performance, educational expectations, truancy). However, these differences were reduced in magnitude to statistical non-significance when we controlled for age 18 substance use. Across analyses, the proportion reaching this educational milestone did not differ significantly between infrequent users and non-users. Conclusions Results support a growing body of work suggesting that frequent marijuana use predicts a lower likelihood of post-secondary educational attainment, and this difference may originate during secondary school. PMID:26206441

  3. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  4. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  5. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  6. Is the Legalization of Marijuana Associated with Its Use by Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hopkins, Jessica; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Wahlstrom, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing moves in the U.S. toward relaxed laws surrounding adult use of marijuana raise concerns about concurrent increases in adolescent use of marijuana. Objectives This study collected and analyzed primary data on the relationship between marijuana legalization status in U.S. states and adolescents’ marijuana use. Methods Recruited through social networking sites and youth-services community agencies, a sample of 1,310 adolescents from 48 U.S. states and the District of Columbia reported their use of marijuana. Youths’ use rates were compared with the marijuana legalization status of youths’ states of residence. Results Study findings failed to show a relationship between adolescents’ use of marijuana and state laws regarding marijuana use. Relationships were found for increased marijuana use by older youths, females, and non-Hispanic youths. Youths whose parents completed 2 or more years of college were less likely to report marijuana use than those whose parents completed fewer than 2 years of college. Conclusions Albeit study findings do not support predictions of growing marijuana use by adolescents in states with liberalized adult use laws, further monitoring of adolescents’ use with larger and more representative samples is needed. PMID:27754733

  7. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  8. ALTERED PREFRONTAL AND INSULAR CORTICAL THICKNESS IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McGlade, Erin; King, Jace B.; Terry, Janine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical thickness measures in MJ using adolescents compared to non-using controls. Methods Eighteen adolescents with heavy MJ use and 18 non-using controls similar in age received MRI scans using a 3T Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with FreeSurfer. Group differences in cortical thickness were assessed using statistical difference maps covarying for age and gender. Results Compared to non-users, MJ users had decreased cortical thickness in right caudal middle frontal, bilateral insula and bilateral superior frontal corticies. Marijuana users had increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal and left paracentral regions. In the MJ users, negative correlations were found between frontal and lingual regions for urinary cannabinoid levels and between age of onset of use and the right superior frontal gyrus. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to evaluate cortical thickness in a group of adolescents with heavy MJ use compared to non-users. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that documented abnormalities in prefrontal and insular regions. Our results suggest that age of regular use may be associated with altered prefrontal cortical gray matter development in adolescents. Furthermore, reduced insular cortical thickness may be a biological marker for increased risk of substance dependence. PMID:21310189

  9. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  10. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  11. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  12. Commentary: Adolescent Marijuana Use and Mental Health Amidst a Changing Legal Climate

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this commentary was to briefly summarize the literature on the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and mental health and how policy changes surrounding marijuana decriminalization and legalization might impact this relationship. Methods A comprehensive literature search on adolescent marijuana use, mental health, and the impact of decriminalization and legalization was conducted. Findings are briefly summarized and discussed. Results Although there is a great deal of ambiguity regarding the causal direction of marijuana use and mental health problems, what can safely be gleaned from this body of research is that early and frequent use of marijuana during adolescence is associated with the development of more psychiatric-related problems than occasional use or nonuse. Conclusions Until there is greater clarity in this domain, clinicians should continue to screen adolescent patients for marijuana use as well as mental health difficulties, but may need to be more thoughtful about screening among early adolescents, if in fact a shift in the age of marijuana uptake occurs amidst policy changes. PMID:26883502

  13. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Cope, Lora M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Hardee, Jillian E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4; mean age 19.6; and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2.Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581

  14. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  15. Examining a Partial Biopsychosocial Model for Monthly Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Barry, Adam E; Merianos, Ashley L

    Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used substances among adolescents. In the context of the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM), this study investigated the relationships between psychological and normative factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Data were analyzed from 1053 middle and high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between BPSM constructs. Results indicate that latent constructs of the BPSM are significant antecedent factors to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; however, the relationships between study constructs were inconsistent with those theorized by BPSM. Findings support the importance of theory testing for complex models applied to new topics and new populations.

  16. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  17. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  18. Outcomes Associated with Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Urban Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Johnson, Renee M.; Matson, Pamela A.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study identifies and compares outcomes in young adulthood associated with longitudinal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence among urban youth. Method Data come from a cohort of 678 urban, predominantly Black children followed from ages 6–25 (1993–2012). Analyses are based on the 608 children who participated over time (53.6% male). Longitudinal patterning of alcohol and marijuana use were based on annual frequency reports from grades 8–12 and estimated through latent profile analysis. Results We identified four classes of alcohol and marijuana use including Non-Use (47%), Moderate Alcohol Use (28%), Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use (12%) and High Dual Use (13%). A marijuana only class was not identified. Analyses show negative outcomes in adulthood associated with all three adolescent substance use classes. Compared to the non-use class, all use classes had statistically significantly higher rates of substance dependence. Those in the ‘High Dual Use’ class had the lowest rate of high school graduation. Comparing classes with similar alcohol but different marijuana patterns, the ‘Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use’ class had a statistically significant increased risk of having a criminal justice record and developing substance use dependence in adulthood. Conclusion Among urban youth, heterogeneous patterns of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence are evident, and these patterns are associated with distinct outcomes in adulthood. These findings suggest a need for targeted education and intervention efforts to address the needs of youth using both marijuana and alcohol, as well as the importance of universal early preventive intervention efforts. PMID:26517712

  19. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-02

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  20. Marijuana and chronic obstructive lung disease: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan C.; Lo, Christine; Jong, Aimee; Xing, Li; FitzGerald, Mark J.; Vollmer, William M.; Buist, Sonia A.; Sin, Don D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our aim was to determine the combined and independent effects of tobacco and marijuana smoking on respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Method We surveyed a random sample of 878 people aged 40 years or older living in Vancouver, Canada, about their respiratory history and their history of tobacco and marijuana smoking. We performed spirometric testing before and after administration of 200 μg of salbutamol. We examined the association between tobacco and marijuana smoking and COPD. Results The prevalence of a history of smoking in this sample was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.2%–48.8%) for marijuana use and 53.1% (95% CI 49.8%–56.4%) for tobacco use. The prevalence of current smoking (in the past 12 months) was 14% for marijuana use and 14% for tobacco use. Compared with nonsmokers, participants who reported smoking only tobacco, but not those who reported smoking only marijuana, experienced more frequent respiratory symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.05–2.14) and were more likely to have COPD (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.66–4.52). Concurrent use of marijuana and tobacco was associated with increased risk (adjusted for age, asthma and comorbidities) of respiratory symptoms (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.58–3.62) and COPD (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.53–5.51) if the lifetime dose of marijuana exceeded 50 marijuana cigarettes. The risks of respiratory symptoms and of COPD were related to a synergistic interaction between marijuana and tobacco. Interpretation Smoking both tobacco and marijuana synergistically increased the risk of respiratory symptoms and COPD. Smoking only marijuana was not associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms or COPD. PMID:19364790

  1. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  2. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  3. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  5. Adolescents' Beliefs about Marijuana Use: A Comparison of Regular Users, Past Users and Never/Occasional Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…

  6. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence—when the brain is still developing—has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants’ family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9–12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17–20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose–response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  7. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  8. An Adverse Family Environment During Adolescence Predicts Marijuana Use and Antisocial Personality Disorder in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2016-02-01

    Adult maladaptive behaviors including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and marijuana use are major public health concerns. At the present time, there is a dearth of research showing the interrelationships among the possible predictors of adult maladaptive behaviors (i.e., ASPD and marijuana use). Therefore, the current study examines the pathways from adverse family environments in late adolescence to these maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. There were 674 participants (52 % African Americans, 48 % Puerto Ricans). Sixty percent of the sample was female. Structural equation modeling in the current study included 4 waves of data collection (mean ages 19, 24, 29, and 36). An adverse family environment in late adolescence was related to greater externalizing personality in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to greater marijuana use in emerging adulthood. This in turn was positively associated with partner marijuana use in young adulthood, which in turn, was ultimately related to maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. An adverse family environment in late adolescence was also related to greater marijuana use in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with an adverse relationship with one's partner in young adulthood. Such a negative partner relationship was related to maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. The findings suggest that family-focused interventions (Kumpfer and Alvarado in Am Psychol 58(6-7): 457-465, 2003) for dysfunctional families may be most helpful when they include the entire family.

  9. Abstinent adolescent marijuana users show altered fMRI response during spatial working memory☆

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Park, Ann; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance among teenagers, yet little is known about the possible neural influence of heavy marijuana use during adolescence. We previously demonstrated an altered functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity related to spatial working memory (SWM) among adolescents who were heavy users of after an average of 8 days of abstinence, but the persisting neural effects remain unclear. To characterize the potentially persisting neurocognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in adolescence, we examined fMRI response during SWM among abstinent marijuana-using teens. Participants were 15 MJ teens and 17 demographically similar non-using controls, ages 16–18. Teens underwent biweekly urine toxicology screens to ensure abstinence for 28 days before fMRI acquisition. Groups performed similarly on the SWM task, but MJ teens demonstrated lower activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal and occipital cortices, yet significantly more activation in right posterior parietal cortex. MJ teens showed abnormalities in brain response during a SWM task compared with controls, even after 1 month of abstinence. The activation pattern among MJ teens may reflect different patterns of utilization of spatial rehearsal and attention strategies, and could indicate altered neurodevelopment or persisting abnormalities associated with heavy marijuana use in adolescence. PMID:18356027

  10. Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood: Developmental Trajectories and Their Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study assesses the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, children living at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. Method This study used a longitudinal design. The sample participants (N=548) were first studied at mean age 14 and last studied at mean age 43. Results Six trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic/heavy users (3.6%), increasing users (5.1%), chronic/occasional users (20%), decreasers (14.3%), quitters (22.5%), and nonusers/experimenters (34.5%). With three exceptions, as compared with being a nonuser/experimenter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy, the increasing, or the chronic/occasional user trajectory group was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and having a spouse/partner who used marijuana at early midlife. In addition, compared with being a quitter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy user trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, alcohol dependence/abuse, and spouse/partner marijuana use. Implications for intervention are presented. Conclusions Trajectories of marijuana use, especially chronic/heavy use, increasing use, and chronic/occasional use, are associated with unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. The importance of the findings for prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27168181

  11. Impact of changes in regular use of marijuana and/or tobacco on chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Simmons, Michael S; Tseng, Chi-Hong

    2012-08-01

    We sought to evaluate possible changes in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in relation to continuing or changing smoking status for marijuana and/or tobacco. For this purpose we followed 299 participants in a longitudinal cohort study of the impact of heavy habitual use of marijuana alone or with tobacco on respiratory symptoms over a mean of 9.8 years during which subjects underwent repeated administration of a detailed drug use and respiratory questionnaire at intervals of ≥1 yr. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios to assess the relationship between chronic bronchitic symptoms and smoking status for marijuana and tobacco at the first visit (current smoking versus never smoking) and at the last follow-up visit (continuing smoking versus, separately, never smoking and former smoking). We found that continuing smokers of either marijuana or tobacco had a significantly increased likelihood of having chronic bronchitis at follow-up compared to both never smokers and former smokers. On the other hand, former smokers of either substance were no more likely to have chronic respiratory symptoms at follow-up than never smokers. These findings demonstrate the benefit of marijuana smoking cessation in resolving pre-existing symptoms of chronic bronchitis.

  12. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  13. Functional Activation and Effective Connectivity Differences in Adolescent Marijuana Users Performing a Simulated Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Kimberly L.; Hines, Christina S.; Li, Karl; Dawes, Michael A.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; Laird, Angela R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week) and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity. PMID:25692068

  14. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  15. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Associations with White Matter Volume and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…

  16. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  17. Stress and Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in Families with Undocumented Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Merten, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Families in which one or more members are undocumented immigrants experience unique hardships. Yet, little is known about stress and substance use among adolescents growing up in these families. The present study examined associations between two sources of adolescent stress (i.e., low parental involvement due to contextual constraints and family economic insecurity) and lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among adolescents in families with undocumented members. The sample was comprised of 102 adolescents (10–18 years old) and one of his or her parents. Participants responded a survey in English or Spanish. Adolescent lifetime use of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana was 51%, 32.4%, and 37.3%, respectively. Chi–Square analyses found no significant gender differences in lifetime substance use. Logistic regression models showed that adolescent stress due to hindered parental involvement increased the odds of both lifetime cigarette and marijuana use after controlling for gender, age, linguistic acculturation, familism, parental control, and negative peer affiliation. Being a girl increased the odds of lifetime alcohol use. Family economic stress was not associated with lifetime substance use. Results suggest that hindered parental involvement might be a stressor and a risk factor for cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents growing up in families with undocumented members. Because parents in these families are likely to be undocumented, policies that allow immigrants to apply for legal status could improve parents' working conditions and facilitate parental involvement; in turn, such policies could decrease the risk for adolescent substance use among children of Latino immigrants. PMID:26900317

  18. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  19. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FKBP5

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  20. [Chronic disease and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, U

    1992-01-25

    Chronic disease is not a strictly defined term and includes a large number of illnesses ranging from physical to mental impairment. It is estimated that between 10% and 20% of adolescents have a chronic disease. Independence and new relations, acceptance of a new body image and sexuality, career plans and cognitive maturation are core topics in development to adulthood. Chronic disease may interfere with these developmental tasks. Most often there is no specific psychopathology, but the type of impairment, its influence on family life and functioning, age at onset, gender, and other factors will interact with psychosocial maturation. Because of the important role of the family, not only the adolescent patient him/herself, but also parents and siblings need to be included in all major decisions. As hospitalizations may be disruptive they must be planned, taking in account the patient's plans and opinions. Chronic disease may lead to death during the period of adolescence. It is believed that the concept of one's own mortality develops at age 14 to 17 years, a fact that will influence care during the terminal stage of a disease. Whatever the problems and questions raised by the family, the developmental stage of the adolescent has always to be considered when dealing with specific issues of chronic disease. Periodic reassessment of psychosocial development is therefore one of the main tasks of the primary care physician. Counselling will address not only the disease but also the developmental tasks of any teenager.

  1. Adolescent Marijuana Use Intentions: Using Theory to Plan an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…

  2. Marijuana: A Review of Medical Research with Implications for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)

  3. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  4. Marijuana-induced mania in a healthy adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history.

  5. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Renee; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12–17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  6. Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: tests of sensation seeking targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Palmgreen, P; Donohew, L; Lorch, E P; Hoyle, R H; Stephenson, M T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. METHODS: The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison community. Personal interviews were conducted with 100 randomly selected teenagers monthly in each county for 32 months. RESULTS: All 3 campaigns reversed upward developmental trends in 30-day marijuana use among high-sensation seekers (P < .002). As expected, low-sensation seekers had low use levels, and no campaign effects were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Televised campaigns with high reach and frequency that use public service announcements designed for and targeted at high-sensation-seeking adolescents can significantly reduce substance use in this high-risk population. PMID:11211642

  7. Preliminary Findings Demonstrating Latent Effects of Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Onset on Cortical Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; DeWitt, Samuel J; Mishra, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Background As the most commonly used illicit substance during early adolescence, long-term or latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use across adolescent developmental processes remain to be determined. Methods We examined cortical thickness, gray/white matter border contrast (GWR) and local gyrification index (LGI) in 42 marijuana (MJ) users. Voxelwise regressions assessed early-onset (age <16) vs. late-onset (≥16 years-old) differences and relationships to continued use while controlling for current age and alcohol use. Results Although groups did not differ by onset status, groups diverged in their correlations between cannabis use and cortical architecture. Among early-onset users, continued years of MJ use and current MJ consumption were associated with thicker cortex, increased GWR and decreased LGI. Late-onset users exhibited the opposite pattern. This divergence was observed in all three morphological measures in the anterior dorsolateral frontal cortex (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusions Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond. PMID:26507433

  8. Adolescents prenatally exposed to marijuana: examination of facets of complex behaviors and comparisons with the influence of in utero cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fried, Peter A

    2002-11-01

    For the purposes of this review, the impact of prenatal exposure to marijuana in adolescent offspring is discussed in the context that the effects may be apparent only when the multifaceted nature of complex behaviors is examined and that such exposure can be distinguished from those of prenatal exposure to cigarettes. The data are derived from adolescents participating in an on going longitudinal study for whom prenatal marijuana and cigarette exposure had been ascertained with the low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample that had been assessed since birth. In this report, cognitive functioning and visual perceptual performance in 9- to 12-year-olds and facets of attention in 13- to 16-year-olds are examined. These three areas of behavior all appear to be affected differentially by maternal use of marijuana or cigarettes. Prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with lowered IQ, poorer impulse control, and poorer performance on tests requiring fundamental aspects of visuoperceptual performance. In contrast, prenatal marijuana did not have a negative impact on IQ or on basic visuoperceptual skills. Rather, in utero exposure to marijuana had an impact on the application of these skills in tasks in problem-solving situations requiring visual integration and analytical skills as well as sustained attention. These differential findings are discussed in terms of cigarette exposure having a "bottom-up" impact and marijuana exposure having a "top-down" impact. The latter is also discussed in terms of prenatal marijuana's negative association with aspects of executive function.

  9. Growth from birth to early adolescence in offspring prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1999-01-01

    Weight, height, and head circumference were examined in children from birth to early adolescence for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. The negative association between growth measures at birth and prenatal cigarette exposure was overcome, sooner in males than females, within the first few years, and by the age of six, the children of heavy smokers were heavier than control subjects. Pre and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke did not have a negative effect upon the growth parameters; however, the choice of bottle-feeding or shorter duration of breast-feeding by women who smoked during pregnancy appeared to play an important positive role in the catch-up observed among the infants of smokers. Prenatal exposure to marijuana was not significantly related to any growth measures at birth, although a smaller head circumference observed at all ages reached statistical significance among the early adolescents born to the heavy marijuana users.

  10. Marijuana use development over the course of adolescence among North American Indigenous youth

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the links between marijuana use trajectories and marijuana abuse/dependence (DSM-IV) using five waves of data from 718 North American Indigenous adolescents between 10 and 17 years from eight reservations sharing a common language and culture. Growth mixture models indicated that 15% of youth began using by 11–12 years of age and that another 20% began shortly thereafter. These early users had odds of abuse/dependence 6.5 times larger than abstainers. Girls were also unexpectedly found to be particularly at risk of early use, and this did not reflect other background and psychosocial factors, including friend use. While the timing, patterns, and consequences of use were similar to those reported for alcohol use previously, the social influences on use differed in important ways. PMID:23017929

  11. The Association between Conduct Problems and the Initiation and Progression of Marijuana Use during Adolescence: A Genetic Analysis across Time

    PubMed Central

    Lifford, Kate; Fowler, Tom; Rice, Frances; Neale, Mike; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The present study used a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic and environmental influences on the association between earlier conduct problems and the initiation and progression of marijuana use during adolescence. Parent- and teacher-reported conduct problems assessed at Time 1 (1996) and self-reported marijuana use assessed at Time 2 (2004) were available for 1088 adolescent twin pairs participating in the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins (CaStANET). Using a novel approach to the modeling of initiation and progression dimensions in substance use, findings suggested that the initiation of marijuana use in adolescence was influenced by genetic, common and unique environmental factors. The progression (or frequency) of marijuana use was influenced by genetic and unique environmental factors. Findings for conduct problems indicated that while the presence or absence of conduct problems was largely heritable, the relative severity of conduct problems appeared to be more strongly environmentally influenced. Multivariate model fitting indicated that conduct problems in childhood and early adolescence made a small but significant contribution to the risk for marijuana use 8 years later. PMID:17131199

  12. Examining Adolescents' Responses to Anti-marijuana PSAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sensation seeking as a moderating variable of 368 adolescents' reactions to antimarijuana public service announcements. Notes that two structural equation models (one for high sensation seekers and the other for low sensation seekers) revealed two very different styles of processing the ads. Considers how antimarijuana attitudes for…

  13. School-Level Correlates of Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Danielle; Mrug, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background School-level characteristics are related to students’ substance use, but little research systematically examined multiple school characteristics in relation to different types of substance use across grade levels. Objectives This study examines multiple school-level characteristics as correlates of students’ tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and combined substance use across three grade levels. Methods Students (N = 23,615) from 42 urban and suburban middle schools and 24 high schools in the U.S. reported on their tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Students’ mean age was 14 years; 47% were male, 53% African American and 41% Caucasian. School-level data included poverty, racial composition, academic achievement, student-teacher ratio, absenteeism, and school size. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regressions tested associations between school-level predictors and adolescent substance use in middle school, early high school and late high school. Results School-level poverty, more ethnic minority students, low achievement, and higher absenteeism were related to alcohol, marijuana and combined substance use, particularly at lower grade levels. By contrast, cigarette smoking was more prevalent in more affluent high schools with more White students. After adjusting for other school characteristics, absenteeism emerged as the most consistent predictor of student substance use. Conclusions/Importance Interventions addressing absenteeism and truancy in middle and high schools may help prevent student substance use. Schools serving poor, urban, and mostly minority students may benefit from interventions targeting alcohol and marijuana use, whereas interventions focusing on tobacco use prevention may be more relevant for schools serving more affluent and predominantly White students. PMID:26584423

  14. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-01-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain following sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N=479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N=2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence. PMID:25862212

  15. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-10-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.

  16. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  17. The Influence of Recency of Use on fMRI Response During Spatial Working Memory in Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; McQueeny, Tim; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Some neurocognitive recovery occurs within a month of abstinence from heavy marijuana use, yet functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed altered activation among recent and abstinent adult users. Here, we compared fMRI response during a spatial working memory (SWM) task between adolescent marijuana users with brief and sustained durations of abstinence. Participants were 13 recent users (2 – 7 days abstinent), 13 abstinent users (27 – 60 days abstinent), and 18 non-using controls, all ages 15 – 18. Groups were similar on demographics, had no psychiatric or medical disorders, and user groups were similar on substance histories. Teens performed a 2-back SWM task during fMRI. Groups performed similarly on the task, but recent users showed greater fMRI response in medial and left superior prefrontal cortices, as well as bilateral insula. Abstinent users had increased response in the right precentral gyrus (clusters ≥1328 μl, p<.05). This cross-sectional study did not examine changes in brain response among the same participants over time. Yet results suggests that adolescents who recently used marijuana show increased brain activity in regions associated with working memory updating and inhibition, compared to users with weeks to months of abstinence. This study preliminarily suggests that (1) recent marijuana use may disrupt neural connections associated with SWM and result in compensatory brain response, and (2) sustained abstinence from marijuana may be associated with improvements in SWM response among adolescents. PMID:21053763

  18. Proximal and time-varying effects of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and other hard drug use on adolescent dating aggression.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions.

  19. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  20. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  1. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  2. 76 FR 40551 - Denial of Petition To Initiate Proceedings To Reschedule Marijuana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... intelligence quotient (IQ). In another cohort of chronic, heavy marijuana users, some deficits were observed on... after 25 days of abstinence (Bolla et al., 2005). Finally, when IQ was contrasted in adolescents at 9-12 years and at 17-20 years, current heavy marijuana users showed a 4-point reduction in IQ in...

  3. Adverse effects of marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kathleen E; Kampman, Kyle M

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who used marijuana more frequently and began using marijuana at an earlier age experienced worse outcomes and long-lasting effects.

  4. Examining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Association between Adolescent Sleep and Alcohol or Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Ewing, Brett; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the association between self-reported measures of trouble sleeping, total sleep time (TST), and bedtimes and odds of past month alcohol and marijuana (AM) use in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Design Web-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Los Angeles (LA) County, California. Participants The sample is comprised of 2539 youth representing four distinct racial/ethnic categories (Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, Asian, and “Other”; mean age= 15.54; 54.23% female) from Los Angeles. Measurements The survey assessed TST and bedtimes (weekdays and weekends), trouble sleeping, and past month AM use, as well as relevant covariates (sociodemographics and mental health symptoms). Results Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of sleep problems and AM use, the associations between sleep problems and AM use were consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, shorter TST, later bedtimes, and trouble sleeping, were each associated with significantly higher odds of past month alcohol use, whereas later bedtimes and shorter TST were also associated with increased odds of past month marijuana use, even after adjusting for other known risk factors. Conclusions Sleep problems are associated with increased AM use in teens, even after controlling for sociodemographics and mental health symptoms. Further longitudinal research on sleep and AM use is critical to identify novel prevention and intervention efforts to reduce disparities in the relationship between sleep and AM use. PMID:26436131

  5. Marijuana Use Is Associated with Behavioral Approach and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Scerpella, Danny; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2016-01-01

    decreased. Cotinine levels predicted increased behavioral approach. Female MJ users also had greater anxiety and disinhibition. In sum, these findings suggest sub-clinical threshold deficits related to regular marijuana use that are indicative of a need to prevent marijuana use in adolescents and young adults. PMID:27835662

  6. Craving is associated with amygdala volumes in adolescent marijuana users during abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Claudia B.; McQueeny, Tim; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Amygdala volume abnormalities have been reported in relation to craving in substance-dependent adults, but it remains unclear if these effects are seen in adolescent marijuana (MJ) users, particularly following abstinence. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between amygdala volume and craving during 28 days of abstinence in adolescent MJ users. Methods MJ-using adolescents (n = 22) aged 16–19 were recruited as part of a larger study on brain function in teen drug users. Craving measures were collected twice per week throughout a 28-day abstinence period. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at the end of the 28 days of confirmed abstinence. Left and right amygdala volumes were traced by hand (ICC>0.86). Composite scores for self-reported craving and withdrawal symptoms throughout the 28-day abstinence period were calculated to provide four composite measures of total craving, mood, sleep, and somatic complaints. Results Results revealed that greater craving during abstinence was significantly associated with smaller left and right amygdala volumes, after controlling for age and gender. Other measures of withdrawal, including mood, somatic complaints and sleep problems, were not related to amygdala morphometry. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous findings in adult alcohol-and cocaine-dependent individuals, who demonstrated a relationship between reduced amygdala volumes and increased craving. Future studies are needed to determine if these brain-behavior relationships are attributable to MJ use or predate the onset of substance use. PMID:25668330

  7. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  8. Marijuana use and risky sexual behavior among high-risk adolescents: trajectories, risk factors, and event-level relationships.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Schmiege, Sarah J; Magnan, Renee E

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female) on probation were followed for 2 years, at intervals of 6 months, to explore the association of marijuana use and condom use longitudinally and at a specific intercourse occasion. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that greater marijuana use at baseline was associated with a steeper decline in condom use over the 2-year period of the study. In-depth analysis of the most recent intercourse occasion suggested that condom use was less likely if marijuana was being used by the participant or his/her partner and that this association was more pronounced if intercourse occurred with someone the participant had just met. Implications for the prevention of risky sexual behavior in this population are discussed.

  9. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  10. Adolescent Self-Reported Behaviors and Their Association with Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) has shown that the rate of marijuana use among youth has more than doubled since 1992. Similar trends are noted across all subgroups studied. At the same time, the percentage of teens perceiving a "great risk" from smoking marijuana has declined. Negative effects of marijuana use are…

  11. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  12. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  13. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  14. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  15. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  16. Divergent marijuana trajectories among men: Socioeconomic, relationship, and life satisfaction outcomes in the mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Background Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ~15–26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N = 506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ~36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use. PMID:26365837

  17. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818

  18. Monitoring Matters: Meta-analytic review reveals the reliable linkage of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Parental monitoring is commonly accredited as an important protective factor against risky adolescent behaviors. In this meta-analytic review, associations of adolescents’ perceptions of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use were collected and quantified across 25 independent samples from 17 empirical studies involving 35,367 unique participants. Applying a random-effects model, the average magnitude of effect was r = −.21,. The association was significantly stronger in female-only samples (r = −.31 vs. r = −.19, p < .001) and when parental monitoring was defined purely in terms of parental knowledge of the child’s whereabouts, activities, and relations (r = −.24 vs. r = −.19, p < .05). Cross-sectional (r = −.23) and longitudinal studies (r = −.10) disclosed significant effect sizes. To assess publication bias, a file-drawer analysis indicated that 7,358 studies of nil effect size would be necessary to render the association of parental monitoring and reduced marijuana usage nonsignificant. Theoretical and practical implications of parental monitoring are discussed, especially issues concerning the measurement of parental monitoring and the possible utility of the construct in curtailing marijuana use. PMID:26082797

  19. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  20. Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents: 2005. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…

  1. Does heavy adolescent marijuana use lead to criminal involvement in adulthood? Evidence from a multiwave longitudinal study of urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2010-11-01

    While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school dropout and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime.

  2. Developmental trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: relationship with using weapons including guns.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner-city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR = 3.37, P < .001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR = 1.98, P < .01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR = 1.70, P < .05) was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior.

  3. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.

  4. Maternal patterns of marijuana use and early sexual behavior in offspring of teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-03-01

    Teenage mothers use marijuana more frequently than older mothers, and marijuana use may predict HIV risk behavior in offspring. Our goals were to (1) describe trajectories of marijuana use in teenage mothers and (2) determine if these trajectories were associated with early sexual behavior in their offspring. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were recruited at a prenatal clinic and interviewed during pregnancy, at delivery, and during follow-up visits when offspring were 6, 10, 14 and 16 years old. At 16 years, 332 women (71 % Black, 29 % White) and their offspring were assessed. Mothers were asked about their marijuana use at each time point. Offspring reported on their sexual behavior at age 14. Trajectory analyses using growth mixture models revealed four maternal patterns of marijuana use: no use, only at the 6 year follow-up, quit by the 16 year follow-up, and used across most of the time points. The children of chronic users were more likely to have early sex. The maternal marijuana trajectory group variable remained a statistically significant predictor in multivariate models controlling for race, gender, socioeconomic status, child pubertal timing, child externalizing behavior problems, and child marijuana use. These findings suggest that a minority of teenage mothers continue to use marijuana over time. Chronic maternal marijuana use across a decade was associated with early sex in offspring (oral or vaginal sex by age 14). Early sexual behavior places these children at significantly higher risk of teenage pregnancy and HIV risk behaviors.

  5. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Marijuana Use: Early Sensation Seeking, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Social Images

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over the subsequent 3 assessments). Affiliation with deviant peers and the growth in social images predicted marijuana use in 11th and 12th grades. Affiliation with deviant peers mediated the effect of early sensation seeking on subsequent marijuana use. The theoretical and applied significance of this influence of early sensation seeking is discussed. PMID:18547739

  6. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  7. Chronic illness in adolescents: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1983-01-01

    This article relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. This is an area of controversy: the views of Freidson, Lorber and Robinson are presented as being representative of the dispute. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perception and rules explicit. The concept of the chronically ill adolescent as deviant is descriptive and devoid of value judgment. Only through such rigorous assessment is it possible to gain a realistic understanding of the societal role in the life of the chronically ill adolescent.

  8. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain; Yancy, W Samuel

    2004-06-01

    This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  9. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…

  10. The Relationships of Parental Alcohol Versus Tobacco and Marijuana Use With Early Adolescent Onset of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Kerr, David C. R.; Pears, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the use of tobacco and marijuana by fathers or mothers predicted onset of alcohol use in their offspring over and above effects of parental alcohol use. Method: The present study included 146 children of 93 parents (90 fathers and 85 mothers). The fathers were originally recruited as boys to the Oregon Youth Study, a study of community, familial, and individual risk factors for delinquency. Results: Only mothers’ but not fathers’ alcohol use was associated with children’s age at onset. Children’s age at onset was predicted by mothers’ tobacco use and by the interaction of fathers’ marijuana use and alcohol use. These effects were observed when controlling for parental education, child’s gender, and also child’s antisocial behavior—a general developmental risk factor for substance use onset in adolescence. Conclusions: Mothers’ substance use played a major role in childhood onset of alcohol use, yet the role of maternal substance use as a risk factor for their children has previously received less attention than the role of paternal substance use. Also, findings imply that it may be important to identify children of polysubstance-using parents for targeted prevention programs. PMID:26751359

  11. Chronic Migraine in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur; Yalin, Osman Özgür

    2016-02-01

    Chronic migraine is defined as having more than 15 headache days in a month, half of these showing migraine features, for at least 3 months. It is a chronic painful syndrome with aspects such as psychiatric comorbid, decreased quality of life, and environmental and intrinsic psychological factors that make face-to-face treatment difficult. Children and adolescent migraine differ from adults as a result of growing brain and evolving disorder. In this paper, we will emphasize the definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, burden of life, and management of chronic migraine in children and adolescent.

  12. Family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: The mediating role of negative emotional symptoms and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies.

  13. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain

    2004-06-01

    As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.

  14. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine whether young men who chronically use marijuana are at risk for engaging in drug-related and non-drug-related criminal offending and exhibiting psychopathic personality features in their mid-30s. Methods Patterns of marijuana use were delineated in a sample of predominately Black and White young men from adolescence to the mid-20s using latent class growth curve analysis. Self-report and official records of criminal offending and psychopathic personality features were assessed in the mid-30s. Analyses controlled for multiple factors indicative of a preexisting antisocial lifestyle and co-occurring use of other substances and tested for moderation by race. Results Four latent marijuana trajectory groups were identified: chronic high, adolescence-limited, late increasing, and low/nonusers. Relative to low/nonusers, chronic high and late increasing marijuana users exhibited more adult psychopathic features and were more likely to engage in drug-related offending during their mid-30s. Adolescence-limited users were similar to low/nonusers in terms of psychopathic features but were more likely to be arrested for drug-related crimes. No trajectory group differences were found for violence or theft, and the group differences were not moderated by race. Conclusions Young men who engage in chronic marijuana use from adolescence into their 20s are at increased risk for exhibiting psychopathic features, dealing drugs, and enduring drug-related legal problems in their mid-30s relative to men who remain abstinent or use infrequently. PMID:26568641

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  17. Dare to Delay? The Impacts of Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use Onset on Cognition, Brain Structure, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Wright, Natasha E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings. PMID:23847550

  18. Adolescent Marijuana Abusers and Their Families. Research Monograph Series, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; And Others

    Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…

  19. Contraception for adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Benito; Kozu, Katia T; Leal, Gabriela N; Silva, Marco F; Fernandes, Elisabeth G C; França, Camila M P; Souza, Fernando H C; Silva, Clovis A

    Contraception is an important issue and should be a matter of concern in every medical visit of adolescent and young patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This narrative review discusses contraception methods in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Barrier methods are safe and their use should be encouraged for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are strictly prohibited for JSLE and APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Reversible long-acting contraception can be encouraged and offered routinely to the JSLE adolescent patient and other rheumatic diseases. Progestin-only pills are safe in the majority of rheumatic diseases, although the main concern related to its use by adolescents is poor adherence due to menstrual irregularity. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections every three months is a highly effective contraception strategy, although its long-term use is associated with decreased bone mineral density. COC or other combined hormonal contraceptive may be options for JIA and JDM patients. Oral levonorgestrel should be considered as an emergency contraception method for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases, including patients with contraindication to COC.

  20. Contraception for adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Benito; Kozu, Katia T; Leal, Gabriela N; Silva, Marco F; Fernandes, Elisabeth G C; França, Camila M P; Souza, Fernando H C; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-07-16

    Contraception is an important issue and should be a matter of concern in every medical visit of adolescent and young patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This narrative review discusses contraception methods in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Barrier methods are safe and their use should be encouraged for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are strictly prohibited for JSLE and APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Reversible long-acting contraception can be encouraged and offered routinely to the JSLE adolescent patient and other rheumatic diseases. Progestin-only pills are safe in the majority of rheumatic diseases, although the main concern related to its use by adolescents is poor adherence due to menstrual irregularity. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections every three months is a highly effective contraception strategy, although its long-term use is associated with decreased bone mineral density. COC or other combined hormonal contraceptive may be options for JIA and JDM patients. Oral levonorgestrel should be considered as an emergency contraception method for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases, including patients with contraindication to COC.

  1. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...

  2. Developmental Patterns of Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use and Their Joint Association with Sexual Risk Behavior and Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Musci, Rashelle J; Matson, Pamela A; Johnson, Renee M; Reboussin, Beth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2017-02-01

    Urban populations disproportionately experience poor sexual outcomes, including high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, the contribution of substance use across adolescence to poor sexual outcomes in young adulthood has not been investigated in depth, despite offering opportunities for more targeted prevention. This study aimed to estimate joint trajectories of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use to determine if they relate differently to four sexual outcomes: multiple sexual partners, sex without a condom, teenage pregnancy, and contraction of a sexually transmitted infection in young adulthood (by age 25). Data came from a longitudinal study of urban youth followed from age 6 to age 25, with annual assessments during adolescence and young adulthood (n = 608). The sample showed high levels of sexual risk, with young adults on average having sex without a condom once in the past month, 28.5% having multiple sexual partners in the past month, one quarter having contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and over 60% of the women being pregnant as a teenager and 36% of the men having gotten a partner pregnant. Applying longitudinal latent profile analysis to estimate joint trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from grades 8-12, we identified four classes representing high dual use, moderate alcohol use, moderate alcohol use with increasing marijuana use, and non-use. Class membership differently predicted all four outcomes investigated with high dual users having the highest level of teenage pregnancy and the increasing marijuana trajectory having the highest risk of engaging with multiple sexual partners in the past month. Results suggest implications for both sexual risk and substance use prevention for urban youth.

  3. Chronic Stress in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Carl E.; Eagleston, Jean R.

    1983-01-01

    Chronic stress can affect the health of children and adolescents when their resources are insufficient for coping with demands placed upon them. Harmful behavior patterns can lead to poor health. Students should be taught to mobilize their physiological, cognitive, and social resources in ways that promote good health. (PP)

  4. Chronic Illness in Adolescents: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Tomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Relates chronic illness in adolescents to a sociological model of deviance. Four situations are discussed in which the issues of prognosis, responsibility, and stigma elicit societal response. The usefulness of a sociological model consists in making vague societal perceptions and rules explicit. (JAC)

  5. Outpatient Marijuana Treatment for Adolescents: Economic Evaluation of a Multisite Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael T.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Dennis, Michael L.; Godley, Susan H.; Liddle, Howard A.; Tims, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Conducted an economic evaluation of five outpatient adolescent treatment approaches (12 total site-by-conditions) to identify average economic costs to society. Results suggest that some types of substance-abuse intervention for adolescents can reduce social costs immediately after treatment. (SLD)

  6. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  7. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  8. Lifetime use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and inhalants in Latino early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzmán, Bianca L; Leon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    A growing population in the US is Latinos, an ethnic group defined by people of origin from Latin America. By 2050, Hispanics will be at least one quarter of the United States population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 ) with a substantial proportion under the age of 25 (Vaughan, Kratz, & D'argent, 2011 ). Yet, the literature on substance use among Latino adolescents is not advancing parallel to the growth of the population (Szapocznik, Lopez, Prado, Schwartz, & Pantin, 2006 ). Health concerns during early adolescence can have a lasting impact on the Latino community and society at large, as early substance initiation can lead to addiction during adulthood (Behrendt, Wittchen, Höfler, Lieb, & Beesdo, 2009 ). Therefore, research that aims to identify psychosocial determinants that serve as risk and protective factors specific to Latino early adolescents is needed as a critical first step in the development of culturally specific prevention initiatives (Vaughan et al., 2011 ).

  9. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of a DRD4 polymorphism on marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-11-30

    The current study used a variable- and person-centered approach to examine whether a DRD4 polymorphism explained within-individual differences in frequency of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Data were analyzed from 1897 respondents from the genetic subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) at waves I (ages 13-17), II (ages 14-18), and III (ages 21-25). Latent class growth model results revealed that marijuana use was characterized by four trajectories (non-users/experimenters, increasers, desisters, and chronic users), and that the DRD4 polymorphism differentiated increasers from non-users/experimenters. Overall, the results suggested that the DRD4 polymorphism may be relevant to differences in the developmental trajectories of marijuana use.

  10. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  11. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  12. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Photo ... research-reports/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  13. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  14. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  15. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  16. Marijuana alters the human cerebellar clock.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Turner, Beth M; Koeppel, Julie; Magnotta, Vincent A; Ponto, Laura Boles; Watkins, G Leonard; Hichwa, Richard D; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2003-06-11

    The effects of marijuana on brain perfusion and internal timing were assessed using [15O] water PET in occasional and chronic users. Twelve volunteers who smoked marijuana recreationally about once weekly, and 12 volunteers who smoked daily for a number of years performed a self-paced counting task during PET imaging, before and after smoking marijuana and placebo cigarettes. Smoking marijuana increased rCBF in the ventral forebrain and cerebellar cortex in both groups, but resulted in significantly less frontal lobe activation in chronic users. Counting rate increased after smoking marijuana in both groups, as did a behavioral measure of self-paced tapping, and both increases correlated with rCBF in the cerebellum. Smoking marijuana appears to accelerate a cerebellar clock altering self-paced behaviors.

  17. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products.

  18. Increased marijuana use and gender predict poorer cognitive functioning in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lisdahl, Krista M; Price, Jenessa S

    2012-07-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18-26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18-26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .01), less efficient sustained attention (p < .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p < .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users.

  19. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  20. A survey of cannabis (marijuana) use and self-reported benefit in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Dean A.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Katz, Laura; Krsmanovic, Adrijana; Ware, Mark A.; Santor, Darcy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pelvic pain condition largely refractory to treatment. Cannabis (marijuana) use has been reported for a wide variety of chronic pain conditions, but no study has examined prevalence of cannabis use, symptom benefit or side effects, or frequency in CP/CPPS. Methods: Participants were recruited from an outpatient CP/CPPS urology clinic (n = 98) and online through the Prostatitis Foundation website (n = 244). Participants completed questionnaires (demographics, CP/CPPS, depression, cannabis). Results: The clinic sample included Canadian patients and the online sample included primarily American patients. Due to differences, groups were examined separately. Almost 50% of respondents reported using cannabis (clinic n = 49; online n = 89). Of the cannabis users, 36.8% of clinic and 75% of online respondents reported that it improved their symptoms. Most of the respondents (from the clinic and online groups) reported that cannabis improved their mood, pain, muscle spasms, and sleep. However, they did not note any improvements for weakness, fatigue, numbness, ambulation, and urination. Overall, the effectiveness of cannabis for CP/CPPS was “somewhat/very effective” (57% clinic; 63% online). There were no differences between side effects or choice of consumption and most reported using cannabis rarely. Conclusions: These are the first estimates in men suffering from CP/CPPS and suggest that while cannabis use is prevalent, its medical use and benefit are unknown. This is an understudied area and the benefit or hazard for cannabis use awaits further study. PMID:25553163

  1. Chronic Disease and Perceived Developmental Progression in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether chronic illness causes delays in adolescents' perceived developmental status, using annually-completed questionnaires from insulin-dependent and healthy adolescents. Found that, in first year of study, diabetic adolescents reported delays in physical maturity and an independent lifestyle compared with healthy peers. Overall…

  2. Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

    1998-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies.

  3. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  4. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  5. Medical Marijuana and Chronic Pain: a Review of Basic Science and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjorn; Chen, Jeffrey; Furnish, Tim; Wallace, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoid compounds include phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetics. The two primary phytocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with CB1 receptors in the brain and peripheral tissue and CB2 receptors in the immune and hematopoietic systems. The route of delivery of cannabis is important as the bioavailability and metabolism are very different for smoking versus oral/sublingual routes. Gold standard clinical trials are limited; however, some studies have thus far shown evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for some cancer, neuropathic, spasticity, acute pain, and chronic pain conditions.

  6. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  7. Influences of behavior and academic problems at school entry on marijuana use transitions during adolescence in an African American sample

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Green, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African Americans. Methods: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted on a community sample of 458 low-income, urban-dwelling African-Americans. Results: Two behavior problem classes emerged at school entry; externalizing and attention/concentration. Academic problems co-occurred with both problem behavior classes although more strongly with attention/concentration. Youth in the attention/ concentration problem class were more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to use and problems beginning in 7th grade and to use and problems given the opportunity to use marijuana early in high school compared to youth with no problems. Youth in the externalizing behavior problem class were significantly more likely to transition from no involvement to having a marijuana opportunity during the transition to high school compared to youth in the attention/concentration problems class. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of developing prevention programs and providing school services that address the co-occurrence of academic and behavior problems, as well as their subtype specific risks for marijuana involvement, particularly for low-income minority youth who may be entering school less ready than their non-minority peers. These findings also provide evidence for a need to continue to deliver interventions in middle and high school focused on factors that may protect youth during these critical transition periods when they may be especially vulnerable to opportunities to use marijuana based on their academic and behavioral risk profile. PMID:25305658

  8. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  9. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  10. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  11. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  12. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  13. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  14. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to ... they once were. Did you know that teen marijuana use has dropped dramatically since the late 1990s? ...

  15. Marijuana and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Marijuana and Teens No. 106; Updated July 2013 Many teenagers experiment with marijuana. Friends, peer pressure, and portrayal of marijuana in ...

  16. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2017 What is medical marijuana? Photo by ©Shutterstock.com/ Atomazul The term medical ...

  17. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  18. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  19. Making sense of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D

    1999-01-01

    The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.

  20. Valacyclovir treatment of chronic fatigue in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents with fatigue, low motivation, diminished mood, and reduced activity, all symptoms having extensive diagnostic overlaps with depression. Studies have linked chronic viral infections with CFS, and antiviral therapy has effectively treated CFS in adult patients. In a retrospective case series, 15 adolescents and preteens referred to the author for treatment-resistant depression or mood disorder were evaluated and found to have met the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS. While a subset (4/15) had been diagnosed in the past with CFS, the majority had a current diagnosis of depression or a mood disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for depression were not met in all patients, although 3 cases of mood disorder not otherwise specified (MD-NOS) and 1 case of Tourette syndrome (TS) plus MD-NOS were diagnosed. Baseline scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were below the cutoff for depression in all but 1 patient. Baseline self-assessment scales for CFS or fatigue were obtained and sleep was evaluated with sleep logs. All patients were treated subsequently with valacyclovir, with 93% having a positive response. At the end of treatment, scores on fatigue self-assessment scales improved significantly (P < .001). Vigor subscale scores also improved significantly (P < .001). Some patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Although not every patient was tested, available laboratory testing revealed increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and decreased human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) antibody titers in all patients who responded to valacyclovir. This article discusses the significance of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms. The study's data support an intriguing hypothesis that a portion of treatment-resistant depression in fact may be undiagnosed CFS or other chronic viral infection.

  1. Validation of a Measure to Assess Alcohol- and Marijuana-Related Risks and Consequences Among Incarcerated Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph S.; Martin, Rose Marie; Golembeske, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Few measures exist to assess risky behaviors and consequences as they relate to substance use in juvenile delinquents. This study sought to validate such a measure on a racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 175). Results indicate that alcohol-related risky behaviors and consequences comprise a single scale as do marijuana-related risky behaviors and consequences. Furthermore, results suggest that the retention of common items for both scales produces reliable and valid scales and maintains parsimony. Internal consistencies were more than adequate (0.72 – 0.83) and test-retest stabilities, even across several months were acceptable (0.52 - 0.50). The scales evidenced a high degree of concurrent and predictive incremental validity in predicting conduct disorder, dependence symptoms, and consumption patterns. Researchers can use these scales to measure a generalized construct tapping risks and consequences as related to alcohol and marijuana use. Ease of use may make these scales appealing to clinicians who can provide feedback to clients regarding risky behaviors involving alcohol and marijuana. PMID:20149558

  2. Parental Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use and the Baby Boom Generation: Findings from the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Analytic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Griesler, Pamela C.; Lee, Gang; Davies, Mark; Schaffsan, Christine

    This report uses the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to investigate the role of parents, especially members of the baby boom generation, on the marijuana use of children. The association of marijuana use between parents and children, the differences among parental birth cohorts, and the determinants of child marijuana use are…

  3. Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…

  4. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  5. [Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Ng; Kampakis, Gp; Ladopoulou, Kf

    2007-04-01

    Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are quite common affections in children and adolescents. The clinical symptoms include various manifestations such as diffuse musculoskeletal pain, feeling of fatigue, depressive symptoms, headache, sleep disturbances etc. Physiological, enetic, psychological/psychosocial and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disorders. Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome may cause significant deterioration of the functional capacity with severe consequences for the child/adolescent's family and social life as well as his/her development. There is need for early diagnosis, open discussion with the child/adolescent and his/her family and therapeutic intervention including drug treatment, physical therapy and psychotherapy.

  6. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  7. The context of desire to use marijuana: momentary assessment of young people who frequently use marijuana.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug.

  8. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    PubMed

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats.

  9. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana.

  10. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  11. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account.

  13. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  14. Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

  15. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  16. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability with and without Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…

  17. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  18. Synthetic Pot: Not Your Grandfather's Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ford, Benjamin M; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L

    2017-03-01

    In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives.

  19. Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sheryl A; Ammerman, Seth D

    2017-03-01

    Many states have recently made significant changes to their legislation making recreational and/or medical marijuana use by adults legal. Although these laws, for the most part, have not targeted the adolescent population, they have created an environment in which marijuana increasingly is seen as acceptable, safe, and therapeutic. This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use. The recently published technical report provides the detailed evidence and references regarding the research on which the information in this clinical report is based.

  20. Marijuana Use Predicts Cognitive Performance on Tasks of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Sagar, Kelly A.; Racine, Megan T.; Dreman, Meredith W.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite growing evidence that chronic marijuana use is associated with cognitive impairment, particularly when use is initiated at an early age, national trends demonstrate significant decreases in the perceived risk of marijuana corresponding with increased use, especially among youth. The current study assessed the impact of marijuana use on executive function and whether patterns of marijuana use, including earlier age at onset, higher frequency, and increased magnitude of use, predict impairment. Method: Forty-four chronic, heavy marijuana smokers (37 male, 7 female) and 32 healthy, nonsmoking control participants (20 male, 12 female) recruited from the Greater Boston area completed two assessments of executive function: the Stroop Color Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: Marijuana smokers had poorer executive function relative to control participants, a between-group difference that was primarily driven by individuals with early onset of marijuana use (before age 16; n = 21); significance remained even when controlling for frequency and magnitude of use. Further, earlier age at marijuana onset and increased marijuana use predicted poorer neurocognitive performance, and perseverative errors on the WCST significantly predicted marijuana group membership. Conclusions: These findings underscore the impact of early onset of marijuana use on executive function impairment independent of increased frequency and magnitude of use. In addition, poorer performance on the WCST may serve as a neuropsychological marker for heavy marijuana users. These results highlight the need for additional research to identify predictors associated with early marijuana use, as exposure to marijuana during a period of developmental vulnerability may result in negative cognitive consequences. PMID:26997188

  1. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Test Your Knowledge: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... documented any effects of inhalants on the rump. Marijuana Question 1 Tetrahydrocannabinol is: Question 1: Options * A high tech gasoline A chemical in marijuana A brain neurotransmitter A dinosaur in Jurassic Park ...

  3. Pregnancy, breast-feeding, and marijuana: a review article.

    PubMed

    Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states?

  4. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  5. Predictable chronic mild stress in adolescence increases resilience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28-55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63-83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood.

  6. Sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  7. Youth Marijuana Use: State of the Science for the Practicing Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Harris, Sion K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite widespread marijuana use among adolescents, accurate information on known health effects is poorly disseminated to clinicians and their patients. Amidst rapidly evolving drug policy in the United States and elsewhere, it is imperative that providers understand the short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use. Recent findings Research on regular marijuana use highlights a unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain to adverse neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes. Although studies have not firmly established causality, onset of regular marijuana use in adolescence is associated with later decline in cognitive function, as well as with adult onset of psychosis and anxiety. Educational and employment outcomes may be poorer among regular marijuana-using adolescents. A number of other adverse respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal associations with regular marijuana use have also been established. Good screening tools and promising brief intervention and behavioral treatment programs are available to clinicians, who are in a position to identify problematic marijuana use among adolescents and refer for services. Summary A common misperception among youth is that marijuana use is without harm. However, adolescent marijuana use may have measurable, durable and potentially irreversible effects on later cognitive function and mental health. PMID:24914878

  8. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  9. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.

  10. Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, D P

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. While delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unique to marijuana and nicotine to tobacco, the smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gases and particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lung. Although far fewer marijuana than tobacco cigarettes are generally smoked on a daily basis, the pulmonary consequences of marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater deposition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular marijuana smoking produces a number of long-term pulmonary consequences, including chronic cough and sputum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway inflammation and injury and immunohistochemical evidence of dysregulated growth of respiratory epithelial cells, that may be precursors to lung cancer. The THC in marijuana could contribute to some of these injurious changes through its ability to augment oxidative stress, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibit apoptosis. On the other hand, physiologic, clinical or epidemiologic evidence that marijuana smoking may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory cancer is limited and inconsistent. Habitual use of marijuana is also associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, including impairment in microbial phagocytosis and killing that is associated with defective production of immunostimulatory cytokines and nitric oxide, thereby potentially predisposing to pulmonary infection. In view of the growing interest in medicinal marijuana, further epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the true risks of regular marijuana smoking on respiratory health.

  11. Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M.; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects. PMID:25385625

  12. Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M

    2015-01-01

    With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy.

  13. The Special Educational Needs of Adolescents Living with Chronic Illness: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Rates of chronic illness are increasing around the world and, accordingly, numbers of adolescent students living with chronic illness are also increasing. The challenges faced by these students and their teachers are complex. One of these challenges is the need of the adolescent with chronic illness to achieve some level of social conformity.…

  14. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of the spine : Children and adolescent].

    PubMed

    von der Höh, N H; Völker, A; Jeszenszky, D; Heyde, C-E

    2016-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) in childhood and adolescence is a non-infectious autoinflammatory disease of the bone with partial involvement of adjacent joints and soft tissue. The etiology is unknown. The disease can occur singular or recurrent. Individual bones can be affected and multiple lesions can occur. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) shows the whole picture of CNO. Accompanying but temporally independent of the bouts of osteomyelitis, some patients show manifestations in the skin, eyes, lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The article gives an overview of the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options for CRMO involvement of the spine based on the current literature and our own cases.

  15. Medical marijuana and children.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains.

  16. Striatal D2/D3 Receptor Availability is Inversely Correlated with Cannabis Consumption in Chronic Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Daniel S.; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; Brumbaugh, Margaret S.; Perry, Kevin M.; Mock, Bruce H.; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Federici, Lauren A.; Patton, Elizabeth A.; Herring, Christine M.; Yoder, Karmen K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although the incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence in Americans is rising, the neurobiology of cannabis addiction is not well understood. Imaging studies have demonstrated deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in several substance-dependent populations. However, this has not been studied in currently-using chronic cannabis users. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare striatal D2/D3 receptor availability between currently-using chronic cannabis users and healthy controls. METHODS Eighteen right-handed males age 18–34 were studied. Ten subjects were chronic cannabis users; eight were demographically matched controls. Subjects underwent a [11C] raclopride (RAC) PET scan. Striatal RAC binding potential (BPND) was calculated on a voxel-wise basis. Prior to scanning, urine samples were obtained from cannabis users for quantification of urine Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC metabolites (11-nor-Δ-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid; THC-COOH and 11-hydroxy-THC;OH-THC). Results There were no differences in D2/D3 receptor availability between cannabis users and controls. Voxel-wise analyses revealed that RAC BPND values were negatively associated with both urine levels of cannabis metabolites and self-report of recent cannabis consumption. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, current cannabis use was not associated with deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. There was an inverse relationship between chronic cannabis use and striatal RAC BPND. Additional studies are needed to identify the neurochemical consequences of chronic cannabis use on the dopamine system. PMID:22909787

  17. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite.

  18. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) plant. It looks like green, brown, or ... Called: weed, grass, pot, chronic, joint, blunt, herb, cannabis, hashish, Mary Jane How It's Used: Marijuana is ...

  19. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  20. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.

  1. Obesity in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Hawton, K; Hamilton-Shield, J; Crawley, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the prevalence of obesity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with healthy adolescents, and those identified with CFS in a population cohort. Design Cross-sectional analysis of multiple imputed data. Setting Data from UK paediatric CFS/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) services compared with data collected at two time points in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Patients 1685 adolescents who attended a CFS/ME specialist service between 2004 and 2014 and 13 978 adolescents aged approximately 13 years and 16 years participating in the ALSPAC study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), sex-specific and age-specific BMI Z-scores (relative to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs) and prevalence of obesity (%). Results Adolescents who had attended specialist CFS/ME services had a higher prevalence of obesity (age 13 years: 9.28%; age 16 years: 16.43%) compared with both adolescents classified as CFS/ME in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 3.72%; age 16 years: 5.46%) and those non-CFS in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 4.18%; age 16 years: 4.46%). The increased odds of obesity in those who attended specialist services (relative to non-CFS in ALSPAC) was apparent at both 13 years (OR: 2.31 (1.54 to 3.48)) and 16 years, with a greater likelihood observed at 16 years (OR: 4.07 (2.04 to 8.11)). Conclusions We observed an increased prevalence of obesity in adolescents who were affected severely enough to be referred to a specialist CFS/ME service. Further longitudinal research is required in order to identify the temporal relationship between the two conditions. PMID:27655658

  2. Biased interpretations of ambiguous bodily threat information in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, L C; Jacobs, K; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Lau, J Y F

    2017-03-01

    Adult patients with chronic pain are consistently shown to interpret ambiguous health and bodily information in a pain-related and threatening way. This interpretation bias may play a role in the development and maintenance of pain and disability. However, no studies have yet investigated the role of interpretation bias in adolescent patients with pain, despite that pain often first becomes chronic in youth. We administered the Adolescent Interpretations of Bodily Threat (AIBT) task to adolescents with chronic pain (N = 66) and adolescents without chronic pain (N = 74). Adolescents were 10 to 18 years old and completed the study procedures either at the clinic (patient group) or at school (control group). We found that adolescents with chronic pain were less likely to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous pain and bodily threat information than adolescents without chronic pain, particularly when reporting on the strength of belief in those interpretations being true. These differences between patients and controls were not evident for ambiguous social situations, and they could not be explained by differences in anxious or depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this interpretation pattern was associated with increased levels of disability among adolescent patients, even after controlling for severity of chronic pain and pain catastrophizing. The current findings extend our understanding of the role and nature of cognition in adolescent pain, and provide justification for using the AIBT task in longitudinal and training studies to further investigate causal associations between interpretation bias and chronic pain.

  3. The Effect of Marijuana Scenes in Anti-marijuana Public Service Announcements on Adolescents’ Evaluation of Ad Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who are at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help us design more effective anti-marijuana PSAs by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. Limitations of the study and future directions were discussed. PMID:19735026

  4. "Getting on with Life": Resilience and Normalcy in Adolescents Living with Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Peter; Walker, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the ways in which "resilience" operates with adolescents whose lives have been marked by a significant health condition. It is based on a qualitative study that followed 31 adolescents, dealing with chronic illness, across 3 years of their lives. The study placed the adolescents at the centre of the research process,…

  5. Peer Influence on Marijuana Use in Different Types of Friendships

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; de la Haye, Kayla; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Pollard, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although a number of social network studies have demonstrated peer influence effects on adolescent substance use, findings for marijuana use have been equivocal. This study examines whether structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use over time. Methods Using one-year longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this paper examines whether three structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use: whether the friendship is reciprocated, the popularity of the nominated friend, and the popularity/status difference between the nominated friend and the adolescent. The sample consists of students in grade 10/11 at Wave I, who were in grade 11/12 at Wave II, from two large schools with complete grade-based friendship network data (N = 1612). Results In one school, friends’ influence on marijuana use was more likely to occur within mutual, reciprocated friendships compared to non-reciprocated relationships. In the other school, friends’ influence was stronger when the friends were relatively popular within the school setting or much more popular than the adolescents themselves. Conclusions Friends’ influence on youth marijuana use may play out in different ways, depending on the school context. In one school influence occurred predominantly within reciprocated relationships that are likely characterized by closeness and trust, whereas in the other school adopting friends’ drug use behaviors appeared to be a strategy to attain social status. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:24054813

  6. Psychological Therapy in Adolescents with Chronic Daily Headache.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Mensi, Martina Maria; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache is a serious disease, causing significant problems in terms of reduced quality of life and disability, with pain localized to the head (headache) occurring 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months (>180 days per year). Drugs, both used as preventive medications or as pain-killers, are insufficient for the management of these patients; a more global approach has been advocated. This paper reviews existing data concerning different psychological approaches, with a focus on adolescence. This leads to evidence still unanswered questions but also the importance to include psychological treatments in the management of this potentially disabling condition.

  7. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  8. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic emotional stress: Review and perspectives for future research.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Carlos C

    2017-03-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Adolescence has been proposed as a developmental period of vulnerability to stress. This idea has been mainly supported by experimental research in animals demonstrating a higher impact of chronic emotional stress in adolescents compared with adults. Adolescent vulnerability is also based on evidence that stress during this developmental period affects development, so that enduring changes are found in adult animals that experienced stress during adolescence. The purpose of the present review is to discuss experimental research in rodent models that investigated the impact of long-term exposure to stressful events during adolescence on cardiovascular function. The development of cardiovascular function and autonomic activity in rodents is initially reviewed. Then, a discussion of an adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular effects of chronic stress is presented. From the reviewed literature, perspective for future research is proposed to better elucidate adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular complications evoked by chronic emotional stress.

  9. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  10. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    PubMed

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  11. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  12. [Psychopathology of chronic diseases in children and adolescents. Congenital cardiopathies].

    PubMed

    Masi, G; Brovedani, P

    1996-10-01

    A most significant life event in the first years of life is a disease, especially if it is of early onset, severe, life threatening, with an uncertain prognosis, and with the necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Psychological implications are a significant parts of the illness, not a marginal component; they can affect prognosis and outcome. The authors describe the different psychological implications of an experience of chronic disease in children and adolescents and their families (parents and siblings). Congenital disease (for example congenital heart failure) has a peculiar significance: since it is diagnosed early, it influences mother-infant interactions from the beginning, in a crucial moment of the infant's psychological development; diagnostic and therapeutical interventions are early and frequent; congenital defects determine the strongest guilt feelings in the parents. Some specific psychological aspects can be described: the weakening of the Bodily self, the inhibition of thinking, the theories the child and the family formulates on the disease, the death feelings. Emotional features in children and adolescents with congenital cardiopathy are described: inhibition of emotions, marked anxiety, depressive reaction, with loneliness, low self-esteem and inadequacy, emotional lability, with oscillation between omnipotence and inadequacy; impulsiveness; weakness of self identity; especially in bodily Self. Some psychopathological aspects in children and adolescents with heart transplant and their families are also described. Intellectual level of patients with congenital heart disease is in the normal range, although significantly lower than normal controls. There is a positive correlation between worsening of intellectual functioning and clinical severity of the heart disease; this clinical severity is related both to restrictions in normal daily life activities, and blood oxygen saturation. It is hard to tease apart the role of

  13. Plasma cytokine expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sørensen, Øystein; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-05-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but low-grade systemic inflammation has been suggested as an important component. This study compared circulating levels of individual cytokines and parameters of cytokine networks in a large set of adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between cytokines and symptoms in the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT01040429). A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring three months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Thus, the case definition was broader than the Fukuda-criteria of CFS. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Twenty-seven plasma cytokines, including interleukins, chemokines and growth factors were assayed using multiplex technology. The results were subjected to network analyses using the ARACNE algorithm. Symptoms were charted by a questionnaire, and patients were subgrouped according to the Fukuda-criteria. A total of 120 CFS patients and 68 healthy controls were included. CFS patients had higher scores for fatigue (p<0.001) and inflammatory symptoms (p<0.001) than healthy controls. All cytokine levels and cytokine network parameters were similar, and none of the differences were statistically different across the two groups, also when adjusting for adherence to the Fukuda criteria of CFS. Within the CFS group, there were no associations between aggregate cytokine network parameters and symptom scores. Adolescent CFS patients are burdened by symptoms that might suggest low-grade systemic inflammation, but plasma levels of individual cytokines as well as cytokine network measures were not different from healthy controls, and

  14. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities.

  15. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence.

  16. An adolescent with chronic giardiasis mimicking anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Thomas Iv, Lewis J; Zweig, Alex P; Tosh, Aneesh K

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old Hispanic female presented with symptoms of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, and unintentional weight loss of 11 kg. Preliminary investigation yielded no immediate causes, and an initial differential included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease, as well as viral, bacterial, or parasitic gastrointestinal infection. Evaluation of these potential diagnoses yielded negative results; thus, the team thought that the patient may be suffering from anorexia nervosa. The patient was discharged to outpatient care, and was treated in our adolescent health clinic, where repeat laboratory testing yielded a positive Giardia-antigen test. The patient was placed on metronidazole, rapidly gained weight, and resumed menstruation soon after. The final diagnosis was chronic giardiasis. Chronic giardiasis is a rare and enigmatic disease that presents with many symptoms similar to chronic gastrointestinal disorders (e.g. IBD and celiac disease) and anorexia nervosa. Practitioners involved in the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa should be aware of this disorder and include it in differential diagnoses of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa symptoms.

  17. A population-based study of quantitative sensory testing in adolescents with and without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Palermo, Tonya M; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Zhou, Chuan; Stubhaug, Audun; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to characterize pain sensitivity in individuals with and without pain conditions. Research remains limited in pediatric populations, hindering the ability to expand the utility of QST toward its potential application in clinical settings and clinical predictive value. The aims of this study were to examine pain sensitivity using QST in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain and identify predictors of pain sensitivity. A population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2011 provided data on 941 adolescents, 197 were classified as having chronic pain and 744 were classified without chronic pain. Self-reported data on pain characteristics, psychological functioning, and QST responses were examined. The findings revealed lower pressure pain threshold and tolerance on the trapezius (P's = 0.03) in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain, but no differences on heat or cold-pressor pain tasks. Female sex (P's = 0.02) and poorer psychological functioning (P's = 0.02) emerged as significant predictors of greater pain sensitivity across all pain modalities. Exploratory analyses revealed several associations between clinical pain characteristics and QST responses within the chronic pain cohort. Findings from this large pediatric sample provide comprehensive data that could serve as normative data on QST responses in adolescents with and without chronic pain. These findings lay the groundwork toward developing future QST research and study protocols in pediatric populations, taking into consideration sex and psychological distress.

  18. Effects of prenatal cigarette and marijuana exposure on drug use among offspring.

    PubMed

    Porath, Amy J; Fried, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated whether maternal cigarette smoking and marijuana use during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of initiation and daily/regular use of such substances among one hundred fifty-two 16- to 21-year-old adolescent offspring. The participants were from a low risk, predominately middle-class sample participating in an ongoing, longitudinal study. Findings indicated that offspring whose mothers reported smoking cigarettes during their pregnancy were more than twice as likely to have initiated cigarette smoking during adolescence than offspring of mothers who reported no smoking while pregnant. Offspring of mothers who reported using marijuana during pregnancy were at increased risk for both subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking (OR=2.58) and marijuana use (OR=2.76), as well as daily cigarette smoking (OR=2.36), as compared to offspring of whose mothers did not report using marijuana while pregnant. There was also evidence indicating that dose-response relationships existed between prenatal exposure to marijuana and offspring's use of cigarettes and marijuana. These associations were found to be more pronounced for males than females, and remained after consideration of potential confounds. Such results suggest that maternal cigarette smoking and marijuana use during pregnancy are risk factors for later smoking and marijuana use among adolescent offspring, and add to the weight of evidence that can be used in support of programs aimed at drug use prevention and cessation among women during pregnancy.

  19. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain.

  20. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  1. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  2. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  3. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  4. Developing Social Skills: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This collection of annotated bibliographies focuses on the social skills of adolescents, and is drawn from a national database of current programs and literature regarding adolescents with chronic illnesses and other disabilities. Bibliographic materials listed include documents and articles selected from the database of the National Center for…

  5. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  6. Living with difference: Exploring the social self of adolescents with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Forgeron, Paula A; Evans, Joan; McGrath, Patrick J; Stevens, Bonnie; Finley, G Allen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescent’s life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilitate the development of an adolescent’s sense of personal identity and increasing independence from family influences. Thus, chronic pain may create friendship challenges for adolescents beyond those typically experienced during this developmental trajectory, which may negatively impact their abilities to secure social support. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the challenges adolescents with chronic pain face with regard to their friendships. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological study using individual interviews was conducted. RESULTS: Two themes emerged. ‘Rethinking the self with pain’ describes the intrusive nature of chronic pain, challenging the participants to rethink the way they view themselves and their place within their social network. ‘Rethinking friendships’ describes the interpretation of their friends’ reactions to their chronic pain condition, which led to these adolescents spending more time by themselves, and feeling misunderstood and unsupported. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of chronic pain on the adolescent as an individual as well as the responses of close friends and others within their social network resulted in the development of new friendship needs. However, the adolescents were not always able to secure these new friendship needs. Their experiences suggest factors within friendships that may be ameliorated by interventions, thus maintaining and strengthening their close friendships. PMID:24308027

  7. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  8. The Effectiveness of Gateway Communications in Anti-Marijuana Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    YZER, MARCO C.; CAPPELLA, JOSEPH N.; FISHBEIN, MARTIN; HORNIK, ROBERT; AHERN, R. KIRKLAND

    2014-01-01

    Successful anti-marijuana messages can be hypothesized to have two types of effects, namely persuasion effects, that is, a change in people’s beliefs about using marijuana, and priming effects, that is, a strengthened correlation between beliefs and associated variables such as attitude and intention. This study examined different sets of anti-drug advertisements for persuasion and priming effects. The ads targeted the belief that marijuana is a gateway to stronger drugs, a belief that is often endorsed by campaign planning officials and health educators. A sample of 418 middle and high school students was randomly assigned to a control video or one of three series of ads, two of which included the gateway message in either an explicit or implicit way. Results did not support the use of the gateway belief in anti-marijuana interventions. Whereas no clear persuasion or priming effects were found for any of the ad sequences, there is some possibility that an explicit gateway argument may actually boomerang. In comparison to the control condition, adolescents in the explicit gateway condition tended to agree less with the gateway message and displayed weaker correlations between anti-marijuana beliefs and their attitude toward marijuana use. The results suggest that the gateway message should not be used in anti-drug interventions. PMID:12746037

  9. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  10. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use.

  11. The Association Between Marijuana Usage and Discrimination Among Adult Black Men.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lauren J; Benjamin, Troyana; Archibald, Paul; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-03-01

    Black men may use marijuana as an externalizing coping mechanism to handle the chronic stress of discrimination. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between everyday and major discrimination and marijuana use among a national sample of Black men. Using the National Survey of American Life, logistic regression analyses was used to determine the association between recent marijuana use and everyday discrimination, major discrimination, and a fully adjusted model that include everyday and major discrimination among adult Black men ( n = 1,833). Additionally, a multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between the frequency of marijuana usage and everyday discrimination and major discrimination among men who used marijuana in the past year. Everyday discrimination was not associated with marijuana use. In the fully adjusted model, men who experienced major discrimination had a higher odds of marijuana use ( OR: 1.19, 95% CI [1.05, 1.34]), than those who did not control for everyday discrimination and covariates of interest. Among recent marijuana users, men who used almost every day had a decreased risks for major discrimination (RRR: 0.72, 95% CI [0.56, 0.92]), compared with men who used less than once a month. The findings suggest that recent marijuana use among Black men is associated with experiences of major discrimination. Interestingly, men who used almost every day had a decreased risk for major discrimination. Marijuana may be used as a coping mechanism.

  12. Substance misuse and sexual function in adolescents with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Priscila; Carvalho, Márcio Guilherme Nunes; van Weelden, Marlon; Lourenço, Benito; Queiroz, Lígia Bruni; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug misuse in Chronic Diseases (CDs). Methods: A cross-sectional study with 220 CDs adolescents and 110 healthy controls including: demographic/anthropometric data; puberty markers; modified questionnaire evaluating sexual function, alcohol/smoking/illicit drug misuse and bullying; and the physician-conducted CRAFFT (car/relax/alone/forget/friends/trouble) screen tool for substance abuse/dependence high risk. Results: The frequencies of alcohol/tobacco and/or illicit drug use were similar in both groups (30% vs. 34%, p=0.529), likewise the frequencies of bullying (42% vs. 41%, p=0.905). Further analysis solely in CDs patients that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug versus those that did not use showed that the median current age [15 (11–18) vs. 14 (10–18) years, p <0.0001] and education years [9 (5–14) vs. 8 (3–12) years, p <0.0001] were significant higher in substance use group. The frequencies of Tanner 5 (p <0.0001), menarche (p <0.0001) and spermarche (p=0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with CDs that used alcohol/tobacco/illicit, likewise sexual activity (23% vs. 3%, p <0.0001). A trend of a low frequency of drug therapy was observed in patients that used substances (70% vs. 82%, p=0.051). A positive correlation was observed between CRAFFT score and current age in CD patients (p=0.005, r=+0.189) and controls (p=0.018, r=+0.226). Conclusions: A later age was evidenced in CDs patients that reported licit/ilicit drug misuse. In CDs adolescent, substance use was more likely to have sexual intercourse. Our study reinforces that these patients should be systematically screened by pediatricians for drug related health behavioral patterns. PMID:27354415

  13. [Chronic diseases in children and adolescents: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes; Gomes, Romeu; Calheiros de Sá, Miriam Ribeiro

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze papers published between 2003 and 2011 that focus on discussions regarding chronic conditions or chronic diseases in children and adolescents. It combines a methodological review of the literature and thematic analysis of content in order to identify the elements that characterize chronic diseases in children and adolescents and the specificities generated by these chronic conditions. The review of the literature resulted in a description of the series of articles identified by year of publication, country of origin, type of study, population and the chronic condition addressed. Thematic content analysis generated two core themes: Definition of chronic disease and Ways of handling chronic disease in children and teenagers. The main conclusion reached is that the age transitions when a disease is diagnosed and treated since childhood involve transformations that include changes in health facilities, discharge processes, decision making and networking that include family, hospital, school and institutions that guarantee the child's rights.

  14. Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Treatment Nonadherence Among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Huang, Quian; Levy, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face peak risks for onset and intensification of alcohol and marijuana use. However, we know little about these behaviors and their associations with knowledge or treatment adherence among chronically ill youth, a medically vulnerable group. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of consented youth ages 9 to 18 years receiving care for asthma/cystic fibrosis, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a self-administered online tool. Prevalence and correlates of risk behaviors and associations with knowledge and treatment adherence were estimated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, controlling for demographics, mental health, and the multiclinic sampling frame. RESULTS: Of 403 consented youth (75.8% response), 51.6% were girls, 75.1% were white, and average age was 15.6 years. Of high school youth, 36.5% and 12.7% reported past-year alcohol use and binge drinking, respectively; 20% reported past-year marijuana use. Among high school youth, 53.1% and 37.2% answered correctly that alcohol can interfere with their medications and laboratory tests; youth answering incorrectly were 8.53 and 4.46 times more likely to drink and binge drink, respectively (P values < .001). Thirty-two percent and 8.3% of high school youth reported regularly forgetting or skipping their medications in the past 30 days; compared with past-year nondrinking youth, drinkers were 1.79 and 1.61 times as likely to report regularly missing or skipping medications (P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and marijuana use are common among youth with chronic medical conditions. Alcohol use is associated with treatment nonadherence. Education and preventive interventions are warranted to ameliorate risk. PMID:26668849

  15. The effects of medical marijuana laws on illegal marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Wei Luke

    2014-12-01

    More and more states have passed laws that allow individuals to use marijuana for medical purposes. There is an ongoing, heated policy debate over whether these laws have increased marijuana use among non-patients. In this paper, I address that question empirically by studying marijuana possession arrests in cities from 1988 to 2008. I estimate fixed effects models with city-specific time trends that can condition on unobserved heterogeneities across cities in both their levels and trends. I find that these laws increase marijuana arrests among adult males by about 15-20%. These results are further validated by findings from data on treatment admissions to rehabilitation facilities: marijuana treatments among adult males increased by 10-20% after the passage of medical marijuana laws.

  16. Chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents in Brunei Darussalam

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi Ying; Naing, Lin; Han, Aye; Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Chong, Vui Heng; Tan, Jackson

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine epidemiology of Bruneian paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and factors that affect growth and progression of disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted on all children below 18 years old who were diagnosed with CKD over a ten year period (2004 to 2013). The reference population was all children (< 18 years old) suffering from CKD and attending the tertiary paediatric nephrology clinic in Brunei Darussalam. Demographic (current age, age of diagnosis, gender, ethnicity), anthropometric (weight and height), diagnosis, laboratory data (serum creatinine and haemoglobin, urinalysis) and blood pressure were extracted from the patients’ clinical case notes and recorded using a data collection form. RESULTS: The study revealed a high national prevalence [736 per million child population (pmcp)] and incidence (91 pcmp) of CKD. If CKD was defined at Stage 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, the associated prevalence figures were 736, 132, 83, 50 and 33 pmcp. Glomerulonephritis accounted for 69% of all prevalent cases, followed by congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (20%) and tubulointerstitial diseases (8%). Minimal change disease being the most common histological diagnosis. The median age of diagnosis was 4.5 years, with congenital disease patients experiencing an earlier onset of diagnosis. A large proportion of patients were below the 5% percentile for height and weight. Non-glomerular diseases, adolescent and female patients were significantly associated with poor growth, but not glomerular filtration rate, age of diagnosis or steroid usage. CONCLUSION: Brunei has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the paediatric population with glomerulonephritis being the most common disease. PMID:26981447

  17. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012–2013: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use. PMID:26075917

  18. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012-2013: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use.

  19. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impacts adolescents’ decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents’ perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Methods 24 adolescents (9 females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in 6 small-groups discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Results Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use, but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Conclusion Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. PMID:26115908

  20. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  1. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  2. Marijuana use and brain immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Guy A; Jamerson, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The recreational smoking of marijuana, or Cannabis sativa, has become widespread, including among adolescents. Marijuana contains a class of compounds known as phytocannabinoids that include cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the major psychoactive component in marijuana, but also exhibits immunosuppressive activity. CBD, while not psychotropic, also modulates immune function, but its mechanism of action appears to differ from that of THC. Since both compounds are highly lipophilic, they readily passage the blood-brain barrier and access the central nervous system. Since CBD is not psychotropic, it has been considered as a candidate therapeutic compound for ablating neuropathological processes characterized by hyperinflammation. However, an unresolved question centers around the impact of these compounds on immune-competent cells within the CNS in relation to susceptibility to infection. There are accumulating data indicating that THC inhibits the migratory capability of macrophage-like cells resident in the CNS, such as microglia, toward nodes of microbial invasion. Furthermore, phytocannabinoids have been reported to exert developmental and long-term effects on the immune system suggesting that exposure to these substances during an early stage in life has the potential to alter the fundamental neuroimmune response to select microbial agents in the adult.

  3. Adolescent but not adult-born neurons are critical for susceptibility to chronic social defeat

    PubMed Central

    Kirshenbaum, Greer S.; Lieberman, Sophie R.; Briner, Tamara J.; Leonardo, E. David; Dranovsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs across the lifespan, however the rate of cell birth is up to 300% higher in adolescent mice compared to adults. Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. Therefore neurogenesis occurring during adolescence may be particularly important for emotional behavior. However, little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons born during adolescence. In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior, we transiently reduced cell proliferation either during adolescence, or during adulthood in GFAP-Tk mice. We found that the intervention in adolescence did not change adult baseline behavioral response in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test or social affiliation test, and did not change adult corticosterone responses to an acute stressor. However following chronic social defeat, adult mice with reduced adolescent neurogenesis showed a resilient phenotype. A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. Our study demonstrates that hippocampal neurons born during adolescence, but not in adulthood are important to confer susceptibility to chronic social defeat. PMID:25221485

  4. Chronic family economic hardship, family processes and progression of mental and physical health symptoms in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-06-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health symptoms in adolescence. The present study investigates the influences of chronic family economic hardship on adolescents' multiple health problem symptoms (i.e., symptoms of anxiety, and depression and physical complaints) through parents' marital conflict, and supportive parenting; it also examines how there adolescents' health problems mutually influence one another throughout adolescence. We used Structural Equation Modeling to analyze data from a longitudinal sample of European American mothers, fathers, and target adolescents (N = 451, 53% female) to examine direct and indirect effects. Findings generally supported the hypothesized model. Chronic family economic hardship contributed to mental and physical health problems of adolescents. This influence largely was mediated through supportive parenting. Moreover, supportive parenting buffered marital conflict on depressive symptoms of adolescents. Also, there was a tendency for females to show more stable depressive symptoms than males. The study demonstrates key mediating pathways and additional moderating influences based on the family stress model and also highlights the importance of improving health resources for adolescents.

  5. New Perspectives on Marijuana and Youth: Abstainers Are Not Maladjusted, but Lone Users Face Difficulties. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…

  6. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this "the munchies." People who smoke marijuana often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  7. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  8. Behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with insomnia in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Wilson, Anna C; Lewandowski, Amy S; Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify differences in sleep behaviors, sleep quality, pre-sleep arousal and prevalence of insomnia symptoms in adolescents with chronic pain compared to a healthy age and sex-matched cohort and (2) examine pain intensity, pubertal development, depression, and pre-sleep arousal as risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Participants included 115 adolescents, 12-18 years of age (73.0% female), 59 youth with chronic pain and 56 healthy youth. During a home-based assessment, adolescents completed validated measures of pain, sleep quality, sleep hygiene, pre-sleep arousal, depressive symptoms, and pubertal development. Findings revealed a significantly higher percentage of adolescents with chronic pain reporting symptoms of insomnia (54.2%) compared to healthy adolescents (19.6%), p<.001. Youth with chronic pain also reported higher cognitive and somatic arousal at bedtime, and lower sleep quality compared to the healthy cohort. In a logistic regression, two factors emerged as significant predictors of insomnia, having chronic pain (OR=6.09) and higher levels of cognitive pre-sleep arousal (OR=1.24). Level of pain intensity did not predict insomnia. While sleep disruption may initially relate to pain, these symptoms may persist into a separate primary sleep disorder over time due to other behavioral and psychosocial factors. Assessment of insomnia may be important for identifying behavioral targets for the delivery of sleep-specific interventions to youth with chronic pain.

  9. Chronic daily headache: helping adolescents help themselves with self-hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Daniel P

    2011-07-01

    Although the evidence is clear that hypnosis has been an effective treatment for recurrent headaches in children, review of the literature revealed no previous reports of hypnosis for youth with the condition of chronic daily headache. Two adolescents with continuing chronic daily headaches were taught self-hypnosis through careful attention to individual strengths and finding the hypnotic elements within the clinical encounters. Self-reports of intensity, frequency, and duration of headaches described substantial benefit from learning and practicing self-hypnosis after little to no benefit from pharmacologic and other nonpharmacologic therapies. These results and analogous success with several other adolescents with chronic daily headache support the further use of self-hypnosis training for this condition. As a self-regulation technique that is quickly and easily learned by most young people, self-hypnosis training holds considerable promise for effectively treating and perhaps preventing chronic daily headaches in children and adolescents.

  10. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  11. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kolikonda, Murali K.; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration. Marijuana remains largely illegal, and may induce adverse consequences. Clinical applications are not approved, thus are restricted and only recommended in selected treatment unresponsive cases, with appropriate monitoring. PMID:27354925

  12. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Edith G.; Loza, Reyner; Vargas, Horacio; Jara, Mercedes F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18%) patients with CPD and 24 (35.82%) undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (n = 7), 43.28% (n = 29), and 46.27% (n = 31), respectively; all of the seven (100%) patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (P = 0.04), and none of these (0%) had a friend to confide in (P = 0.03). Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly Kt/V compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15 ± 0.68 versus 2.52 ± 0.65; P = 0.01). There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment. PMID:21941654

  13. Correlates of Amount Spent on Marijuana Buds During a Discrete Purchase at Medical Marijuana Dispensaries: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Mulholland, Elycia; Freisthler, Bridget; Schaper, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana purchasing behaviors vary by the purchaser's individual characteristics; however, little is known about patients' purchasing behaviors when buying from medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs). Our objective was to explore whether patient characteristics were associated with amount spent during one financial transaction at medical marijuana dispensaries. We conducted a pilot study of four purposively sampled MMD locations in Long Beach, California, in 2012. A total of 132 medical marijuana patients (33 patients per dispensary) participated in an exit survey about their demographic characteristics, conditions for their medical marijuana recommendation, amount spent at the dispensary, and cross-streets of where they lived. The sample reported amounts spent on discrete purchases of marijuana buds averaging $40.82 (ranging from $10 to $255). Multivariate regression analyses indicated average amount spent differed significantly by patient age and condition. An increase in 10 years of age was associated with a 10% higher amount spent. Receiving a recommendation for anxiety and/or sleeping problems or other nonspecified conditions was related to higher discrete purchase amounts than chronic pain. This pilot suggests that variations in patient purchasing behaviors from MMDs exist. These purchase behaviors can provide insight into variations in how patients use dispensaries, consume products, and allocate personal resources.

  14. Correlates of amount spent on marijuana buds during a discrete purchase at medical marijuana dispensaries: Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Mulholland, Elycia; Freisthler, Bridget; Schaper, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana purchasing behaviors vary by the purchaser’s individual characteristics; however, little is known about patients’ purchasing behaviors when buying from medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs). Our objective was to explore whether patient characteristics were associated with amount spent during one financial transaction at medical marijuana dispensaries. We conducted a pilot study of 4 purposively sampled MMD locations in Long Beach, California, in 2012. A total of 132 medical marijuana patients (33 patients per dispensary) participated in an exit survey about their demographic characteristics, conditions for their medical marijuana recommendation, amount spent at the dispensary, and cross-streets of where they lived. The sample reported amounts spent on discrete purchases of marijuana buds averaging $40.82 (ranging $10 to $255). Multivariate regression analyses indicated average amount spent differed significantly by patient age and condition. An increase in 10 years of age was associated with a 10% higher amount spent. Receiving a recommendation for anxiety and/or sleeping problems or other nonspecified conditions was related to higher discrete purchase amounts than chronic pain. This pilot suggests that variations in patient purchasing behaviors from MMDs exist. These purchase behaviors can provide insight into variations in how patients use dispensaries, consume products, and allocate personal resources. PMID:26757234

  15. Cinacalcet in Pediatric and Adolescent Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Abdulla A.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Abukhatwah, Mohamed W.; Sherief, Laila M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic drug, has been shown to be efficacious in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, it was not fully studied in pediatric CKD patients. We aimed at assessing the effect of cinacalcet on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion in children with CKD-4/5 with iPTH consistently ≥ 300 pg/mL refractory to conventional treatment. This is a prospective cohort analysis of 28 children with uncontrolled hyper-parathyroidism secondary to stage 4 and 5 CKD admitted to a tertiary center during the period from April 2012 to April 2014. Twenty-eight patients with CKD-4/5 were assessed prospectively regarding bone biochemistry, renal ultrasonography, serum iPTH level, and medications. Patients were classified into 3 groups: group 1, 6 patients with CKD-4 on supplemental and supportive therapy; group 2, 6 patients with CKD-5 on hemodialysis and; group 3, 16 patients with CKD-5 on automated peritoneal dialysis. Patients were between the ages of 9 months and 18 years on commencing cinacalcet at doses of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg. All patients showed at least a 60% reduction in iPTH (60%–97%). Highly significant reduction in iPTH and serum alkaline phosphatase levels was detected post-cinacalcet. The serum calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and Ca × P product were unaffected. Treatment was well tolerated with no hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, or other adverse effects almost in all patients. Cinacalcet use was proven safe for all pediatric and adolescent patients with CKD-4/5 during the study period, and at the same time most of the patients reached the suggested iPTH target values PMID:25590845

  16. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664

  17. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  18. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Chronic Interpersonal Stress as Predictors of the Course of Depression in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Griffith, James W.; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. PMID:21432666

  19. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research.

  20. Limited Concordance between Teachers, Parents and Healthcare Professionals on the Presence of Chronic Diseases in ID-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on teachers' knowledge about somatic and mental chronic diseases among ID-adolescent compared to the knowledge parents and healthcare professionals have, is limited. The aim of this study is: (1) to assess the knowledge of teachers on the presence of chronic diseases in ID-adolescents; (2) to compare teachers with parents and healthcare…

  1. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Sheriff, Michael J; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner.

  2. Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

  3. An examination of opinions toward marijuana policies among high school seniors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students felt marijuana should be entirely legal and 28.5% felt it should be treated as a minor violation; 48.0% felt that if legal to sell it should be sold to adults only, and 10.4% felt it should be sold to anyone. Females, conservatives, religious students, and those with friends who disapprove of marijuana use tended to be at lower odds for supporting legalization, and Black, liberal, and urban students were at higher odds for supporting more liberal policies. Recent and frequent marijuana use strongly increased odds for support for legalization; however, 16.7% of non-lifetime marijuana users also reported support for legalization. Findings should be interpreted with caution as state-level data were not available, but results suggest that support for marijuana legalization is common among specific subgroups of adolescents.

  4. An Examination of Opinions Toward Marijuana Policies Among High School Seniors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Support for marijuana (cannabis) legalization is increasing in the US, and state-level marijuana policies are rapidly changing. Research is needed to examine correlates of opinions toward legalization among adolescents approaching adulthood as they are at high risk for use. Data were examined from a national representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (years 2007-2011; N = 11,594) to delineate correlates of opinions toward legalization. A third of students felt marijuana should be entirely legal and 28.5% felt it should be treated as a minor violation; 48.0% felt that if legal to sell it should be sold to adults only, and 10.4% felt it should be sold to anyone. Females, conservatives, religious students and those with friends who disapprove of marijuana use tended to be at lower odds for supporting legalization, and black, liberal and urban students were at higher odds for supporting more liberal policies. Recent and frequent marijuana use strongly increased odds for support for legalization; however, 16.7% of non-lifetime marijuana users also reported support for legalization. Findings should be interpreted with caution as state-level data were not available, but results suggest that support for marijuana legalization is common among specific subgroups of adolescents. PMID:25364985

  5. What Can Rats Tell Us about Adolescent Cannabis Exposure? Insights from Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Rushlow, Walter J.; Laviolette, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse among adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for brain development, during which time various neurotransmitter systems such as the glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems undergo extensive reorganization to support the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). ▵-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, acts as a partial agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1Rs are abundant in the CNS and are central components of the neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence. Thus, overactivation of CB1Rs by cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has the ability to dramatically alter brain maturation, leading to persistent and enduring changes in adult cerebral function. Increasing preclinical evidence lends support to clinical evidence suggesting that chronic adolescent marijuana exposure may be associated with a higher risk for neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. In this review, we present a broad overview of current neurobiological evidence regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on adult neuropsychiatric-like disorders. PMID:27254841

  6. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, Lauren M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. Objective This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. Method College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Results Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. Conclusions It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time. PMID:26678375

  7. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  8. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  9. Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Johannigman, Suzanne; Eschiti, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important.

  10. Ovarian hormones and chronic administration during adolescence modify the discriminative stimulus effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Winsauer, Peter J; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Bailey, Evangeline M; Hulst, Jerielle L; Sutton, Jessie L

    2012-09-01

    Marijuana abuse during adolescence may alter its abuse liability during adulthood by modifying the interoceptive (discriminative) stimuli produced, especially in females due to an interaction with ovarian hormones. To examine this possibility, either gonadally intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received 40 intraperitoneal injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ⁹-THC daily during adolescence, yielding 4 experimental groups (intact/saline, intact/Δ⁹-THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/Δ⁹-THC). These groups were then trained to discriminate Δ⁹-THC (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR) 20 schedule of food presentation. After a training dose was established for the subjects in each group, varying doses of Δ⁹-THC were substituted for the training dose to obtain dose-effect (generalization) curves for drug-lever responding and response rate. The results showed that: 1) the OVX/saline group had a substantially higher mean response rate under control conditions than the other three groups, 2) both OVX groups had higher percentages of THC-lever responding than the intact groups at doses of Δ⁹-THC lower than the training dose, and 3) the OVX/Δ⁹-THC group was significantly less sensitive to the rate-decreasing effects of Δ⁹-THC compared to other groups. Furthermore, at sacrifice, western blot analyses indicated that chronic Δ⁹-THC in OVX and intact females decreased cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) levels in the striatum, and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. In contrast to the hippocampus, chronic Δ⁹-THC selectively increased p-CREB in the OVX/saline group in the striatum. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not significantly affected by either hormone status or chronic Δ⁹-THC. In summary, these data in female rats suggest that cannabinoid abuse by adolescent human females could alter their subsequent responsiveness to cannabinoids

  11. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  12. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans. PMID:26696849

  13. Self-esteem of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    Chronic illness may be a risk factor for low self-esteem; however, previous meta-analyses are inconclusive whether children with a chronic illness have lower self-esteem than their healthy peers. The goal of the present study was to summarize available research in order to compare the self-esteem of children and adolescents with a chronic illness with that of healthy children. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to integrate the results of 621 empirical studies that compare levels of self-esteem of children with a chronic physical illness with healthy peers or general test norms. Studies were identified via the electronic databases Adolesc, Embase, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PSNYDEX, PSYCINFO, and cross-referencing. Children with chronic illnesses have lower self-esteem than healthy peers or test norms (g = -0.18 standard deviation units). The lowest levels of self-esteem were observed in children with chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic headaches. Lower levels of self-esteem in children with a chronic illness were found in girls than in boys, in adolescents than in children, in children from developing or threshold countries, when results were collected from observer ratings rather than child reports, in studies published in the 1990s, and when children with chronic illnesses were directly compared with healthy children instead of test norms. Paediatricians, parents, and teachers should promote experiences of success and positive peer-relations, which are important sources of self-esteem. In addition, psychosocial interventions for children with chronic illnesses should be offered for children with reduced self-esteem.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy with nontreatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users: a further test of the teen marijuana check-up.

    PubMed

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; Demarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified.

  15. An Internet Survey of Marijuana and Hot Shower Use in Adults with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotiromy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J.; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A Large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of “cannabinoid hyperemesis.” We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50–4.31, P – 0.0006). Eight-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients note greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use. PMID:24792504

  16. An Internet survey of marijuana and hot shower use in adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS).

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotirmoy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of "cannabinoid hyperemesis." We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50-4.31, P = 0.0006). Eighty-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients noted the greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were not pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use.

  17. Obesity in children and adolescents with chronic pain: Associations with pain and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anna C.; Samuelson, Bethany; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with functional disability in adults with chronic pain, but less is known about obesity among youth with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to 1) identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents receiving treatment for chronic pain, and 2) examine associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), pain intensity, and activity limitations in this population. Methods Data was obtained from records of 118 patients, ages 8 to 18, seen in a multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic. Information about age, gender, pain problem, duration and severity, medical diagnoses, medications, height and weight were collected from medical records and intake questionnaires. The CDC’s pediatric BMI calculator was used to obtain percentile and category (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese). Children and parents completed the Child Activity Limitations Interview-21 (CALI-21), a self-report measure of activity limitations. Results A significantly higher rate of overweight and obesity was observed among youth with chronic pain compared to a normative sample. BMI percentile was predictive of concurrent limitations in vigorous activities, according to parent report. Discussion BMI percentile and weight status may contribute to activity limitations among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Weight status is an important factor to consider in the context of treatment of chronic pain and disability in children and adolescents. PMID:20664337

  18. Adolescents with chronic pain and associated functional disability: A descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Banez, Gerard A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe the biopsychosocial characteristics of adolescents with chronic pain and functional disability. Data were obtained from a registry of 100 adolescents (mean age = 15.84, SD = 2.72; 21 males) admitted to an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. Clinician ratings were used to categorize coping and personality styles. The most common chief complaint at admission was limb pain (n = 44), followed by headache (n = 21) and abdominal pain (n = 17). Eighteen patients presented with other types of pain. The most frequent triggers to pain were physical trauma, medical condition or disability, and surgery or another medical procedure. Sleep problems, mental health difficulties, and high academic performance were common. Seven previously identified pain-associated disability factors, including passive or dependent coping style, chronic illness in a parent, personality consistent with alexithymia, unresolved family problems, early pain experiences, learning/developmental difficulties, and perfectionistic personality, were common. Ninety-eight adolescents presented with two or more of these contributing factors. Fifty-six adolescents had four or more of the factors. Adolescents with chronic pain and associated disability presented with numerous biopsychosocial factors that relate to their impairment. The understanding and attention to these factors will be important for successful rehabilitation.

  19. Juvenile fibromyalgia in an adolescent patient with sickle cell disease presenting with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ramprakash, Stalin; Fishman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia in children with sickle cell disease has not been reported in the literature. We report an adolescent patient with sickle cell whose pain symptoms progressed from having recurrent acute sickle cell pain crisis episodes to a chronic pain syndrome over several years. He was eventually diagnosed with juvenile fibromyalgia based on the clinical history and myofascial tender points and his pain symptoms responded better to multidisciplinary strategies for chronic fibromyalgia pain. Chronic pain in sickle cell disease is an area of poor research, and in addition there is inconsistency in the definition of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Central sensitisation to pain is shown to occur after recurrent painful stimuli in a genetically vulnerable individual. In a chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia central sensitisation is thought to play a key role. Fibromyalgia should be considered as one of the main differential diagnosis in any sickle cell patient with chronic pain.

  20. Legal Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities and Their Families. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This collection of annotated bibliographies focuses on a broad spectrum of legal issues, and is drawn from a national database of current programs and literature regarding adolescents with chronic illnesses and other disabilities. Bibliographic materials listed include documents and articles concerning the following: consent and confidentiality…

  1. Recreation and Leisure: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This bibliography presents 162 annotated references (including bibliographic materials, training and educational materials, and programs) about issues of recreation and leisure for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. Each reference usually contains a full bibliographic citation, a brief descriptive abstract, and…

  2. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic…

  3. To Befriend or Not: Naturally Developing Friendships Amongst a Clinical Group of Adolescents with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Forgeron, Paula A; MacLaren Chorney, Jill; Carlson, Torie E; Dick, Bruce D; Plante, Erica

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain frequently perceive a lack of support from friends. Support from a peer with a shared experience has been found to provide emotional, informational, and appraisal support. We sought to quantify the frequency with which adolescents with chronic pain want to befriend other adolescents with chronic pain, and to describe the features of these friendships. Adolescents with chronic pain who had attended a 10-week structured self-management program from 3 sites were invited to complete an online survey. Forty teens participated, 95% (n = 38) were girls; 32% (n = 13) befriended another; 52% (n = 21) were interested in befriending another but did not; 15% (n = 6) were not interested in befriending anyone. Over half (62%) of the friendships lasted at least 1 year (n = 8), but only 2 intermingled these with their regular friendships. Pain was discussed frequently during interactions. The most common reasons for not forming friendships were no time to exchange contact information during group and not having things in common. Reasons for not being interested in forming a friendship also included not having anything in common apart from pain. The majority of participants were interested in befriending another. Emotional support, by feeling understood and discussing pain without fear that the other is disinterested, was the main peer support provided. Without common interests, this form of friendship may not last and is at risk for being overly solicitous by focusing on pain. It remains unclear whether the benefits of peer support translate into improved function.

  4. Issues in Sexuality for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on sexuality issues regarding adolescents and young adults with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The resources are grouped into the following categories: psychosocial development (23 references); attitudes and knowledge (11 references); sex education (34 references); sexual abuse (four references);…

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Chronic Self-Concept, Peer Relations, and Learning Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Weiping; Eckert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on Lewin's Field Theory, Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory and social network analysis, the authors collected data from 405 Chinese adolescents about their peer relations, chronic self-concept levels and learning condition variables through questionnaire distributing, and from their teachers about their annual average academic…

  6. Race and Ethnicity: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. Cydline Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This abstract bibliography lists selected resources for addressing race and ethnicity issues with adolescents who have chronic illnesses and disabilities. References are dated from 1980 to 1991. First, 18 references provide general information about the issues of cultural competence and cultural diversity for health care professionals, educators,…

  7. Self-Esteem: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues of self-esteem in adolescents with disabilities, which is seen as closely related to development of critical social skills. References have been drawn from the National Center for Youth with Disabilities' National Resource Library, a database about youth with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The…

  8. Neighborhood environment and marijuana use in urban young adults.

    PubMed

    Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2015-02-01

    Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p < 0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced price meal (FARPM) status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use.

  9. Airway-Clearance Techniques in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Suppurative Lung Disease and Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annemarie L.; Button, Brenda M.; Tannenbaum, Esta-Lee

    2017-01-01

    Common symptoms of chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis in children and adolescents are chronic cough with sputum production, retention of excess secretions in dilated airways, and a history of recurrent infections. Clinical management includes the prescription of airway-clearance techniques (ACTs) to facilitate mucociliary clearance, optimize sputum expectoration, relieve symptoms, and improve well-being. A wide range of ACTs are available for selection, and these strategies may be applied in isolation or in combination. The choice of technique will depend in part on the age of the child, their clinical state, and factors which may influence treatment adherence. While the evidence base for ACTs in children and adolescent with these conditions is not robust, the current available evidence in addition to clinical expertise provides guidance for technique prescription and clinical effect. An overview of the most commonly applied ACTs, including their physiological rationale and discussion of factors influencing prescription in children and adolescents is outlined in this review. PMID:28168184

  10. Exciting but exhausting: experiences with participatory research with chronically ill adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Van Staa, AnneLoes; Jedeloo, Susan; Latour, Jos M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Adolescents with chronic conditions are major users of paediatric hospitals, but seldom participate in the evaluation of services or in research. Little is known about the usefulness of the participatory approach in adolescent health research. Objective  To evaluate the feasibility, benefits and limitations of a participatory research (PR) project involving chronically ill adolescents as co‐researchers. Design, setting and participants  Nine adolescents, aged 15–17 years, acted as co‐researchers in a hospital‐based PR project. They co‐developed an interview protocol and during a disco party held for this purpose interviewed each other and 25 fellow patients (12–19 years). They provided advice on the draft report and participated in the dissemination of the results, but were not involved in the design of the project or analysis of results. Results  Involving adolescents in participatory health research was feasible and appreciated by researchers and youth alike, but had its drawbacks too. The peer‐research attracted few participants, the interviews lacked depth and did not yield substantial new insights. Maintaining a high level of participation of the chronically ill co‐researchers also proved difficult. Conclusions  Adolescents with chronic conditions like to have a say in the design and evaluation of hospital services. But their participation as co‐researchers demands ample resources from all parties involved without automatically improving research quality. PR does not seem the most effective and efficient way to make services more responsive. We therefore recommend further exploration of other creative and sustainable ways for involving youth in health‐care service development and innovation. PMID:19682098

  11. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult male rats: Effects on tolerance, social behavior and ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of the present study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Methods Adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10 day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), non-manipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10) or non-manipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, loss of righting reflex was tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and non-manipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hrs after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and non-manipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and non-manipulated animals using an 8 day 2 bottle choice, limited access ethanol intake procedure. Results Adolescents were less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents drank significantly more ethanol than adults on a g/kg basis, with intake uninfluenced by prior ethanol exposure at both ages. Conclusion Adolescents and adults may differ in

  12. Neuroimaging of the Dopamine/Reward System in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  13. Aberrant Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Salience Network of Adolescent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D.; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sevenius, Andre; Bruun Wyller, Vegard

    2016-01-01

    Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN). Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology. PMID:27414048

  14. Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Beth M; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I; Pearlson, Godfrey D; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2010-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n=35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men, likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted.

  15. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  16. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  17. Specialized Rehabilitation Programs for Children and Adolescents with Severe Disabling Chronic Pain: Indications, Treatment and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stahlschmidt, Lorin; Zernikow, Boris; Wager, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with highly disabling chronic pain of high intensity and frequency are admitted to specialized pain rehabilitation programs. Some barriers to obtaining this specialized care include a lack of availability of treatment centers, a perceived social stigma and individual barriers such as socioeconomic status. Specialized rehabilitation programs for severe disabling chronic pain worldwide have similarities regarding admission criteria, structure and therapeutic orientation. They differ, however, regarding their exclusion criteria and program descriptions. The short- and long-term effectiveness of some rehabilitation programs is well documented. All countries should promote the establishment of future pediatric pain centers to improve the health care of children and adolescents suffering from severe chronic pain. Standardized reporting guidelines should be developed to describe treatments and outcomes to enable comparability across treatment centers. PMID:27879631

  18. Marijuana use motives and social anxiety among marijuana-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2007-10-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M(age)=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety.

  19. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  20. Domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among inpatient adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeremy W; Green, Kelly L; Grover, Kelly E; Schatte, Dawnelle J; Morgan, Sharon T

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for demographics, diagnostic status, past history of attempt, and life event stress, the predictors of suicidal ideation were chronic stress in family relationships, close friendship, and physical health. Chronic close friendship stress also predicted suicide intent among attempters after controlling for covariates. No domain robustly predicted the presence of an attempt or moderated the relation between life event stress and suicidal behaviors. These findings highlight the role of certain domains of chronic stress in suicidal ideation and suicide intent.

  1. Altered Neural Processing to Social Exclusion in Young Adult Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Schuster, Randi M.; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimaging social exclusion task called Cyberball, a computerized ball-tossing game in which the participant is excluded from the game after a pre-determined number of ball tosses. Controls, but not marijuana users, demonstrated significant activation in the insula, a region associated with negative emotion, when being excluded from the game. Both groups demonstrated activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a region associated with affective monitoring, during peer exclusion. Only the marijuana group showed a correlation between vACC activation and scores on a self-report measure of peer conformity. This study indicates that marijuana users show atypical neural processing of social exclusion, which may be either caused by, or the result of, regular marijuana use. PMID:26977454

  2. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.

  3. A qualitative investigation of eating difficulties in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12–17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Results: Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. Conclusions: If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible. PMID:27215228

  4. The association of chronic adversity with psychiatric disorder and disorder severity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of chronic adversity on psychopathology in adolescents, taking into account the type of adversity, number of adversities experienced and type of psychiatric disorder, as well as to estimate the impact on severity of the disorder. A total of 3,005 male and female adolescents from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey aged 12-17 years were interviewed in a stratified multistage general population probability survey. Assessment of 20 DSM-IV disorders, disorder severity and 12 chronic childhood adversities were assessed with the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A). Family dysfunction adversities including abuse presented the most consistent associations between chronic adversity and psychopathology and their impact was generally non-specific with regard to the type of disorder. Parental divorce, parental death and economic adversity were not individually associated with psychopathology. Among those with a psychiatric disorder, sexual abuse and family violence were associated with having a seriously impairing disorder. The odds of having a psychiatric disorder and a serious disorder increased with increasing numbers of adversities; however, each additional adversity increased the odds at a decreasing rate. While the study design does not allow for conclusions regarding causality, these findings suggest general pathways from family dysfunction to psychopathology rather than specific associations between particular adversities and particular disorders, and provide further evidence for the importance of family-focused intervention and prevention efforts.

  5. Differential Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects of Chronic Corticosterone Treatment in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jitao; Xie, Xiaomeng; Li, Youhong; Liu, Xiao; Liao, Xuemei; Su, Yun-Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29–49) or adulthood (PND 71–91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses. Despite of similar physical and neuroendocrine effects in both age groups, chronic CORT treatment produced a series of behavioral and neurobiological effects with striking age differences. While CORT-treated adult animals exhibited decreased sucrose preference, increased anxiety levels and cognitive impairment, CORT-treated adolescent animals demonstrated increased sucrose preference, decreased anxiety levels, and increased sensorimotor gating functions. These differential behavioral alterations were accompanied by opposite changes in the two age groups in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the phosphorylation of the obligatory subunit of the NMDA receptor, GluN1, and PSD-95 in rat hippocampus. These results suggest that prolonged glucocorticoid exposure during adolescence produces different behavioral and neurobiological effects from those in adulthood, which may be due to the complex interaction between glucocorticoids and the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes during this period. PMID:28210212

  6. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  7. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  8. The Psychosocial Well-Being of Finnish Adolescents with Visual Impairments versus Those with Chronic Conditions and Those with No Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi

    2000-01-01

    The psychosocial well-being of 115 adolescents with visual impairments was compared with 44 adolescents with chronic conditions and 607 typical adolescents. Adolescents with visual impairments, especially those with blindness, had more difficulties in their relationships with friends, but had fewer problems with psychological well-being than those…

  9. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  10. Suicide Risk in Adolescents with Chronic Illness: Implications for Primary Care and Specialty Pediatric Practice--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greydanus, Donald; Patel, Dilip; Pratt, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is a global tragedy. Research-identified correlates of suicide in youth include depression, academic failure, loss of friends, social isolation, and substance abuse, among others. This review focuses on the potential link between chronic illness in adolescents and increased suicide risk. Research suggests that chronic…

  11. From Controlling to Letting Go: What Are the Psychosocial Needs of Parents of Adolescents with a Chronic Illness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2014-01-01

    While one of the main objectives of adolescence is to achieve autonomy, for the specific population of adolescents with a chronic illness (CI), the struggle for autonomy is accentuated by the limits implied by their illness. However, little is known concerning the way their parents manage and cope with their children's autonomy acquisition.…

  12. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  13. Medical Marijuana in Certain Neurological Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Systematic Review for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES MEDICAL MARIJUANA IN CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS This fact sheet presents the current research on medical marijuana (cannabis) for treating certain neurological disorders. The American ...

  14. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162472.html Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  15. Attachment and Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Theresa J.; Jaaniste, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined. PMID:27792141

  16. In search of risk factors for chronic pain in adolescents: a case–control study of childhood and parental associations

    PubMed Central

    Coenders, Alies; Chapman, Cindy; Hannaford, Patricia; Jaaniste, Tiina; Qiu, Wen; Anderson, David; Glogauer, Maline; Goodison-Farnsworth, Evelyn; McCormick, Marianne; Champion, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to investigate whether an individual and parental history of functional pain syndromes (FPS) is found more often in adolescents suffering from chronic pain than in their pain-free peers. Methods Our case–control study involved 101 adolescents aged 10–18 years. Cases were 45 patients of the Chronic Pain Clinic at Sydney Children’s Hospital with diverse chronic pain disorders. Controls consisted of 56 adolescent volunteers who did not have chronic pain. Adolescents and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing demographic data as well as known and potential risk factors for chronic pain. A history of FPS was assessed by questionnaire, including restless legs syndrome (RLS). Chi-squared tests and t-tests were used to investigate univariate associations between chronic pain in adolescents and lifetime prevalence of FPS. Logistic regression was used to test multivariate associations, while controlling for possible confounders. Results Migraine, non-migraine headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and RLS were reported significantly more frequently in cases than controls (P-values of 0.01, <0.001, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively). Parental migraine, RAP, and RLS were also significantly associated with adolescent chronic pain in the multivariate analyses. Individual history of migraine, non-migraine headaches, and RAP, along with parental history of RAP and depression significantly accounted for 36%–49% of variance in chronic pain. Other associations with chronic pain were generally in accordance with previous reports. Discussion It may be helpful when assessing a child who has chronic pain or is at risk of chronic pain, to enquire about these associations. Based on the current findings, an individual history of migraine, non-migraine headaches, and RAP, as well as parental migraine, RAP, and RLS are symptoms that are of particular relevance to assess. PMID:24707186

  17. Why do the lonely stay lonely? Chronically lonely adolescents' attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Vanhalst, Janne; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Van Petegem, Stijn; Weeks, Molly S; Asher, Steven R

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms associated with chronic loneliness by examining the effect of adolescents' accumulated history of loneliness on responses to new social situations. Specifically, this study investigated whether attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion differ between chronically lonely adolescents and adolescents with a different loneliness history. A total of 730 adolescents (Mage at Wave 1 = 15.43 years) participated in a 4-wave longitudinal study with annual loneliness assessments. A chronic loneliness trajectory was identified, in addition to low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing loneliness trajectories. At Wave 4, vignettes depicting social inclusion and exclusion were presented, and participants rated a set of attributions and emotions following each vignette. Compared with individuals following other trajectories, chronically lonely adolescents were characterized by hypersensitivity to social exclusion (i.e., higher levels of negative emotions) and hyposensitivity to social inclusion (i.e., lower levels of enthusiasm). Further, chronically lonely adolescents had a stronger tendency to attribute social inclusion to circumstantial factors and social exclusion to internal and stable characteristics. This maladaptive attribution style partially mediated their emotional experiences. Together, results indicate that chronically lonely individuals respond to social situations in ways that may perpetuate rather than reduce their loneliness.

  18. A qualitative content analysis of peer mentoring video calls in adolescents with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Forgeron, Paula; van Wyk, Margaret; Harris, Lauren; Luca, Stephanie

    2016-09-28

    This article endeavored to determine the topics of discussion during open-ended peer mentoring between adolescents and young adults living with chronic illness. This study occurred alongside a study of the iPeer2Peer Program. Fifty-two calls (7 mentor-mentee pairings) were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive coding with an additional 30 calls (21 mentor-mentee pairings) coded to ensure representativeness of the data. Three categories emerged: (1) illness impact (e.g., relationships, school/work, self-identity, personal stories), (2) self-management (e.g., treatment adherence, transition to adult care, coping strategies), and (3) non-illness-related adolescent issues (e.g., post-secondary goals, hobbies, social environments). Differences in discussed topics were noted between sexes and by diagnosis. Peer mentors provided informational, appraisal, and emotional support to adolescents.

  19. Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hampson, A J; Grimaldi, M; Lolic, M; Wink, D; Rosenthal, R; Axelrod, J

    2000-01-01

    Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined as neuroprotectants in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. The psychotropic cannabinoid receptor agonist delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol, (a non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana), both reduced NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptor mediated neurotoxicities. Neuroprotection was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating a (cannabinoid) receptor-independent mechanism of action. Glutamate toxicity can be reduced by antioxidants. Using cyclic voltametry and a fenton reaction based system, it was demonstrated that Cannabidiol, THC and other cannabinoids are potent antioxidants. As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.

  20. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  1. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

  2. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  3. [Diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: chronic complications and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Rubio Cabezas, O; Argente Oliver, J

    2007-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases. Type 1, or autoimmune, diabetes accounts for more than 95 % of cases in children and adolescents. Chronic hyperglycemia per se is responsible for the development of several microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease). Other autoimmune diseases are also more frequent in type 1 diabetic patients. The present review aims to provide an update on some recent advances in this field to aid early detection of these complications and prevent or delay their progression through improved metabolic control.

  4. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system.

  5. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood.

  6. Cognitive performance in a placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial for youth with marijuana dependence

    PubMed Central

    Roten, Amanda; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent marijuana use is associated with neurocognitive impairment, but further work is needed to assess the relationship between treatment-associated abstinence and cognitive performance. This secondary analysis, conducted in the context of a marijuana cessation pharmacotherapy trial in adolescents, examined cognitive performance at baseline and at two time points during treatment using the CNS Vital Signs® assessment battery. Abstinence from marijuana, relative to continued use, as assessed via urine cannabinoid testing, was associated with significant improvement in composite memory (p<0.001), verbal memory (the most impacted component of composite memory) (p<0.001), and psychomotor performance (p=0.045) scores. These findings suggests that some domains of cognitive performance improve significantly even in the early stages of treatment-associated abstinence. PMID:25661990

  7. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  8. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  9. Protective effects of chronic mild stress during adolescence in the low-novelty responder rat.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Nam, Hyungwoo; Glover, Matthew E; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-01-01

    Stress-elicited behavioral and physiologic responses vary widely across individuals and depend on a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Adolescence is an important developmental period when neural circuits that guide emotional behavior and stress reactivity are still maturing. A critical question is whether stress exposure elicits contrasting effects when it occurs during adolescence versus adulthood. We previously found that Sprague-Dawley rats selectively bred for low-behavioral response to novelty (bred Low Responders; bLRs) are particularly sensitive to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) exposure in adulthood, which exacerbates their typically high levels of spontaneous depressive- and anxiety-like behavior. Given developmental processes known to occur during adolescence, we sought to determine whether the impact of CMS on bLR rats is equivalent when they are exposed to it during adolescence as compared with adulthood. Young bLR rats were either exposed to CMS or control condition from postnatal days 35-60. As adults, we found that CMS-exposed bLRs maintained high levels of sucrose preference and exhibited increased social exploration along with decreased immobility on the forced swim test compared with bLR controls. These data indicate a protective effect of CMS exposure during adolescence in bLR rats.

  10. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  11. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence to adulthood in mice--hypothalamic gene expression changes in insulin-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Song, Huaiguang; Jin, Meilei; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Zou, Hong; Yu, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems, and alcohol exposure during adolescence may lead to long-lasting consequences. The hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation as well as weight control, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what the alcohol effect is on the hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over adolescent development, at moderate levels. We employed a model of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence to adulthood in mice, and analyzed the effect of alcohol on growth and weight gain, as well as hypothalamic gene expression patterns. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to both a reduction in weight gain in mice, and considerable gene expression changes in the hypothalamus. Pathway analysis and real-time PCR identified the type II diabetes mellitus and the insulin-signaling pathways as being the hypothalamic pathways affected by chronic alcohol. Our findings from the mouse alcohol consumption study therefore serve as a potential warning against alcohol consumption during adolescence, such as in teens and college students.

  12. Personal attitudes, perceived social norms, and health-risk behavior among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Jennifer H; Greenley, Rachel N; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary E; Lerand, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs.

  13. Mindfulness-based Intervention for Female Adolescents with Chronic Pain: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chadi, Nicholas; McMahon, Audrey; Vadnais, Majorie; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Djemli, Anissa; Dobkin, Patricia L.; Lacroix, Jacques; Luu, Thuy Mai; Haley, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the feasibility of a randomized-controlled trial measuring the impact of an adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in female adolescents with chronic pain. Methods This was a single center, single-blind, prospective, experimental, longitudinal trial conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center. Participants had a history of chronic pain during at least three months. They were randomized into an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Both groups successively followed an adapted eight-week MBI designed specifically for adolescents with chronic pain. Pre-determined criteria were established to assess the feasibility, validity and acceptability of the study model. Data evaluating changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, psychological distress and salivary cortisol were collected throughout the 4-month study period. Results Nineteen female participants completed the study and had a mean age of 15.8 years (range 13.9 -17.8). Attrition rate was low (17%). Attendance to mindfulness sessions (84%) and compliance to study protocol (100%) were high. All participants reported a positive change in the way they coped with pain. No changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, and psychological distress were detected. Significant reductions in pre-and post-mindfulness session salivary cortisol levels were observed (p<0.001). Conclusions Mindfulness is a promising therapeutic approach for which limited data exist in adolescents with chronic pain. Our study indicates the feasibility of conducting such interventions in teenage girls. A large trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and bio-physiological impacts of MBIs in teenagers with chronic pain. PMID:27924146

  14. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  15. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rowson, Sydney A.; Harrell, Constance S.; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J.; Kelly, Sean D.; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  16. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  17. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Rehabilitation of an Adolescent Female with Chronic Pain: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicksell, Rikard K.; Dahl, JoAnne; Magnusson, Bo; Olsson, Gunnar L.

    2005-01-01

    This case example illustrates how Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) within a behavior medicine approach was used in the rehabilitation of an adolescent with debilitating chronic pain. For chronic pain with unclear etiology (idiopathic pain), pharmacological therapy alone is often insufficient. Psychological treatment strategies have been…

  18. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493

  19. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  20. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  1. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels.

  2. Aberrant Orbitofrontal Connectivity in Marijuana Smoking Youths

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa Patricia; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Orbitofrontal (OFC) circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of substance use disorders. The current study examined OFC functional connectivity differences in marijuana-using adolescents (MJ) and non-using healthy controls (HC). Methods Functional MRI resting-state data were obtained on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner on 31 HC and 43 heavy MJ smokers. Image analyses were performed between groups (MJ, HC) for the left and right OFC separately. Regression analyses between OFC functional connectivity and lifetime MJ use, age of first MJ use and impulsivity also were performed. Results Increased OFC functional connectivity to frontal and motor regions was observed in heavy MJ users compared to HC. Earlier age of first MJ use was associated with increased functional connectivity of the right OFC to motor regions. High lifetime MJ use was associated with increased OFC functional connectivity to posterior brain regions in MJ youth. Discussion Findings indicate atypical OFC functional connectivity patterns in attentional/executive, motor and reward networks in youths with heavy MJ use. These anomalies may be related to suboptimal decision making capacities and increased impulsivity. Results also suggest different OFC connectivity patterns may be present in adolescents with early onset of MJ use and high lifetime exposure to MJ. PMID:26296778

  3. Differential behavioural and neurochemical outcomes from chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a model of adverse antidepressant effects in human adolescents?

    PubMed

    Karanges, Emily; Li, Kong M; Motbey, Craig; Callaghan, Paul D; Katsifis, Andrew; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation in adolescent humans, yet the neuropharmacological basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Consequently, we examined the behavioural and neurochemical effects of chronic paroxetine (PRX) treatment in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received PRX in their drinking water (target dose 10 mg/kg) for 22 d, during which time they were assessed for depression- and anxiety-like behaviours. Subsequent ex-vivo analyses examined serum PRX concentrations, striatal neurotransmitter content, and regional serotonin and dopamine transporter (SERT, DAT) binding density. After 11-12 d treatment, PRX-treated adolescent rats showed a significant inhibition of social interaction while adults were unaffected. After 19-20 d treatment, adolescents failed to show an antidepressant-like effect of PRX treatment on the forced swim test (FST), while PRX-treated adults showed a typical decrease in immobility and increase in swimming. Two PRX-treated adolescents died unexpectedly after the FST suggesting a compromised response to physical stress. Despite their greater apparent adverse reaction to the drug, adolescents had significantly lower plasma PRX than adults at day 22 of treatment. Chronic PRX treatment had similar effects in adults and adolescents on striatal 5-HT (unchanged relative to controls) and 5-HIAA levels (decreased), while markers of dopaminergic function (DOPAC, HVA, DA turnover) were increased in adults only. SERT density was up-regulated in the amygdala in PRX-treated adolescents only while DAT density in the nucleus accumbens was down-regulated only in PRX-treated adults. These data suggest that the immature rat brain responds differently to PRX and that this might be of use in modelling the atypical response of human adolescents to antidepressants. The age-specific PRX-induced changes in dopaminergic markers and SERT and DAT binding provide clues as to the neural mechanisms

  4. Medical marijuana: Irresponsible medical care?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nayvin

    2017-03-01

    Illness should continue to be treated by health professionals employing scientific evidence. This is responsible policy. It is not appropriate or medically justified for family physicians to refer patients to medical marijuana clinics; instead, they should inform their patients that medical treatment must be based on scientific evidence.

  5. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  6. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  7. Chronic cocaine or ethanol exposure during adolescence alters novelty-related behaviors in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2007-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of high-risk behavior and increased exploration. This developmental period is marked by a greater probability to initiate drug use and is associated with an increased risk to develop addiction and adulthood dependency and drug use at this time is associated with an increased risk. Human adolescents are predisposed toward an increased likelihood of risk-taking behaviors [Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and the endogenous deficit theory of drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1986;74:59-70.], including drug use or initiation. In the present study, adolescent animals were exposed to twenty days of either saline (0.9% sodium chloride), cocaine (20 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) i.p. followed by a fifteen-day washout period. All animals were tested as adults on several behavioral measures including locomotor activity induced by a novel environment, time spent in the center of an open field, novelty preference and novel object exploration. Animals exposed to cocaine during adolescence and tested as adults exhibited a greater locomotor response in a novel environment, spent less time in the center of the novel open field and spent less time with a novel object, results that are indicative of a stress or anxiogenic response to novelty or a novel situation. Adolescent animals chronically administered ethanol and tested as adults, unlike cocaine-exposed were not different from controls in a novel environment, indicated by locomotor activity or time spent with a novel object. However, ethanol-exposed animals approached the novel object more, suggesting that exposure to ethanol during development may result in less-inhibited behaviors during adulthood. The differences in adult behavioral responses after drug exposure during adolescence are likely due to differences in the mechanisms of action of the drugs and subsequent reward and/or stress responsivity. Future studies are needed to determine the neural substrates of these long lasting drug-induced changes.

  8. Chronic Morbidity Among Older Children and Adolescents at Diagnosis of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rylance, Jamie; Mujuru, Hilda; Nathoo, Kusum; Chonzi, Prosper; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Simms, Victoria; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substantial numbers of children with HIV present to health care services in older childhood and adolescence, previously undiagnosed. These “slow-progressors” may experience considerable chronic ill health, which is not well characterized. We investigated the prevalence of chronic morbidity among children aged 6–15 years at diagnosis of HIV infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at 7 primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Children aged 6–15 years who tested HIV positive following provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were recruited. A detailed clinical history and standardized clinical examination was undertaken. The association between chronic disease and CD4 count was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 385 participants recruited [52% female, median age 11 years (interquartile range 8–13)], 95% were perinatally HIV infected. The median CD4 count was 375 (interquartile range 215–599) cells per cubic millimeter. Although 78% had previous contact with health care services, HIV testing had not been performed. There was a high burden of chronic morbidity: 23% were stunted, 21% had pubertal delay, 25% had chronic skin disease, 54% had a chronic cough of more than 1 month-duration, 28% had abnormal lung function, and 12% reported hearing impairment. There was no association between CD4 count of <500 cells per cubic millimeter or <350 cells per cubic millimeter with WHO stage or these chronic conditions. Conclusions: In children with slow-progressing HIV, there is a substantial burden of chronic morbidity even when CD4 count is relatively preserved. Timely HIV testing and prompt antiretroviral therapy initiation are urgently needed to prevent development of chronic complications. PMID:27171738

  9. Chronic social stress during adolescence: interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Sebastian H; Sterlemann, Vera; Liebl, Claudia; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to chronic stress during developmental periods is a risk factor for a number of psychiatric disorders. While the direct effects of stress exposure have been studied extensively, little is known about the long-lasting effects and the interaction with ageing. The same holds true for the treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have been shown to prevent or reverse some stress-induced effects. Here, we studied the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence and the impact of chronic treatment with the SSRI paroxetine in adulthood and aged animals. Therefore, male CD1 mice at the age of 28 days were subjected to 7 weeks of chronic social stress. Treatment with paroxetine was performed per os with a dosage of 20 mg/g BW. We were able to reverse most of the effects of chronic social stress in adult mice (4 months old) and to some extend in aged animals (15 months old) with the SSRI treatment. Especially the regulation of the HPA axis seems to be affected in aged mice with a shift to the use of vasopressin. Our results demonstrate that chronic stress exposure and antidepressant treatment at the end of the developmental period can have a significant and long-lasting impact, highly relevant for healthy ageing.

  10. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  11. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood.

  12. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator

  13. Living a secret: Disclosure among adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Daniel; Cox, Jarad; Dodson, Chaka; McNeeley, Miles; Kumar, Sinthu; Iverson, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Objectives This qualitative study examines how and why adolescents living with visible and invisible chronic illnesses choose to share their condition with individuals within their social environments. Methods A sample of 25 adolescents were recruited from five subspecialty services: Spina bifida, rheumatology, cardiology, cystic fibrosis, and renal transplant/dialysis. Recruits completed a semi-structured interview designed to explore: (1) to whom adolescents disclose their conditions, (2) motivation and conditions under which they disclose, (3) content of disclosure, and (4) barriers to disclosure. Results Family members closely connected to treatment or management are most likely to be primary targets of disclosure. Regardless of social network size, respondents disclosed their illness to few peers. Common reasons for disclosure were perceived trust and shared experience with illness and disability. Reasons for withholding disclosure include perceived fear of rejection, pity, and perceptions of being seen as vulnerable or different. Discussion Disclosure was found to be influenced by (a) the visibility of a condition, (b) the anticipated response from the recipient, (c) practical needs, and (d) a decision that disclosure is justified. These findings inform clinical practice, warrant the need for further study, and insinuate practical solutions to combat the socio-emotional impact of nondisclosure among adolescents.

  14. The consequences of adolescent chronic unpredictable stress exposure on brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hollis, F; Isgor, C; Kabbaj, M

    2013-09-26

    There is increasing evidence for adolescence as a time period vulnerable to environmental perturbations such as stress. What is unclear is the persistent nature of the effects of stress and how specific these effects are to the type of stressor. In this review, we describe the effects of chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure during adolescence on adult behavior and brain morphology and function in animal models. We provide evidence for adolescence as a critical window for the effects of physical CUS that persist into adulthood, with ramifications for morphological development, associated hippocampal-dependent tasks, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. The results of this investigation are contrasted against those of social CUS stress exposure from the same time period that show reversible and, in the case of responses to drugs of abuse, potentially protective effects in adulthood. Finally, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms for these morphological and behavioral findings. It is our aim that the research highlighted in this review will aid in our understanding of the role of stress in adolescent mental health and development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress, Emotional Behavior and the Endocannabinoid System.

  15. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Response to Marijuana Print The Brain's Response to Marijuana Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome to ... issue, we'll investigate the fascinating facts about marijuana. You may have heard it called pot, weed, ...

  16. Preparing Adolescents With Chronic Disease for Transition to Adult Care: A Technology Program

    PubMed Central

    Terrones, Laura; Tompane, Trevor; Dillon, Lindsay; Pian, Mark; Gottschalk, Michael; Norman, Gregory J.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents with chronic disease (ACD) must develop independent disease self-management and learn to communicate effectively with their health care team to transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care systems. Disease-specific interventions have been implemented to aid specific ACD groups through transition. A generic approach might be effective and cost-saving. METHODS: Eighty-one ACD, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited for a randomized clinical trial evaluating an 8-month transition intervention (MD2Me). MD2Me recipients received a 2-month intensive Web-based and text-delivered disease management and skill-based intervention followed by a 6-month review period. MD2Me recipients also had access to a texting algorithm for disease assessment and health care team contact. The intervention was applicable to adolescents with diverse chronic illnesses. Controls received mailed materials on general health topics. Disease management, health-related self-efficacy, and health assessments were performed at baseline and at 2 and 8 months. Frequency of patient-initiated communications was recorded over the study period. Outcomes were analyzed according to assigned treatment group over time. RESULTS: MD2Me recipients demonstrated significant improvements in performance of disease management tasks, health-related self-efficacy, and patient-initiated communications compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes in ACD improved significantly among recipients of a generic, technology-based intervention. Technology can deliver transition interventions to adolescents with diverse chronic illnesses, and a generic approach offers a cost-effective means of positively influencing transition outcomes. Further research is needed to determine whether improved short-term outcomes translate into an improved transition for ACD. PMID:24843066

  17. Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neonates with Prenatal Marijuana Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Grewen, Karen; Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments; however, findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2–6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; −MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug-free controls). Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula–cerebellum, right caudate–cerebellum, right caudate–right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate–cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypo-connectivity in all clusters compared with −MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and −MJ groups demonstrated hyper-connectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypo-connectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits. PMID:26582983

  18. Early stress and chronic methylphenidate cross-sensitize dopaminergic responses in the adolescent medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Grzegorz; Zehle, Stefanie; Bock, Joerg; Braun, Katharina; Gruss, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) is widely used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. However, basic research has been mainly focused on MP treatment in adult, behaviorally normal rodents. Here we analyzed MP-evoked changes of dopamine (DA) release in the limbic system of juvenile rodents with hyperactive and attention deficit-like symptoms. Using dual probe in vivo microdialysis, DA levels were quantified in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of juvenile and adolescent degus (Octodon degus). Acute stress- and acute MP-evoked dopaminergic responses in normal juvenile and adolescent animals were compared with (i) animals showing symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficits induced by early life stress, i.e. repeated parental separation during the first 3 weeks of life, and (ii) animals chronically treated with MP during pre-adolescence. Our main results revealed that (i) early life stress and (ii) chronic MP treatment during pre-adolescence cross-sensitize limbic dopaminergic functions in adolescent animals. Furthermore, we demonstrated a unique pattern of acute MP-evoked DA release in the juvenile compared with the adolescent medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Our findings that the functional maturation of dopaminergic limbic function is significantly altered by early life experience, i.e. repeated parental separation and chronic MP treatment, allow novel insights into the etiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and into the long-term consequences of MP treatment on brain development.

  19. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence-to-adulthood in mice - hypothalamic gene expression changes in the dilated cardiomyopathy signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems and the onset of alcoholism. Hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what would be the alcohol effect on hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over the adolescent development, at moderate levels. Results We employed a paradigm of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence-to-adulthood in mice, and analyzed the alcohol effect on both behavioral and hypothalamic gene expression changes. A total of 751 genes were found and subjected to pathway analysis. The dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) pathway was identified. The changes of ten genes under this pathway were further verified using RT-PCR. Chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to a decrease of motor activity in mice, and also a concerted down regulation of signaling pathway initiating factor (SPIF) genes in the DCM signaling pathway, including β1-adrenergic receptor (Adrb1), Gs protein (Gnas), adenylyl cyclase 1 (Adcy1), and dihydropyridine receptor/L-type calcium channel (Cacna1d). Conclusions These findings suggest that adolescent alcohol intake may trigger gene expression changes in the CNS that parallel those found in the dilated cardiomyopathy signaling pathway. If such effects also take place in humans, our findings would serve as a warning against alcohol intake in youth, such as by teens and/or college students. PMID:24884436

  20. Cannabidiol Oil for Decreasing Addictive Use of Marijuana: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Scott; Opila-Lehman, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This case study illustrates the use of cannabidiol (CBD) oil to decrease the addictive use of marijuana and provide anxiolytic and sleep benefits. Addiction to marijuana is a chronic, relapsing disorder, which is becoming a prevalent condition in the United States. The most abundant compound in the marijuana, which is called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been widely studied and known for its psychoactive properties. The second most abundant component—CBD—has been suggested to have the medicinal effects of decreasing anxiety, improving sleep, and other neuro-protective effects. The mechanism of action for CBD has been suggested to be antagonistic to the psychoactive properties of THC in many locations within the central nervous system. Such action raises the issue of whether it might be beneficial to use CBD in isolation to facilitate withdrawal of marijuana use. The specific use of CBD for marijuana reduction has not been widely studied. The patient was a 27-y-old male who presented with a long-standing diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a daily addiction to marijuana use. In the described intervention, the only change made to the patient’s treatment was the addition of CBD oil with the dosage gradually decreasing from 24 to 18 mg. With use of the CBD oil, the patient reported being less anxious, as well as settling into a regular pattern of sleep. He also indicated that he had not used any marijuana since starting the CBD oil. With the decrease in the dosage to 18 mg, the patient was able to maintain his nonuse of marijuana. PMID:26807069

  1. A Biopsychosocial Model of the Development of Chronic Conduct Problems in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. This model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment and mediate this risk. A transactional developmental model is best equipped to describe the emergence of chronic antisocial behavior across time. Reciprocal influences among dispositions, contexts, and life experiences lead to recursive iterations across time that exacerbate or diminish antisocial development. Cognitive and emotional processes within the child, including the acquisition of knowledge and social-information-processing patterns, mediate the relation between life experiences and conduct problem outcomes. Implications for prevention research and public policy are noted. PMID:12661890

  2. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  3. Smoking and marijuana use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Haywood L; Graves, Cornelia R

    2013-03-01

    The obstetrical, neonatal, and childhood risk associated with prenatal smoking are well known. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in up to 25% of low birth weight infants primarily from preterm birth and fetal growth restriction and up to 10% of all infant mortality. The relationship between prenatal marijuana smoking and obstetrical and infant outcomes is less clear. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Neither exposure to cigarette nor marijuana smoke has evidence for teratogenicity, but both have been implicated in developmental and hyperactivity disorders in children. Pregnant women should be counseled on the risk of both cigarette and marijuana smoking.

  4. School achievement in 14-year-old youths prenatally exposed to marijuana.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Willford, Jennifer A; Severtson, Stevan G; Day, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    The relation between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and school achievement was evaluated in a sample of 524 14-year-olds. Women were recruited during pregnancy and assessed, along with their offspring, at multiple phases from infancy to early adulthood. The sample represents a low-income population. Half of the adolescents are male and 55% are African American. School achievement was assessed with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Screener (Psychological Corporation, 1992). A significant negative relation was found between PME and 14-year WIAT composite and reading scores. The deficit in school achievement was mediated by the effects of PME on intelligence test performance at age 6, attention problems and depression symptoms at age 10, and early initiation of marijuana use. These findings suggest that the effects of PME on adolescent achievement are mediated by the earlier negative effects of PME on child characteristics. The negative impact of these characteristics on adolescent achievement may presage later problems in early adulthood.

  5. Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol during Adolescence Differentially Modulates Striatal CB1 Receptor Expression and the Acute and Chronic Effects on Learning in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Weed, Peter F; Filipeanu, Catalin M; Ketchum, Myles J; Winsauer, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic administration of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence would (1) modify any sex-specific effects of THC on learning and (2) affect the development of tolerance to THC as an adult. Male and female rats received daily injections of saline or 5.6 mg/kg of THC from postnatal day 35-75, yielding four groups (female/saline, female/THC, male/saline, and male/THC). Rats were then trained on a procedure that assayed both learning and performance behavior and administered 0.32-18 mg/kg of THC acutely as adults (experiment 1). THC produced rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in both sexes; however, female rats were more sensitive than male rats were to the rate-decreasing effects. Rats were then chronically administered 10 mg/kg of THC (experiment 2). Rats that received THC during adolescence developed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects more slowly and less completely than did rats that received saline; in addition, females developed tolerance to the error-increasing effects of THC slower than males did. Western blot analysis of brain tissue indicated long-term changes in hippocampal and striatal cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) levels despite levels that were indistinguishable immediately after chronic treatment during adolescence. Striatal CB1R levels were increased in adult rats that received THC during adolescence; hippocampal CB1R levels varied by sex. In summary, female rats were more sensitive than male rats were to the acute and chronic effects of THC, and chronic administration of THC during adolescence produced long-term changes in CB1R levels that correlated with decreased tolerance development to the rate-decreasing effects of THC.

  6. The economic costs of chronic pain among a cohort of treatment seeking adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Wright, Davene; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic cost of chronic pain among adolescents receiving interdisciplinary pain treatment. Information was gathered from 149 adolescents (ages 10-17) presenting for evaluation and treatment at interdisciplinary pain clinics in the United States. Parents completed a validated measure of family economic attributes, the Client Service Receipt Inventory, to report on health service use and productivity losses due to their child's chronic pain retrospectively over 12 months. Health care costs were calculated by multiplying reported utilization estimates by unit visit costs from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The estimated mean and median costs per participant were $11,787 and $6,770 respectively. Costs were concentrated in a small group of participants, the top 5 % of those patients incurring the highest costs accounted for 30 % of total costs while the lower 75 % of participants accounted for only 34 % of costs. Total costs to society for adolescents with moderate to severe chronic pain were extrapolated to $19.5 billion annually in the U.S. The cost of childhood chronic pain presents a substantial economic burden to families and society. Future research should focus on predictors of increased health services use and costs in adolescents with chronic pain. Perspective This cost of illness study comprehensively estimates the economic costs of chronic pain in a cohort of treatment-seeking adolescents. The primary driver of costs was direct medical costs followed by productivity losses. Because of its economic impact, policy makers should invest resources in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic pediatric pain. PMID:24953887

  7. Marijuana use trajectories during college predict health outcomes nine years post-matriculation

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have linked marijuana use with a variety of health outcomes among young adults. Information about marijuana’s long-term health effects is critically needed. Methods Data are from a ten-year study of 1,253 young adults originally recruited as first-year college students and assessed annually thereafter. Six trajectories of marijuana use during college (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Early-Decline, College-Peak, Late-Increase, Chronic) were previously derived using latent variable growth mixture modeling. Nine health outcomes assessed in Year 10 (modal age 27) were regressed on a group membership variable for the six group trajectories, holding constant demographics, baseline health status, and alcohol and tobacco trajectory group membership. Results Marijuana trajectory groups differed significantly on seven of the nine outcomes (functional impairment due to injury, illness, or emotional problems; psychological distress; subjective well-being; and mental and physical health service utilization; all ps<.001), but not on general health rating or body mass index. Non-Users fared better than the Late-Increase and Chronic groups on most physical and mental health outcomes. The declining groups (Early-Decline, College-Peak) fared better than the Chronic group on mental health outcomes. The Late-Increase group fared significantly worse than the stable groups (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Chronic) on both physical and mental health outcomes. Conclusions Even occasional or time-limited marijuana use might have adverse effects on physical and mental health, perhaps enduring after several years of moderation or abstinence. Reducing marijuana use frequency might mitigate such effects. Individuals who escalate their marijuana use in their early twenties might be at especially high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:26778758

  8. Shifting the Paradigm: Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and the Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Golick, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.

  9. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  10. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Marijuana Misuse Interactions On White Matter and Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H.; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk. PMID:21420833

  11. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  12. Chronic methylphenidate exposure during adolescence reduces striatal synaptic responses to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Nicole A; Cody, Patrick A; Davis, Margaret I; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays an important role in integrative functions contributing to adaptive behaviors. In support of this essential function, DA modulates synaptic plasticity in different brain areas, including the striatum. Many drugs used for cognitive enhancement are psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which enhance DA levels. MPH treatment is of interest during adolescence, a period of enhanced neurodevelopment during which the DA system is in a state of flux. Recent epidemiological studies report the co-abuse of MPH and ethanol in adolescents and young adults. Although repeated MPH treatment produces enduring changes that affect subsequent behavioral responses to other psychostimulants, few studies have investigated the interactions between MPH and ethanol. Here we addressed whether chronic therapeutic exposure to MPH during adolescence predisposed mice to an altered response to ethanol and whether this was accompanied by altered DA release and striatal plasticity. C57BL/6J mice were administered MPH (3-6 mg/kg/day) via the drinking water between post-natal days 30 and 60. Voltammetry experiments showed that sufficient brain MPH concentrations were achieved during adolescence in mice to increase the DA clearance in adulthood. The treatment also increased long-term depression and reduced the effects of ethanol on striatal synaptic responses. Although the injection of 0.4 or 2 g/kg ethanol dose-dependently decreased locomotion in control mice, only the higher dose decreased locomotion in MPH-treated mice. These results suggested that the administration of MPH during development promoted long-term effects on synaptic plasticity in forebrain regions targeted by DA. These changes in plasticity might, in turn, underlie alterations in behaviors controlled by these brain regions into adulthood.

  13. Marijuana Use from Middle to High School: Co-occurring Problem Behaviors, Teacher-Rated Academic Skills and Sixth-Grade Predictors.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome.

  14. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck . E-mail: khchung@skku.edu

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  15. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  16. The influence of a chronic adolescent nicotine exposure on ethanol withdrawal severity during adulthood in C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Hugh H; Zalud, André W; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L

    2010-02-01

    Animal and human studies have shown tolerance, consumption, relapse, and behavioral interactions between ethanol and nicotine, but little is understood about their interaction, especially as it relates to ethanol withdrawal in adulthood for subjects who have an adolescent history of using these drugs. This study investigated nicotine's influence on ethanol withdrawal seizures in two different age groups of male C3H mice. Adolescent and adult male C3H mice, beginning at postnatal day 28 or 70, respectively, were subjected to a 7-day chronic exposure to ethanol only, ethanol plus nicotine, nicotine only, or vehicle treatment. Six weeks later, all the groups were subjected to chronic exposure to ethanol vapors and the severity of their ethanol withdrawal seizures was assessed by handling-induced convulsions. An adolescent exposure to chronic nicotine resulted in an exacerbation of ethanol withdrawal seizures in adulthood. Given this, adolescence may contain a neurophysiological critical period that is sensitive to nicotine and which may result in an altered response to ethanol dependency in adulthood. These findings have serious implications for the long-term consequences following co-abuse of these drugs during adolescence.

  17. Marijuana: The Real Story. It's Your Choice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on marijuana is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  18. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  19. Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

  20. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  1. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  2. A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Timothy H.

    1973-01-01

    Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

  3. The Effects of Marijuana on Human Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Joseph H.

    Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…

  4. Personality Correlates of Undergraduate Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    The objective of this study was to investigate the personological factors underlying marijuana use in the college population. Under anonymous conditions, 148 students at two universities completed the California Psychological Inventory and a biographical questionnaire concerning drug usage. Four conclusions were reached: (1) marijuana use at two…

  5. Chronic adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in COMT mutant mice: impact on indices of dopaminergic, endocannabinoid and GABAergic pathways.

    PubMed

    Behan, Aine T; Hryniewiecka, Magdalena; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Kinsella, Anthony; Cannon, Mary; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Waddington, John L; Cotter, David R

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis use confers a two-fold increase in risk for psychosis, with adolescent use conferring an even greater risk. A high-low activity polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene encoding the COMT enzyme involved in dopamine clearance in the brain, may interact with adolescent cannabis exposure to increase risk for schizophrenia. The impact of such an interaction on central neurotransmitter pathways implicated in schizophrenia is unknown. Male mice with knockout of the COMT gene were treated chronically with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence (postnatal day 32-52). We measured the size and density of GABAergic cells and the protein expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) in knockout mice relative to heterozygous mutants and wild-type controls. Size and density of dopaminergic neurons was also assessed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) across the genotypes. COMT genotype × THC treatment interactions were observed for: (1) dopaminergic cell size in the VTA, (2) CB1R protein expression in the HPC, and (3) parvalbumin (PV) cell size in the PFC. No effects of adolescent THC treatment were observed for PV and dopaminergic cell density across the COMT genotypes. COMT genotype modulates the effects of chronic THC administration during adolescence on indices of neurotransmitter function in the brain. These findings illuminate how COMT deletion and adolescent cannabis use can interact to modulate the function of neurotransmitters systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  6. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  7. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  8. U.S. Report Cites the Good and Bad on Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical claims and health risks associated with pot. Medical marijuana has been authorized in 28 states, and eight ... treating chronic pain in adults, based on substantial medical evidence, the report states. Oral cannabis-based drugs contain THC, the intoxicating compound in ...

  9. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  10. Identifying the Presence, Severity, and Chronicity of Psychopathological Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Runaways Using the Personality Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Michael E.; And Others

    An extensive review of the adolescent runaway literature indicated inconsistent findings regarding the presence, severity, and chronicity of psychopathological behavior among this high-risk group. Three experiments were conducted to address these issues using one personality measure, the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). The results of the…

  11. Impairment and Coping in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comparative Study with Other Paediatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garralda, M. Elena; Rangel, Luiza

    2004-01-01

    Background: Functional impairment is a key feature of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of childhood. Aim: To compare impairment, illness attitudes and coping mechanisms in childhood CFS and in other paediatric disorders. Method: Participants were 28 children and adolescents with CFS, 30 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 27 with emotional…

  12. Developmental pathways from childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships to early-adolescent rule breaking.

    PubMed

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Childhood aggression-disruptiveness (AD), chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule-breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood AD and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors, and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence.

  13. Microaggressions and marijuana use among college students.

    PubMed

    Pro, George; Sahker, Ethan; Marzell, Miesha

    2017-03-09

    This study examines the association between exposure to microaggressions and marijuana use, using original survey data from a sample of racial/ethnic minority college students (n = 332) from a large Division I university in the United States. Nearly all of our sample (96%) reported at least one experience with microaggressions in the past 6 months, while 33% reported using marijuana regularly. We modeled regular use of marijuana using multiple logistic regression, with consideration of sex, age, race/ethnicity, and microaggression scale scores as covariates. Age, sex, the microinvalidations subscale score, and the full microaggression scale score were significantly associated with marijuana use in our full models (p < .01; p = .01; p = .02; p = .03, respectively). With each additional experience of microaggression, the odds of regular marijuana use increase. Academic communities may consider the primary prevention of discriminatory behavior when addressing student substance use.

  14. Trajectories of Marijuana Use in Youth Ages 15–25: Implications for Postsecondary Education Experiences

    PubMed Central

    HOMEL, JACQUELINE; THOMPSON, KARA; LEADBEATER, BONNIE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood and postsecondary education (PSE) experiences. Outcomes examined included the type of PSE undertaken, the timing of enrollment, and the likelihood of dropping out. Method Participants (N = 632; 332 females) were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study of young people interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of the frequency of marijuana use from ages 15 to 25. Logistic regression analyses evaluated class membership as a predictor of the three PSE outcomes, with sex, maternal education, family structure, high school grades, and conduct problems controlled for. Results Three trajectory groups of marijuana use were identified: abstainers (31%), occasional users (44%), and frequent users (25%). Compared with abstainers, frequent users had the lowest high school grades and the most conduct problems and were least likely to enroll in PSE, especially in a university. Occasional users did not differ from abstainers on high school grades or conduct problems and were no less likely than abstainers to enroll in PSE. However, they delayed enrollment longer and were more likely to drop out of PSE. Conclusions Frequent marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood may close off opportunities for entering PSE, whereas occasional use may create delays in starting and finishing PSE among less at-risk young people. The mechanisms underlying associations between marijuana use and educational difficulties during emerging adulthood as well as adolescence need to be better understood. PMID:24988266

  15. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  16. The effect of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial memory in adolescent rats: the dissociation of metabolic and cognitive tolerances.

    PubMed

    Van Skike, Candice E; Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2012-05-09

    Using a rapid chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure paradigm, we demonstrate the dissociability of metabolic tolerance from cognitive tolerance in adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were trained to spatially navigate in the Morris Water Maze and then exposed to CIE vapor or air 16 h a day for 4 days. After a final 28 h withdrawal, all rats received a saline or ethanol challenge, followed by a test of spatial memory 30 min after administration. Results indicate that CIE vapor exposure did not significantly impair adolescent spatial memory. Although CIE-exposed rats developed metabolic tolerance to a subsequent ethanol administration, CIE exposure did not alter dose-dependent ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments. These data indicate that metabolic ethanol tolerance can be distinguished from cognitive ethanol tolerance during adolescence and suggest that blood alcohol levels alone do not fully explain ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments.

  17. Sinusitis in children and adolescents with chronic or recurrent headache: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Senbil, Nesrin; Gürer, Y K Yavuz; Uner, Ciğdem; Barut, Yaşar

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of misdiagnosis of sinus headache in migraine and other primary headache types in the children and adolescents with chronic or recurrent headaches. Children with chronic or recurrent headaches (n = 310) were prospectively evaluated. Data collection for each patient included history of previously diagnosed sinusitis due to headache, and additional sinusitis complaints (such as fever, cough, nasal discharge, postnasal discharge) at the time of sinusitis diagnosis, and improvement of the headache following treatment of sinusitis. If sinus radiographs existed they were recorded. The study included 214 patients with complete data. One hundred and sixteen (54.2%) patients have been diagnosed as sinusitis previously and 25% of them had at least one additional complaint, while 75% of them had none. Sinusitis treatment had no effect on the headaches in 60.3% of the patients. Sinus graphy had been performed in 52.8%, and 50.4% of them were normal. The prevalence of sinus headache concomitant with primary headache, and only sinus headache was detected in 7 and 1%, respectively, in our study. Approximately 40% of the patients with migraine and 60% of the patients with tension-type headache had been misdiagnosed as "sinus headache". Children with chronic or recurrent headaches are frequently misdiagnosed as sinus headache and receive unnecessary sinusitis treatment and sinus graphy.

  18. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  19. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  20. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  1. Nabilone decreases marijuana withdrawal and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8 mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2-8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8 mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule 'liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment.

  2. Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kelly E; Green, Kelly L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Monteith, Lindsey L; Garza, Monica J; Venta, Amanda

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of stress and problem-solving skills on suicidal behaviors among 102 inpatient adolescents. As expected, life event stress and chronic stress each significantly predicted suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Problem solving significantly predicted suicidal ideation, but not suicide attempt. Problem solving moderated the associations between life event stress and suicidal behaviors, as well as between chronic stress and suicidal ideation, but not chronic stress and suicide attempt. At high levels of stress, adolescents with poor problem-solving skills experienced elevated suicidal ideation and were at greater risk of making a nonfatal suicide attempt. The interactive effects decreased to non-significance after controlling for depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  4. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the…

  5. [Magneto-laser therapy of chronic gastritis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, A A; Nikolaenko, E A

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of transcutaneous magneto-laser treatment as a component of combined therapy of chronic gastritis in children and adolescents (aged 5-17 years) was compared with that of pharmacotherapy and low-intensity laser therapy. The patients were allocated to three groups of 25 persons each. Patients of group 1 were given only drug therapy, those in group 2 were treated with pharmaceuticals and low-intensity laser therapy. The patients comprising group 3 were subjected to the action of magneto-laser radiation. Magneto-laser therapy was shown to result in a significantly more expressed improvement of clinical and morphological characteristics of the patients compared with pharmacotherapy alone. There was no significant difference between effects of magneto-laser and low-intensity laser radiation.

  6. Acute and chronic psychostimulant treatment modulates the diurnal rhythm activity pattern of WKY female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cathleen G; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The hypothesis of this study is that change in diurnal rhythm activity pattern is an indicator for the long-term effect of the treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12-h light/dark cycle in an open-field cage. After 5-7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop behavioral recordings began. On experimental day 1 (ED1), all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED2 to ED7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine followed by 3 days of washout from ED8 to ED10, and amphetamine re-challenge on ED11 similar to ED2. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system, and the cosinor statistical test analysis was used to fit a 24-h curve of the control recording to the activity pattern after treatment. The horizontal activity, total distance, number of stereotypy, vertical activity, and stereotypical movements were analyzed to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. Data obtained using these locomotor indices of diurnal rhythm activity pattern suggest that amphetamine treatment significantly modulates the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity pattern of female WKY adolescent rats.

  7. Effects of home-based respiratory muscle training in children and adolescents with chronic lung disease* **

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Iván; Zenteno, Daniel; Manterola, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness is a functional repercussion of chronic lung disease (CLD). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of home-based respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children and adolescents with CLD or neuromuscular disease (NMD). METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study involving children and adolescents with CLD or NMD. Before and after 6 months of home-based RMT, we measured respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP), PEF, and peak cough flow (PCF). We made statistical comparisons between the pre-RMT and post-RMT values, as well as evaluating the correlation between the duration and effect of RMT. RESULTS: The study included 29 patients, with a mean age of 12 years (range, 5-17 years), of whom 18 (62.1%) were male. The CLD group comprised 11 patients (37.9%), and the NMD group comprised 18 (62.1%). The mean duration of the RMT was 60 weeks (range, 46-90 weeks) in the CLD group and 39 weeks (range, 24-89 weeks) in the NMD group. In comparison with the pre-RMT values, the post-RMT values for MIP and MEP were significantly higher in both groups, whereas those for PEF and PCF were significantly higher only in the NMD group. We found no correlation between the duration and the effect of RMT. CONCLUSIONS: Home-based RMT appears to be an effective strategy for increasing respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CLD or NMD, although it increased the ability to cough effectively only in those with NMD. PMID:25610503

  8. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

  9. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Bartlett, Jess; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include interventions directed at the parent only or at parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to improve parent, child, and family outcomes. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2012, (Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychological therapies that include parents of children and adolescents with chronic illnesses including painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury (TBI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), skin diseases, or gynaecological disorders. We also aimed to evaluate the adverse events related to implementation of psychological therapies for this population. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies and the quality of outcomes using the GRADE assessment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Databases were searched to July 2014. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness compared to an active control, waiting list, or treatment as usual control group. Data collection and analysis Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from included studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each individual medical condition collapsing across all treatment classes at two time points. Second, we analysed data by each individual treatment class; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy

  10. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  11. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective.

  12. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  13. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit.

  14. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children.

    PubMed

    Napper, Lucy E; Froidevaux, Nicole M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-10-01

    While research suggests that parents continue to influence students' marijuana use after matriculation to college, there is limited data examining how parents communicate about marijuana use and what impact parent marijuana communication has on college student outcomes. The aim of the current study is to investigate the types of parent marijuana messages that college students receive and the relationship between parent communication and students' marijuana attitudes and behaviors. Students (N = 506) completed a survey assessing marijuana approval, use, negative consequences, and parent communication. A factor analysis of parent communication items yielded three factors: risk communication, permissive communication, and marijuana use communication. Risk communication was the most common form of communication. In multivariate models, risk communication was associated with increased odds of a student remaining abstinent but not with frequency of marijuana use or negative consequences. Greater permissive communication was associated with more approving student attitudes, greater odds of non-abstinence, more frequent use in the past year, and more negative consequences. These findings highlight the need to consider the different types of messages parents deliver when designing interventions aimed at engaging parents in marijuana prevention efforts.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  16. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  17. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  19. Building bridges between body and mind: The analysis of an adolescent with paralyzing chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the evaluation, initial psychotherapy and subsequent psychoanalysis of an adolescent who presented with a severe psychosomatic process involving total body pain and profound fatigue. The author details the complex and multifaceted nature of the psychosomatic process as it unfolded in the treatment. The psychosomatic problem was not a single entity, but rather was comprised of diverse interwoven elements such as somatization, conversion on pre-oedipal and oedipal levels, conflicts over aggression, sexuality, identity, masochism, secondary gain, anaclitic depression, internalized self-other interactions with a depressed mother and transgenerational transmission of trauma. The author uses the case material to discuss technical approaches to problems that often arise in the analytic treatment of patients with complicated chronic pain and fatigue as the primary complaints. Such approaches include respecting the mind-body split as a primary defense, speaking the language of the body along with the language of the mind and developing the verbal sphere around the non-verbal symptoms. The author emphasizes that complicated chronic pain problems are common and can be helped by psychoanalysis as long as the unique and complex features are understood and reflected in the technical approach.

  20. Acute versus chronic supplementation of sodium citrate on 200 m performance in adolescent swimmers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to investigate whether two different sodium citrate dihydrate (Na-CIT) supplementation protocols improve 200 m swimming performance in adolescent swimmers. Methods Ten, male swimmers (14.9 ± 0.4 years of age; 63.5 ± 4 kg) performed four 200 m time trials with the following treatments: acute (ACU) supplementation (0.5 g kg-1 administered 120 min pre-trial), acute placebo (PLC-A), chronic (CHR) supplementation (0.1 g∙kg-1 for three days and 0.3 g kg-1 on the forth day 120 min pre-trial), and chronic placebo (PLC-C). The order of the trials was randomized, with at least a six-day wash-out period between trials. Blood samples were collected by finger prick pre-ingestion, 100 min post-ingestion, and 3 min post-trial. Performance time, rate of perceived exertion, pH, base excess, bicarbonate and lactate concentration were measured. Results Post-ingestion bicarbonate and base excess were higher (P < 0.05) in both the ACU and CHR trials compared to placebo showing adequate pre-exercise alkalosis. However, performance time, rate of perceived exertion as well as post-trial pH and lactate concentration were not significantly different between trials. Further analysis revealed that five swimmers, identified as responders, improved their performance time by 1.03% (P < 0.05) and attained higher post-trial lactate concentrations in the ACU versus PLC-A trial (P < 0.05). They also had significantly higher post-trial lactate concentrations compared to the non-responders in the ACU and CHR trials. Conclusions Acute supplementation of Na-CIT prior to 200 m swimming performance led to a modest time improvement and higher blood lactate concentrations in only half of the swimmers while the chronic Na-CIT supplementation did not provide any ergogenic effect in this group of adolescent swimmers. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01835912. PMID:24944546

  1. Use of marijuana for medical purposes.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Jabłoński, Piotr; Kidawa, Michal; Wierzba, Waldemar

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990's. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15-16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes. The recent EMCDDA Annual report on the drug situation in Europe notes the increasing potency in cannabis available on the market. Some countries face an increasing number of emergencies caused by marihuana, which was unlikely to have happened previously. In almost all European countries there is an ongoing discussion about loosening marijuana laws or its complete legalization. There is also ongoing discussion on the use of marihuana in therapy as a medicine. Many scientific studies are being conducted in this field. Some of the results are promising; however, there is no well-designed human trial which would unequivocally confirm that medical cannabis is effective as a medicine, or more effective than other medicines on the market. The problem is that the debate on the medical use of marihuana becomes more ideological and less professional. The medical use of marihuana is strongly supported by organizations lobbying for the legalization of cannabis use. Research on the medical use of cannabis should be continued, as there are some promising results supporting therapy in different medical conditions. However, the use of cannabis as a medicine should be discussed only among professionals. If marihuana is to be used for medical purposes, the fact that it is the most popular illicit drug in Europe is irrelevant.

  2. Persistent loss of hippocampal neurogenesis and increased cell death following adolescent, but not adult, chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Spear, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    compared to controls, but no alterations in cell proliferation when indexed by Ki67. These results suggest that a history of adolescent ethanol exposure results in lowered levels of differentiating neurons, probably due at least in part to increased cell death of immature neurons. These effects were evident in adulthood, weeks following termination of the chronic exposure, and may contribute to previously reported behavioral deficits on hippocampal-related tasks after chronic ethanol exposure in adolescence.

  3. The highs that bind: school context, social status and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Matt; Rees, Chris E; McCuddy, Timothy; Carson, Dena C

    2015-05-01

    Substance use has been closely linked with the structural characteristics of adolescent social networks. Those who drink, smoke, and use drugs typically enjoy an elevated status among their peers. Rates of substance use vary substantially across schools, and indicators of school structure and climate account for at least part of this variation. Emerging research suggests peer-group processes are contingent on school context, but questions remain regarding the school-level mechanisms which condition the influence of network characteristics on substance use. The present study uses multilevel logistic regression models to examine the moderating influence of school connectedness, school drug culture, and global network density on the association between peer network status and marijuana use. The analyses draw on self, peer, and parental data from a sample of 7,548 high-school aged youth nested within 106 schools participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (mean age = 15.2; % white = 59 %; male = 45 %). The results indicate that school connectedness significantly reduces the effect of social status on marijuana use. This provides evidence that school-level mechanisms can reduce the instrumentality of marijuana consumption in the status attainment process in adolescence.

  4. A Virtual Learning Environment for the Continuation of Education and Its Relationship with the Mental Well-Being of Chronically Ill Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Van Winkel, Lies

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that the continuation of education by chronically ill adolescents is an important way to avoid social isolation, psychosocial problems and the accumulation of learning difficulties. In this light, virtual learning environments (VLEs), which connect sick adolescents to their schools, play an important role in ensuring that the…

  5. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  6. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  7. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  8. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  9. Effect of sub-chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial learning and ethanol sensitivity in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H S; Hogan, A; Risher, M-Louise; Swartzwelder, Rita A; Wilson, Wilkie A; Acheson, Shawn K

    2014-06-01

    It has become clear that adolescence is a period of distinct responsiveness to the acute effects of ethanol on learning and other cognitive functions. However, the effects of repeated intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on learning and cognition are less well studied, and other effects of repeated ethanol exposure such as withdrawal and chronic tolerance complicate such experiments. Moreover, few studies have compared the effects of repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence and adulthood, and they have yielded mixed outcomes that may be related to methodological differences and/or secondary effects of ethanol on behavioral performance. One emerging question is whether relatively brief intermittent ethanol exposure (i.e., sub-chronic exposure) during adolescence or adulthood might alter learning at a time after exposure when chronic tolerance would be expected, and whether tolerance to the cognitive effects of ethanol might influence the effect of ethanol on learning at that time. To address this, male adolescent and adult rats were pre-treated with sub-chronic daily ethanol (five doses [4.0 g/kg, i.p.] or saline at 24-h intervals, across 5 days). Two days after the last pre-exposure, spatial learning was assessed on 4 consecutive days using the Morris water maze. Half of the animals from each treatment cell received ethanol (2.0 g/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to each testing session and half of the animals received saline. Ethanol pre-exposure altered water maze performance in adult animals but not in adolescents, and acute ethanol exposure impaired learning in animals of both ages independent of pre-exposure condition. There was no evidence of cognitive tolerance in animals of either age group. These results indicate that a relatively short period of intermittent ethanol exposure during adulthood, but not adolescence, promotes thigmotaxis in the water maze shortly after pre-exposure but does not induce cognitive tolerance to the effects of ethanol in

  10. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness.

  11. Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

  12. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  13. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  14. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; de C Williams, Amanda C; Lewandowski, Amy; Morley, Stephen; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain affects many children, who report severe pain, distressed mood, and disability. Psychological therapies are emerging as effective interventions to treat children with chronic or recurrent pain. This update adds recently published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to the review published in 2009. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of psychological therapies, principally cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy, for reducing pain, disability, and improving mood in children and adolescents with recurrent, episodic, or persistent pain. We also assessed the risk of bias and methodological quality of the included studies. Search methods Searches were undertaken of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycLIT. We searched for RCTs in references of all identified studies, meta-analyses and reviews. Date of most recent search: March 2012. Selection criteria RCTs with at least 10 participants in each arm post-treatment comparing psychological therapies with active treatment were eligible for inclusion (waiting list or standard medical care) for children or adolescents with episodic, recurrent or persistent pain. Data collection and analysis All included studies were analysed and the quality of the studies recorded. All treatments were combined into one class: psychological treatments; headache and non-headache outcomes were separately analysed on three outcomes: pain, disability, and mood. Data were extracted at two time points; post-treatment (immediately or the earliest data available following end of treatment) and at follow-up (at least three months after the post-treatment assessment point, but not more than 12 months). Main results Eight studies were added in this update of the review, giving a total of 37 studies. The total number of participants completing treatments was 1938. Twenty-one studies addressed treatments for headache (including migraine); seven for abdominal pain; four included mixed pain conditions including headache pain, two

  15. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-04-03

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  16. Chronic THC during adolescence increases the vulnerability to stress-induced relapse to heroin seeking in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Stopponi, Serena; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial. To explore this aspect of THC pharmacology, in the present study, we treated adolescent rats from postnatal day (PND) 35 to PND-46 with increasing daily doses of THC (2.5-10mg/kg). One week after intoxication, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. One month later (starting from PND 75), rats were trained to operantly self-administer heroin intravenously. Finally, following extinction phase, reinstatement of lever pressing elicited by the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25mg/kg) was evaluated. Data revealed that in comparison to controls, animals treated with chronic THC during adolescence showed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior. When tested for heroin (20μg per infusion) self-administration, no significant differences were observed in both the acquisition of operant responding and heroin intake at baseline. Noteworthy, following the extinction phase, administration of yohimbine elicited a significantly higher level of heroin seeking in rats previously exposed to THC. Altogether these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to THC during adolescence is responsible for heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to drug relapse in adulthood.

  17. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  18. Multimodal compared to pharmacologic treatments for chronic tension-type headache in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Przekop, Peter; Przekop, Allison; Haviland, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in children and adolescents is a serious medical condition, with considerable morbidity and few effective, evidence-based treatments. We performed a chart review of 83 adolescents (age range = 13-18 years; 67 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with CTTH. Two treatment protocols were compared: multimodal (osteopathic manipulative treatments, mindfulness, and qi gong) and pharmacologic (amitriptyline or gabapentin). Four outcomes (headache frequency, pain intensity, general health, and health interference) were assessed at three time points (baseline, 3 months, and 6 months). A fifth outcome, number of bilateral tender points, was recorded at baseline and 6 months. All five were evaluated statistically with a linear mixed model. Although both multimodal and pharmacologic treatments were effective for CTTH (time effects for all measures were significant at p < .001), results from each analysis favored multimodal treatment (the five group by time interaction effects were significant at or below the p < .001 level). Headache frequency in the pharmacologic group, for example, reduced from a monthly average (95% Confidence Interval shown in parentheses) of 23.9 (21.8, 26.0) to 16.4 (14.3, 18.6) and in the multimodal group from 22.3 (20.1, 24.5) to 4.9 (2.6, 7.2) (a substantial group difference). Pain intensity (worst in the last 24 hours, 0-10 scale) was reduced in the pharmacologic group from 6.2 (5.6, 6.9) to 3.4 (2.7, 4.1) and from 6.1 (5.4, 6.8) to 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) in the multimodal group (a less substantial difference). Across the other three assessments, group differences were larger for general health and number of tender points and less so for pain restriction. Multimodal treatment for adolescent CTTH appears to be effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these promising results.

  19. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence in rats induces motor impairments and cerebral cortex damage associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Santana, Luana Nazaré da Silva; Bezerra, Fernando Romualdo; De Carvalho, Sabrina; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we evaluated motor performance and tissue alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to intermittent intoxication with ethanol from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage to complete 90 days of age. The open field, inclined plane and the rotarod tests were used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination performance in adult animals. Following completion of behavioral tests, half of animals were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation of NeuN (marker of neuronal bodies), GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (microglia marker) in the cerebral cortex while the other half of the animals were subjected to analysis of oxidative stress markers by biochemical assays. Chronic ethanol intoxication in rats from adolescence to adulthood induced significant motor deficits including impaired spontaneous locomotion, coordination and muscle strength. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by marked changes in all cellular populations evaluated as well as increased levels of nitrite and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate that continuous ethanol intoxication from adolescence to adulthood is able to provide neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative damage to cerebral cortex.

  20. The relationship of tobacco and marijuana smoking characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M S; Tashkin, D P

    1995-01-01

    In an ongoing study of the pulmonary effects of heavy, habitual marijuana smoking, detailed marijuana and tobacco smoking histories were obtained from 467 adult regular smokers of marijuana and/or tobacco. Frequency and cumulative amounts of tobacco and marijuana smoking were similar for smokers and nonsmokers of tobacco, except that pack-years and cigarettes/day at the time of the interview were both significantly less for tobacco smokers who also smoked marijuana compared those who did not. For all subjects who smoked both substances at any time, changes in tobacco and marijuana smoking amounts after commencement of regular smoking of the other substance were similar for tobacco and marijuana; the existing smoking habit decreased in approximately one third of the subjects and remained the same in slightly more than one half of the subjects. Of the dual smokers, 49% began smoking tobacco before marijuana, while 33% began smoking marijuana first; 85% of marijuana smokers who quit tobacco smoking did so after beginning regular marijuana smoking. Self-reported depth of inhalation and breath-holding time of marijuana smoke were similar for tobacco and non-tobacco smokers; smoking topography for tobacco was also comparable for smokers and non-smokers of marijuana.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Amitriptyline for Chronic Migraine in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott W.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M.; Allen, Janelle R.; LeCates, Susan L.; Slater, Shalonda K.; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Shenk, Chad E.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Early, safe, effective, and durable evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with chronic migraine do not exist. OBJECTIVE To determine the benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) when combined with amitriptyline vs headache education plus amitriptyline. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial of 135 youth (79% female) aged 10 to 17 years diagnosed with chronic migraine (≥15 days with headache/month) and a Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score (PedMIDAS) greater than 20 points were assigned to the CBT plus amitriptyline group (n = 64) or the headache education plus amitriptyline group (n = 71). The study was conducted in the Headache Center at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital between October 2006 and September 2012; 129 completed 20-week follow-up and 124 completed 12-month follow-up. INTERVENTIONS Ten CBT vs 10 headache education sessions involving equivalent time and therapist attention. Each group received 1 mg/kg/d of amitriptyline and a 20-week end point visit. In addition, follow-up visits were conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was days with headache and the secondary end point was PedMIDAS (disability score range: 0–240 points; 0–10 for little to none, 11–30 for mild, 31–50 for moderate, >50 for severe); both end points were determined at 20 weeks. Durability was examined over the 12-month follow-up period. Clinical significance was measured by a 50% or greater reduction in days with headache and a disability score in the mild to none range (<20 points). RESULTS At baseline, there were a mean (SD) of 21 (5) days with headache per 28 days and the mean (SD) PedMIDAS was 68 (32) points. At the 20-week end point, days with headache were reduced by 11.5 for the CBT plus amitriptyline group vs 6.8 for the headache education plus amitriptyline group (difference, 4.7 [95% CI, 1.7–7.7] days; P = .002). The PedMIDAS decreased by 52.7 points

  2. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.

  3. Adolescent exposure to chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks opiate dependence in maternally deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Lydie J; Giros, Bruno; Daugé, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    Maternal deprivation in rats specifically leads to a vulnerability to opiate dependence. However, the impact of cannabis exposure during adolescence on this opiate vulnerability has not been investigated. Chronic dronabinol (natural delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) exposure during postnatal days 35-49 was made in maternal deprived (D) or non-deprived (animal facility rearing, AFR) rats. The effects of dronabinol exposure were studied after 2 weeks of washout on the rewarding effects of morphine measured in the place preference and oral self-administration tests. The preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA levels and the relative density and functionality of CB1, and mu-opioid receptors were quantified in the striatum and the mesencephalon. Chronic dronabinol exposure in AFR rats induced an increase in sensitivity to morphine conditioning in the place preference paradigm together with a decrease of PPE mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and the caudate-putamen nucleus, without any modification for preference to oral morphine consumption. In contrast, dronabinol treatment on D-rats normalized PPE decrease in the striatum, morphine consumption, and suppressed sensitivity to morphine conditioning. CB1 and mu-opioid receptor density and functionality were not changed in the striatum and mesencephalon of all groups of rats. These results indicate THC potency to act as a homeostatic modifier that would worsen the reward effects of morphine on naive animals, but ameliorate the deficits in maternally D-rats. These findings point to the self-medication use of cannabis in subgroups of individuals subjected to adverse postnatal environment.

  4. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions, including mood lability, sleep disruption and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in non-treatment-seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were in-patient. On the first in-patient day, active marijuana [6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week, completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, and decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Compared with placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence.

  5. Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162372.html Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds Researchers suggest 2007 recession ... more American adults choose to puff at the marijuana pipe, a gender difference is becoming clear -- men ...

  6. [Important aspects in pediatric care of children and adolescents with chronic disease using the example of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Steiß, J-O; Lindemann, H; Brosig, B; Zimmer, K P

    2013-12-01

    When treating children or adolescents with chronic disease one should take the specific age-related features of the course of disease, differential diagnosis, and the psychosocial environment, as well as the avoidance of complications and side effects of therapy into account. These may impair the patient's physical and psychosocial development and quality of life in the context of family, school and occupational life. Continued care of growing children from the start of the disease when they are infants to the point when they assume personal responsibility as adults is one of the major concerns of the pediatrician. This concept requires interdisciplinary cooperation and a large body of personnel which would include training programs, inclusion of family members and in some cases psychosomatic therapy. Given the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in this age group and their sociopolitical significance it is important to activate preventive potentials in terms of content and structure - by quality assurance - especially to avoid long-term complications. Various care structures are used in Europe to achieve this goal. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and adolescents. It influences quality of life as well as the child's personal, educational and occupational development to a significant extent. The special aspects of the treatment of these patients will be addressed to illustrate the therapy of chronic disease.

  7. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health: Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.

  8. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE AMONG BLACKS

    PubMed Central

    Racine, C.; Vincent, M.; Rogers, A.; Donat, M.; Ojike, N. I.; Necola, O.; Yousef, E.; Masters-Israilov, A.; Jean-Louis, G.; McFarlane, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased legalization of marijuana has resulted in renewed interest in its effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk. Conflicting data exist regarding marijuana effects on body weight, waist circumference as well as lipid profiles, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data available on this effect in the black population. Objective To assess the metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors as well as body weight and waist circumference among urban black marijuana users. Methods A cross sectional study design involving 100 patients seen in a Family Practice clinic at University hospital of Brooklyn, NY, USA, over a period of 3 months from January 2014 to March 2014. Participants were administered a questionnaire regarding marijuana use, and other associated behaviors. Socio-demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. We report measures of central tendencies, and dispersion for continuous variables and the frequency of distribution for categorical variables. Results Of the 100 patients surveyed, 57% were females. The mean (±SEM) age of the entire cohort was 46.3 years±1.5; range, 19–78 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.6 kg/m2±0.73; SBP=128.0 mmHg±1.69; DBP=76.1 mmHg±1.17. Current marijuana users had the lowest waist circumference compared to former or never users respectively (32.9±0.66 vs. 35.9±0.88 vs. 33.4±0.74), p<0.01. Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg was significantly higher among former marijuana users compared to current or never users, (80.0±2.1 vs. 73.3±2.3 vs. 73.4±1.6), p<0.01. Current marijuana users showed a tendency (not statistically significant) towards lower total cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, compared to former users or never users. Conclusion Current marijuana use is associated with significantly lower waist

  9. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  10. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana Print A A A en español Lo que ... sobre las drogas: La mariguana What It Is: Marijuana (say: mare-uh-WAH-nuh) is the most ...

  11. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  12. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-04-21

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments.

  13. Adolescent Chronic Unpredictable Stress Exposure Is a Sensitive Window for Long-Term Changes in Adult Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Blendy, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a time period in development when the brain undergoes substantial remodeling in response to the environment. To determine whether a stressful experience during adolescence affects adult behavior, we exposed adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 12 days starting at postnatal day 28 (PND28). We also exposed adult male and female mice to CUS for 12 days beginning at PND70 to determine whether adolescence is a sensitive time period when stress can have long-lasting effects on behavior. Regardless of when mice were exposed to stress, they were all tested exactly 30 days later in the marble burying task, elevated zero maze, acoustic startle response, and forced swim test. Adolescent stress exposure increased anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice and decreased acoustic startle response in a sex-dependent manner. However, adult stress exposure did not change anxiety or response to an acoustic tone in adult male or female mice as compared with nonstressed animals. Of interest, increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test was observed in all mice, regardless of when the stress occurred. Gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CrfR2) in the amygdala of males subjected to CUS during adolescence, but not in males that experienced CUS during adulthood. In contrast, females, regardless of when they were exposed to CUS, were not affected. These data support clinical evidence suggesting that early-life stress may predispose individuals to increased anxiety and depression later in life.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.11.

  14. A Qualitative Comparison of Parent and Adolescent Views regarding Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is a major cause of adolescent morbidity and mortality. By age 14, 70% of adolescents have consumed alcohol and half of 12th graders report having used marijuana. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of parent and adolescent perceptions regarding adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) to…

  15. An assessment of the experiences and needs of adolescents with chronic conditions in transitional care: a qualitative study to develop a patient education programme.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Franziska; Herrmann-Garitz, Carsten; Schmidt, Julia; Schmidt, Silke; Thyen, Ute

    2017-03-01

    The transition of adolescents with chronic conditions is a challenging task. This study aimed to explore the experiences and needs of adolescents with chronic conditions in the transition period and to apply these findings to the design of a generic patient education programme. Data were collected from a sample of 29 adolescents with chronic conditions from Northern Germany and Switzerland including a broad range of views due to variation in disease management and organisation of care both in paediatric and adult populations. Participants were interviewed in group (n = 18) or individual (n = 11) interviews between September 2011 and February 2012, and the data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed that the interviewees expressed high levels of competency in the management of their chronic conditions but identified gaps in healthcare and unmet needs during transition. In particular, they believed that they would benefit from opportunities to exchange ideas and more specific information with peers about vocational and medical issues concerning adolescent health. Identified themes reflecting adolescent needs were used to develop the transition workshop including modules regarding the following: transfer to adult medicine, their new role as a patient, orientation within the healthcare system, vocational issues, detachment from parents, social support, contraception, substance abuse, family planning, stress-management, activation of resources and developing personal goals. The workshop's content was largely generic and included some condition-specific components. The workshop was designed as a compact 2-day patient education programme in a group setting for adolescents prior to their transfer to adult care. The guiding principle was the idea of empowerment by supporting the adolescents through various interactive methods to develop adequate knowledge, skills, understanding and motivation regarding their chronic conditions. We

  16. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations.

  17. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  18. Cinacalcet in pediatric and adolescent chronic kidney disease: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Alharthi, Abdulla A; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abukhatwah, Mohamed W; Sherief, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic drug, has been shown to be efficacious in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, it was not fully studied in pediatric CKD patients. We aimed at assessing the effect of cinacalcet on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion in children with CKD-4/5 with iPTH consistently ≥ 300 pg/mL refractory to conventional treatment. This is a prospective cohort analysis of 28 children with uncontrolled hyper-parathyroidism secondary to stage 4 and 5 CKD admitted to a tertiary center during the period from April 2012 to April 2014. Twenty-eight patients with CKD-4/5 were assessed prospectively regarding bone biochemistry, renal ultrasonography, serum iPTH level, and medications. Patients were classified into 3 groups: group 1, 6 patients with CKD-4 on supplemental and supportive therapy; group 2, 6 patients with CKD-5 on hemodialysis and; group 3, 16 patients with CKD-5 on automated peritoneal dialysis. Patients were between the ages of 9 months and 18 years on commencing cinacalcet at doses of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg. All patients showed at least a 60% reduction in iPTH (60%-97%). Highly significant reduction in iPTH and serum alkaline phosphatase levels was detected post-cinacalcet. The serum calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and Ca × P product were unaffected. Treatment was well tolerated with no hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, or other adverse effects almost in all patients. Cinacalcet use was proven safe for all pediatric and adolescent patients with CKD-4/5 during the study period, and at the same time most of the patients reached the suggested iPTH target values.

  19. Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Hanks, Camille E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Adams, Heather R.; Augustine, Erika F.; Vierhile, Amy; Thatcher, Alyssa; Bitsko, Rebecca; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence of elevated risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (CTD), few studies have actually examined that relationship. This study documented the frequency and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of children and adolescents with CTD (N=196; range 6-18 years old). Method Youth and parents completed a battery of measures that assessed co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, child emotional and behavioral symptoms, and impairment due to tics or co-occurring conditions. Results A structured diagnostic interview identified that 19 youths with CTD (9.7%) experienced suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which was elevated compared to three youths (3%) who experienced these thoughts in a community control sample (N=100; range 6-18 years old; p = 0.03). For youth with CTD, suicidal thoughts and behaviors were frequently endorsed in the context of anger and frustration. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) anxious/depressed, withdrawn, social problems, thought problems, and aggressive behavior subscales, as well as the total internalizing problems scale were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors were significantly associated with tic symptom severity, tic-related impairment, and obsessive-compulsive, depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. CBCL anxiety/depression scores mediated the relationship between tic severity and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest that about 1 in 10 youth with CTD experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which are associated with a more complex clinical presentation and often occur in the presence of anger and frustration. PMID:25711415

  20. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  1. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela J; Becker, James T; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

  2. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  3. Variability in Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and pro-marijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states. PMID:26415061

  4. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with chronic pain and their parents: a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica; Bromberg, Maggie H; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Tai, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Internet-delivered interventions are emerging as a strategy to address barriers to care for individuals with chronic pain. This is the first large multicenter randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric chronic pain. Participants included were 273 adolescents (205 females and 68 males), aged 11 to 17 years with mixed chronic pain conditions and their parents, who were randomly assigned in a parallel-group design to Internet-delivered CBT (n = 138) or Internet-delivered Education (n = 135). Assessments were completed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. All data collection and procedures took place online. The primary analysis used linear growth models. Results demonstrated significantly greater reduction on the primary outcome of activity limitations from baseline to 6-month follow-up for Internet CBT compared with Internet education (b = -1.13, P = 0.03). On secondary outcomes, significant beneficial effects of Internet CBT were found on sleep quality (b = 0.14, P = 0.04), on reducing parent miscarried helping (b = -2.66, P = 0.007) and protective behaviors (b = -0.19, P = 0.001), and on treatment satisfaction (P values < 0.05). On exploratory outcomes, benefits of Internet CBT were found for parent-perceived impact (ie, reductions in depression, anxiety, self-blame about their adolescent's pain, and improvement in parent behavioral responses to pain). In conclusion, our Internet-delivered CBT intervention produced a number of beneficial effects on adolescent and parent outcomes, and could ultimately lead to wide dissemination of evidence-based psychological pain treatment for youth and their families.

  5. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  6. Medicinal and recreational marijuana use by patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Furler, Michelle D; Einarson, Thomas R; Millson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Bendayan, Reina

    2004-04-01

    The goal of this study was to describe and compare the prevalence, predictors and patterns of marijuana use, specifically medicinal marijuana use among patients with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Any marijuana use in the year prior to interview and self-defined medicinal use were evaluated. A cross-sectional multicenter survey and retrospective chart review were conducted between 1999 and 2001 to evaluate overall drug utilization in HIV, including marijuana use. HIV-positive adults were identified through the HIV Ontario Observational Database (HOOD), 104 consenting patients were interviewed. Forty-three percent of patients reported any marijuana use, while 29% reported medicinal use. Reasons for use were similar by gender although a significantly higher number of women used marijuana for pain management. Overall, the most commonly reported reason for medicinal marijuana use was appetite stimulation/weight gain. Whereas male gender and history of intravenous drug use were predictive of any marijuana use, only household income less than $20,000 CDN was associated with medicinal marijuana use. Age, gender, HIV clinical status, antiretroviral use, and history of intravenous drug use were not significant predictors of medicinal marijuana use. Despite the frequency of medicinal use, minimal changes in the pattern of marijuana use upon HIV diagnosis were reported with 80% of current medicinal users also indicating recreational consumption. Although a large proportion of patients report medicinal marijuana use, overlap between medical and recreational consumption is substantial. The role of poverty in patient choice of medicinal marijuana despite access to care and the large proportion of women using marijuana for pain constitute areas for further study.

  7. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Gruber, Staci A.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Silveri, Marisa M.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 nonusing (NU) comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform) and motor control (visible platform) conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ). These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval. PMID:23951549

  8. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health.

  9. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…

  10. Sensation seeking needs among 8th and 11th graders: characteristics associated with cigarette and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Kopstein, A N; Crum, R M; Celentano, D D; Martin, S S

    2001-05-01

    This cross-sectional school-based study explored the relationship between adolescent use of cigarettes and marijuana and the sensation seeking personality factors of (1) Disinhibition and (2) Thrill and Adventure Seeking. The study population included a representative sample of both male and female 8th and 11th graders in the state of Delaware. Analytic methods utilized included correlational analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In the multivariate logistic regression models, the Disinhibition personality factor accounted for cigarette and marijuana using behaviors with odds ratios ranging between 2 and 3. Thrill and Adventure Seeking was not a significant explanatory variable in any of the final multivariate models. Potential confounders (age, gender and race) were considered in all analyses. Of all the two-way interactions assessed, none was significant. The findings from this study utilizing a large general community sample indicate that sensation seeking needs are a potential risk factor for adolescent substance use.

  11. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.

  12. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  13. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  14. Shifting Drug Policy: The Politics of Marijuana in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Marijuana, medical marijuana, drug war, cannabis , Controlled Substances Act, international drug policy. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 97 16...Department decision to restrict marijuana ( cannabis ) importation ...39 Figure 3. Fifty state marijuana laws in 2013...World Drug Report discusses that marijuana (referenced as cannabis in the report) is a drug that has a usage history dating back thousands of years, is

  15. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied.

  16. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    PubMed

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  17. The Likelihood of Preventing Respiratory Exacerbations in Children and Adolescents with either Chronic Suppurative Lung Disease or Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Grimwood, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis in children and adolescents are important causes of respiratory morbidity and reduced quality of life (QoL), also leading to subsequent premature death during adulthood. Acute respiratory exacerbations in pediatric CSLD and bronchiectasis are important markers of disease control clinically, given that they impact upon QoL and increase health-care-associated costs and can adversely affect future lung functioning. Preventing exacerbations in this population is, therefore, likely to have significant individual, familial, societal, and health-sector benefits. In this review, we focus on therapeutic interventions, such as drugs (antibiotics, mucolytics, hyperosmolar agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents), vaccines and physiotherapy, and care-planning, such as post-hospitalization management and health promotion strategies, including exercise, diet, and reducing exposure to environmental toxicants. The review identified a conspicuous lack of moderate or high-quality evidence for preventing respiratory exacerbations in children and adolescents with CSLD or bronchiectasis. Given the short- and long-term impact of exacerbations upon individuals, their families, and society as a whole, large studies addressing interventions at the primary and tertiary prevention phases are required. This research must include children and adolescents in both developing and developed countries and address long-term health outcomes. PMID:28393062

  18. Chronic restraint stress in adolescence differentially influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Barha, Cindy K; Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between adversity in adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood in a sex-specific manner. Adolescence is characterized by major changes in stress-responsive regions of the brain, including the hippocampus, the site of ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifespan. Prepubertal male and female rats exhibit different acute reactions to chronic stress compared to adults, but less is known about whether these stress-induced changes persist into adulthood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of chronic, intermittent stress during adolescence on basal corticosterone levels, dentate gyrus (DG) volume, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Adolescent male and female rats were either restrained for 1 h every other day for 3 weeks from postnatal days (PDs) 30-52 at unpredictable times or left undisturbed. All rats received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) in adulthood on PD70 and were perfused 3 weeks later. Brains were processed for Ki67 (endogenous marker of cell proliferation) and BrdU (to estimate effects on cell survival). In addition, blood samples were taken during the restraint stress period and in adulthood. Results show that males and females exhibit different corticosterone responses to chronic stress during adolescence and that only adult female rats exposed to stress during adolescence show higher basal corticosterone levels compared to nonstressed controls. Furthermore, stressed females showed a reduced number of proliferating and surviving cells in the DG in adulthood compared to nonstressed same-sex controls. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells were co-labeled with NeuN, an endogenous marker of mature neurons, indicating that neurogenesis was decreased in the DG of adult female rats that had undergone chronic restraint stress in adolescence. Although male rats were more responsive to the chronic stress as adolescents showing higher

  19. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 μm), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

  20. Minocycline mitigates motor impairments and cortical neuronal loss induced by focal ischemia in rats chronically exposed to ethanol during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gedeão Batista; Fontes, Enéas de Andrade; de Carvalho, Sabrina; da Silva, Josiane Batista; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Oliveira, Maria Cristina Souza Pereira; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz

    2014-05-02

    Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of cerebral ischemia contributing to poor prognosis and inefficacy of drug treatments for stroke-related symptoms. Females have a higher lifetime risk for stroke than males. Moreover, female gender has been associated with increased ethanol consumption during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may potentiate the motor impairments and cortical damage induced by focal ischemia in female rats. We also addressed whether these effects can be mitigated by minocycline, which has been shown to be neuroprotective against different insults in the CNS. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days by gavage. Focal ischemia was induced by microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1) into the motor cortex. Animals of both groups were treated daily with minocycline (25-50 mg/kg, i.p.) or sterile saline (i.p.) for 5 days, and motor function was assessed using open field, inclined plane and rotarod tests. Chronic ethanol exposure exacerbated locomotor activity and motor coordination impairments induced by focal ischemia in rats. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that microinjections of ET-1 induced pyramidal neuron loss and microglial activation in the motor cortex. Minocycline reversed the observed motor impairments, microglial activation and pyramidal neuron loss in the motor cortex of ischemic rats even in those exposed to ethanol. These results suggest that minocycline induces neuroprotection and functional recovery in ischemic female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this protective effect may be related to the modulation of neuroinflammation.