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Sample records for adolescent cocaine exposure

  1. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  2. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on adolescent development

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gale A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    The associations between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and adolescent behavior, cognitive development, and physical growth were examined in 219 15-year-olds who have participated in a longitudinal study since their fourth gestational month. During the first trimester, 42% of the women used cocaine, with use declining across pregnancy. At the 15-year follow-up, the caregivers were, on average, 43 years old, had 13 years of education, and 50% were African American. First trimester PCE was not associated with global cognitive development or with measures of learning and memory. First trimester PCE was significantly related to adolescentreported delinquent behavior, poorer problem solving and abstract reasoning, and reduced weight, height, and head circumference at 15 years. These results were significant after other factors that affect these domains were controlled in regression analyses. In addition, exposure to violence partially mediated the effect of PCE on delinquent behavior. These adolescent domains are important because they are predictors of poorer adult functioning. PMID:25778776

  3. Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a

  4. Performance on a strategy set shifting task in rats following adult or adolescent cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Kathleen M.; Barlow, Nicole; Tassin, David H.; Brisotti, Madeline F.; Jordan, Chloe J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuropsychological testing is widespread in adult cocaine abusers, but lacking in teens. Animal models may provide insight into age-related neuropsychological consequences of cocaine exposure. Objectives Determine whether developmental plasticity protects or hinders behavioral flexibility after cocaine exposure in adolescent vs. adult rats. Methods Using a yoked-triad design, one rat controlled cocaine delivery and the other two passively received cocaine or saline. Rats controlling cocaine delivery (1.0 mg/kg) self-administered for 18 sessions (starting P37 or P77), followed by 18 drug-free days. Rats next were tested in a strategy set shifting task, lasting 11–13 sessions. Results Cocaine self-administration did not differ between age groups. During initial set formation, adolescent-onset groups required more trials to reach criterion and made more errors than adult-onset groups. During the set shift phase, rats with adult-onset cocaine self-administration experience had higher proportions of correct trials and fewer perseverative + regressive errors than age-matched yoked-controls or rats with adolescent-onset cocaine self-administration experience. During reversal learning, rats with adult-onset cocaine experience (self-administered or passive) required fewer trials to reach criterion and the self-administering rats made fewer perseverative + regressive errors than yoked-saline rats. Rats receiving adolescent-onset yoked-cocaine had more trial omissions and longer lever press reaction times than age-matched rats self-administering cocaine or receiving yoked-saline. Conclusions Prior cocaine self-administration may impair memory to reduce proactive interference during set shifting and reversal learning in adult-onset but not adolescent-onset rats (developmental plasticity protective). Passive cocaine may disrupt aspects of executive function in adolescent-onset but not adult-onset rats (developmental plasticity hinders). PMID:24800898

  5. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood.

  6. Adolescent nicotine exposure fails to impact cocaine reward, aversion and self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Bostwick, Tamaara A; Wetzell, B Bradley; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-10-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of adolescent nicotine pre-exposure on the rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine and on cocaine self-administration in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 28-43) were given once daily injections of nicotine (0.6mg/kg) or vehicle and then tested for the aversive and rewarding effects of cocaine in a combined conditioned taste avoidance (CTA)/conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in adulthood. In Experiment 2, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to nicotine then tested for cocaine self-administration (0.25 or 0.75mg/kg), progressive ratio (PR) responding, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement in adulthood. In Experiment 1, rats showed significant dose-dependent cocaine-induced taste avoidance with cocaine-injected subjects consuming less saccharin over trials, but no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. For place preferences, cocaine induced significant place preferences with cocaine injected subjects spending significantly more time on the cocaine-paired side, but again there was no effect of nicotine history. All rats in Experiment 2 showed clear, dose-dependent responding during cocaine acquisition, PR testing, extinction and reinstatement with no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. These studies demonstrate that adolescent nicotine pre-exposure does not have an impact on cocaine's affective properties or its self-administration at least with the specific parametric conditions under which these effects were tested.

  7. Early adolescent nicotine exposure affects later-life cocaine reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Alajaji, Mai; Lazenka, Matthew F; Kota, Dena; Wise, Laura E; Younis, Rabha M; Carroll, F Ivy; Levine, Amir; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Damaj, M Imad

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence represents a unique developmental period associated with increased risk-taking behavior and experimentation with drugs of abuse, in particular nicotine. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine during early adolescence might increase the risk for drug reward in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, male ICR mice were treated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine or saline during adolescence, and their preference for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine was examined using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in adulthood. Long-term behavioral changes induced by nicotine suggested a possible role of altered gene transcription. Thus, immunoblot for ΔFosB, a member of the Fos family of transcription factors, was conducted in the nucleus accumbens of these mice. Mice treated with nicotine during early but not late adolescence showed an increase in CPP for cocaine, morphine and amphetamine later in adulthood. This effect was not seen in mice pretreated with a subchronic regimen of nicotine as adults, suggesting that exposure to nicotine specifically during early adolescence increases the rewarding effects of other drugs in adulthood. However, adolescent nicotine exposure did not alter highly palatable food conditioning in mice. The enhancement of cocaine CPP by nicotine was strain-dependent and was blocked by pretreatment with nicotinic antagonists. In addition, nicotine exposure during early adolescence induced ΔFosB expression to a greater extent than identical nicotine exposure in adulthood, and enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization later in adulthood. These results suggest that nicotine exposure during early adolescence increases drug-induced reward in adulthood through mechanisms that may involve the induction of ΔFosB.

  8. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  9. Adolescent exposure to nicotine alters the aversive effects of cocaine in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Mary Anne; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the most commonly used drugs in adolescence and has been shown to alter the rewarding effects of cocaine when administered in adulthood. Although the abuse potential of a drug has been suggested to be a balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the long-term effects of nicotine on the aversive properties of other drugs had not been studied. To that end, in the present study rats exposed to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) during adolescence (postnatal days 35-44) were tested for the acquisition and extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversion (10, 18 or 32 mg/kg) in adulthood. Conditioning consisted of four saccharin-drug pairings followed by six extinction trials. Although cocaine-induced aversions at all doses, no effect of nicotine preexposure was seen during acquisition. During extinction, the nicotine-preexposed groups conditioned with 10 and 18 mg/kg cocaine displayed a decreased rate of extinction compared to their respective controls. These results suggest that while adolescent nicotine exposure does not appear to directly alter the aversive properties of cocaine it may affect other processes related to the response to drugs given in adulthood.

  10. Regional Brain Morphometry and Impulsivity in Adolescents Following Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lester, Barry M.; Neyzi, Nurunisa; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Gracia, Luis; Kekatpure, Minal; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Animal studies have suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) deleteriously influences the developing nervous system, in part attributable to its site of action in blocking the function of monoamine reuptake transporters, increasing synaptic levels of serotonin and dopamine. Objective To examine the brain morphologic features and associated impulsive behaviors in adolescents following prenatal exposure to cocaine and/or tobacco. Design Magnetic resonance imaging data and behavioral measures were collected from adolescents followed up longitudinally in the Maternal Lifestyle Study. Setting A hospital-based research center. Participants A total of 40 adolescent participants aged 13 to 15 years were recruited, 20 without PCE and 20 with PCE; a subset of each group additionally had tobacco exposure. Participants were selected and matched based on head circumference at birth, gestational age, maternal alcohol use, age, sex, race/ethnicity, IQ, family poverty, and socioeconomic status. Main Outcome Measures Subcortical volumetric measures of the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens; cortical thickness measures of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral medial prefrontal cortex; and impulsivity assessed by Conners' Continuous Performance Test and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children. Results After controlling for covariates, cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was significantly thinner in adolescents following PCE (P=.03), whereas the pallidum volume was smaller in adolescents following prenatal tobacco exposure (P=.03). Impulsivity was correlated with thalamic volume following either PCE (P=.05) or prenatal tobacco exposure (P=.04). Conclusions and Relevance Prenatal cocaine or tobacco exposure can differentially affect structural brain maturation during adolescence and underlie enhanced susceptibility to impulsivity. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are

  11. Chronic cocaine or ethanol exposure during adolescence alters novelty-related behaviors in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2007-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of high-risk behavior and increased exploration. This developmental period is marked by a greater probability to initiate drug use and is associated with an increased risk to develop addiction and adulthood dependency and drug use at this time is associated with an increased risk. Human adolescents are predisposed toward an increased likelihood of risk-taking behaviors [Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and the endogenous deficit theory of drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1986;74:59-70.], including drug use or initiation. In the present study, adolescent animals were exposed to twenty days of either saline (0.9% sodium chloride), cocaine (20 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) i.p. followed by a fifteen-day washout period. All animals were tested as adults on several behavioral measures including locomotor activity induced by a novel environment, time spent in the center of an open field, novelty preference and novel object exploration. Animals exposed to cocaine during adolescence and tested as adults exhibited a greater locomotor response in a novel environment, spent less time in the center of the novel open field and spent less time with a novel object, results that are indicative of a stress or anxiogenic response to novelty or a novel situation. Adolescent animals chronically administered ethanol and tested as adults, unlike cocaine-exposed were not different from controls in a novel environment, indicated by locomotor activity or time spent with a novel object. However, ethanol-exposed animals approached the novel object more, suggesting that exposure to ethanol during development may result in less-inhibited behaviors during adulthood. The differences in adult behavioral responses after drug exposure during adolescence are likely due to differences in the mechanisms of action of the drugs and subsequent reward and/or stress responsivity. Future studies are needed to determine the neural substrates of these long lasting drug-induced changes.

  12. Prenatal cocaine exposure and adolescent neural responses to appetitive and stressful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; Potenza, Elise B; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical research has demonstrated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on brain regions involved in emotional regulation, motivational control, and addiction vulnerability-eg, the ventral striatum (VS), anterior cingulate (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, little is known about the function of these regions in human adolescents with PCE. Twenty-two adolescents with PCE and 22 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched non-cocaine exposed (NCE) adolescents underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during exposure to individually personalized neutral/relaxing, stressful, and favorite-food cues. fMRI data were compared using group-level two-tailed t-tests in the BioImage Suite. In comparison with NCE adolescents, PCE adolescents had reduced activity within cortical and subcortical brain regions, including the VS, ACC, and medial and dorslolateral PFC during exposure to favorite-food cues but did not differ in neural responses to stress cues. Subjective food craving was inversely related to dorsolateral PFC activation among PCE adolescents. Among PCE adolescents, subjective anxiety ratings correlated inversely with activations in the orbitofrontal cortex and brainstem during the stress condition and with ACC, dorsolateral PFC, and hippocampus activity during the neutral-relaxing condition. Thus adolescents with PCE display hypoactivation of brain regions involved in appetitive processing, with subjective intensities of craving and anxiety correlating inversely with extent of activation. These findings suggest possible mechanisms by which PCE might predispose to the development of addictions and related disorders, eg, substance-use disorders and binge-eating.

  13. Prenatal cocaine exposure, illicit-substance use and stress and craving processes during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with increased rates of illicit-substance use during adolescence. In addition, both PCE and illicit-substance use are associated with alterations in cortico-striato-limbic neurocircuitry, development of which is ongoing throughout adolescence. However, the relationship between illicit-substance use, PCE and functional neural responses has not previously been assessed concurrently. Methods Sixty-eight adolescents were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent development. All participants had been followed since birth. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired during presentation of personalized stressful, favorite-food and neutral/relaxing imagery scripts and compared between 46 PCE and 22 non-prenatally-drug-exposed (NDE) adolescents with and without lifetime illicit-substance use initiation. Data were analyzed using multi-level ANOVAs (pFWE<.05). Results There was a significant three-way interaction between illicit-substance use, PCE status and cue condition on neural responses within primarily cortical brain regions, including regions of the left and right insula. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use was associated with decreased subcortical and increased cortical activity during the favorite-food condition, whereas the opposite pattern of activation was observed during the neutral/relaxing condition. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use during stress processing was associated with decreased activity in cortical and subcortical regions including amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Neural activity within cortico-striato-limbic regions was significantly negatively associated with subjective ratings of anxiety and craving among illicit-substance users, but not among non-users. Conclusions These findings suggest different neural substrates of experimentation with illicit drugs between adolescents with and

  14. Gender-related Differences in Inhibitory Control and Sustained Attention among Adolescents with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banz, Barbara C.; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and prenatal cocaine exposure can impact risk-taking. In this study, we evaluated risk-taking and gender-related differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure in terms of electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and sustained attention. No differences related to gender were found within measures of risk-taking, or electrophysiological response relating to risk-taking. Greater responses during inhibition versus attention trials support previous studies, with boys showing the largest responses. Gender-related differences were found when comparing the trials before and after frustration was induced, with greater initial attention indices for girls in both trial types and greater sustained attention for both genders during inhibition trials and for boys during attention trials. These data suggest neural correlates of response inhibition show important gender-related differences in this population. Considering these relationships allows us to further understand underlying processes among adolescents who, as a group, tend to be more inclined toward greater risk behaviors. PMID:27354841

  15. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  16. Adolescents with and without gestational cocaine exposure: Longitudinal analysis of inhibitory control, memory and receptive language.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Laura M; Yang, Wei; Brodsky, Nancy L; Gallagher, Paul R; Malmud, Elsa K; Giannetta, Joan M; Farah, Martha J; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes. Important changes in brain structure and function occur through adolescence, therefore it is possible that prenatal cocaine exposure has latent effects on neurocognitive (NC) outcome that do not manifest until adolescence or young adulthood. We examined NC function using a set of 5 tasks designed to tap 4 different systems: inhibitory control, working memory, receptive language, and incidental memory. For each NC task, data were collected longitudinally at ages 12, 14.5 and 17 years and examined using generalized estimating equations. One hundred and nine children completed at least two of the three evaluations. Covariates included in the final model were assessment number, gender, participant age at first assessment, caregiver depression, and two composites from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance. We found no cocaine effects on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language (p=0.18). GCE effects were observed on incidental face memory task (p=0.055), and GCE by assessment number interaction effects were seen on the incidental word memory task (p=0.031). Participant performance on inhibitory control, working memory, and receptive language tasks improved over time. HOME Environmental Stimulation composite was associated with better receptive language functioning. With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by

  17. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  18. Chronic cocaine exposure in adolescence: Effects on spatial discrimination reversal, delay discounting, and performance on fixed-ratio schedules in mice.

    PubMed

    Pope, Derek A; Boomhower, Steven R; Hutsell, Blake A; Teixeira, Kathryn M; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is marked by the continued development of the neural pathways that support choice and decision-making, particularly those involving dopamine signaling. Cocaine exposure during adolescence may interfere with this development and manifest as increased perseveration and delay discounting in adulthood, behavioral processes that are related to drug addiction. Adolescent mice were exposed to 30mg/kg/day of cocaine (n=11) or saline vehicle (n=10) for 14days and behavior was assessed in adulthood. In Experiment 1, performance on a spatial-discrimination-reversal procedure was evaluated. In the first two sessions following the first reversal, cocaine-exposed mice produced more preservative errors relative to controls. In Experiment 2, cocaine-exposed mice displayed steeper delay discounting than saline-exposed mice, effects that were reversed by acute cocaine administration. Experiment 3 examined responding maintained by a range of fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. An analysis based on a theoretical framework called Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR) was applied to response-rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, differences in response-rate functions in adulthood were due to a steepening of the delay-of-reinforcement gradient, disrupted motoric capacity (lower maximum response rates), and enhanced reinforcer efficacy for the adolescent cocaine- compared with saline-exposed mice. Overall, these experiments suggest that chronic exposure to cocaine during adolescence may impair different features of 'executive functions' in adulthood, and these may be related to distortions in the impact of reinforcing events.

  19. Effects of adolescent nicotine exposure and withdrawal on intravenous cocaine self-administration during adulthood in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Price E; Miller, Mellessa M; Rogers, Tiffany D; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent drug use show (1) a pattern in which the use of tobacco precedes the use of other drugs and (2) a positive relationship between adolescent tobacco use and later drug use. These observations have led to the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between early exposure to nicotine and the later use of hard drugs such as cocaine. Using male C57BL/6J mice, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure in adolescence leads to increased intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of cocaine in adulthood. Using miniature osmotic pumps, we exposed mice and their littermate controls to nicotine (24 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, respectively, over the entire course of adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. Nicotine exposure was terminated on P56 and mice were not exposed to nicotine again during the experiment. On P73, mice were allowed to acquire cocaine IVSA (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and a dose-response curve was generated (0.18, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg/infusion). Lever pressing during extinction conditions was also evaluated. All mice rapidly learned to lever press for the combination of cocaine infusions and non-drug stimuli. Analysis of the dose-response curve revealed that adolescent nicotine-exposed mice self-administered significantly more (P < 0.05) cocaine than controls at all but the highest dose. No significant differences were observed between adolescent nicotine-exposed and control mice during the acquisition or extinction stages. These results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure can increase cocaine IVSA in mice, which suggests the possibility of a causal link between adolescent tobacco use and later cocaine use in humans.

  20. Pre-exposure to cocaine or morphine attenuates taste avoidance conditioning in adolescent rats: Drug specificity in the US pre-exposure effect.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Matthew M; Hempel, Briana J; Riley, Anthony L

    2017-03-28

    Although the attenuating effects of drug history on conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) learning have been widely investigated in adults, such effects in adolescents have not been well characterized. Recent research has suggested that the display of the drug pre-exposure effect during adolescence may be drug dependent given that pre-exposure to ethanol attenuates subsequent conditioning, whereas pre-exposure to the classic emetic lithium chloride (LiCl) fails to do so. The present study began investigating the possible drug-dependent nature of the effects of drug pre-exposure by pre-exposing and conditioning adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats to drugs from two additional classes, specifically psychostimulants (cocaine; Experiment 1) and opioids (morphine; Experiment 2). Consistent with prior work with ethanol (but not LiCl), prior exposure to both cocaine and morphine attenuated taste avoidance induced by these compounds. Although this work supports the view of drug-dependent pre-exposure effects on taste avoidance learning during adolescence, research is needed to assess its mechanisms.

  1. Sex-dependent changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of maternal deprivation and adolescent cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Assis, María A; Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Marco, Eva M; Parolaro, Daniela; Ambrosio, Emilio; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-08-01

    Early life stress has been associated with several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Actually, maternal deprivation (MD) alters the endocannabinoid system, which participates in motivation and reward for drugs, including cocaine. At youth, the rate of cocaine abuse is alarmingly increasing. Herein, we have investigated the consequences of MD and/or adolescent cocaine exposure in brain CB1Rs and CB2Rs in immune tissues. Control and maternally deprived (24h on postnatal day, pnd, 9) male and female Wistar rats were administered cocaine (8mg/kg/day) or saline during adolescence (pnd 28-42). At adulthood, [(3)H]-CP-55,940 autoradiographic binding was employed for the analysis of CB1R density and CP-55,940-stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding for CB1R functionality; CB2R expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Sex differences in CB1R expression and functionality were found, and MD induced important and enduring sex-dependent changes. In addition, the plastic changes induced by adolescent cocaine administration in brain CB1Rs were differentially influenced by early life events. MD increased spleen CB2R expression while adolescent cocaine administration attenuated this effect; cocaine exposure also diminished CB2R expression in bone marrow. Present findings provide evidence for changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of early life stress and adolescent cocaine exposure, and indicate functional interactions between both treatments, which in many regions differ between males and females.

  2. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults.

  3. Effects of Cannabinoid Exposure during Adolescence on the Conditioned Rewarding Effects of WIN 55212-2 and Cocaine in Mice: Influence of the Novelty-Seeking Trait

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Arias, M.; Roger-Sánchez, C.; Vilanova, I.; Revert, N.; Manzanedo, C.; Miñarro, J.; Aguilar, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids enhances the behavioural effects of cocaine, and high novelty-seeking trait predicts greater sensitivity to the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by this drug. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of novelty-seeking on the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure. Adolescent male mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS and LNS) in the hole-board test. First, we evaluated the CPP induced by the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg, i.p.) in HNS and LNS mice. Then, HNS and LNS mice were pretreated i.p. with vehicle, WIN 55212-2 (0.1 mg/kg), or cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg) and were subsequently conditioned with WIN 55212-2 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or cocaine (1 or 6 mg/kg, i.p.). Only HNS mice conditioned with the 0.075 mg/kg dose acquired CPP with WIN 55212-2. Adolescent exposure to this cannabinoid agonist increased the rewarding effects of 1 mg/kg of cocaine in both HNS and LNS mice, and in HNS mice it also increased the reinstating effect of a low dose of cocaine. Our results endorse a role for individual differences such as a higher propensity for sensation-seeking in the development of addiction. PMID:26881125

  4. Long-term, low-level adolescent nicotine exposure produces dose-dependent changes in cocaine sensitivity and reward in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Brian M; Rowan, James D

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking by adolescents is a strong predictor of future drug use, abuse, and dependence. While this "gateway drug effect" is assumed to be related to psychosocial factors, data from our laboratory suggests that adolescent nicotine use may permanently disrupt reward systems through changes in dopamine receptor function. Behavioral pharmacological methods known to be indirectly (motor activity) and directly (conditioned-place-preference) related to drug reinforcement were used to examine changes in cocaine sensitivity. Testing was performed on adult mice that were exposed to nicotine (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg, SC, M-F, b.i.d.) or saline during adolescence (postnatal days 25-57). Prior to testing, subjects had a 28 day drug-free, time-off period. After acclimation to the testing apparatus, the locomotor effects (30 min, 30 cm traveled) of cocaine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, IP) were measured daily; cocaine tests were preceded and followed by saline control tests. Following the acute dose-response curve, mice received saline followed by 5 days of 20.0 mg/kg cocaine. Thereafter, mice underwent condition-place-preference testing. A pre-test was performed to determine compartment preference (i.e., no injection, 20 min test). Cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP) was paired with the subjects non-preferred side and saline with the other. Conditioning sessions were conducted for 8 days with the order of drug/saline injections counter-balanced across subjects. A drug-free, post-test occurred on the day following the final conditioning session. A dose-dependent relationship between adolescent nicotine exposure and cocaine reward was noted in the adult mice across both test conditions. Subjects exposed to nicotine showed an increased response to cocaine's motor activating effects and a decreased response to cocaine's rewarding effects. A follow-up study was undertaken to evaluate dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptor function in adult mice exposed to the highest dose of nicotine from the first

  5. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences

    PubMed Central

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called ‘reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, ‘stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in ‘stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure. PMID:27576164

  6. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences.

    PubMed

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-08-30

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called 'reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, 'stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in 'stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure.

  7. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  8. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Singer, L T; Garber, R; Kliegman, R

    1991-10-01

    The number of infants born to cocaine-using mothers has continued to rise during the past 5 years. Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy is associated with medical and life-style characteristics detrimental to fetal and infant development. Cocaine exposure has been independently linked to growth retardation and impaired fetal oxygenation even when polydrug use and other confounding factors are considered. Neurologic and neurobehavioral abnormalities noted in the immediate neonatal period have also been associated with fetal cocaine exposure. The direct and indirect toxic effects of cocaine, per se, have not yet been independently linked to specific behavioral outcomes because of small sample sizes, confounding factors, and lack of long-term follow-up. The impoverished environments and increased risk for out-of-family placement of cocaine-exposed infants are known independent correlates of negative developmental outcomes. Poor maternal nutrition, lack of prenatal care, and other health and life-style factors related to maternal cocaine use during pregnancy also appear to be factors mediating the developmental problems of cocaine-exposed infants. The cocaine-using mother often uses other drugs, particularly alcohol, independently known to be linked to growth and behavioral impairments similar to those proposed for cocaine-exposed infants. Accounting for these multiple confounding variables in studies of the specific effects of cocaine on neurobehavioral outcome may be scientifically appropriate, but in clinical practice these factors cannot be "isolated," and their statistical consideration in studies does not diminish clinical risk. Finally, currently available studies of behavioral outcome have restricted their samples to term infants. It is possible that preterm infants may be less affected by prenatal cocaine exposure because of decreased exposure. However, because epidemiologic studies suggest that prematurity is a sequelae of maternal cocaine use, restriction

  9. Nicotine produces long-term increases in cocaine reinforcement in adolescent but not adult rats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Izenwasser, Sari

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that many smokers begin using nicotine during adolescence, yet the influence of early nicotine use on the response to other drugs of abuse in adulthood is not fully understood. In the current study, nicotine was administered to adolescent and adult rats for seven days. Thirty days later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine self-administration were examined when the rats pretreated as adolescents were adults. Rats exposed to nicotine during early adolescence were sensitized thirty days later to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and self-administered a greater number of cocaine infusions than adolescent rats pretreated with vehicle. As a result of this increased intake, the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve was shifted upward indicating an increase in cocaine reinforcement. Rats pretreated with nicotine as adults, however, did not show a difference in locomotor activity or cocaine self-administration thirty days later compared to adult rats pretreated with vehicle. These findings suggest that early exposure to nicotine has long-term consequences on cocaine use. These data further suggest that nicotine use may carry a greater risk during adolescence than adulthood and adolescents who smoke may be particularly vulnerable to stimulant use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity.

  10. Cocaine during adolescence enhances dopamine in response to a natural reinforcer

    PubMed Central

    Catlow, Briony J.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2007-01-01

    The use of cocaine during adolescent development could alter the normal growth of brain regions affected by cocaine, specifically the reward system, and impact the adult mesolimbic system. However, there is scant literature aimed at determining whether animals are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of drugs during adolescence. The present study investigated whether cocaine pretreatment in either adolescence or adulthood altered the dopaminergic response to a naturally reinforcing substance in adulthood. To evaluate the responsivity of the mesolimbic system after repeated cocaine, sucrose was offered during the dialysis procedure and dialysates were collected. Regardless of age all saline pretreated rats had significant increases in sucrose-induced extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens septi (NAcc) as compared to baseline levels. Rats pretreated with cocaine as adults also had significant increases in DA levels after sucrose. Interestingly, sucrose intake significantly enhanced DA levels in cocaine pretreated adolescent rats as compared to all other conditions. The results from the present study show that in rats pretreated with cocaine during adolescence there is an enhanced response of the dopaminergic system in animals exposed to a naturally reinforcing substance. Therefore, cocaine exposure during adolescence results in long-term functional changes in the mesolimbic pathway. Future studies need to ascertain the underlying mechanisms and their potential role in cocaine addiction. PMID:17184971

  11. Adolescent but not adult ethanol binge drinking modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Maria A.; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood. Methods We pretreated juvenile (34–47 days old) or adult (68–81 days old) mice with EtOH (1.25 g/kg) following a binge-drinking pattern. Then, after a three-week period without drug delivery, they were subjected to a chronic cocaine treatment in adulthood and tested under cocaine withdrawal by the ensuing paradigms: open field, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, tail suspension test, and object recognition. Another set of mice were treated with the same EtOH binge-drinking procedure during adolescence and were tested immediately afterwards under the same behavioral paradigms. Results Adolescent EtOH pretreatment undermined the anxiogenic effects observed after cocaine abstinence, reduced prepulse inhibition, and increased immobility scores in the tail suspension test following cocaine withdrawal. Moreover, the memory deficits evoked by these substances when given separately were enhanced in cocaine-withdrawn mice exposed to EtOH during adolescence. EtOH binge drinking during adolescence also induced anxiety, depressive symptoms, and memory impairments when measured immediately afterwards. In contrast, neither EtOH nor cocaine alone or in combination altered any of these behaviors when given in adulthood. Conclusions EtOH binge drinking induces short- and long-term behavioral alterations and modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms when given in adolescent mice. PMID:28291777

  12. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Birnkrant, Jennifer M.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen, et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6 month intervals from 11 to 13 years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  13. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.

  14. Cocaine enhances the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M A; Roger-Sánchez, C; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J

    2015-04-01

    Although the consumption of cocaine is frequent in young users of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), the influence of exposure to cocaine on the rewarding effects of MDMA in adolescents has not been studied. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of co-administration of cocaine (1 and 10 mg/kg) and a sub-threshold dose of MDMA (1.25 mg/kg) on the acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) (experiment 1). In addition, the effect of pre-treatment with cocaine on MDMA-induced CPP was evaluated (experiment 2). Levels of monoamines in striatum, hippocampus and cortex were measured in both experiments. Our hypotheses were that cocaine co-administration or pre-treatment would increase the rewarding effects of MDMA, and that these effects would be related with changes in brain monoamine levels. Our results showed that cocaine potentiated the rewarding effects of MDMA, since a sub-threshold dose of MDMA, which did not induce CPP by itself, induced a significant CPP in adolescent mice when administered along with cocaine during conditioning (experiment 1). Moreover, pre-treatment with cocaine several days before conditioning also increased the rewarding effects of MDMA (experiment 2). No significant changes in the levels of biogenic amines, which correlated with these behavioural effects, were observed. Our results confirm the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP in adolescent mice and suggest that combined consumption with or pre-exposure to cocaine increases the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA, which may enhance the capacity of MDMA to induce dependence.

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  16. Effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on cocaine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Levis, Sophia C; Schreiner, Drew C; Amat, Jose; Maier, Steven F; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2015-03-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance, and consumption by adolescents has risen markedly in recent years. We identified the effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on cocaine sensitivity and determined neurobiological changes within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that may underlie caffeine-induced hypersensitivity to cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3 g/l) or water for 28 days during adolescence (postnatal day 28-55; P28-P55) or adulthood (P67-P94). Testing occurred in the absence of caffeine during adulthood (P62-82 or P101-121). Cocaine-induced and quinpirole (D2 receptor agonist)-induced locomotion was enhanced in rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence. Adolescent consumption of caffeine also enhanced the development of a conditioned place preference at a sub-threshold dose of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These behavioral changes were not observed in adults consuming caffeine for an equivalent period of time. Sucrose preferences were not altered in rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, suggesting there are no differences in natural reward. Caffeine consumption during adolescence reduced basal dopamine levels and augmented dopamine release in the NAc in response to cocaine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Caffeine consumption during adolescence also increased the expression of the dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine transporter, and adenosine A1 receptor and decreased adenosine A2A receptor expression in the NAc. Consumption of caffeine during adulthood increased adenosine A1 receptor expression in the NAc, but no other protein expression changes were observed. Together these findings suggest that caffeine consumption during adolescence produced changes in the NAc that are evident in adulthood and may contribute to increases in cocaine-mediated behaviors.

  17. Functional Consequences of Cocaine Re-exposure after Discontinuation of Cocaine Availability

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Smith, Hilary R.; Nader, Susan H.; Nader, Michael A.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine users exhibit a wide range of behavioral impairments accompanied by brain structural, neurochemical and functional abnormalities. Metabolic mapping studies in cocaine users and animal models have shown extensive functional alterations throughout the striatum, limbic system, and cortex. Few studies, however, have evaluated the persistence of these effects following cessation of cocaine availability. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess the functional effects of re-exposure to cocaine in nonhuman primates after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration for 30 or 90 days, using the quantitative autoradiographic 2-[14C]deoxyglucose (2DG) method. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (fixed interval 3-min schedule, 30 infusions per session, 0.3 mg/kg/infusion) for 100 sessions followed by 30 (n=4) or 90 days (n=3) during which experimental sessions were not conducted. Food-reinforced control animals (n=5) underwent identical schedules of reinforcement. Animals were then re-exposed to cocaine or food for one final session and the 2DG method applied immediately after session completion. Compared to controls, re-exposure to cocaine after 30 or 90 day drug-free periods resulted in lower rates of glucose utilization in ventral and dorsal striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, limbic system, thalamus, and midbrain. These data demonstrate that vulnerability to the effects of cocaine persists for as long as 90 days after cessation of drug use. While there was some evidence for recovery (fewer brain areas were affected by cocaine re-exposure at 90 days as compared to 30 days), this was not uniform across regions, thus suggesting that recovery occurs at different rates in different brain systems. PMID:24953829

  18. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cocaine KidsHealth > For Teens > Cocaine A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Cocaine What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive drug ...

  19. Binge ethanol drinking during adolescence modifies cocaine responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Arenys, Anna; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Cantacorps, Lídia; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Valverde, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Binge ethanol drinking is an emerging pattern of excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults. Repeated ethanol intoxication has negative consequences during critical periods of brain development. Therefore, binge ethanol intake represents a vulnerability factor that promotes subsequent manifestations of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral binge ethanol intake during adolescence on the subsequent effects of cocaine in C57BL/6 mice. Firstly, we evaluated the oral ethanol intake of two binge ethanol procedures with different ethanol concentrations (20% v/v versus 30%, v/v). The highest ethanol intake was found in mice exposed to the lower ethanol concentration (20% v/v). In a second experiment, mice exposed to binge ethanol procedure were evaluated to study the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity, behavioural sensitization, and the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm. Mice exposed to ethanol binging showed discrete detrimental effects in responses to cocaine in the different experiments evaluated. Our findings revealed that the pattern of binge ethanol consumption in adolescent mice here evaluated produced a weak facilitation of cocaine responses. The present study highlights the importance of interventions to limit the deleterious effects of binge ethanol drinking during adolescence.

  20. PRENATAL COCAINE EXPOSURE DIFFERENTIALLY CAUSES VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION IN ADULT OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhice; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association of adverse intrauterine environment and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension in adult life. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure causes reprogramming of vascular reactivity, leading to an increased risk of hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant rats received cocaine (30 mgkg-1day-1) or saline from days 15 to 21 of gestational age and experiments were conducted in 3-month-old offspring. Cocaine had no effect on the baseline blood pressure, but significantly increased norepinephrine-stimulated blood pressure and decreased the baroreflex sensitivity in male but not female offspring. The cocaine treatment significantly increased norepinephrine-induced contractions in pressurized resistance-sized mesenteric arteries but not in aortas, which was primarily due to a loss of eNOS-mediated inhibition and an enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity in mesenteric arteries. Additionally, the cocaine treatment significantly attenuated the endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries in male but not female offspring. eNOS protein levels in aortas but not mesenteric arteries were significantly increased in the cocaine-treated animals. However, cocaine significantly decreased phosphorylation levels of eNOS in both aortas and mesenteric arteries. The results suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure programs vascular contractility via changes in eNOS-regulated Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments in the sex- and tissue-dependent manners in resistance arteries leading to an increased risk of hypertension in male offspring. PMID:19380615

  1. Occupational exposure to cocaine involving crime lab personnel.

    PubMed

    Le, S D; Taylor, R W; Vidal, D; Lovas, J J; Ting, E

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of exposure to cocaine as a result of analyzing it or handling material contaminated by it has been a major concern of laboratory personnel. Several different work environments and simulated situations were examined to assess the likelihood of this type of exposure occurring. Urine specimens were collected and evaluated for cocaine and benzoylecgonine using the Syva ETS System (EMIT). Each specimen was analyzed for the two substances using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Urine specimens of laboratory-management personnel not working with drug samples showed no trace of cocaine or benzoylecgonine. A urinary benzoylecgonine level of 227 ng/mL was found in the specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was working on a routine case of 2 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride in the Narcotics Laboratory. A maximal urinary benzoylecgonine concentration of 1570 ng/mL was determined in the urine specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was sampling a case containing 50 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride over a period of 3 h. Decreasing the levels of airborne cocaine dust appears to minimize the amount of cocaine absorbed by the criminalists. Gloves, face masks, and goggles prove to be effective in minimizing exposure.

  2. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Cocaine COCAINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... your Save in directory and then click Save. Cocaine Crack Cocaine RESOURCE CENTER Controlled Substances Act DEA ...

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor—NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  4. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cocaine KidsHealth > For Teens > Cocaine Print A A A ... Quit? Avoiding Cocaine en español Cocaína What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive drug ...

  5. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to the 'bath salt' constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Ryan A; Tallarida, Christopher S; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity after pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than after pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity after METH pretreatment than after saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bidirectional and did not extend to METH, suggesting that the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants.

  6. Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Nick J.; Yeager, Rebecca D.

    Cocaine was first used by Europeans in the nineteenth century when extract from the coca leaf was combined with various beverages. Cocaine comes as a white crystalline powder. However, a product called crack cocaine may come as an opaque crystal similar in size and shape to rock salt. A third form of cocaine is known as coca paste, which is an…

  7. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  8. Periadolescent nicotine exposure causes heterologous sensitization to cocaine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brian A; Davis, Barbara J; Williams, Helen L; Soderstrom, Ken

    2005-02-21

    There is increasing concern that abuse of tobacco during periadolescence increases the potential for later abuse of other drugs. To test this hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats received once-daily injections of either water or 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from postnatal day 35 through 44. Beginning on postnatal day 80, animals were tested in a 12-day cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Prior nicotine treatment enhanced the dose-response to cocaine. CPP training with 3.0 mg/kg i.p. cocaine increased time in drug-paired chambers by 50% in control rats and 94% in nicotine-exposed animals. Thus, periadolescent nicotine exposure produced long-term sensitization to an indirect-acting dopamine agonist.

  9. Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

  10. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates, and Marijuana The first in a 5-part series, offers ... when a person uses cocaine, opiates (heroine), or marijuana. Download PDF 4.13 MB Chat Day Transcripts ...

  11. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Lowen, Steven B.; Rohan, Michael L.; Gillis, Timothy E.; Thompson, Britta S.; Wellons, Clara B.W.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability. PMID:27006904

  12. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, ... Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe. Cocaine speeds up your whole body. You may feel ...

  13. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with perinatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Davis, E; Fennoy, I; Laraque, D; Kanem, N; Brown, G; Mitchell, J

    1992-04-01

    Cocaine in all forms is the number one illicit drug of choice among pregnant women. Records of 70 children with cocaine exposure in utero who were referred for developmental evaluation at a large inner-city hospital were reviewed in an effort to determine whether a specific pattern of abnormalities could be discerned. Patients received physical examinations, neurological screenings, and behavioral and developmental assessments based on the Gesell Developmental Inventory, and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Documentation of specified drug use was obtained by history. Mean age (SEM) at referral was 19.2 (1.7) months. All mothers used cocaine in one of its forms, although polydrug use was common. Growth parameters were low (median = 15th percentile). Significant neurodevelopmental abnormalities were observed, including language delay in 94% of the children and an extremely high frequency of autism (11.4%). The high rate of autistic disorders not known to occur in children exposed to alcohol or opiates alone suggests specific cocaine effects.

  14. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability.

  15. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability. PMID:25769092

  16. Exposure to Cocaine Regulates Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Otaka, Mami; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R.; Liu, Lei; Neumann, Peter A.; Cui, Ranji; Huang, Yanhua; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) function to gate and prioritize emotional/motivational arousals for behavioral output. The neuronal output NAc MSNs is mainly determined by the integration of membrane excitability and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic inputs. Whereas cocaine-induced alterations at excitatory synapses and membrane excitability have been extensively examined, the overall functional output of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure still poorly defined because little is known about whether inhibitory synaptic input to these neurons is affected by cocaine. Here, our results demonstrate multidimensional alterations at inhibitory synapses in NAc neurons following cocaine self-administration in rats. Specifically, the amplitude of miniature (m) inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was decreased after 21-d withdrawal from 5-d cocaine self-administration. Upon re-exposure to cocaine after 21-day withdrawal, whereas the amplitude of mIPSCs remained down-regulated, the frequency became significantly higher. Furthermore, the reversal potential of IPSCs, which was not significantly altered during withdrawal, became more hyperpolarized upon cocaine re-exposure. Moreover, the relative weight of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to NAc MSNs was significantly decreased after 1-d cocaine withdrawal, increased after 21-d withdrawal, and returned to the basal level upon cocaine re-exposure after 21-d withdrawal. These results, taken together with previous results showing cocaine-induced adaptations at excitatory synapses and intrinsic membrane excitability of NAc MSNs, may provide a relatively thorough picture of the functional state of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure. PMID:23595733

  17. Cocaine exposure in utero: perinatal development and neonatal manifestations--review.

    PubMed

    Kain, Z N; Kain, T S; Scarpelli, E M

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether cocaine exposure in utero increases the risk of major structural malformations remains controversial. Most animal studies have demonstrated that cocaine can have a teratogenic effect. The ultimate association between cocaine exposure and fetal development must be inferred from human data. The relative effects of cocaine exposure, exposure to other illicit drugs and alcohol and deficient prenatal care are difficult to assess. Little specific information is available about the amount, duration, and timing of cocaine use during the nine months of pregnancy. Unlike the case with many other teratogens, cocaine exposure at any point in pregnancy can result in some abnormality. The extent of damage and the organ involved depend on the particular stage of morphogenesis. A large scale prospective human study is needed to confirm the suggested teratogenic effects. Since it involves an illicit drug such a study is obviously difficult to perform.

  18. Effects of bingeing on fat during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Cantacorps, Lídia; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, María A; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent excessive eating. In addition to altering the neurobiological reward system, several studies have highlighted that consumption of palatable food increases vulnerability to drug use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet consumed in a binge pattern during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine. After 40 days of binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week (PND 29-69), the reinforcing effects of cocaine on conditioning place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigm were evaluated in adolescent male mice. Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels and the effects of bingeing on fat on CB1 mu opioid receptor (MOr) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) were also assessed. Our results showed a significant escalation in the consumption of a high-fat diet between the first and last week. High-fat binge (HFB) animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a subthreshold dose of cocaine in the paradigms assayed, and animals under fat withdrawal were more vulnerable to the reinstatement of conditioned place preference. HFB mice also showed enhanced cocaine self-administration. After fat withdrawal, exposure to a new fat binge reinstated cocaine seeking. Although HFB did not modify leptin levels, a decrease in plasmatic ghrelin was observed. Moreover, this pattern of fatty diet resulted in a reduction of MOr and CB1 gene expression in the NAcc and an increase in GHSR expression in the VTA. We propose that bingeing on fat during adolescence induces long-lasting changes in the brain through the sensitization of brain reward circuits, which predisposes individuals to seek cocaine during adulthood.

  19. Cocaine exposure impairs multineage hematopoiesis of human hematopoietic progenitor cells mediated by the sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Christopher C.; Schwartz, Brandon H.; Dixit, Dhaval; Zack, Jerome A.; Vatakis, Dimitrios N.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine is a significant source of fetal and neonatal developmental defects. While cocaine associated neurological and cardiac pathologies are well-documented, it is apparent that cocaine use has far more diverse physiological effects. It is known that in some cell types, the sigma-1 receptor mediates many of cocaine's cellular effects. Here we present a novel and concise investigation into the mechanism that underlies cocaine associated hematopoietic pathology. Indeed, this is the first examination of the effects of cocaine on hematopoiesis. We show that cocaine impairs multilineage hematopoiesis from human progenitors from multiple donors and tissue types. We go on to present the first demonstration of the expression of the sigma-1 receptor in human CD34 + human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these cocaine-induced hematopoietic defects can be reversed through sigma-1 receptor blockade. PMID:25728014

  20. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a working memory task to examine the interaction of emotional arousal and memory in 33 PCE and 23 non-exposed adolescents. Though with similar behavioral performance, the two groups exhibited different activation patterns associated with emotion-memory interactions. On the one hand, higher memory load attenuated emotion-related amygdala activation in controls but not in the exposed adolescents; on the other hand, prefrontal activation associated with memory load decreased in the presence of emotional distraction in the controls but increased in the exposed group. These group interaction differences suggest neurobiological substrates for arousal-associated neuronal alterations related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Consistent with previous findings in behavioral and physiological studies, the present neuroimaging data provided more in-depth evidence supporting the view that PCE has significant long-term teratogenic effect on arousal regulation system.

  1. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a working memory task to examine the interaction of emotional arousal and memory in 33 PCE and 23 non-exposed adolescents. Though with similar behavioral performance, the two groups exhibited different activation patterns associated with emotion-memory interactions. On the one hand, higher memory load attenuated emotion-related amygdala activation in controls but not in the exposed adolescents; on the other hand, prefrontal activation associated with memory load decreased in the presence of emotional distraction in the controls but increased in the exposed group. These group interaction differences suggest neurobiological substrates for arousal-associated neuronal alterations related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Consistent with previous findings in behavioral and physiological studies, the present neuroimaging data provided more in-depth evidence supporting the view that PCE has significant long-term teratogenic effect on arousal regulation system. PMID:19699795

  2. Repeated stress exposure causes strain-dependent shifts in the behavioral economics of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Groblewski, Peter A; Zietz, Chad; Willuhn, Ingo; Phillips, Paul E M; Chavkin, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Cocaine-experienced Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats received four daily repeated forced swim stress sessions (R-FSS), each of which preceded 4-hour cocaine self-administration sessions. Twenty-four hours after the last swim stress, cocaine valuation was assessed during a single-session threshold procedure. Prior exposure to R-FSS significantly altered cocaine responding in Wistar, but not WKY, rats. Behavioral economic analysis of responding revealed that the Wistar rats that had received R-FSS exhibited an increase in the maximum price that they were willing to pay for cocaine (Pmax ). Pre-treatment with the long-lasting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist norbinaltorphimine prevented the stress-induced increase in Pmax . Thus, R-FSS exposure had strain-dependent effects on cocaine responding during the threshold procedure, and the stress effects on cocaine valuation exhibited by Wistar, but not WKY, required intact KOR signaling.

  3. Teens with heavy prenatal cocaine exposure respond to experimental social provocation with escape not aggression.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, M K; Chiodo, L M; Hannigan, J H; Sokol, R J; Janisse, J; Delaney-Black, V

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical data show that, compared to no exposure, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has age-dependent effects on social interaction and aggression. The aim of this clinical study was to determine how heavy/persistent PCE--after controlling for other prenatal drug exposures, sex and postnatal factors--predicts behavioral sensitivity to provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) using a well-validated human laboratory model of aggression. African American teens (mean=14.2 years old) with histories of heavy/persistent PCE (maternal cocaine use ≥ 2 times/week during pregnancy, or positive maternal or infant urine/meconium test at delivery; n=86) or none/some exposure (NON: maternal cocaine use < 2 times/week during pregnancy; n=330) completed the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm. In this task, teens competed in a computer game against a fictitious opponent. There were three possible responses: (a) earn points, to exchange for money later; or (b) "aggress" against the fictitious opponent by subtracting their points; or (c) escape temporarily from point subtraction perpetrated by the fictitious opponent. The PCE group responded significantly more frequently on the escape option than the NON group, but did not differ in aggressive or money-earning responses. These data indicate that PCE-teens provoked with a social stressor exhibit a behavioral preference for escape (negative reinforcement) than for aggressive (retaliatory) or appetitive (point- or money-reinforced) responses. These findings are consistent with preclinical data showing that social provocation of adolescent or young adult offspring after PCE is associated with greater escape behavior, inferring greater submission, social withdrawal, or anxiety, as opposed to aggressive behavior.

  4. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Ana, Elizabeth J. Santa; Saladin, Michael E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with D-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Methods Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Results Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Conclusions Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. PMID:23497788

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  7. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-05-31

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mersereau, Eric J.; Boyle, Cody A.; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C.; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  9. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats.

  10. IMPACT OF GESTATIONAL COCAINE TREATMENT OR PRENATAL COCAINE EXPOSURE ON EARLY POSTPARTUM OXYTOCIN mRNA LEVELS AND RECEPTOR BINDING IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Cox, E.T.; Jarrett, T.M.; Williams, S.K.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research reported decreased oxytocin levels in specific brain regions correlated with disruptions in maternal care following gestational cocaine treatment in rats. Similarly, prenatal exposure to cocaine impaired subsequent maternal behavior in adulthood, but behavioral alterations were not associated with decreases in oxytocin levels in the same brain regions as were found in their cocaine-treated rat dams. To determine if other aspects of the oxytocin system are disrupted by cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure to cocaine during critical time points associated with maternal care, oxytocin mRNA transcription and receptor binding were examined on postpartum day two in relevant brain regions following gestational treatment with, or prenatal exposure to, either cocaine or saline. We hypothesized that oxytocin mRNA levels and receptor binding would be differentially affected by cocaine in the early postpartum period of dams and their offspring. Our findings indicate that gestational cocaine treatment resulted in significant increases in oxytocin mRNA levels in only the paraventricular nucleus of cocaine-treated dams, with almost significant increases in both generations in the supraoptic nucleus, but no significant effects of cocaine on receptor binding in either generation of dams. These findings indicate that in addition to oxytocin levels, cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure primarily affects oxytocin mRNA synthesis, with little effect on receptor binding in specific brain regions associated with maternal behavior in the early postpartum period of the rat. PMID:18579201

  11. Early adolescent executive functioning, intrauterine exposures and own drug use.

    PubMed

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P; Cabral, Howard J; Richardson, Mark A; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, and cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously, 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence, and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use.

  12. Crack and Cocaine Use among Adolescents in Psychiatric Treatment: Associations with HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W. Tarantino, Nicholas; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Crack and cocaine use among adults has been associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders as well as other drug use and unprotected sex. However, this issue is relatively unstudied in adolescents. This study collected data from 282 adolescents (mean age = 14.9 years) treated in intensive psychiatric treatment settings to understand the…

  13. Occupational cocaine exposure of crime laboratory personnel preparing training aids for a military working dog program.

    PubMed

    Gehlhausen, Jay M; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Given, JoAnn

    2003-10-01

    The potential for passive cocaine exposure was evaluated in crime laboratory employees preparing training aids for a military working dog program (MWD). The primary goal of the study was to elucidate the routes of exposure and implement procedural changes that would minimize this risk. Several work environments and laboratory procedures were examined by monitoring personal breathing zones (PBZ), ambient airborne cocaine levels in the laboratory spaces, and urinary levels of the primary cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. The study was performed initially using current laboratory procedures to establish a baseline and to identify potential sources of exposure. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure in reducing exposure. As a result of the changes, the 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) were 40 to 80% lower in the follow-up study as compared to the baseline assessment. Dermal absorption and PBZ inhalation of cocaine during manufacture were likely the most significant source of cocaine exposure. Ambient airborne cocaine may have also contributed to the total exposure, but for most observations, the concentrations were significantly less than those determined from PBZ monitoring. The maximum ambient cocaine concentration was 0.0144 mg/m(3) compared to a maximum of 0.4004 mg/m(3) observed during PBZ monitoring. Occupational exposure decreased in the follow-up study because of the proper use of personal protective equipment and improvements in engineering controls.

  14. Cocaine selling among urban black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Dembo, R; Williams, L; Schmeidler, J

    1994-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of juvenile detainees are used to examine the relationships between cocaine selling, substance use, and other delinquency among the Black and White males in the study. A descriptive comparison of rates of cocaine selling among the youths is followed by a descriptive comparison of prevalence of substance use and other delinquency across four subgroups: White and Black males indicating they sold and did not sell cocaine. These comparisons are followed by analyses of variance examining the relationships between involvement in substance use and other delinquency, and ethnicity, cocaine selling, and the interaction of ethnicity and cocaine selling. Important ethnicity and cocaine-selling effects are found, but not ethnicity by cocaine-selling interactions. The implications of our findings for theory and service provision are drawn.

  15. Cocaine Exposure Reorganizes Cell-Type and Input-Specific Connectivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    MacAskill, Andrew F.; Cassel, John M.; Carter, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in the NAc. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, optogenetics and pharmacogenetics to show how repeated cocaine alters connectivity in the mouse NAc medial shell. We first determine that cocaine selectively enhances amygdala innervation of D1-MSNs relative to D2-MSNs. We then show that amygdala activity is required for cocaine-induced changes to behavior and connectivity. Finally, we establish how heightened amygdala innervation can explain the structural and functional changes induced by cocaine. Our findings reveal how exposure to drugs of abuse fundamentally reorganizes cell-type and input-specific connectivity in the NAc. PMID:25108911

  16. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-07-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  17. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-07-09

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and (18)FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  18. Low dose nicotine treatment during early adolescence increases subsequent cocaine reward.

    PubMed

    McQuown, Susan C; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of drug use, starting with tobacco and alcohol and progressing to marijuana and other illicit drugs. These findings have led to the suggestion that tobacco and alcohol are 'gateway' drugs that sensitize maturing reward pathways to the effects of illicit substances such as cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we have examined whether low-dose nicotine pretreatment alters acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adolescents more than in adults. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged postnatal day (P) 28 or P86, were given two daily intravenous injections of nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/0.1 ml) or saline for 4 days. At P32 and P90, rats were placed in self-administration chambers and tested for acquisition of cocaine (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg/inj) for 5 days. Data were collapsed across cocaine dose and sex since there was no significant effect of these variables. Adolescent rats pretreated with nicotine exhibited significantly greater cocaine-reinforced responding as compared to saline controls or adults (p<0.01). This drug pretreatment effect did not generalize to all rewards, since nicotine did not increase responding for sucrose pellets in adolescents. These findings provide evidence that the adolescent brain is uniquely vulnerable to the effects of nicotine on subsequent drug reward.

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  20. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  1. Crack and Cocaine Use among Adolescents in Psychiatric Treatment: Associations with HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Tarantino, Nicholas; Brown, Larry K.

    2011-01-01

    Crack and cocaine use among adults has been associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders as well as other drug use and unprotected sex. However, this issue is relatively unstudied in adolescents. This study collected data from 282 adolescents (mean age=14.9 years) treated in intensive psychiatric treatment settings to understand the relationship between crack/cocaine use and HIV risk. Thirteen percent of youth reported ever using crack or cocaine. Use was not associated with age, gender, race/ethnicity or SES. After controlling for known factors that influence unprotected sex, the odds that those with a history of crack/cocaine use engaged in inconsistent condom use was six times greater than that for those youth who did not ever use. Thus, crack/cocaine use is prevalent even among younger adolescents with psychiatric disorders who are not in drug treatment. Its use is associated with high rates of sexual and other risk behaviors. A history of use should alert clinicians to a wide variety of possible behavioral risks. These results can also inform future adolescent HIV prevention intervention development. PMID:22224066

  2. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  3. Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Knight, Wanda Grant; Pell, Tripler; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. Objective To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Study Selection Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peerreviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Data Extraction Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Conclusions Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity

  4. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Campanac, Emilie; Hoffman, Dax A

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D(2) activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D(2)-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN.

  5. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  6. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Dax A.

    2013-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D2 activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D2-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN. PMID:23486201

  7. Adolescent d-Amphetamine Treatment in a Rodent Model of ADHD: Pro-Cognitive Effects in Adolescence without an Impact on Cocaine Cue Reactivity in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Chloe J.; Taylor, Danielle M.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with cocaine abuse. Whereas initiating ADHD medication in childhood does not alter later cocaine abuse risk, initiating medication during adolescence may increase risk. Preclinical work in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD found that adolescent methylphenidate increased cocaine self-administration in adulthood, suggesting a need to identify alternatively efficacious medications for teens with ADHD. We examined effects of adolescent d-amphetamine treatment on strategy set shifting performance during adolescence and on cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (cue reactivity) during adulthood in male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control), and Wistar (outbred control) rats. During the set shift phase, adolescent SHR needed more trials and had a longer latency to reach criterion, made more regressive errors and trial omissions, and exhibited slower and more variable lever press reaction times. d-Amphetamine improved performance only in SHR by increasing choice accuracy and decreasing errors and latency to criterion. In adulthood, SHR self-administered more cocaine, made more cocaine-seeking responses, and took longer to extinguish lever responding than control strains. Adolescent d-amphetamine did not alter cocaine self-administration in adult rats of any strain, but reduced cocaine seeking during the first of seven reinstatement test sessions in adult SHR. These findings highlight utility of SHR in modeling cognitive dysfunction and comorbid cocaine abuse in ADHD. Unlike methylphenidate, d-amphetamine improved several aspects of flexible learning in adolescent SHR and did not increase cocaine intake or cue reactivity in adult SHR. Thus, adolescent d-amphetamine was superior to methylphenidate in this ADHD model. PMID:26467602

  8. Adolescent D-amphetamine treatment in a rodent model of ADHD: Pro-cognitive effects in adolescence without an impact on cocaine cue reactivity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Chloe J; Taylor, Danielle M; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2016-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with cocaine abuse. Whereas initiating ADHD medication in childhood does not alter later cocaine abuse risk, initiating medication during adolescence may increase risk. Preclinical work in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD found that adolescent methylphenidate increased cocaine self-administration in adulthood, suggesting a need to identify alternatively efficacious medications for teens with ADHD. We examined effects of adolescent d-amphetamine treatment on strategy set shifting performance during adolescence and on cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (cue reactivity) during adulthood in male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control), and Wistar (outbred control) rats. During the set shift phase, adolescent SHR needed more trials and had a longer latency to reach criterion, made more regressive errors and trial omissions, and exhibited slower and more variable lever press reaction times. d-Amphetamine improved performance only in SHR by increasing choice accuracy and decreasing errors and latency to criterion. In adulthood, SHR self-administered more cocaine, made more cocaine-seeking responses, and took longer to extinguish lever responding than control strains. Adolescent d-amphetamine did not alter cocaine self-administration in adult rats of any strain, but reduced cocaine seeking during the first of seven reinstatement test sessions in adult SHR. These findings highlight utility of SHR in modeling cognitive dysfunction and comorbid cocaine abuse in ADHD. Unlike methylphenidate, d-amphetamine improved several aspects of flexible learning in adolescent SHR and did not increase cocaine intake or cue reactivity in adult SHR. Thus, adolescent d-amphetamine was superior to methylphenidate in this ADHD model.

  9. Longitudinal changes of amygdala and default mode activation in adolescents prenatally exposed to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Luo, Yuejia; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with long-term and negative effect on arousal regulation. Recent neuroimaging studies have examined brain mechanisms related to arousal dysregulation with cross-sectional experimental designs; but longitudinal changes in the brain, reflecting group differences in neurodevelopment, have never been directly examined. To directly assess the interaction of PCE and neurodevelopment, the present study used a longitudinal design to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from 33 adolescents (21 with PCE and 12 non-exposed controls) while they performed the same working memory task with emotional distracters at two points in time. The mean age of participants was 14.3 years at time_1 and 16.7 years at time_2. With confounding factors statistically controlled, the fMRI data revealed significant exposure-by-time interaction in the activations of the amygdala and default mode network (DMN). For the control adolescents, brain activations associated with emotional arousal (amygdala) and cognitive effort (DMN) were both reduced at time_2 as compared to that at time_1. However, these activation reductions were not observed in the PCE group, indicating persistently high levels of emotional arousal and cognitive effort. In addition, correlations between longitudinal changes in the brain and in behavior have shown that adolescents with persistently high emotional arousal were more likely in need of high cognitive effort; and their cognitive performance was more likely to be affected by distractive challenges. The present results complement and extend previous findings from cross-sectional studies with further evidence supporting the view of PCE associated long-term teratogenic effects on arousal regulation. PMID:26577285

  10. Cocaine exposure modulates dopamine and adenosine signaling in the fetal brain

    PubMed Central

    Kubrusly, Regina C. C.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine during the fetal period can produce significant lasting changes in the structure and function of the brain. Cocaine exerts its effects on the developing brain by blocking monoamine transporters and impairing monoamine receptor signaling. Dopamine is a major central target of cocaine. In a mouse model, we show that cocaine exposure from embryonic day 8 (E8) to E14 produces significant reduction in dopamine transporter activity, attenuation of dopamine D1-receptor function and upregulation of dopamine D2-receptor function. Cocaine’s effects on the D1-receptor are at the level of protein expression as well as activity. The cocaine exposure also produces significant increases in basal cAMP levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex. The increase in the basal cAMP levels was independent of dopamine receptor activity. In contrast, blocking the adenosine A2a receptor downregulated of the basal cAMP levels in the cocaine-exposed brain to physiological levels, suggesting the involvement of adenosine receptors in mediating cocaine’s effects on the embryonic brain. In support of this suggestion, we found that the cocaine exposure downregulated adenosine transporter function. We also found that dopamine D2- and adenosine A2a-receptors antagonize each other’s function in the embryonic brain in a manner consistent with their interactions in the mature brain. Thus, our data show that prenatal cocaine exposure produces direct effects on both the dopamine and adenosine systems. Furthermore, the dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptor interactions in the embryonic brain discovered in this study unveil a novel substrate for cocaine’s effects on the developing brain. PMID:19765599

  11. Educating Adolescents on the Effects of Crack Cocaine on Unborn Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieche, Ann M.; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.

    Ten high-risk, special education adolescents were given an instructional program for five days in health education on crack cocaine and its effects on the fetus. Students included five with learning disabilities, three with emotional impairments, and two with educable mental impairments. All of the subjects live and attend school in a primarily…

  12. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects.

  13. Cocaine exposure impairs multilineage hematopoiesis of human hematopoietic progenitor cells mediated by the sigma-1 receptor [corrected].

    PubMed

    Nixon, Christopher C; Schwartz, Brandon H; Dixit, Dhaval; Zack, Jerome A; Vatakis, Dimitrios N

    2015-03-02

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine is a significant source of fetal and neonatal developmental defects. While cocaine associated neurological and cardiac pathologies are well-documented, it is apparent that cocaine use has far more diverse physiological effects. It is known that in some cell types, the sigma-1 receptor mediates many of cocaine's cellular effects. Here we present a novel and concise investigation into the mechanism that underlies cocaine associated hematopoietic pathology. Indeed, this is the first examination of the effects of cocaine on hematopoiesis. We show that cocaine impairs multilineage hematopoiesis from human progenitors from multiple donors and tissue types. We go on to present the first demonstration of the expression of the sigma-1 receptor in human CD34 + human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these cocaine-induced hematopoietic defects can be reversed through sigma-1 receptor blockade.

  14. Acute social defeat stress increases the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in adult but not in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Montagud-Romero, S; Aguilar, M A; Maldonado, C; Manzanedo, C; Miñarro, J; Rodríguez-Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    Stressful experiences modify activity in areas of the brain involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. In the present study we evaluated the influence of acute social defeat (ASD) on the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescent (PND 29-32) and adult (PND 50-53) male mice in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Experimental mice were exposed to social defeat in an agonistic encounter before each session of conditioning with 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine. The effects of social defeat on corticosterone levels were also evaluated. Adult mice exposed to ASD showed an increase in the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine. Only these mice developed cocaine-induced CPP with the subthreshold dose of cocaine, and they needed a higher number of extinction sessions for the 25mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP to be extinguished. In adolescent mice, on the other hand, ASD reduced the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine, since CPP was not produced with the lower dose of cocaine and was extinguished faster when they were conditioned with 25mg/kg. Adult mice exposed to social defeat displayed higher levels of corticosterone than their controls and adolescent mice. Our results confirm that the effect of social defeat stress on the acquisition and reinstatement of the CPP induced by cocaine varies depending on the age at which this stress is experienced.

  15. Correlates of cocaine/crack use among inner-city incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S Y; Magura, S; Shapiro, J L

    1994-11-01

    Inner-city male adolescents in jail in New York City (N = 427) were interviewed to examine correlates of cocaine or crack use. Twenty-three percent had used cocaine or crack in the month before arrest and 32% reported lifetime use. Substantial rates of robbery, murder, other violent crime, weapons possession, and drug dealing were found. However, type of crime, including violent crime, was not related either to cocaine/crack use or to drug dealing. Current cocaine/crack users were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and intranasal heroin; to have multiple previous arrests; to be out of school; to be psychologically distressed; to have been sexually molested as a child; to have substance abusing parents; and to have cocaine/crack-using friends. They were also more likely to have frequent sex with girls, to be gay or bisexual, and to engage in anal intercourse. The findings should be considered in developing more effective drug abuse prevention and treatment interventions, and HIV prevention education, for incarcerated at-risk adolescents.

  16. Histological and hormonal changes in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after exposure to environmental cocaine concentration.

    PubMed

    Gay, F; Ferrandino, I; Monaco, A; Cerulo, M; Capasso, G; Capaldo, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of histological and hormonal changes induced in the European eel from environmental concentrations of cocaine. Silver eels were exposed to 20 ng L(-1) of cocaine during 50 days; at the same time, control, vehicle control and two post-exposure recovery groups (3 and 10 days) were made. The general morphology of the skin and the intestine, and the plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol and dopamine were evaluated. In the skin, cocaine decreased the number and size of mucous cells, increased the thickness of the epidermis and altered the club cells and the basal lamina. In the intestine, cocaine increased the thickness of the epithelium and the number of mucous cells and reactivated the structure of the intestine and of the intestinal musculature. Moreover, cocaine increased plasma prolactin, cortisol and dopamine levels. These results suggest that cocaine induced histological changes, directly and/or through the hormonal changes observed. Considering the complex life cycle of the eel, the changes induced by cocaine in the skin, the intestine and the endocrine system could threaten the ability of the eel to successfully migrate and reproduce.

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure and neonatal/infant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cambell, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    Illegal drug use throughout the nation is a problem of epidemic proportion. Of particular concern is drug use among pregnant women. In most cases, these women have little hope of achieving a better life for themselves or their children. Illegal drugs, cocaine in particular, can have devastating effects on the neonate. These effects can last well into childhood and can exhibit themselves in academic, social, and family situations. Challenges for the neonatal nurse include early identification of these infants and use of available resources. This article addresses prenatal cocaine use and support services for drug-dependent women, effects of cocaine during the neonatal period, possible neonatal and infant outcomes, and implications for nursing practice.

  18. Exposure to sucrose during periods of withdrawal does not reduce cocaine-seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Céline; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Solinas, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant access to drugs of abuse and alternative rewards such as sucrose has been shown to decrease addiction-related behaviors in animals. Here we investigated whether access to sucrose during abstinence in contexts that are temporally and physically distinct from drug-related contexts could reduce subsequent drug seeking. In addition, we investigated whether a history of cocaine self-administration would alter the rewarding effects of sucrose. Rats self-administered cocaine for ten sessions, while yoked-saline rats received only saline injections, and then we subjected them to a 30-day withdrawal period during which they had access to water and sucrose continuously or intermittently according to a schedule that induces binge-drinking behavior. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were tested for cocaine seeking behavior during a single 6 h session. We found that exposure to cocaine increased sucrose consumption only when rats had intermittent access to sucrose, but exposure to sucrose did not alter drug seeking regardless of the schedule of access. These results suggest that exposure to cocaine cross-sensitizes to the rewarding effects of sucrose, but exposure to sucrose during abstinence, temporally and physically distinct from drug-related environments, does not to reduce drug seeking. PMID:26997496

  19. Exposure to sucrose during periods of withdrawal does not reduce cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Céline; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Solinas, Marcello

    2016-03-21

    Concomitant access to drugs of abuse and alternative rewards such as sucrose has been shown to decrease addiction-related behaviors in animals. Here we investigated whether access to sucrose during abstinence in contexts that are temporally and physically distinct from drug-related contexts could reduce subsequent drug seeking. In addition, we investigated whether a history of cocaine self-administration would alter the rewarding effects of sucrose. Rats self-administered cocaine for ten sessions, while yoked-saline rats received only saline injections, and then we subjected them to a 30-day withdrawal period during which they had access to water and sucrose continuously or intermittently according to a schedule that induces binge-drinking behavior. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were tested for cocaine seeking behavior during a single 6 h session. We found that exposure to cocaine increased sucrose consumption only when rats had intermittent access to sucrose, but exposure to sucrose did not alter drug seeking regardless of the schedule of access. These results suggest that exposure to cocaine cross-sensitizes to the rewarding effects of sucrose, but exposure to sucrose during abstinence, temporally and physically distinct from drug-related environments, does not to reduce drug seeking.

  20. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of adolescent MDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Vaccaro, Sonia; Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2015-03-15

    Exposure to drugs such as ethanol or cocaine during adolescence induces alterations in the central nervous system that are modulated by the novelty-seeking trait. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of this trait on the long-term effects of MDMA administration during adolescence on spontaneous behavior and conditioned rewarding effects in adulthood. Adolescent mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS or LNS) according to the hole-board test and received either MDMA (0, 10 or 20mg/kg PND 33-42) or saline. Three weeks later, having entered adulthood (PND>68), one set of mice performed the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests, while another set performed the conditioning place preference (CPP) test induced by cocaine-(1mg/kg) or MDMA-(1mg/kg). Only HNS mice treated with MDMA during adolescence acquired CPP in adulthood with a non-effective dose of cocaine or MDMA. Although it did not produce changes in motor activity, exposure to MDMA during adolescence was associated with more aggressive behaviors (threat and attack) and increased social contacts in HNS mice, while an anxiolytic effect was noted in LNS mice pre-treated with the highest dose of MDMA (20mg/kg). Administration of MDMA (10 or 20mg/kg) induced a decrease in DA levels in the striatum in LNS mice only and lower striatal serotonin levels in mice treated with the highest MDMA dose. Our findings show that adolescent MDMA exposure results in higher sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing properties of MDMA and cocaine in adult HNS mice, which suggests that the relationship between exposure to MDMA in adolescence and a higher probability of substance is a feature of high novelty seekers only.

  1. Induction of depressive-like effects by subchronic exposure to cocaine or heroin in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Zilkha, Noga; Feigin, Eugene; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zangen, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    The effect of psychoactive drugs on depression has usually been studied in cases of prolonged drug addiction and/or withdrawal, without much emphasis on the effects of subchronic or recreational drug use. To address this issue, we exposed laboratory rats to subchronic regimens of heroin or cocaine and tested long-term effects on (i) depressive-like behaviors, (ii) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in reward-related brain regions, and (iii) depressive-like behavior following an additional chronic mild stress procedure. The long-term effect of subchronic cocaine exposure was a general reduction in locomotor activity whereas heroin exposure induced a more specific increase in immobility during the forced swim test. Both cocaine and heroin exposure induced alterations in BDNF levels that are similar to those observed in several animal models of depression. Finally, both cocaine and heroin exposure significantly enhanced the anhedonic effect of chronic mild stress. These results suggest that subchronic drug exposure induces depressive-like behavior which is accompanied by modifications in BDNF expression and increases the vulnerability to develop depressive-like behavior following chronic stress. Implications for recreational and small-scale drug users are discussed. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of limited subchronic drug exposure on depressive-like symptoms. Our results demonstrate that short-term, subchronic administration of either cocaine or heroin promotes some depressive-like behaviors, while inducing alterations in BDNF protein levels similar to alterations observed in several animal models of depression. In addition, subchronic cocaine or heroin enhanced the anhedonic effect of chronic stress.

  2. Cocaine exposure prior to pregnancy alters the psychomotor response to cocaine and transcriptional regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Aya; Constantinof, Andrea; Pan, Pauline; Kupferschmidt, Dave A; McGowan, Patrick O; Erb, Suzanne

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that maternal experience prior to pregnancy can play an important role in behavioral, physiological, and genetic programming of offspring. Likewise, exposure to cocaine in utero can result in marked changes in central nervous system function of offspring. In this study, we examined whether exposure of rat dams to cocaine prior to pregnancy subsequently alters indices of behavior, physiology, and gene expression in offspring. Multiple outcome measures were examined in adult male offspring: (1) behavioral expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation; (2) levels of corticosterone in response to immobilization stress; and (3) expression of multiple genes, including dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) and D2 (DRD2), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in functionally relevant brain regions. Adult Sprague-Dawley females were exposed to cocaine (15-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 10 days, and were then mated to drug naïve males of the same strain. Separate groups of adult male offspring were tested for their acute psychomotor response to cocaine (0, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), corticosterone responsivity to 20 min of immobilization stress, and expression of multiple genes using quantitative PCR. Offspring of dams exposed to cocaine prior to conception exhibited increased psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine, and upregulated gene expression of DRD1 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neither stress-induced corticosterone levels nor gene expression of GR or CRF genes were altered. These data suggest that cocaine exposure before pregnancy can serve to enhance psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine in offspring, possibly via alterations in dopamine function that include upregulation of the DRD1.

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  4. Maternal Separation Impairs Cocaine-Induced Behavioural Sensitization in Adolescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Martinez-Laorden, Elena; Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Milanés, M. Victoria; Laorden, M. Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Adverse early-life conditions induce persistent disturbances that give rise to negative emotional states. Therefore, early life stress confers increased vulnerability to substance use disorders, mainly during adolescence as the brain is still developing. In this study, we investigated the consequences of maternal separation, a model of maternal neglect, on the psychotropic effects of cocaine and the neuroplasticity of the dopaminergic system. Our results show that mice exposed to maternal separation displayed attenuated behavioural sensitization, while no changes were found in the rewarding effects of cocaine in the conditioned place preference paradigm and in the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm. The evaluation of neuroplasticity in the striatal dopaminergic pathways revealed that mice exposed to maternal separation exhibited decreased protein expression levels of D2 receptors and increased levels of the transcriptional factor Nurr1. Furthermore, animals exposed to maternal separation and treated with cocaine exhibited increased DA turnover and protein expression levels of DAT and D2R, while decreased Nurr1 and Pitx3 protein expression levels were observed when compared with saline-treated mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that maternal separation caused an impairment of cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization possibly due to a dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, a dysfunction that has been proposed as a factor of vulnerability for developing substance use disorders. PMID:27936186

  5. Short-term withdrawal from developmental exposure to cocaine activates the glucocorticoid receptor and alters spine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caffino, Lucia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Malpighi, Chiara; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Although glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) contribute to the action of cocaine, their role following developmental exposure to the psychostimulant is still unknown. To address this issue, we exposed adolescent male rats to cocaine (20mg/kg/day) from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed them at PND 45 or 90. We studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that is still developing during adolescence. In PND 45 rats we found enhanced GR transcription and translation as well as increased trafficking toward the nucleus of the receptor, with no alteration in plasma corticosterone levels. We also showed reduced expression of the GR co-chaperone FKBP51, that normally keeps the receptor in the cytoplasm, and increased expression of Src1, which cooperates in the activation of GR transcriptional activity, revealing that short withdrawal alters the finely tuned mechanisms regulating GR action. Since activation of GRs regulate dendritic spine morphology, we next investigated spine dynamics in cocaine-withdrawn rats. We found that PSD95, cofilin and F-actin, molecules regulating spine actin network, are reduced in the mPFC of PND 45 rats suggesting reduced spine density, confirmed by confocal imaging. Further, formation of filopodia, i.e. the inactive spines, is enhanced suggesting the formation of non-functional spines. Of note, no changes were found in molecules related to GR machinery or spine dynamics following long-term abstinence, i.e. in adult rats (PND 90). These findings demonstrate that short withdrawal promotes plastic changes in the developing brain via the dysregulation of the GR system and alterations in the spine network.

  6. Deviant ERP Response to Spoken Non-Words among Adolescents Exposed to Cocaine in Utero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landi, Nicole; Crowley, Michael J.; Wu, Jia; Bailey, Christopher A.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Concern for the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on human language development is based on observations of impaired performance on assessments of language skills in these children relative to non-exposed children. We investigated the effects of PCE on speech processing ability using event-related potentials (ERPs) among a sample of…

  7. The Association between Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Physiological Regulation at 13 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Danielewicz, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and autonomic regulation at 13 months of age. Methods: Measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained from 156 (79 exposed, and 77 nonexposed) infants during baseline and during tasks designed to elicit positive (PA) and negative affect (NA).…

  8. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  9. Repeated cocaine exposure facilitates the expression of incentive motivation and induces habitual control in rats.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm) or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation). After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction.

  10. Repeated Cocaine Exposure Facilitates the Expression of Incentive Motivation and Induces Habitual Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Kimberly H.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm) or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation). After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction. PMID:23646106

  11. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…

  12. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  13. Prenatal cocaine and/or nicotine exposure produces depression and anxiety in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Sobrian, Sonya K; Marr, Lara; Ressman, Katherine

    2003-05-01

    The adult use of cocaine and nicotine has been linked to depression and/or anxiety. Changes in emotional behavior were assessed using behavioral paradigms developed as animal analogs of psychiatric disorders in 12-14 month old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed daily on gestational days 8-20 to cocaine and nicotine, either alone or in combination. Results from the elevated plus maze (EPM), used to assess anxiety-related behaviors, indicated that offspring prenatally exposed to either high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg/day) or high-dose nicotine (5.0 mg/kg/day) were less timid/more impulsive. Animals from these two groups spent the most time on the open arms, and had the highest percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM. Combined in utero exposure to cocaine and nicotine nullified these effects. Cocaine challenge (20 mg/kg) did not interact with prenatal treatment, but increased activity on all arms of the EPM in all groups. Sucrose preference was used as a measure of anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depressive illness. Reduced sucrose preference was seen only in the group of offspring prenatally exposed to high-dose cocaine (40 mg/kg) plus low-dose nicotine (2.5 mg/kg/day). Exposure to a water-deprivation stress normalized sucrose preference in this group, without altering preference or intake in the other prenatal treatment groups. Transient hyperactivity was seen in the offspring of dams treated with high-dose nicotine, an effect that was again reversed in combined drug groups. Traditional gender differences in activity levels and sucrose intake, that is, females greater than males, were still evident in this population of aging rats. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to cocaine and/or nicotine has long-term effects on emotional behavior. Combined drug exposure contributed to the development of depressive symptoms, but not anxiety-like behavior, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, exposure to high doses of either drug alone reduced cautionary behavior

  14. Prenatal nicotine exposure changes natural and drug-induced reinforcement in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Park, Minjung; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2008-06-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of substance misuse and obesity in adolescents whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Although dopamine systems that mediate natural and drug-induced reinforcement have been shown in animal studies to be altered by gestational nicotine treatment, it is not clear whether there are concomitant changes in reinforcement sensitivity. To test whether prenatal nicotine exposure influences sensitivity to natural and drug rewards, timed pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering saline or nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 4 to 18. Male offspring were tested as adolescents, on postnatal day 32, for operant responding maintained by sucrose pellets or i.v. cocaine (200 or 500 mug/kg per injection). Cocaine-induced stereotypy and c-fos mRNA expression in cortex and striatum were also examined. Complex changes in reward circuitry were observed in the offspring of nicotine-exposed dams. Nicotine-exposed adolescents did not self-administer the low dose of cocaine, but, at the higher dose, exhibited significantly greater cocaine intake and c-fos mRNA expression in nucleus accumbens than did controls. In contrast, control animals showed significantly greater drug-induced stereotypy at both cocaine doses. Operant responding maintained by sucrose was also influenced by gestational nicotine exposure. At a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule, although the number of pellets eaten by the two experimental groups was equivalent, more pellets were left uneaten by nicotine-exposed offspring. At FR2 and FR5 schedules, the responding maintained by sucrose pellets was lower in nicotine-exposed offspring. These findings suggest that nicotine exposure during gestation may induce changes in both natural and drug reward pathways.

  15. Prenatal cocaine exposure and prolonged focus attention. Poor infant information processing ability or precocious maturation of attentional systems?

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Claudia A; Starr, Denise; Kuhn, Louise; Wasserman, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development of systems implicated in modulating attention. To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure affects infant attention, we assessed visual recognition memory and focused attention during free play. We enrolled at birth 380 infants, 113 cocaine exposed, using multiple biomarkers to assess drug exposure. Behavior was videotaped and coded off-line for sustained looking time (i.e. focused attention), banging and intrusion. Prenatal cocaine exposure was not associated with visual recognition memory, but was significantly associated with longer sustained looking times (average focused attention) at ages 6 months (p = 0.02) and 12 months (p = 0.04) in analyses that adjusted for variables, including maternal intelligence, education, depressive scores and other exposures (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). Cocaine-exposed infants at age 12 months also spent significantly less time in banging activity (p = 0.02) after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development, neurological findings or time spent in focused attention. Prenatal cocaine exposure was significantly associated with longer periods of sustained looking or focused attention in infancy, a finding that could interpreted as a measure of poor processing efficiency, or alternatively as precocious maturation of attentional systems. Either interpretation has implications for later cognitive development. Lower banging activity among cocaine exposed was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development or neurological findings, suggesting that activity level itself is diminished in these infants. Whether focused attention findings impact long term development awaits further study.

  16. Adolescent initiation of licit and illicit substance use: Impact of intrauterine exposures and post-natal exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Frank, Deborah A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B; Heeren, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents, recruited at term birth, until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the "any" summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and post-natal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly.

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure causes sex-dependent impairment in the myogenic reactivity of coronary arteries in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, DaLiao; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is a significant problem among pregnant women. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure impairs myogenic reactivity of coronary arteries in adult offspring. Pregnant rats received cocaine (30 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline from days 15 to 21 of gestational age and experiments were conducted in 3-month-old offspring. In pressurized coronary septal arteries, the diameter and vessel wall intracellular Ca2+ concentrations were measured simultaneously in the same tissue as a function of intraluminal pressure. Cocaine did not affect KCl-induced contractions of coronary arteries in either males or females, but decreased the distensibility in male vessels. In male offspring, cocaine treatment resulted in a significant decease in pressure-dependent myogenic contractions. Inhibition of eNOS with NG-nitro-L-arginine did not alter the myogenic response in either saline control or cocaine-treated animals. In females, cocaine caused a significant increase in pressure-dependent myogenic contractions. NG-nitro-L-arginine did not affect the myogenic response in the control animals, but blocked the cocaine-mediated effect. In both males and females, the presure-induced increases in vessel wall Ca2+ concentrations were not significantly different between cocaine and saline groups. The ratio of changes in the diameter to Ca2+ concentrations in the presurized arteries was significantly less in male but greater in female offspring after cocaine treatment. The results suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure causes reprogramming of coronary myogenic tone via changes in the Ca2+ sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner, leading to an increased risk of dysfunction of coronary autoregulation in adult offspring. PMID:19704103

  18. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  19. d-Cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J.; Prisciandaro, James J.; Saladin, Michael E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Nietert, Paul J.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. Methods In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. Results DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. PMID:25808169

  20. Single exposure to cocaine impairs aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex via dopamine D1-receptor dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Stutz, Bernardo; Martins, Robertta Silva; Dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Pecinalli, Ney Roner; Santos, Luis E; Taveira-da-Silva, Rosilane; Lowe, Jennifer; de Freitas, Isis Grigorio; de Melo Reis, Ricardo Augusto; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina C C

    2016-08-04

    Dopamine and glutamate play critical roles in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. We demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal administration of cocaine induces a significant decrease in [(3)H]-d-aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC). This decrease is associated with elevated dopamine levels, and requires dopamine D1-receptor signaling (D1R) and adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect was observed within 10min of cocaine administration and lasted for up to 30min. This rapid response is related to D1R-mediated cAMP-mediated activation of PKA and phosphorylation of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3. We also demonstrated that cocaine exposure increases extracellular d-aspartate, l-glutamate and d-serine in the PFC. Our data suggest that cocaine activates dopamine D1 receptor signaling and PKA pathway to regulate EAATs function and extracellular EAA level in the PFC.

  1. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  2. Repeated Cocaine Exposure Decreases Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Modulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Neurons

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, MARIELA F.; FORD, KERSTIN A.; GOUSSAKOV, IVAN; STUTZMANN, GRACE E.; HU, XIU-TI

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a limbic structure in the forebrain that plays a critical role in cognitive function and addiction. Dopamine modulates activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. Both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors (including D1R or D1,5R and D2R or D2,3,4R, respectively) are thought to play critical roles in cocaine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that repeated cocaine exposure (which alters dopamine transmission) decreases excitability of NAc MSNs in cocaine-sensitized, withdrawn rats. This decrease is characterized by a reduction in voltage-sensitive Na+ currents and high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents, along with increased voltage-gated K+ currents. These changes are associated with enhanced activity in the D1R/cAMP/PKA/protein phosphatase 1 pathway and diminished calcineurin function. Although D1R-mediated signaling is enhanced by repeated cocaine exposure, little is known whether and how the D2R is implicated in the cocaine-induced NAc dysfunction. Here, we performed a combined electrophysiological, biochemical, and neuroimaging study that reveals the cocaine-induced dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis with involvement of D2R. Our novel findings reveal that D2R stimulation reduced Ca2+ influx preferentially via the L-type Ca2+ channels and evoked intracellular Ca2+ release, likely via inhibiting the cAMP/PKA cascade, in the NAc MSNs of drug-free rats. However, repeated cocaine exposure abolished the D2R effects on modulating Ca2+ homeostasis with enhanced PKA activity and led to a decrease in whole-cell Ca2+ influx. These adaptations, which persisted for 21 days during cocaine abstinence, may contribute to the mechanism of cocaine withdrawal. PMID:20665696

  3. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters functional activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex and its structural connectivity with the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Santhanam, Priya; Coles, Claire D; Ellen Lynch, Mary; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping

    2013-07-30

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with arousal dysregulation, and alterations of amygdala activity in response to emotional arousal have previously been reported. However, voluntary regulation of emotional affect, enabling appropriate neural response to different streams of stimuli, must also engage prefrontal regions, yet the impact of PCE on these prefrontal mechanisms has not been investigated. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in the modulation of amygdala reactivity and the mediation of effective emotional regulation. Based on these findings, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the present study compared functional activations of the vPFC as well as its structural connectivity with the amygdala between groups of PCE and control adolescents. In a working memory task with emotional distracters, the PCE adolescents exhibited less capability of increasing their vPFC activation in response to increased memory load, which corresponded with their less suppressed amygdala activation. Reduced structural connectivity between the vPFC and the amygdala was also observed from DTI measurement in the PCE group. In addition, correlations between amygdala activation and (i) vPFC activation, as well as (ii) amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity, were observed in the control but not in the PCE group. These data complement previous findings of the impact of PCE on the activity of the amygdala and extend our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effect of PCE on arousal dysregulation reported in human and animal studies.

  4. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  5. Classification and Short-Term Course of DSM-IV Cannabis, Hallucinogen, Cocaine, and Opioid Disorders in Treated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christoper S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the latent class structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) symptoms used to diagnose cannabis, hallucinogen, cocaine, and opiate disorders among 501 adolescents recruited from addictions treatment. Latent class results were compared with the…

  6. Children's Intellectual and Emotional-Behavioral Adjustment at 4 Years as a Function of Cocaine Exposure, Maternal Characteristics, and Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 4-year-olds for effects on IQ of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, risk factors, and neonatal medical problems. Found that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores for boys only. Maternal harsh…

  7. Prior Cocaine Exposure Disrupts Extinction of Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugsa, Nishan; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Burke, Kathryn A.; Franz, Theresa M.

    2006-01-01

    Psychostimulant exposure has been shown to cause molecular and cellular changes in prefrontal cortex. It has been hypothesized that these drug-induced changes might affect the operation of prefrontal-limbic circuits, disrupting their normal role in controlling behavior and thereby leading to compulsive drug-seeking. To test this hypothesis, we…

  8. Regulation of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase pump in vitro after long-term exposure to cocaine: role of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Mackler, S A; Kleyman, T R; Cha, X Y

    1998-05-01

    Long-term exposure to cocaine can cause persistent behavioral changes and alterations in neuronal function. One cocaine-regulated mRNA in the rat brain is the beta-1 subunit of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase pump. We examined both Na+/K(+)-ATPase function and expression after cocaine treatment of pheochromocytoma cells. One-hour exposure to cocaine did not alter Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, as measured by the ouabain-sensitive component of rubidium uptake. Four days of cocaine resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. Western blot analyses demonstrated an approximately 25% decrease in levels of the beta-1 isoform, without changes in pump total alpha subunit levels. Treatment with dopamine type 1 or type 2 receptor agonists for the same period did not affect Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. The serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine caused an approximately 45% decrease in rubidium uptake after 4 days, whereas pump function was not altered after treatment with either the dopamine-selective reuptake blocker nomifensine or the norepinephrine-selective reuptake blocker desipramine. Chronic treatment with both cocaine and LY 278,584, a serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist, did not replicate the cocaine-associated decrease in pump function. Long-term cocaine exposure regulates expression and function of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase pump in neuronal-like cells; this regulation is mediated in part via the serotonin type 3 receptor. Similar Na+/K(+)-ATPase pump regulation in vivo may selectively alter neuronal function in the mammalian brain.

  9. Opposite regulation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of rats treated with cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2016-02-26

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine addiction, although it is not clear how cocaine regulates brain CB1 and CB2 receptors, especially during adolescence, a critical moment for shaping adult response to drug use. This study evaluated CB1 and CB2 protein levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) by western blot analysis with specific and validated antibodies: (1) basally during adolescence (post-natal day PND 40, PND 47, PND 54), (2) by a sensitizing regimen of cocaine (15mg/kg, 7 days, i.p.) during different windows of adolescence vulnerability (PND 33-39, PND 40-46, PND 47-53), and (3) following repeated cocaine administration during adolescence (PND 33-39) in adulthood (PND 64). The results demonstrated a dynamic and opposite basal modulation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PFC and HC during adolescence. CB1 receptor levels were increased while CB2 receptors were decreased as compared to adulthood with asymptotes values around mid adolescence (PND 47) both in PFC (CB1: +45±22, p<0.05; CB2: -24±6%, p<0.05) and HC (CB1: +53±23, p<0.05; CB2: -20±8%, p<0.05). Interestingly, cocaine only altered CB1 (+55±10%, p<0.05) and CB2 (-25±10%, p<0.05) receptors when administered during early adolescence and only in PFC. However, the changes observed in PFC by repeated cocaine administration in adolescence were transient and did not endure into adulthood. These results identified a period of vulnerability during adolescence at which cocaine dysregulated the content of CB receptors in PFC, suggesting an opposite role for these receptors in the effects mediated by cocaine.

  10. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  11. Alcohol-induced brain growth restrictions (microencephaly) were not affected by concurrent exposure to cocaine during the brain growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Chen, W J; Andersen, K H; West, J R

    1994-09-01

    The prevalence of concomitant use of alcohol and cocaine among drug abusers has raised concern about the possible increased risk of fetal damage. The aim of this study was to assess the interactive effects of alcohol and cocaine on lethality, somatic growth, and brain growth using an animal model system. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were used as subjects. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 9 artificially reared groups which varied with respect to the combination treatments of cocaine (0, 40, or 60 mg/kg) and alcohol (0, 3.3, or 4.5 g/kg). All artificially reared pups were given daily cocaine and alcohol treatments during a major part of the brain growth spurt period (postnatal days 4-9). An additional group of suckled control animals raised by their natural dams was included to control for artificial rearing. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Drug-induced lethality was higher in cocaine-treated groups when compared with non-cocaine-treated groups, and the concurrent administration of high doses of alcohol and cocaine significantly increased the mortality rate. 2) Somatic growth, in terms of body weight, was not affected by alcohol, cocaine, or the combination of both drugs using the artificial rearing technique. 3) Alcohol exposure during this brain growth spurt period significantly reduced whole brain weight, as well as forebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem weights. 4) In contrast to alcohol, cocaine failed to exert a detrimental effect on brain weight measures during this early postnatal period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Blendy, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation.

  13. Specificity of prenatal cocaine exposure effects on cortical interneurons is independent from dopamine D1 receptor co-localization

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Barbara L.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Levitt, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Gestational cocaine exposure in a rabbit model leads to a persistent increase in parvalbumin immunoreactive cells and processes, reduces dopamine D1 receptor coupling to Gsα by means of improper trafficking of the receptor, changes pyramidal neuron morphology, and disrupts cognitive function. Here, experiments investigated whether changes in parvalbumin neurons were specific, or extended to other subpopulations of interneurons. Additionally, we examined dopamine D1 receptor expression patterns and its overlap with specific interneuron populations in the rabbit prefrontal cortex as a possible correlate for alterations in interneuron development following prenatal cocaine exposure. Analysis of calbindin and calretinin interneuron subtypes revealed that they did not exhibit any differences in cell number or process development. Thus, specific consequences of prenatal cocaine in the rabbit appear to be limited to parvalbumin positive interneurons. Dopamine D1 receptor expression did not correlate with the selective effects of cocaine exposure, however, as both parvalbumin and calbindin cell types expressed the receptor. The findings suggest that additional, unique properties of parvalbumin neurons contribute to their developmental sensitivity to in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:20080176

  14. Perseveration in the presence of punishment: the effects of chronic cocaine exposure and lesions to the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Allen, Craig P; Leri, Francesco

    2014-03-15

    Perseveration is the repetition of a previously appropriate response in a manner, or context, which is detrimental to the individual. Although both cocaine exposure and prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunctions have been implicated in perseverative-like behaviours, the underlying nature of the impairments has been debated. The current study tested whether chronic cocaine exposure and PFC lesions induce perseverative-like behaviours by causing insensitivity to punishment. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for sucrose on concurrent schedules of reinforcement. After initial training, rats received either a sensitizing regimen of cocaine exposure, or excitotoxic lesions to subregions of the PFC. The test of perseveration involved a choice of responding between two levers associated with fixed ratio and progressive ratio (PR) schedules. Responding on the PR lever was punished by a 1 min timeout period. It was found that, unlike control subjects, those exposed to chronic cocaine, or with lesions to the medial prefrontal cortex, were significantly slower in adapting their responding to avoid punishment. The current study provides evidence that both cocaine exposure and lesions to the prefrontal cortex can increase perseverative-like responding, although the magnitude and permanence of these effects are contingent on the nature of the task.

  15. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters.

  16. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs cognitive function of progeny via insulin growth factor II epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Hou, Jing; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Bu, Qian; Gu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Du, Changman; Fu, Dengqi; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    Studies have showed that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCOC) can impair cognitive function and social behavior of the offspring; however, the mechanism underlying such effect is poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf-II), an imprinted gene, has a critical role in memory consolidation and enhancement. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulation of hippocampal Igf-II may attribute to the cognitive deficits of PCOC offspring. We used Morris water maze and open-field task to test the cognitive function in PCOC offspring. The epigenetic alteration involved in hippocampal Igf-II expression deficit in PCOC offspring was studied by determining Igf-II methylation status, DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) expressions and L-methionine level. Moreover, IGF-II rescue experiments were performed and the downstream signalings were investigated in PCOC offspring. In behavioral tests, we observed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety in PCOC offspring; moreover, hippocampal IGF-II mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased. Hippocampal methylation of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides in differentially methylated region (DMR) 2 of Igf-II was elevated in PCOC offspring, which may be driven by the upregulation of L-methionine and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1. Importantly, intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant IGF-II reactivated the repressed calcium calmodulin kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and reversed cognitive deficits in PCOC offspring. Collectively, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure during pregnancy impairs cognitive function of offspring through epigenetic modification of Igf-II gene. Enhancing IGF-II signaling may represent a novel therapeutical strategy for cocaine-induced cognitive impairment.

  17. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

    PubMed

    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P < or = 0.001). Victims were predominantly females. Those having exposure to violence had poorer school performance and adjustment scores (P < or = 0.05). Thus violence exposure is prevalent even in the lives of Indian adolescents and gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  18. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4- to 9-Years as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at 4, 6, and 9 years of age. Neonatal medical risk and other prenatal exposures (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) were also examined for their unique effects on child IQ. Mixed models analysis indicated that prenatal cocaine exposure interacted with gender as cocaine exposed boys had lower composite IQ scores. Age of assessment did not moderate this relation, indicating that cocaine exposed boys had lower IQs across this age period. A stimulating home environment and high maternal verbal IQ also predicted higher composite IQ scores. Cocaine exposed boys had lower scores on the Abstract/Visual Reasoning subscale, with trends for lower scores on the Short-term Memory and Verbal Reasoning subscales, as exposure effects were observed across domains. The findings indicate that cocaine exposure continues to place children at risk for mild cognitive deficits into preadolescence. Possible mechanisms for the exposure by gender interaction are discussed. PMID:18605824

  19. Methylphenidate treatment beyond adolescence maintains increased cocaine self-administration in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Britahny M; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2015-04-01

    Past research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed that adolescent methylphenidate treatment enhanced cocaine abuse risk in SHR during adulthood. The acquisition of cocaine self-administration was faster, and cocaine dose-response functions were shifted upward under fixed-ratio and progressive ratio schedules compared to adult SHR that received adolescent vehicle treatment or to control strains that received adolescent methylphenidate treatment. The current study determined if extending treatment beyond adolescence would ameliorate long-term consequences of adolescent methylphenidate treatment on cocaine abuse risk in adult SHR. Treatments (vehicle or 1.5mg/kg/day oral methylphenidate) began on postnatal day 28. Groups of male SHR were treated with vehicle during adolescence and adulthood, with methylphenidate during adolescence and vehicle during adulthood, or with methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood. The group receiving adolescent-only methylphenidate was switched to vehicle on P56. Cocaine self-administration began on postnatal day 77, and groups receiving methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood were treated either 1-h before or 1-h after daily sessions. At baseline under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, cocaine self-administration (2h sessions; 0.3mg/kg unit dose) did not differ among the four treatment groups. Under a progressive ratio schedule (4.5h maximum session length; 0.01-1.0mg/kg unit doses), breakpoints for self-administered cocaine in SHR receiving the adult methylphenidate treatment 1-h pre-session were not different from the vehicle control group. However, compared to the vehicle control group, breakpoints for self-administered cocaine at the 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg unit doses were greater in adult SHR that received adolescent-only methylphenidate or received methylphenidate that was continued into adulthood and administered 1-h post-session. These findings suggest that

  20. Methylphenidate treatment beyond adolescence maintains increased cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Britahny M.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research with the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed that adolescent methylphenidate treatment enhanced cocaine abuse risk in SHR during adulthood. Acquisition of cocaine self-administration was faster, and cocaine dose-response functions were shifted upward under fixed-ratio and progressive ratio schedules compared to adult SHR that received adolescent vehicle treatment or to control strains that received adolescent methylphenidate treatment. The current study determined if extending treatment beyond adolescence would ameliorate long-term consequences of adolescent methylphenidate treatment on cocaine abuse risk in adult SHR. Treatments (vehicle or 1.5 mg/kg/day oral methylphenidate) began on postnatal day 28. Groups of male SHR were treated with vehicle during adolescence and adulthood, with methylphenidate during adolescence and vehicle during adulthood, or with methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood. The group receiving adolescent-only methylphenidate was switched to vehicle on P56. Cocaine self-administration began on postnatal day 77, and groups receiving methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood were treated either 1-hr before or 1-hr after daily sessions. At baseline under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, cocaine self-administration (2 hr sessions; 0.3 mg/kg unit dose) did not differ among the four treatment groups. Under a progressive ratio schedule (4.5 hr maximum session length; 0.01 – 1.0 mg/kg unit doses), breakpoints for self-administered cocaine in SHR receiving the adult methylphenidate treatment 1-hr pre-session were not different from the vehicle control group. However, compared to the vehicle control group, breakpoints for self-administered cocaine at the 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg unit doses were greater in adult SHR that received adolescent-only methylphenidate or received methylphenidate that was continued into adulthood and administered 1-hr post-session. These findings

  1. From the Cover: Zebrafish Larvae Are Insensitive to Stimulation by Cocaine: Importance of Exposure Route and Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Kirla, Krishna Tulasi; Groh, Ksenia J; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Banote, Rakesh Kumar; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Eggen, Rik I L; Schirmer, Kristin; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae have been suggested as vertebrate model to complement or even replace mammals for rapidly assessing behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs. Yet, divergent responses have been reported in mammals and fish despite the conservation of many drug targets. Cocaine, eg, acts as stimulant in mammals but no such response has been documented for zebrafish larvae. We hypothesized that differences in exposure routes (inhalation or injection in mammals vs waterborne in fish) may be a reason for differences in behavioral responses. We characterized cocaine toxicokinetics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and found its rapid uptake into larvae. We used Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging for the first time to characterize internal distribution of cocaine in zebrafish larvae. Surprisingly, eyes accumulated the highest amount of cocaine and retained most of it even after 48 h depuration. We attribute this to trapping by pigment melanin, a thus far little explored mechanism that may also be relevant for other basic drugs. Cocaine also reached the brain but with levels similar to those in trunk indicating simple passive diffusion as means of distribution which was supported by toxicokinetic models. Although brain levels covered those known to cause hyperactivity in mammals, only hypoactivity (decreased locomotion) was recorded in zebrafish larvae. Our results therefore point to cocaine's anesthetic properties as the dominant mechanism of interaction in the fish: upon entry through the fish skin and gills, it first acts on peripheral nerves rapidly overriding any potential stimulatory response in the brain.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  3. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  4. Multigenerational and Transgenerational Inheritance of Drug Exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Yohn, Nicole L.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Blendy, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation. PMID:25839742

  5. Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R; Schuetze, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances and child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. We investigated whether maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, maternal harshness moderated the association between prenatal cocaine exposure to child internalizing in kindergarten such that prenatal cocaine exposure increased risk for internalizing problems at high levels of maternal harshness from 7 to 36months and decreased risk at low levels of harshness. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and child internalizing in kindergarten was not mediated by maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk. However, cumulative environmental risk (from 1month of child age to kindergarten) was predictive of child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward reducing maternal harshness in high risk samples characterized by maternal substance use in pregnancy.

  6. Assessment of exposure to opiates and cocaine during pregnancy in a Mediterranean city: preliminary results of the "Meconium Project".

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Puig, Carme; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Marchei, Emilia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Murillo, Janeth; Vall, Oriol; Pacifici, Roberta; García-Algar, Oscar

    2005-10-04

    For the first time in Europe, the "Meconium Project" aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant. Between October 2002 and February 2004, 1151 (79%) dyads among the 1439 mother-infant dyads from the Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain, met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. We present preliminary results on the first 830 meconium samples and 549 mother-infant dyads, for which statistical analysis of socio-economic and demographic characteristics and newborn somatometry was completed. The meconium analysis showed an overall 7.9% positivity for drugs of abuse, with 6-monoacetylmorphine and cocaine being the analytes, most frequently found in samples positive for opiates and cocaine. Structured interview disclosed 1.3, 1.8 and 1.3% of mothers exposed to opiates, cocaine and both drugs, while only one mother declared ecstasy consumption. Meconium analysis showed that prevalence of opiates, cocaine and combined drugs exposure was 8.7, 4.4 and 2.2%, respectively, and confirmed the case of ecstasy use. Arecoline, the main areca nut alkaloid, was found in meconium specimens from four Asiatic newborns, whose mothers declared beetle nut consumption during pregnancy. Parental ethnicity was not associated with drug use, nor was the social class, although a higher tendency toward drug consumption was observed in professional and partly skilled mothers. Drug consuming mothers showed a higher number of previous pregnancies and abortions (p<0.05) when compared to non-consumer mothers (meconium negative test), probably due to a lack of family planning. Consumption of opiates and cocaine during pregnancy was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and cannabis use. Exposure status and smoking behavior correlated with significantly lower birth weight in newborns from mothers exposed only to cocaine and to opiates and

  7. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  8. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  9. Exposure to Violence in Adolescence and Precocious Role Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Petts, Richard J.; Maimon, David; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious public health concern that compromises adolescents by affecting their behavior and psychological well-being. The current study advances knowledge about the consequences of exposure to violence in adolescence by applying a life course perspective to evaluate the developmental implications of adolescents' exposure…

  10. Effects of repeated social defeat on adolescent mice on cocaine-induced CPP and self-administration in adulthood: integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Aguilar, María A; Martín-García, Elena; Cabrera, Roberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Porcu, Francesca; Colado, María Isabel; Miñarro, José

    2017-01-01

    Social stress in adulthood enhances cocaine self-administration, an effect that has been related with an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. A detrimental effect of cocaine on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity has also been reported. This study evaluates the effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine in adult mice and the changes induced by RSD on BBB permeability. Cocaine self-administration, conditioned place preference and quantitative analysis of claudin-5, laminin, collagen-IV and IgG immunoreactivity took place 3 weeks after RSD. Mice socially defeated during adolescence developed conditioned place preference and exhibited reinstated preference with a non-effective dose of cocaine (1 mg/kg). RSD mice needed significantly more sessions than control animals for the preference induced by 25 mg/kg of cocaine to be extinguished. However, acquisition of cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg per injection) was delayed in the RSD group. Mice exposed to RSD displayed significant changes in BBB structure in adulthood, with a marked reduction in expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 and an increase in basal laminin degradation (reflected by a decrease in laminin and collagen-IV expression) in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. The detrimental effect induced by cocaine (25 mg/kg) on collagen-IV expression in the hippocampus was more pronounced in RSD mice. In summary, our findings suggest that stress and cocaine can increase the long-term vulnerability of the brain to subsequent environmental insults as a consequence of a sustained disruption of the BBB.

  11. Association Between Gambling and Exposure to Guns Among Cocaine-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Vaddiparti, Krishna; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence. Women in the study were predominantly African American (80%), mean age was 35.70 years ±8.8. Women exposed to guns were significantly more likely than women not exposed to guns to have gambled with all consequences: without meeting PG criteria (21% vs. 15%); to meet 1 to 4 PG criteria (22% vs. 12%), and to report 5 or more PG criteria (10% vs. 5%). These differences were significant at p < 0.0001. Based on the multivariate analysis, women who gambled without PG symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.10-2.85) were nearly twice more likely to have exposure to guns than women who did not gamble. The risk for gun exposure increased with severity of gambling. Women who gambled and reported one to four PG criteria were twice as likely to have had an exposure to guns (OR 2.04; 95% CI = 1.45-3.06) and this risk increased to nearly threefold among women who met five or more criteria of PG (OR 2.65; 95% CI = 1.32-5.32). In addition, endorsing five or more criteria for major depressive disorder (OR 1.44; 95% CI = 1.00-2.06) and three or more criteria for antisocial personality adult criteria (OR 3.78; 95% CI = 2.03-7.02) were strong predictors for gun exposure among these women. The findings indicate that substance-using women with gambling behavior are at

  12. Effects of chronic exposure to crack cocaine on the respiratory tract of mice.

    PubMed

    Herculiani, Percyleine P; Pires-Neto, Ruy C; Bueno, Heloisa M S; Zorzetto, Júlio C; Silva, Luiz C; Santos, Angela B G; Garcia, Raphael C T; Yonamine, Mauricio; Detregiachi, Cláudia R P; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Mauad, Thais

    2009-04-01

    Smoked cocaine (crack cocaine) causes several forms of injury to the respiratory tract, including asthma exacerbations, lung edema and hemorrhage, and nasal mucosal alterations. Few studies, however, have assessed respiratory tract pathology in habitual users of crack cocaine. Here, we describe the histological alterations in the respiratory tract of mice caused by chronic inhalation of crack cocaine. Twenty 2-month-old BALB/c mice were exposed to the smoke of 5 g crack cocaine in an inhalation chamber once a day for two months and compared to controls (n = 10). We then morphometrically analyzed nose and bronchiolar epithelial alterations, bronchiolar and alveolar macrophage cell density, alveolar hemosiderin content, and in addition determined the vasoconstriction index and the wall thickness of pulmonary arteries. The serum cocaine level was 212.5 ng/mL after a single inhalation. The mucus content of the nasal epithelium increased in crack-exposed animals, and the nasal and bronchial epithelium thickness decreased significantly. The alveolar hemosiderin content and the alveolar and bronchiolar macrophage cell density increased in animals exposed to crack. The vasoconstriction index increased in the pulmonary arteries of the exposed group. Chronic crack cocaine inhalation causes extensive histological changes along the entire respiratory tract.

  13. Post-training cocaine exposure facilitates spatial memory consolidation in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Charntikov, Sergios; Baella, Shelley A; Herbert, Matthew S; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of post-training injections of cocaine to facilitate spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze (MWM). We also investigated the role that hippocampal protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) signaling may play in cocaine-mediated spatial memory consolidation processes. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were first trained in a MWM task (eight consecutive trials) then injected with cocaine (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg), and memory for the platform location was retested after a 24 h delay. Cocaine had a dose-dependent effect on spatial memory performance because only the mice receiving 2.5 mg/kg cocaine displayed a significant reduction in latency to locate the platform. No sex differences in MWM performance were observed; however, females showed higher hippocampal levels of PKA when compared with males. A second experiment demonstrated that 2.5 mg/kg cocaine enhanced MWM performance only when administered within 2, but not 4 h after spatial training. We also found that cocaine (2.5 mg/kg) increased ERK2 phosphorylation within the hippocampus and one of its downstream targets (ribosomal S6 kinase), a mechanism that may be responsible, at least in part, for the enhanced cocaine-mediated spatial memory performance. Overall, these data demonstrate that a low dose of cocaine (2.5 mg/kg) administered within 2 h after training facilitates MWM spatial memory performance in C57BL/6 mice.

  14. Children's intellectual and emotional-behavioral adjustment at 4 years as a function of cocaine exposure, maternal characteristics, and environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-09-01

    The authors examined 223 children at age 4 years for the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, maternal and environmental risk factors, and neonatal medical problems on IQ, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Regression analyses showed that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores, but only for boys. Cocaine exposure also predicted poorer short-term memory. Maternal harsh discipline, maternal depressive symptoms, and increased environmental risk predicted externalizing problems. In contrast, only maternal depressive symptoms predicted internalizing problems. These findings indicate that early exposure to substances is largely unrelated to subsequent IQ or adjustment, particularly for girls.

  15. Cell-type specific insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs with cocaine exposure leading to sensitization, cue-induced seeking and incubation of craving

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Terrier; Christian, Lüscher; Vincent, Pascoli

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Addiction is a behavioral disease, of which core components can be modeled in rodents. Much evidence implicates drug-evoked synaptic plasticity in cocaine-evoked locomotor sensitization, cue-induced cocaine seeking and incubation of cocaine craving. However the type of plasticity evoked by different modalities of cocaine administration (e.g. contingent versus non-contingent) and its role in reshaping circuit function remains largely elusive. Here we exposed mice to various regimens of cocaine and recorded excitatory transmission onto identified medium-sized spiny neurons (MSN, expressing fluorescent proteins under the control of either D1R or D2R dopamine receptor promotor) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at time points when behavioural adaptations are observed. In D1-MSN, we found the presence of GluA2-lacking α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) after single or chronic non-contingent exposure to cocaine, as well as after cocaine self-administration. We also report an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio (A/N) in D1-MSN, which was observed only after repeated passive injections associated with locomotor sensitization as well as in a condition of self-administration (SA) leading to seeking behaviour. Remarkably, insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs was also detected in D2-MSN after self-administration of a high dose of cocaine but not regular dose (1.5 vs. 0.75 mg/kg), which was the only condition where incubation of cocaine craving was observed in this study. Moreover, synapses containing GluA2-lacking AMPARs belonged to amygdala inputs in D2-MSN and to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inputs in D1-MSN. Taken together this study allows for a refinement of a circuit model of addiction based on specific synaptic changes induced by cocaine. PMID:26585289

  16. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  17. Exposure to chronic mild stress prevents kappa opioid-mediated reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Bruchas, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Stress increases the risk of drug abuse, causes relapse to drug seeking, and potentiates the rewarding properties of both nicotine and cocaine. Understanding the mechanisms by which stress regulates the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse provides valuable insight into potential treatments for drug abuse. Prior reports have demonstrated that stress causes dynorphin release, activating kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in monoamine circuits resulting in both potentiation and reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine conditioned place preference. Here we report that kappa opioid-dependent reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference is reduced when the mice are exposed to a randomized chronic mild stress (CMS) regime prior to training in a conditioned place preference-reinstatement paradigm. The CMS schedule involves seven different stressors (removal of nesting for 24 h, 5 min forced swim stress at 15°C, 8 h food and water deprivation, damp bedding overnight, white noise, cage tilt, and disrupted home cage lighting) rotated over a 3-week period. This response is KOR-selective, as CMS does not protect against cocaine or nicotine drug-primed reinstatement. This protection from reinstatement is also observed following sub-chronic social defeat stress, where each mouse is placed in an aggressor mouse home cage for a period of 20 min over 5 days. In contrast, a single acute stressor resulted in a potentiation of KOR-induced reinstatement, as previously reported. Prior studies have shown that stress alters sensitivity to opioids and prior stress can influence the pharmacodynamics of the opioid receptor system. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to different forms of stress may cause a dysregulation of kappa opioid circuitry and that changes resulting from mild stress can have protective and adaptive effects against drug relapse.

  18. Cocaine withdrawal in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Raffa, R B; Valdez, J M

    2001-10-26

    Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8x10(-9) to 8x10(-5) M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83x10(-19) J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.

  19. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control

    PubMed Central

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats’ ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action–outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine’s effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  20. Combined Effects of Simultaneous Exposure to Caffeine and Cocaine in the Mouse Striatum.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Javier A; Gomez, Gimena; González, Betina; Rivero-Echeto, María Celeste; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Veronica

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is the world's most popular psychoactive drug and is also an active adulterant found in many drugs of abuse, including seized cocaine samples. Despite several studies which examine the effects of caffeine or cocaine administered as single agents, little data are available for these agents when given in combination. The purpose of the present study was to determine if combined intake of both psychostimulants can lead to maladaptive changes in striatal function. Mice were injected with a binge regimen (intermittent treatment for 13 days) of caffeine (3 × 5 mg/kg), cocaine (3 × 10 mg/kg), or combined administration. We found that chronic caffeine potentiated locomotion induced by cocaine and that both caffeine-treated groups showed sensitization. Striatal tissue was obtained 24 h and 7 days after last injection (withdrawal) for immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression. Our results show that combined intake of both psychostimulants can increase GFAP immunoreactivity in the striatum at both times post treatment. Gene expression analysis, targeted at dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate receptor subunit genes, revealed significant transcript down-regulation in the dorsal striatum of AMPA, NMDA, D1 and D2 receptor subunit mRNA expression in the group that received combined treatment, but not after individual administration. At withdrawal, we found increased D1 receptor mRNA expression along with increased A1, AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic subunit expression. A2A mRNA showed decreased expression after both times in all experimental groups. Our study provides evidence that there are striatal alterations mediated by combined caffeine and cocaine administration, and highlights negative outcomes of chronic intake of both psychostimulants.

  1. Exposure to the Selective κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist Salvinorin A Modulates the Behavioral and Molecular Effects of Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H; Potter, David; Damez-Werno, Diane; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2008-01-01

    Stress and chronic exposure to drugs of abuse can trigger addictive and depressive disorders. Both stimuli increase activity of dynorphin, a neuropeptide that acts at κ-opioid receptors (KORs). In humans, KOR agonists cause dysphoria, raising the possibility that dynorphin modulates the depressive-like effects of stress and chronic drug use. We examined if KOR activation alters sensitivity to stimulant drugs by assessing the effects of the selective KOR agonist, salvinorin A (SalvA), on cocaine-induced locomotor activity and c-Fos expression. Acute administration of SalvA blocked the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine, whereas repeated SalvA together with concomitant exposure to activity testing chambers potentiated the locomotor response to a cocaine challenge. In contrast, repeated SalvA administered in home cages rather than the activity chambers failed to potentiate the locomotor response to a cocaine challenge. One potential explanation for these findings is that activation of KORs disrupts context conditioning: acute locomotor responses to SalvA alone did not fully habituate with repeated testing in the activity chambers. The effects of SalvA on locomotor activity paralleled its effects on cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal striatum: acute SalvA attenuated cocaine-induced c-Fos, whereas repeated SalvA potentiated it when administered in the activity chambers but not the home cage. Acute SalvA also blocked the locomotor stimulant effects of the DI receptor agonist SKF 82958, whereas repeated SalvA potentiated these effects when administered in the activity chambers. These findings suggest that SalvA regulates the stimulant effects of cocaine through interactions with DI receptor-mediated signaling in the dorsal striatum. PMID:18185499

  2. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  3. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  4. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  5. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  6. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  7. Sex differences in the effects of social and physical environment on novelty-induced exploratory behavior and cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Elena; Starosciak, Amy; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2012-04-21

    Many factors influence the rewarding effects of drugs such as cocaine. The present study was done to determine whether social and environmental factors alter behavior in adolescent male and female rats. On postnatal day (PND) 23, rats were housed in one of several same-sex conditions. Both social (number of rats per cage) and environmental (availability of toys) factors were manipulated. Socially isolated rats were housed alone (1 rat/cage) in an environment that either was impoverished (with no toys; II) or enriched (with toys; IE). Standard housing for these studies was social and impoverished, which was 2 rats/cage with no toys (SI2). Other rats were housed 2/cage with toys (SE2), or 3/cage with (SE3) or without (SI3) toys. On PND 37, novelty-induced locomotor activity was measured for 30min. On PND 44-46, locomotor activity in response to an injection of 5mg/kg cocaine was measured for 60min each day. For male rats, only social conditions altered novelty-induced activity. Males housed in groups of three had the most activity, compared to pair-housed and isolated rats. For females, social and environmental enrichment interacted to alter novelty-induced activity. In contrast to males, isolated females had increased activity, compared to group-housed females. Further, isolated females in impoverished environments had more activity than isolated females in enriched environments and group-housed females in impoverished environments. The effect of environmental enrichment on cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity was altered depending upon the number of rats living in a cage for males. For females, only social conditions altered cocaine-stimulated behavior, with activity increasing with the number of rats in the cage, regardless of environmental enrichment. These data show that social and environmental enrichment differentially alter novelty-induced and cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity in adolescent male and female rats.

  8. Cocaine Exposure Is Associated with Subtle Compromises of Infants' and Mothers' Social-Emotional Behavior and Dyadic Features of Their Interaction in the Face-to-Face Still-Face Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; Messinger, D. S.; Weinberg, M. K.; Lester, B. M.; LaGasse, L.; Seifer, R.; Bauer, C. R.; Shankaran, S.; Bada, H.; Wright, L. L.; Poole, K.; Liu, J.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure are thought to subtly compromise social and emotional development. The authors observed a large sample of 236 cocaine-exposed and 459 nonexposed infants (49 were opiate exposed and 646 nonexposed) with their mothers in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Infant and maternal behaviors were microanalytically…

  9. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  10. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  11. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent-like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity.

  12. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  13. Comparison of 12-year-old children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and non-exposed controls on caregiver ratings of executive function.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T; Min, Meeyoung O; Lang, Adelaide M; Ben-Harush, Aya; Short, Elizabeth; Wu, Miaoping

    2014-01-01

    Differences in caregiver reported executive function in 12-year-old children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) compared to children who were not prenatally exposed to cocaine (NCE) were assessed. One hundred and sixty-nine PCE and 169 NCE, primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status children participated in a prospective longitudinal study. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form was administered. Two broadband BRIEF scores (Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and Metacognition Index (MI)) and a summary Global Executive Composite (GEC) were computed. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effects of amount of PCE on executive function, controlling for covariates including caregiver (rater) psychological distress, child's gender and other prenatal drug exposure variables. After adjustment for covariates, amount of PCE was associated with the GEC and two MI subscales, Plan/Organize and Monitor, with heavier exposure associated with more problems of executive function. An amount of PCE by gender interaction revealed amount of PCE effects in other remaining subscales of the MI (Initiate, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials) only among girls. Head circumference did not mediate the effects of cocaine on outcomes. Higher current caregiver psychological distress levels were independently associated with poorer ratings on the executive function scales. Assessment and targeted interventions to improve metacognitive processes are recommended for girls who were prenatally exposed to cocaine.

  14. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  15. Neurobehavioral adaptations to methylphenidate: the issue of early adolescent exposure.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Ruocco, Lucia A; Canese, Rossella; Sadile, Adolfo G; Laviola, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to psychostimulants, including both abused and therapeutic drugs, can occur first during human adolescence. Animal modeling is useful not only to reproduce adolescent peculiarities but also to study neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulant consumption. Human adolescence (generally considered as the period between 9/12 and 18 years old) has been compared with the age window between postnatal days (pnd) 28/35 and 50 in rats and mice. These adolescent rodents display basal hyperlocomotion and higher rates of exploration together with a marked propensity for sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, peculiar responses to psychostimulants, including enhanced locomotor sensitization, no drug-induced stereotypy and reduced place conditioning have been described in adolescent rodents. During this age window, forebrain dopamine systems undergo profuse remodeling, thus providing a neuro-biological substrate to explain behavioral peculiarities observed during adolescence, as well as the reported vulnerabilities to several drugs. Further, methylphenidate (MPH, better known as Ritalin®), a psychostimulant extensively prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), raises concerns for its long-term safety. Using magnetic resonance techniques, MPH-induced acute effects appear to be different in adolescent rats compared to adult animals. Moreover, adolescent exposure to MPH seems to provoke persistent neurobehavioral consequences: long-term modulation of self-control abilities, decreased sensitivity to natural and drug reward, enhanced stress-induced emotionality, together with an enhanced cortical control over sub-cortical dopamine systems and an enduring up-regulation of Htr7 gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In summary, additional studies in animal models are necessary to better understand the long-term consequences of adolescent MPH, and to further investigate the safety of

  16. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N=358; 45% male; 91% African American, M=12.10 years, SD=1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural equation modeling revealed that a six-factor correlated model best fit the data, indicating that the six subscales of the threat appraisal measure represent distinct but related constructs. The factor structure was invariant across age and gender. Exposure to violence was associated prospectively with caregiver- and adolescent-rated adjustment problems. Each of the six threat appraisals mediated links between exposure to violence at Wave 1 and adolescent-rated internalizing adjustment problems 1 year later. PMID:18991135

  17. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000947.htm Cocaine withdrawal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a ...

  18. Prenatal drug exposure, behavioral problems and drug experimentation among African American urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Nair, Prasanna; Zhu, Shijun; Magder, Larry; Black, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine how prenatal heroin/cocaine exposure (PDE) and behavioral problems relate to adolescent drug experimentation. Methods The sample included African American adolescents (mean age=14.2 yr, SD=1.2) with PDE (n=73) and a non-exposed community comparison (n=61). PDE status was determined at delivery through toxicology analysis and maternal-report. Internalizing/externalizing problems were assessed during adolescence with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. Drug experimentation was assessed by adolescent-report and urine analysis. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of drug experimentation related to PDE and behavioral problems, adjusting for age, gender, prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure, perceived peer drug use and caregiver drug use. Interaction terms examined gender modification. Results 67 (50%) used drugs. 25 (19%) used tobacco/alcohol only and 42 (31%) used marijuana/illegal drugs. 94 (70%) perceived peer drug use. PDE significantly increased the risk of tobacco/alcohol experimentation (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.09–8.66, p=0.034), but not after covariate adjustment (aOR=1.31, 95% CI: 0.39–4.36, p>0.05). PDE was not related to overall or marijuana/illegal drug experimentation. The likelihood of overall drug experimentation was doubled per Standard Deviation (SD) increase in externalizing problems (aOR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.33–3.91, p=0.003) and, among girls, 2.82 times greater (aOR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.34–5.94, p=0.006) per SD increase in internalizing problems. Age and perceived peer drug use were significant covariates. Conclusions Drug experimentation was relatively common (50%), especially in the context of externalizing problems, internalizing problems (girls only), age, and perceived peer drug use. Findings support Problem Behavior Theory and suggest that adolescent drug prevention address behavioral problems and promote prosocial peer groups. PMID:24768161

  19. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  20. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  1. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  2. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  3. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  4. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  5. Psychological Distress Among School-Aged Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark A.; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57 % male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47 % of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child’s birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children’s history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers’ acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers’ reports of their own psychological distress, and children’s lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance exposures, to facilitate access to appropriate services. PMID:26194603

  6. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452

  7. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems.

  9. The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health.

  10. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  11. Rat models of prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.

    PubMed

    Dinieri, Jennifer A; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the illicit drug most commonly used by two vulnerable populations relevant to neurodevelopment-pregnant women and teenagers. Human longitudinal studies have linked prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure with long-term behavioral abnormalities as well as increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Animal models provide a means of studying the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects. This chapter provides an overview of the animal models we have used to study the developmental impact of cannabis.

  12. Examining the Pathologic Adaptation Model of Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color

    PubMed Central

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968

  13. Deficits in plasma oxytocin responses and increased negative affect, stress, and blood pressure in mothers with cocaine exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Amico, Janet A; Boccia, Maria; Brownley, Kimberly A; Johns, Josephine M

    2004-11-01

    In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no drug, n = 25) during pregnancy. Laboratory BP and circulating oxytocin, catecholamines, and cortisol were examined before and during a speech stressor on 2 days, with vs. without prestress baby holding. Ambulatory monitoring assessed BP, urinary norepinephrine, and cortisol for 24 h at home. The cocaine group had lower oxytocin levels, greater hostility and depressed mood, less support from others and mastery over life events, higher BP during all events of testing without the baby, and higher ambulatory BP and urinary norepinephrine at home, while cortisol and epinephrine responses were blunted. Although they tended to hold their babies less often at home, baby holding in the laboratory led to decreased BP in cocaine mothers who then did not differ from no-drug mothers in BP or observed affect.

  14. Executive function and cortical thickness in youths prenatally exposed to cocaine, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Prapti; Warner, Tamara D.; Kan, Eric C.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Small and detrimental, albeit inconsistent, effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) during early childhood have been reported. The teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol (PAE) and tobacco exposure (PTE) on neurobehavior are more firmly established than PCE. We tested if co-exposure to all three drugs could be related to greater differences in brain structure than exposure to cocaine alone. Participants (n=42, PCE=27; age range = 14–16 years) received an executive function battery prior to a T1-weighted 3T structural MRI scan. Cortical thickness was measured using FreeSurfer (v5.1). Fetal drug exposure was quantified through maternal self-reports usage during pregnancy. Using general linear modeling, we found no main effects of PCE on cortical thickness, but significant main effects of PAE and PTE in superior and medial frontal regions, after co-varying for the effects of age, sex, and each drug of exposure. Significant alcohol-by-tobacco interactions, and significant cocaine-by-alcohol interactions on cortical thickness in medial parietal and temporal regions were also observed. Poly-drug exposure and cognitive function also showed significant interactions with cortical thickness: lower cortical thickness was associated with better performance in PCE-exposed adolescents. Results suggest that although children with PCE have subtle but persistent brain cortical differences until mid-to-late adolescence. PMID:25743199

  15. Opiate and Cocaine Exposed Newborns: Growth Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Arlene M.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Royall, Richard; Kolodner, Ken; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Lears, Mary Kathleen; Henderson, Robin; Belcher, Harolyn; Sellers, Sherri; Wilson, Modena

    1999-01-01

    Examines growth parameters at birth in 204 infants born to mothers who used cocaine and/or opiates during pregnancy. Outcome measures included birth weight, length, and head circumference. Study provides support that in utero cocaine exposure may confer more risk for somatic growth retardation at birth than opiate exposure. (Author/GCP)

  16. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the “addiction phase” examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF’s potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  17. Cocaine esterase: interactions with cocaine and immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mei-Chuan; Bowen, Luvina D; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Cooper, Ziva D; Woods, James H

    2007-02-01

    Cocaine esterase (CocE) is the most efficient protein catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine characterized to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo potency of CocE in blocking cocaine-induced toxicity in the mouse and to assess CocE's potential immunogenicity. Cocaine toxicity was quantified by measuring the occurrence of convulsions and lethality. Intravenous administration of CocE (0.1-1 mg) 1 min before cocaine administration produced dose-dependent rightward shifts of the dose-response curve for cocaine toxicity. More important, i.v. CocE (0.1-1 mg), given 1 min after the occurrence of cocaine-induced convulsions, shortened the recovery time after the convulsions and saved the mice from subsequent death. Effects of repeated exposures to CocE were evaluated by measuring anti-CocE antibody titers and the protective effects of i.v. CocE (0.32 mg) against toxicity elicited by i.p. cocaine (320 mg/kg) (i.e., 0-17% occurrence of convulsions and lethality). CocE retained its potency against cocaine toxicity in mice after a single prior CocE exposure (0.1-1 mg), and these mice did not show an immune response. CocE retained similar effectiveness in mice after three prior CocE exposures (0.1-1 mg/week for 3 weeks), although these mice displayed 10-fold higher antibody titers. CocE partially lost effectiveness (i.e., 33-50% occurrence of convulsions and lethality) in mice with four prior exposures to CocE (0.1-1 mg/2 week for four times), and these mice displayed approximately 100-fold higher antibody titers. These results suggest that CocE produces robust protection and reversal of cocaine toxicity, indicating CocE's therapeutic potential for acute cocaine toxicity. Repeated CocE exposures may increase its immunogenicity and partially reduce its protective ability.

  18. Prolonged Exposure versus Dynamic Therapy for Adolescent PTSD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Foa, Edna B.; Shafran, Naama; Aderka, Idan M.; Powers, Mark B.; Rachamim, Lilach; Rosenbach, Lea; Yadin, Elna; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy and maintenance of developmentally adapted prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents (PE-A) compared with active control time-limited dynamic therapy (TLDP-A) for decreasing posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in adolescent victims of single-event traumas. Method: Thirty-eight adolescents (12 to 18 years old)…

  19. Community violence exposure of Southeast Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events. Additionally, the overrepresentation of Southeast Asian youth in the mental health and juvenile justice systems also necessitates a deeper understanding of the adjustment of this group of adolescents. Data from a sample of 80 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents who were between 13 and 18 years old revealed high rates of community violence witnessing and victimization, and a moderate level of negative life events. All of these stressors were related to higher externalizing and trauma-related symptoms, but only violence victimization and negative life events were related to higher internalizing symptoms. There was an additive effect of higher bicultural orientation related to lower externalizing and traumatic-stress symptoms in the face of stress and violence exposure, but no moderation effects were found.

  20. The role of endocannabinoid transmission in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jonathon C

    2005-06-01

    Research is beginning to outline a role for the endocannabinoid system in cocaine addiction. Human and animal studies indicate that exogenous cannabinoids modulate the acute rewarding effects of cocaine. These studies, however, cannot directly investigate the necessity of endocannabinoid transmission in cocaine addiction. Studies that do offer a direct assessment show that neither pharmacological antagonism nor deletion of the CB1 receptor alters the acute rewarding effects of cocaine. In contrast, CB1 receptors appear to be involved in the association of cocaine reward with environmental cues and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration. Together, these results point to CB1 receptor antagonists as potential anti-craving compounds in the treatment of cocaine addiction. Given the limitations of human population studies, animal research may be useful in discerning causal inferences between cannabis and cocaine use. While animal research suggests cannabis use may precipitate cocaine relapse, cross-sensitization between cannabinoids and cocaine has not been demonstrated and CB1 receptors do not mediate behavioral sensitization to cocaine. The effect of acute or chronic cocaine on endocannabinoid transmission in reward-related areas of the brain is relatively under-researched. Acute cocaine administration increases anandamide levels in the striatum, an effect that is mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors. Conversely, chronic cocaine exposure has no effect on anandamide, but decreases 2-arachidonylglycerol levels in the limbic forebrain. This review highlights research indicating that the endocannabinoid system may subserve certain aspects of cocaine addiction and suggests avenues for future investigation.

  1. Dynamic Expression Changes in the Transcriptome of the Prefrontal Cortex after Repeated Exposure to Cocaine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhen; Xu, Peng; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Huajing; Tian, Weiping; Du, Quansheng; Zhao, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent functions, such as executive function, explicit learning, and memory, are negatively affected in cocaine abusers and experimental animal models of cocaine treatment. However, its molecular mechanisms are less understood. In the present study, we performed transcriptome profiling of the dynamic changes in the PFC after repeated cocaine administration in mice. We found 463, 14, and 535 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 2 h, 24 h, and 7 days, respectively, after the withdrawal of chronic cocaine treatment. Time-series correlation analysis identified 5 clusters of statistically significant expression patterns. The expression levels of DEGs in Clusters 1 and 5 exhibited a gradual or fluctuant decrease, Cluster 2 exhibited an initial increase followed by a decrease or return to the baseline level, and Clusters 3 and 4 exhibited a fluctuant increase in the expression of DEGs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosomes, and neurodegenerative disorder were enriched in Cluster 1; genes related to the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, insulin signaling, and circadian pathways were enriched in Cluster 2; genes related to plasticity-related pathways were enriched in Clusters 3 and 4; and genes related to the proteasome were enriched in Cluster 5. Our results suggest that maladaptive neural plasticity associated with psychostimulant dependence may be an ongoing degenerative process with dynamic changes in the gene network at different stages of withdrawal. Furthermore, it could be helpful to develop new therapeutic approaches according to different periods of abstinence. PMID:28386228

  2. The contribution of personal and exposure characteristics to the adjustment of adolescents following war.

    PubMed

    Lavi, T; Green, O; Dekel, R

    2013-02-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires assessing personal characteristics of gender and early traumatic events, subjective exposure (i.e., measures of fear and shortage of basic necessities during the war), objective exposure (i.e., exposure to missile attacks, knowing someone who was wounded or killed) and media exposure. Fifteen percent of the adolescents reported moderate or severe post-traumatic symptoms. Girls and adolescents who experienced earlier traumatic events were at higher risk for distress. While the level of direct exposure contributed to greater distress, the contribution of subjective exposure was significantly stronger. The discussion deals with the unique contribution of both subjective and objective characteristics to post-war adjustment.

  3. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  4. Chemokines and cocaine: CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100 attenuates cocaine place preference and locomotor stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae; Connelly, Krista L; Unterwald, Ellen M; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-08-26

    Plasma levels of the chemokine CXCL12 are elevated in mice following acute cocaine exposure and decreased in human cocaine abusers during withdrawal. CXCL12 is also one of the few chemokines located in the brain and can modulate dopamine transmission through activation of its receptor CXCR4. To assess a role for the CXCL12/CXCR4 system in behavioral effects of cocaine, we tested the hypothesis that AMD 3100 (Plerixafor), a CXCR4 antagonist, would inhibit conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor activation produced by cocaine. Rats injected with cocaine (10mg/kg) displayed CPP relative to saline-injected controls following 4 conditioning sessions. AMD 3100 (1, 2.5, 5mg/kg) administered prior to cocaine conditioning reduced development of cocaine CPP. AMD 3100 (5mg/kg) also inhibited expression of cocaine-induced CPP in a paradigm in which it was injected once (following cocaine conditioning and just prior to CPP testing). In addition, AMD 3100 (5, 10mg/kg) pretreatment reduced locomotor activation produced by an acute cocaine injection (15mg/kg) but did not affect basal locomotor activity relative to saline-injected controls. Repeated cocaine exposure produced a significant increase (1.49-fold) in CXCL12 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Our results suggest that the CXCL12/CXCR4 system in the brain reward circuit is impacted by cocaine exposure and influences behavioral effects related to the abuse liability of cocaine.

  5. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents.

  6. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…

  7. Baseline-dependent effects of cocaine pre-exposure on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the rat striatum: possible relevance to the attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Daniele; Hong, Young T; Sawiak, Stephen J; Ferrari, Valentina; Williamson, David J; Jupp, Bianca; Adrian Carpenter, T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W; Fryer, Tim D; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-01

    We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats predicts the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking and taking, and is coupled to decreased D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. As withdrawal from cocaine normalises high impulsivity in rats, we investigated, using positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of response-contingent cocaine administration on D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on the five-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D2/3 ligand [(18)F]fallypride, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 15 days under a long-access schedule. As a follow-up, rats were assessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [(18)F]fallypride PET scan. At baseline, we found that D2/3 receptor availability was significantly lower in the left, but not right, ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats compared with low-impulsive rats. While the number of self-administered cocaine infusions was not different between the two impulsivity groups, impulsivity selectively decreased in high-impulsive rats withdrawn from cocaine. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in D2/3 receptor availability in the left, but not right, ventral striatum. We further report that D2/3 receptor availability was inversely related to baseline D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats, as well as to the left and right dorsal striatum of both low-impulsive and high-impulsive rats. These findings indicate that the reduction in impulsivity in high-impulsive rats by prior cocaine exposure may be mediated by a selective correction of deficient D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. A similar baseline-dependent mechanism may account for the therapeutic effects of stimulant drugs in clinical disorders such as ADHD.

  8. Adolescent ethanol exposure: does it produce long-lasting electrophysiological effects?

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Criado, José R

    2010-02-01

    This review discusses evidence for long-lasting neurophysiological changes that may occur following exposure to ethanol during adolescent development in animal models. Adolescence is the time that most individuals first experience ethanol exposure, and binge drinking is not uncommon during adolescence. If alcohol exposure is neurotoxic to the developing brain during adolescence, not unlike it is during fetal development, then understanding how ethanol affects the developing adolescent brain becomes a major public health issue. Adolescence is a critical time period when cognitive, emotional, and social maturation occurs and it is likely that ethanol exposure may affect these complex processes. To study the effects of ethanol on adolescent brain, animal models where the dose and time of exposure can be carefully controlled that closely mimic the human condition are needed. The studies reviewed provide evidence that demonstrates that relatively brief exposure to high levels of ethanol, via ethanol vapors, during a period corresponding to parts of adolescence in the rat is sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in functional brain activity. Disturbances in waking electroencephalogram and a reduction in the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP) have been demonstrated in adult rats that were exposed to ethanol vapor during adolescence. Adolescent ethanol exposure was also found to produce long-lasting reductions in the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS, a finding consistent with a premature aging of sleep. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, in a range of strains, and to link those findings to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure.

  9. Cocaine challenge enhances release of neuroprotective amino acid taurine in the striatum of chronic cocaine treated rats: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Yablonsky-Alter, Elena; Agovic, Mervan S; Gashi, Eleonora; Lidsky, Theodore I; Friedman, Eitan; Banerjee, Shailesh P

    2009-05-29

    Drug addiction is a serious public health problem. There is increasing evidence on the involvement of augmented glutamatergic transmission in cocaine-induced addiction and neurotoxicity. We investigated effects of acute or chronic cocaine administration and cocaine challenge following chronic cocaine exposure on the release of excitotoxic glutamate and neuroprotective taurine in the rat striatum by microdialysis. Cocaine challenge, following withdrawal after repeated cocaine exposure markedly increased the release of glutamate, which may cause neurotoxicity. Simultaneously, cocaine challenge after withdrawal also significantly increased the release of taurine, which counteracts glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity and possibly cell death. Thus, the mammalian brain has an endogenous self-protective mechanism against cocaine-mediated neurotoxicity and potentially addiction.

  10. Prenatal cocaine effects on brain structure in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen; Burchinal, Margaret; Vachet, Clement; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine; Elam, Mala; Gerig, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is related to subtle deficits in cognitive and behavioral function in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Very little is known about the effects of in utero PCE on early brain development that may contribute to these impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain structural differences in infants with and without PCE. We conducted MRI scans of newborns (mean age = 5 weeks) to determine cocaine's impact on early brain structural development. Subjects were three groups of infants: 33 with PCE co-morbid with other drugs, 46 drug-free controls and 40 with prenatal exposure to other drugs (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, SSRIs) but without cocaine. Infants with PCE exhibited lesser total gray matter (GM) volume and greater total cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) volume compared with controls and infants with non-cocaine drug exposure. Analysis of regional volumes revealed that whole brain GM differences were driven primarily by lesser GM in prefrontal and frontal brain regions in infants with PCE, while more posterior regions (parietal, occipital) did not differ across groups. Greater CSF volumes in PCE infants were present in prefrontal, frontal and parietal but not occipital regions. Greatest differences (GM reduction, CSF enlargement) in PCE infants were observed in dorsal prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that PCE is associated with structural deficits in neonatal cortical gray matter, specifically in prefrontal and frontal regions involved in executive function and inhibitory control. Longitudinal study is required to determine whether these early differences persist and contribute to deficits in cognitive functions and enhanced risk for drug abuse seen at school age and in later life.

  11. Race, Adolescent Binge Drinking, and the Context of Neighborhood Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Andrea G.; Kuhl, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on theories of social structure and normative exposure, we examine how the neighborhood context of socioeconomic advantage and racial composition affects race/ethnic differences in youth binge drinking. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, logistic regressions reveal significant racial differences, with whites having higher odds of binge drinking than other groups. We also find that neighborhood advantage and racial composition have moderating effects on binge drinking; black youths’ odds of binge drinking are significantly lower than whites’ odds in highly advantaged neighborhoods, and Hispanics living in racially integrated neighborhoods have significantly lower odds of binge drinking than Hispanics living in white neighborhoods. PMID:28082754

  12. Cocaine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... my baby’s body too? Yes. Cocaine crosses the placenta and enters the developing baby. Cocaine can be ... Later in pregnancy, cocaine use can cause the placenta to pull away from the wall of the ...

  13. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  14. Combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol in adolescent mice differentially affects memory and learning during exposure and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Medeiros, Ana H; Lima, Carla S; Faria, Felipe P; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C

    2007-07-19

    Human adolescents often associate tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. In spite of this frequent association, little is known about the basic neurobiology of the dual exposure in the adolescent brain. In the present work, we assessed, through the use of the step-through passive avoidance box (2mA, 2s; test-retest interval of 24h), short- and long-term memory/learning effects of nicotine (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH) exposure during adolescence (postnatal days 30-45: PN30-45) in four groups of male and female C57BL/6 mice: (1) concomitant NIC [nicotine free base solution (50microg/ml) in 2% saccharin to drink] and ETOH [ethanol solution (25%, 2g/kg) i.p. injected every other day] exposure; (2) NIC exposure; (3) ETOH exposure; (4) vehicle. During exposure (PN44-45), deficits in memory/learning due to concomitant NIC+ETOH exposure reflected the summation of the two individual sets of effects. During a short-term drug withdrawal (PN49-50), nicotine improved memory/learning, however, ethanol blocked nicotine-induced improvements. One month post-exposure (PN74-75), a significant female-only improvement in memory/learning was observed as a result of co-administration. In conclusion, our results suggest that detrimental effects of nicotine and ethanol on memory/learning during adolescent combined exposure represent a worsened outcome from the dual exposure. However, negative effects of the combined exposure fail to persist during withdrawal. In fact, the combined exposure elicits a sex-dependent late onset beneficial effect on memory/learning during withdrawal.

  15. Intravenous Cocaine Priming Reinstates Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombas, Andres S.; Freeman, Kevin B.; Roma, Peter G.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2007-01-01

    Separate groups of rats underwent an unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure involving alternate pairings of distinct environments with intravenous (IV) injections of cocaine (0.75 mg/kg) or saline immediately or 15 min after injection. A subsequent extinction phase consisted of exposure to both conditioning environments preceded by…

  16. The Contribution of Personal and Exposure Characteristics to the Adjustment of Adolescents Following War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavi, T.; Green, O.; Dekel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires…

  17. Contributions of Music Video Exposure to Black Adolescents' Gender and Sexual Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Hansbrough, Edwina; Walker, Eboni

    2005-01-01

    Although music videos feature prominently in the media diets of many adolescents, little is known of their impact on viewers' conceptions of femininity and masculinity. Accordingly, this study examines the impact of both regular and experimental music video exposure on adolescent viewers' conceptions about gender. Across two testing sessions, 152…

  18. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.

  19. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  20. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  1. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  2. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  3. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  4. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  5. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  6. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  7. Tone conditioning potentiates rather than overshadows context fear in adult animals following adolescent ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    We have shown that adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence exhibit a deficit in the retention of context fear, reminiscent of that normally seen in preweanling rats. However, preweanlings have been reported to exhibit a potentiation of context fear when they are conditioned in the presence of a tone. Therefore, this study examined context retention 24 hr after tone or context conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intragastrically to 4 g/kg ethanol or water every 48 hr (total of 11 exposures) during adolescence [Postnatal day (P) 28-48] or adulthood (P70-90). Approximately 3 weeks following exposure, retention of fear to the context in animals exposed to ethanol during adolescence was attenuated after context conditioning, but enhanced after tone conditioning. Comparable adult ethanol exposure groups showed typical overshadowing of context fear retention after tone conditioning. These data suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure may induce an immature pattern of cognitive processing.

  8. Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.

  9. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals.

  10. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D.; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

  11. Violence Exposure as a Mediator Between Parenting and Adolescent Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H

    2017-04-01

    For youth exposed to community violence, parenting has been found to play a significant role in protecting adolescents from associated mental health symptoms. Yet little is known about the potential of parenting to prevent such exposure in the first place and thereby reduce the likelihood of adolescents' mental health symptoms. This study examined two parental practices that have often been examined as moderators, but not yet as predictors, of youth exposure to community violence associations with adolescent mental health, namely parental control and parental harshness. Analyses of self-reported data from 908 adolescents (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.71; 52 % girls; 13 % non-Hispanic White) revealed that harsh parenting was indirectly associated with youth mental health symptoms through higher levels of exposure to community violence, whereas links between controlling parenting and mental health symptoms were either non-significant or mediated through lower levels of adolescent violence exposure. These findings highlight the potential positive role parental control may play by preventing adolescents from exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Conversely, our results suggest that harsh parenting appears to pose a risk for adolescents by driving youth away from the home environment and potentially into places where violence may be more prevalent.

  12. Physiological Correlates of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition that Relate to Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline Cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and Cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline Cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and Cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and Cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and Cortisol (high RSA and low Cortisol or low RSA and high Cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  13. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  14. Pharmacokinetic profile of cocaine following intravenous administration in the female rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Parlaman, Joshua P.; Thompson, Barbara L.; Levitt, Pat; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure in a rabbit intravenous model has revealed selective disruption of brain development and pharmacological responsiveness. We therefore examined the pharmacokinetic properties of cocaine in this model. Dutch-belted rabbits were surgically implanted with a catheter in the carotid artery, allowed to recover, and then injected intravenously with a cocaine bolus. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were measured in arterial blood plasma and analyzed by nonlinear regression and noncompartmental analyses. Peak cocaine concentration occurred by 30s, was transient, and distribution was rapid. The profile of cocaine in the rabbit is similar to that observed in humans using cocaine at recreational doses. PMID:17383635

  15. Altered responsiveness to cocaine in rats exposed to methylphenidate during development.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan L; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas; Pliakas, Andrea M; LeBlanc, Celeste; Carlezon, William A

    2002-01-01

    Evidence in laboratory animals indicates that exposure to stimulants produces sensitization to their rewarding effects, a process that in humans would be expected to increase the risk of substance abuse. However, therapeutic administration of stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reportedly reduces the risk of substance abuse. Here we show in rats that exposure to MPH during pre-adolescence causes behavioral and neurobiological adaptations that endure into adulthood, and that are consistent with increased sensitivity to the aversive effects of cocaine.

  16. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  17. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Hill, Eric D.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although exposure to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) is common among US youths, information on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk associated with PTEs is limited. We estimate lifetime prevalence of exposure to PTEs and PTSD, PTE-specific risk of PTSD, and associations of sociodemographics and temporally-prior DSM-IV disorders with PTE exposure, PTSD given exposure, and PTSD recovery among US adolescents. Method Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescents aged 13–17. Lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence, accidents/injuries, network/witnessing, and other PTEs was assessed along with DSM-IV PTSD and other distress, fear, behavior, and substance disorders. Results A majority (61.8%) of adolescents experienced a lifetime PTE. Lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV PTSD was 4.7% and was significantly higher among females (7.3%) than males (2.2%). Exposure to PTEs, particularly interpersonal violence, was highest among adolescents not living with both biological parents and with pre-existing behavior disorders. Conditional probability of PTSD was highest for PTEs involving interpersonal violence. Predictors of PTSD among PTE-exposed adolescents included female gender, prior PTE exposure, and pre-existing fear and distress disorders. One-third (33.0%) of adolescents with lifetime PTSD continued to meet criteria within 30 days of interview. Poverty, U.S. nativity, bipolar disorder, and PTE exposure occurring after the focal trauma predicted nonrecovery. Conclusions Interventions designed to prevent PTSD in PTE-exposed youths should be targeted at victims of interpersonal violence with pre-existing fear and distress disorders, whereas interventions designed to reduce PTSD chronicity should attempt to prevent secondary PTE exposure. PMID:23880492

  18. Long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on cognitive function in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jessica A; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-05-16

    Exposure to methamphetamine during brain development impairs cognition in children and adult rodents. In mice, these impairments are greater in females than males. Adult female, but not male, mice show impairments in novel location recognition following methamphetamine exposure during brain development. In contrast to adulthood, little is known about the potential effects of methamphetamine exposure on cognition in adolescent mice. As adolescence is an important time of development and is relatively understudied, the aim of the current study was to examine potential long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on behavior and cognition during adolescence. Male and female mice were exposed to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline once a day from postnatal days 11 to 20, the period of rodent hippocampal development. Behavioral and cognitive function was assessed during adolescence beginning on postnatal day 30. During the injection period, methamphetamine-exposed mice gained less weight on average compared to saline-exposed mice. In both male and female mice, methamphetamine exposure significantly impaired novel object recognition and there was a trend toward impaired novel location recognition. Anxiety-like behavior, sensorimotor gating, and contextual and cued fear conditioning were not affected by methamphetamine exposure. Thus, neonatal methamphetamine exposure affects cognition in adolescence and unlike in adulthood equally affects male and female mice.

  19. Sinus Bradycardia in Habitual Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sona M; Thihalolipavan, Sudarone; Fontaine, John M

    2017-03-01

    Common physiological manifestations of cocaine are related to its adrenergic effects, due to inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake at the postsynaptic terminal. Few studies have documented bradycardia secondary to cocaine use, representing the antithesis of its adrenergic effects. We assessed the prevalence of sinus bradycardia (SB) in habitual cocaine users and postulated a mechanism for this effect. One hundred sixty-two patients with a history of cocaine use were analyzed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls. SB was defined as a rate of <60 beats/min and habitual cocaine use as 2 or more documented uses >30 days apart. Propensity score-matching analysis was applied to balance covariates between cocaine users and nonusers and reduce selection bias. Patients with a history of bradycardia, hypothyroidism, or concomitant beta-blocker use were excluded. Mean age of study patients was 44 ± 8 years. SB was observed in 43 of 162 (27%) cocaine users and in 9 of 149 (6%) nonusers (p = 0.0001). Propensity score-matching analysis matched 218 patients from both groups. Among matched patients SB was observed in 25 of 109 (23%) cocaine users and in 5 of 109 (5%) nonusers (p = 0.0001). Habitual cocaine use was an independent predictor of SB and associated with a sevenfold increase in the risk of SB (95% CI 2.52 to 19.74, p = 0.0002). In conclusion, habitual cocaine use is a strong predictor of SB and was unrelated to recency of use. A potential mechanism for SB may be related to cocaine-induced desensitization of the beta-adrenergic receptor secondary to continuous exposure. Symptomatic SB was not observed; thus, pacemaker therapy was not indicated.

  20. An LC-MS-MS method for the comprehensive analysis of cocaine and cocaine metabolites in meconium.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Wang, P; Bartlett, M G; Solomon, H M; Busch, K L

    2000-02-15

    A sensitive, precise, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed to quantitate cocaine and cocaine metabolites, which were simultaneously extracted from suspected drug-positive meconium samples using solid-phase extraction. The ability to analyze cocaine and multiple cocaine metabolites in meconium makes this method a powerful tool for the study of cocaine exposure and metabolism in neonates. Of 22 samples, only 1 did not show the presence of cocaine or any metabolite of cocaine. The identified metabolites varied both qualitatively and quantitatively between samples. Ecgonine appears to hold the most promise as a diagnostic marker compound for neonatal cocaine exposure as this metabolite was present in 21 of 21 of the positive samples tested, and at a relatively high median concentration. However, a core group of eight metabolites (present in at least 20 of 21 positive samples) was identified that appears to possess the greatest utility for determining cocaine exposure. Finally, the use of this method for assessment of the magnitude of fetal cocaine exposure was demonstrated.

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  2. Violence exposure and mental health of adolescents in small towns: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lai, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the impact of violence exposure on the mental health of the adolescents in a rural small town. A structured questionnaire was used to survey 347 adolescents. Violence experienced and witnessed by the adolescents at school, in the neighbourhood, and at home was measured. Mental health was represented by the psychiatric symptoms, depression level, and self-esteem. The level of violence perpetrated by the adolescents was also explored. Results of the multiple regression analysis show that adolescents who have been exposed to more violence, either as a victim or as a witness, report more psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of depression, and more problems of self-esteem. Being a witness of violence also contributes significantly to the variance of violence committed by the adolescents. The implications of the findings to violence prevention are discussed in the conclusion.

  3. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  4. Lower lateral orbitofrontal cortex density associated with more frequent exposure to television and movie violence in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J; Openshaw, Anne E; Zamboni, Giovanna; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens' Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density--a possible risk factor for altered socioemotional functioning.

  5. Loss of dendrite stabilization by the Abl-related gene (Arg) kinase regulates behavioral flexibility and sensitivity to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Shannon L; Koleske, Anthony J; Taylor, Jane R

    2009-09-29

    Adolescence is characterized by increased vulnerability to developing neuropsychiatric disorders and involves a period of prefrontal cortical dendritic refinement and synaptic pruning that culminates in cytoskeletal stabilization in adulthood. The Abl-related gene (Arg) acts through p190RhoGAP to inhibit the RhoA GTPase and stabilize cortical dendritic arbors beginning in adolescence. Cortical axons, dendrites, and synapses develop normally in Arg-deficient (arg(-/-)) mice, but adult dendrites destabilize and regress; thus, arg(-/-) mice present a model of adolescent-onset dendritic simplification. We show that arg(-/-) mice are impaired in a reversal task and that deficits are grossly exacerbated by low-dose cocaine administration. Although ventral prefrontal dopamine D2 receptor levels predict "perseverative" error counts in wild-type mice, no such relationship is found in arg(-/-) mice. Moreover, arg(-/-) mice are insensitive to the disruptive effects of the D2/D3 antagonist haloperidol in reversal but show normal sensitivity to its locomotor-depressant actions. Arg deficiency and orbitofrontal cortical Arg inhibition via STI-571 infusion also enhance the psychomotor stimulant actions of cocaine. These findings provide evidence that stabilization of dendritic structure beginning in adolescence is critical for the development of adaptive and flexible behavior after cocaine exposure.

  6. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  7. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  9. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  10. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  11. Qualitative Assessment of Adolescents Views about Improving Exposure to Internet-Delivered Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain first insight into factors which might be associated with exposure to internet-delivered interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of Dutch adolescents (n = 54), aged 12-17 years. Several aspects of exposure: a first visit;…

  12. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…

  13. Adolescent lung function associated with incense burning and other environmental exposures at home.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C; Ho, W C; Yu, Y H

    2016-11-17

    Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung function examinations. Valid lung function data of 5010 students aged 14-16 years in northern Taiwan were analyzed. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1 ) were compared by incense burning status and other types of exposures for adolescents. Overall, 70.6% of students were exposed to incense smoke at home. The mean FVC and FEV1 measures were lower among adolescents with daily exposure to incense burning than those without such exposure (P<.05). Sharing bedroom was also associated with decreased FVC and FEV1 . After controlling for confounding factors, multivariable linear regression analysis with generalized estimation equation showed that FVC was negatively associated with daily exposure to incense burning, sharing a bedroom, and living in a house adjacent to a traffic road. Such associations were also observed in FEV1 . Daily exposure to incense burning is associated with impaired adolescent lung function.

  14. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative-motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity to

  17. Cocaine-induced dystonic reaction: an unlikely presentation of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Babu, Kavita; Jenny, Carole

    2013-09-01

    Child neglect can be difficult to recognize. Parental substance abuse may place a child at increased risk of neglect. This report reviews 2 cases of dystonic reaction in children after accidental exposure to cocaine in their home environments. The reports are followed by a review of proposed physiologic mechanisms for cocaine-induced dystonia and a discussion on neurological symptoms that may develop after cocaine exposure. Pediatric emergency physicians should consider cocaine exposure when a child of any age presents with abnormal movements. Dystonic reaction is an uncommon, but reported, complication of cocaine exposure in the absence of other risk factors and may be the first presentation of child neglect.

  18. Systemic cisplatin exposure during infancy and adolescence causes impaired cognitive function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Tami; Lomeli, Naomi; Bota, Daniela A

    2017-02-15

    Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown. Systemic cisplatin penetrates the CNS, induces hippocampal synaptic damage, and leads to neuronal and neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) loss. Survivors of non-leukemic cancers may be at risk for significant cognitive impairment related to cisplatin-driven neurotoxicity. We sought to examine the long-term effects of systemic cisplatin administration on cognitive function when administered during infancy and adolescence in a rat model. We performed cognitive testing in adult rats exposed to systemic cisplatin during either infancy or adolescence. Rats treated as adolescents showed significantly poor retrieval of a novel object as compared to controls. Further, cisplatin-treated infants and adolescents showed poor contextual discrimination as compared to controls, and an impaired response to cued fear conditioning. Ultimately, systemic cisplatin exposure resulted in more profound impairments in cognitive function in rats treated during adolescence than in those treated during infancy. Further, exposure to cisplatin during adolescence affected both hippocampus and amygdala dependent cognitive function, suggesting a more global cognitive dysfunction at this age.

  19. Systemic cisplatin exposure during infancy and adolescence causes impaired cognitive function in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lomeli, Naomi; Bota, Daniela A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15–50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown. Systemic cisplatin penetrates the CNS, induces hippocampal synaptic damage, and leads to neuronal and neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) loss. Survivors of non-leukemic cancers may be at risk for significant cognitive impairment related to cisplatin-driven neurotoxicity. We sought to examine the long-term effects of systemic cisplatin administration on cognitive function when administered during infancy and adolescence in a rat model. We performed cognitive testing in adult rats exposed to systemic cisplatin during either infancy or adolescence. Rats treated as adolescents showed significantly poor retrieval of a novel object as compared to controls. Further, cisplatin-treated infants and adolescents showed poor contextual discrimination as compared to controls, and an impaired response to cued fear conditioning. Ultimately, systemic cisplatin exposure resulted in more profound impairments in cognitive function in rats treated during adolescence than in those treated during infancy. Further, exposure to cisplatin during adolescence affected both hippocampus and amygdala dependent cognitive function, suggesting a more global cognitive dysfunction at this age. PMID:27851909

  20. Demonstration of specific binding of cocaine to human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Yazigi, R.A.; Odem, R.R.; Polakoski, K.L. )

    1991-10-09

    Exposure of males to cocaine has been linked to abnormal development of their offspring. To investigate the possible role of sperm, this study examined the interaction of cocaine with human spermatozoa. Washed sperm were incubated with tritiated cocaine and the samples were filtered and the remaining radioactivity quantitated. The specific binding was optimal at 20 minutes and 23C. Competition studies with tritiated cocaine indicated the presence of approximately 3.6 {times} 10{sup 3} binding sites per cell, with a high affinity receptor dissociation constant. Cocaine concentrations as high as 670 {mu}mol/L had no detectable effect on either the motility or viability of the cells. These results support the hypothesis that the sperm may act as a vector to transport cocaine into an ovum. This novel mechanism could be involved in the abnormal development of offspring of cocaine-exposed males.

  1. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  2. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  3. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  4. Blockade of melanocortin transmission inhibits cocaine reward

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Richard; Taylor, Jane R.; Newton, Samuel S.; Alvaro, John D.; Haile, Colin; Han, G.; Hruby, Victor J.; Nestler, Eric J.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Melanocortins and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) are enriched in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region that has been implicated in the rewarding action of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. In the present study we use a number of rat behavioral models to show that infusion of a melanocortin peptide antagonist into the nucleus accumbens blocks the reinforcing, incentive motivational, and locomotor sensitizing effects of cocaine. We also show that locomotor responses to repeated cocaine exposure are completely blocked in MC4-R null mutant mice and reduced in Agouti mice that overexpress an endogenous inhibitor of melanocortins in the brain. The results also demonstrate that cocaine administration increases the expression of MC4-R in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, and that MC4-R is co-localized with prodynorphin in medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these findings indicate that the behavioral actions of cocaine are dependent on activation of MC4-R, and suggest that upregulation of this receptor by drug exposure may contribute to sensitization of these behavioral responses. Modulation of cocaine reward is a novel action of the melanocortin–MC4-R system and could be targeted for the development of new medications for cocaine addiction. PMID:15869520

  5. Exposure to nicotine and ethanol in adolescent mice: effects on depressive-like behavior during exposure and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Lima, Carla S; Nunes-Freitas, André L; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2011-08-01

    Depression and use of addictive substances are two of the most frequent public health problems of adolescents. However, little is known about the association between depression and drug use. Considering that ethanol and nicotine are the most widely used and abused drugs by adolescents, here, we evaluated the depressive-like behavior of C57BL/6 male and female mice exposed to nicotine (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH) from the 30th to the 45th (PN30-45) postnatal day. Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant NIC (50μg/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. Immobile behavior, an animal model of depressive behavior, was assessed in the forced swimming test (FST) while the anhedonic state was assessed in the sucrose preference test (SPT) by the end of exposure (PN45-47) as well as during short- (PN50-52) and long-term (PN75-77) withdrawal. In the FST, ETOH female mice showed a reduction in immobility time by the end of exposure while, during long-term withdrawal, immobility time was increased. Short-term withdrawal elicited an increase in immobility time only in female NIC mice. In the SPT, males from both NIC and NIC+ETOH groups showed increased sucrose consumption, suggesting a reward-craving effect during short-term withdrawal. During long-term withdrawal, NIC male mice showed an anhedonic effect. Adolescent nicotine, ethanol and nicotine+ethanol combined exposures during adolescence thus elicit gender-selective effects both during exposure and withdrawal that may contribute to the increased prevalence of depression among drug users.

  6. Cocaine triggers epigenetic alterations in the corticostriatal circuit.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

    2015-12-02

    Acute and repeated exposure to cocaine induces long-lasting alterations in neural networks that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking. Cocaine exposure triggers complex adaptations in the brain that are mediated by dynamic patterns of gene expression that are translated into enduring changes. Recently, epigenetic modifications have been unveiled as critical mechanisms underlying addiction that contribute to drug-induced plasticity by regulating gene expression. These alterations are also now linked to the heritability of cocaine-induced phenotypes. This review focuses on how changes in the epigenome, such as altered DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, regulate transcription of specific genes that contribute to cocaine addiction.

  7. Duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood poverty and the risk of adolescent parenthood.

    PubMed

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2013-10-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, has not properly analyzed the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood.

  8. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed.

  9. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  10. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2009-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and aggression. Twenty six empirical research articles from 1997–2007 met inclusion criteria for review. Findings indicate an influence of community violence exposure on mental health symptoms, particularly posttraumatic stress and aggression. Mediators and moderators for community violence exposure and mental health symptoms help explain relationships. Limitations in the literature are the lack of consistency in measurement and analysis of community violence exposure, including assessment of proximity and time frame of exposure, and in analysis of victimization and witnessing of community violence. Knowledge about identification of urban adolescents exposed to chronic community violence and who experience mental health symptoms is critical to mental health nursing practice and research. PMID:19012675

  11. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. Methods The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Results Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Conclusion Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents. PMID:28036385

  12. Enhanced nicotine-seeking behavior following pre-exposure to repeated cocaine is accompanied by changes in BDNF in the nucleus accumbens of rats.

    PubMed

    Leão, Rodrigo M; Cruz, Fábio C; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, Paulo E; Rossetto, Daniella B; Valentini, Sandro R; Zanelli, Cleslei F; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the behavioral and molecular interactions between cocaine and nicotine, through evaluating locomotor activity, nicotine intravenous self-administration and gene expression. Locomotor sensitization was induced in male Wistar rats by repeated cocaine (20 mg/kg; i.p.) or saline injections once a day over 7 days. Three days after the last injection, rats were challenged with either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) and the locomotor activity was measured. The very next day animals received either saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; s.c.) and the locomotor cross-sensitization was tested. Animals were then prepared with intrajugular catheters for nicotine self-administration. Nicotine self-administration patterns were evaluated using fixed or progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement and a 24-h unlimited access binge. Immediately after the binge sessions animals were decapitated, the brains were removed and the nucleus accumbens was dissected. The dynorphin (DYN), μ-opioid receptor (mu opioid), neuropeptide Y (NPY), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) gene expression were measured by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pretreatment with cocaine caused sensitization of cocaine motor response and locomotor cross-sensitization with nicotine. In the self-administration experiments repeated cocaine administration caused an increase in the nicotine break point and nicotine intake during a 24 h binge session.

  13. Multigenerational Effects of Adolescent Morphine Exposure on Dopamine D2 Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, John J.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Carini, Lindsay M.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. Objectives In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. Methods We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generation) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Results Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion, and up-regulated kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the NAc. Conclusions These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior. PMID:23314440

  14. Brief report: do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.

  15. Low vagal tone magnifies the association between psychosocial stress exposure and internalizing psychopathology in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13-17; N = 168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients.

  16. What Can Rats Tell Us about Adolescent Cannabis Exposure? Insights from Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Rushlow, Walter J.; Laviolette, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse among adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for brain development, during which time various neurotransmitter systems such as the glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems undergo extensive reorganization to support the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). ▵-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, acts as a partial agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1Rs are abundant in the CNS and are central components of the neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence. Thus, overactivation of CB1Rs by cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has the ability to dramatically alter brain maturation, leading to persistent and enduring changes in adult cerebral function. Increasing preclinical evidence lends support to clinical evidence suggesting that chronic adolescent marijuana exposure may be associated with a higher risk for neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. In this review, we present a broad overview of current neurobiological evidence regarding the long-term consequences of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on adult neuropsychiatric-like disorders. PMID:27254841

  17. Exposure to Childhood Poverty and Mental Health Symptomatology in Adolescence: A Role of Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Neuendorf, Cynthia; Bianco, Hannah; Evans, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with stress dysregulation which contributes to psychological illness in later ages. The adverse effects of childhood poverty on stress regulation may be mediated in part by the use of disengaging strategies to cope with stress. However, the relations among childhood poverty, coping strategies and psychopathology throughout childhood to adolescence have not been explored. This prospective, longitudinal study included 185 low- and middle-income adolescents at age 17. Chronic exposure to poverty from birth to early adolescence (age 13) was prospectively associated with increases in the use of disengagement versus engagement coping four years later. Increased use of disengagement coping between the ages of 13 and 17 explained the indirect link between poverty exposure since birth and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 17. The findings provide evidence for a coping pathway underlying the link between prolonged exposure to childhood poverty and mental health sequelae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.

  19. Exposure to violence and victimization and the use of violence by adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Champion, H L; Durant, R H

    2001-06-01

    Violence by adolescents in the United States is of growing concern. Despite a decrease in the rate of violence and death by firearms, firearm injuries are the second leading cause of death among Americans age 15 to 24 and the third leading cause of death among 10- to 14-year-old children. Although there are many factors associated with the use of violence by youths, exposure to violence and victimization has consistently been a predictor of the use of violence, as well as intentions to use violence, carrying a gun, and having attitudes accepting of the use of violence and aggressive behavior to resolve conflict. Adolescents' families, friends, neighborhoods, schools, and the media provide sources of exposure and victimization related to the use of violence. The cultural transmission of deviant behavior theory establishes a framework for understanding the influence of exposure to violence and victimization from these sources on adolescents' use of violence.

  20. Youth violence in South Africa: exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A; Devnarain, Bashi

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to violence is common in South Africa. Yet, few studies examine how violence exposure contributes to South African adolescents' participation in youth violence. The aims of this study were to examine effects of different violence exposures on violent attitudes and behavior, to test whether attitudes mediated effects of violence exposures on violent behavior, and to test whether adult involvement had protective or promotive effects. Questionnaires were administered to 424 Zulu adolescents in township high schools around Durban, South Africa. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test associations among violence exposures and both violent attitudes and behavior. Victimization, witnessing violence, and friends' violent behavior contributed directly to violent behavior. Only family conflict and friends' violence influenced violent attitudes. Attitudes mediated effects of friends' violence on violent behavior. Multiple-group SEM indicated that adult involvement fit a protective model of resilience. These findings are discussed regarding their implications for prevention.

  1. Loss of environmental enrichment increases vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Chauvet, Claudia; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-06-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction.

  2. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Non-detained Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966

  3. Adolescents' mental health outcomes according to different types of exposure to ongoing terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verté, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective and "mixed" types of exposure to terror, as well as demographics, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems and overall psychological and psychiatric difficulties. Subjective exposure was found to be the most important contributor to adolescents' post-traumatic stress and other mental health problems in this context. Gender also had important effects. The effects of objective and mixed types of exposure, as well as age, were less prominent. We did find, however, that the more adolescents consulted media, the less they experienced behavioral and emotional problems. Given that subjective experiences appear to be the best factor in explaining mental health outcomes when adolescents are confronted with persistent terror, the cognitive and emotional dynamics along with the coping behavior linked to such experiences merit further investigation.

  4. Effects of adolescent methamphetamine and nicotine exposure on behavioral performance and MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens of adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Buck, Jordan M; Morris, Alysse S; Weber, Sydney J; Raber, Jacob; Siegel, Jessica A

    2017-04-14

    The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure in the developing and adult brain can lead to behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits in adults. Previous increases in the rates of adolescent MA use necessitate that we understand the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA exposure during adolescence on the adolescent brain. Adolescents using MA exhibit high rates of nicotine (NIC) use, but the effects of concurrent MA and NIC in the adolescent brain have not been examined, and it is unknown if NIC mediates any of the effects of MA in the adolescent. In this study, the long-term effects of a neurotoxic dose of MA with or without NIC exposure during early adolescence (postnatal day 30-31) were examined later in adolescence (postnatal day 41-50) in male C57BL/6J mice. Effects on behavioral performance in the open field, Porsolt forced swim test, and conditioned place preference test, and cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze were assessed. Additionally, the effects of MA and/or NIC on levels of microtubule associated-2 (MAP-2) protein in the nucleus accumbens and plasma corticosterone were examined. MA and NIC exposure during early adolescence separately decreased anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, which was not seen following co-administration of MA/NIC. There was no significant effect of early adolescent MA and/or NIC exposure on the intensity of MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens or on plasma corticosterone levels. These results show that early adolescent MA and NIC exposure separately decrease anxiety-like behavior in the open field, and that concurrent MA and NIC exposure does not induce the same behavioral change as either drug alone.

  5. Single prolonged stress effects on sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Andrew L.; Singh, Robby; Kohler, Robert J.; Friedman, Amy L.; Liebowitz, Chelsea P.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Enman, Nicole M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Perrine, Shane A.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with substance use disorders (SUD). Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-validated rat model of PTSD that provides a framework to investigate drug-induced behaviors as a preclinical model of the comorbidity. We hypothesized that cocaine sensitization and self-administration would be increased following exposure to SPS. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to SPS or control treatment. After SPS, cocaine (0,10 or 20mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 5 consecutive days and locomotor activity was measured. Another cohort was assessed for cocaine self-administration (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg/i.v.) after SPS. Rats were tested for acquisition, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement behaviors. Control animals showed a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-induced locomotor activity after acute cocaine whereas SPS rats did not. Using a sub-threshold sensitization paradigm, control rats did not exhibit enhanced locomotor activity at Day 5 and therefore did not develop behavioral sensitization, asexpected. However, compared to control ratson Day 5 the locomotor response to 20mg/kg repeated cocaine was greatly enhanced in SPS-treated rats, which exhibited enhanced cocaine locomotor sensitization. The effect of SPS on locomotor activity was unique in that SPS did not modify cocaine self-administration behaviors under a simple schedule of reinforcement. These data show that SPS differentially affects cocaine-mediated behaviors causing no effect to cocaine self-administration, under a simple schedule of reinforcement, but significantly augmenting cocaine locomotor sensitization. These results suggest that SPS shares common neurocircuitry with stimulant-induced plasticity, but dissociable from that underlying psychostimulant-induced reinforcement. PMID:25712697

  6. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English ... how drugs affect the brain and nervous system. Mind Over Matter is produced by the National Institute ...

  7. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  8. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  9. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  10. Methamphetamine exposure during brain development alters the brain acetylcholine system in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jessica A; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    Children exposed to methamphetamine during brain development as a result of maternal drug use have long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments, but the mechanisms underlying these impairments are not understood. The acetylcholine system plays an important role in cognitive function and potential methamphetamine-induced acetylcholine alterations may be related to methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the potential long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development on the acetylcholine system in adolescence mice on postnatal day 30 and in adult mice on postnatal day 90. Methamphetamine exposure increased the density of acetylcholine neurons in regions of the basal forebrain and the area occupied by acetylcholine axons in the hippocampus in adolescent female mice. In contrast, methamphetamine exposure did not affect the density of GABA cells or total neurons in the basal forebrain. Methamphetamine exposure also increased the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus of adolescent male and female mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development affects the acetylcholine system in adolescent mice and that these changes are more profound in females than males.

  11. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Yang, Tianqi; Ho, Eric; Wellmann, Kristen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play. PMID:27690116

  12. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    PubMed

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  13. Neurotensin agonist attenuates nicotine potentiation to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Paul; Boules, Mona; Stennett, Bethany; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a "gateway drug". Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13) analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction) to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control) followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  15. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth.

  16. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  17. Community Violence Exposure of Southeast Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events.…

  18. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  19. The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences.

  20. Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

  1. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media.

  2. Parthenolide prevents the expression of cocaine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Amanda L; Pagán, Oné R

    2008-03-31

    We recently reported that parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones are able to prevent and reverse behavioral responses in planarian worms induced by acute cocaine exposure. Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like behaviors when the cocaine is removed. Here we report that parthenolide prevents this cocaine-induced expression of planarian withdrawal-like behaviors.

  3. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  4. Reexamining the Correlates of Adolescent Violent Victimization: The Importance of Exposure, Guardianship, and Target Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Miller, Holly Ventura; Pangrac, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative contributions of various theoretical constructs to violent victimization by operationalizing multiple measures of exposure to motivated offenders, guardianship, and target characteristics. Using a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, we conducted principal components factor analysis and…

  5. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  6. Sudden Gains in Prolonged Exposure for Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Appelbaum-Namdar, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to examine sudden gains during developmentally adjusted prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. We hypothesized that sudden gains would be detected and would be predictive of treatment outcome and follow-up. Method: Sixty-three youngsters (ages 8-17) completed a…

  7. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  8. Exposure to Neighborhood Affluence and Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence and Academic Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sara; Leventhal, Tama; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to associations between the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and children's and adolescents' development. A minimal amount of research, however, examines how timing of exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions matters. This study used longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

  9. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  10. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  11. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  12. DHEA, a neurosteroid, decreases cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Doron, Ravid; Fridman, Lilach; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Maayan, Rachel; Weizman, Abraham; Yadid, Gal

    2006-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which can act as a potential antidepressant in both animals and humans, appears to lower distress involved with cocaine withdrawal. In fact, a role for neurosteroids in modulation of substance-seeking behavior is becoming increasingly clear. Therefore, we tested the effects of DHEA on the self-administration of cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) by rats. At maintenance, a relatively low dose of exogenous DHEA (2 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated cocaine self-administration after several days of chronic treatment. More than 2 weeks (19 days) of daily DHEA injections were required to decrease the cocaine-seeking behavior of rats to less than 20% of their maintenance levels. DHEA does not seem to decrease cocaine self-administration by increasing the reinforcing properties of the drug, as indicated by a cocaine dose-response determination. After being subjected to extinction conditions in the presence of DHEA, rats demonstrated a minimal response to acute exposure to cocaine (10 mg/kg), which indicated a protective effect of DHEA on relapse to cocaine usage. Our results suggest a potential role for the neurosteroid DHEA in controlling cocaine-seeking behavior, by reducing both the desire for cocaine usage and the incidence of relapse.

  13. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine versus food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, Sidney Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-03-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated as one potential neurobiological modulator of the abuse-related effects of cocaine and as a potential target for medications development. This study determined effects of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine self-administration under a novel procedure that featured two daily components: (1) a 2-hour 'choice' component (9:00-11:00 am) when monkeys could choose between food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg per injection, intravenous) and (2) a 20-hour 'extended-access' component (noon to 8:00 am) when cocaine (0.1 mg/kg per injection) was available under a fixed-ratio schedule to promote high daily cocaine intakes. Rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were given 14 days of exposure to the choice + extended-access procedure then treated with nor-BNI (3.2 or 10.0 mg/kg, intramuscular), and cocaine choice and extended-access cocaine intake were evaluated for an additional 14 days. Consistent with previous studies, cocaine maintained both a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice during choice components and a high level of cocaine intake during extended-access components. Neither 3.2 nor 10 mg/kg nor-BNI significantly altered cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake. In two additional monkeys, nor-BNI also had no effect on cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake when it was administered at the beginning of exposure to the extended-access components. Overall, these results do not support a major role for the dynorphin/KOR system in modulating cocaine self-administration under these conditions in non-human primates nor do they support the clinical utility of KOR antagonists as a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction.

  14. Neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a crack cocaine pyrolysis product.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Dati, Livia Mendonça Munhoz; Fukuda, Suelen; Torres, Larissa Helena Lobo; Moura, Sidnei; de Carvalho, Nathalia Delazeri; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro; Camarini, Rosana; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Yonamine, Mauricio; Negrini-Neto, Osvaldo; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Afeche, Solange Castro; Marcourakis, Tania

    2012-07-01

    Smoking crack cocaine involves the inhalation of cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). Although there is evidence that cocaine is neurotoxic, the neurotoxicity of AEME has never been evaluated. AEME seems to have cholinergic agonist properties in the cardiovascular system; however, there are no reports on its effects in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxicity of AEME and its possible cholinergic effects in rat primary hippocampal cell cultures that were exposed to different concentrations of AEME, cocaine, and a cocaine-AEME combination. We also evaluated the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the neuronal death induced by these treatments using concomitant incubation of the cells with atropine. Neuronal injury was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The results of the viability assays showed that AEME is a neurotoxic agent that has greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine after 24 and 48 h of exposure. We also showed that incubation for 48 h with a combination of both compounds in equipotent concentrations had an additive neurotoxic effect. Although both substances decreased cell viability in the MTT assay, only cocaine increased LDH release. Caspase-3 activity was increased after 3 and 6 h of incubation with 1mM cocaine and after 6 h of 0.1 and 1.0mM AEME exposure. Atropine prevented the AEME-induced neurotoxicity, which suggests that muscarinic cholinergic receptors are involved in AEME's effects. In addition, binding experiments confirmed that AEME has an affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Nevertheless, atropine was not able to prevent the neurotoxicity produced by cocaine and the cocaine-AEME combination, suggesting that these treatments activated other neuronal death pathways. Our results suggest a higher risk for neurotoxicity after smoking crack cocaine than after

  15. Safety in Cyberspace: Adolescents' Safety and Exposure Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michele J.; Greentree, Shane; Cocotti-Muller, Dayana; Elias, Kristy A.; Morrison, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 692 Australian 13-to 16-year-olds to examine aspects of their Internet use and, in particular, their exposure to inappropriate material and behaviors online and their online safety practices. Significant differences were found in the amount of exposure to inappropriate material or behaviors online according to sex and…

  16. Adolescent pre-exposure to ethanol or MDMA prolongs the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Do Couto, B Ribeiro; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Fuentes, S; Gagliano, H; Armario, A; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2011-07-06

    Adolescents often take ethanol (EtOH) in combination with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine). In the present work we studied the effect of repeated intermittent adolescent pre-exposure to both drugs on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in mice. Sixteen days after pre-treatment, the rewarding and reinstating effects of MDMA in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were evaluated, along with the levels of biogenic amines, basal motor activity and corticosterone response to different challenges. Pre-exposure to EtOH, MDMA or EtOH+MDMA did not affect the CPP induced by 10mg/kg of MDMA. However, adolescent exposure to EtOH or MDMA increased the duration of the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA. Following extinction of the CPP, a priming dose of 5mg/kg of MDMA elicited reinstatement in all the groups, with the duration of this reinstated CPP being longer in mice pre-treated with MDMA. After reinstatement, an increase in monoamine levels was observed in mice pre-exposed to EtOH (DA, DOPAC and 5-HT in the striatum and 5-HIAA in the cortex and hippocampus) or MDMA (5-HT in the hippocampus). Basal motor activity and basal levels of corticosterone were not affected by any of these pre-treatments, but the group pre-exposed to MDMA showed higher levels of corticosterone in response to the administration of 10mg/kg of MDMA. Behavioral and hormonal effects of adolescent exposure to MDMA were reversed by co-administration of EtOH. Our results suggest that exposure to EtOH or MDMA during adolescence prolongs the rewarding properties of MDMA.

  17. Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine seeking and reinstatement induced by cues and stress but not by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Claudia; Lardeux, Virginie; Goldberg, Steven R.; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Whereas previous studies have focused on the preventive effects of enriched environments (EE) in drug addiction, in a recent study we suggested that EE can also have “curative” effects. In fact, we found that cocaine addiction-related behaviors can be eliminated by housing cocaine-treated mice in EE during periods of forced abstinence. However, those results were obtained with two simple models of addiction, conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. In this study, we used intravenous drug self-administration procedures in rats to further investigate the beneficial effects of EE on cocaine addiction in a reinstatement model of relapse. Singly housed rats learned to self-administer cocaine during 10 consecutive daily sessions (0.6 mg/injection, 6h/day). They were then housed three per cage in either standard environments (SE) or EE and were kept abstinent in the animal facility until testing for extinction and reinstatement. We found that 30 days of EE significantly and consistently reduced cocaine seeking during a 6-h extinction session. In addition, EE significantly reduced cue- and stress-induced reinstatement. Surprisingly, given our previous results in mice with CPP, EE did not reduce cocaine-induced reinstatement regardless of the level of exposure to cocaine and the duration of the period of abstinence and exposure to EE. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce cocaine-induced craving and highlight the importance of positive life conditions in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to cocaine addiction. PMID:19741591

  18. Chronic opiate treatment enhances both cocaine-reinforced and cocaine-seeking behaviors following opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    He, Shaunteng; Grasing, Kenneth

    2004-08-16

    After chronic exposure to psychostimulants or opiates, self-administration or conditioned place preference with either class is increased (sensitized). Cross-sensitization of conditioned place preference, i.e., enhancement of psychostimulant-induced preferences after exposure to opiates, has also been described, but increases in cocaine self-administration after morphine pretreatment have not been reported. The present study evaluated effects of chronic morphine treatment on cocaine reinforcement. Opiate dependence was established in Wistar rats by administration of morphine as a constant infusion that was gradually increased to a dose of 50mg/kg per day over a 1-week period. Immediately after discontinuation of chronic morphine treatment, animals were allowed to acquire cocaine self-administration under a simple fixed-ratio schedule (FR-1), and were subsequently advanced to a progressive ratio schedule. Acquisition of cocaine self-administration under the FR-1 did not differ in saline- and morphine-pretreated animals. For cocaine self-administration under a progressive ratio schedule measured at 5 or more days after the onset of opiate withdrawal, chronic pretreatment with morphine increased the number of ratios completed, augmented final response requirements, and produced a more stable pattern of cocaine self-administration. Responding was also increased in morphine-pretreated animals during an initial extinction session. These results show that chronic opiate treatment can enhance both cocaine-reinforced and cocaine-seeking behaviors following opiate withdrawal. A similar effect may occur in human patients who discontinue methadone or other forms of replacement therapy for opiate abuse, and may contribute to relapse involving use of cocaine or other psychostimulants.

  19. Emotional and behavioral impact of exposure to community violence in inner-city adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Quille, M; Boyd, R C; Frantz, E; Walsh, J

    2001-06-01

    Used multiple methods and measures (i.e., youth report, psychiatric interviews, psychophysiological assessment) to investigate the emotional and behavioral impacts of exposure to community violence. Participants were 185 inner-city high school students (M age = 15.4 years; 42% female; 90% African American). Youth with high levels of community violence exposure reported more fears, anxiety, internalizing behavior, and negative life experiences than those with low exposure. No depression or externalizing behavior differences were observed. In a psychophysiological assessment in which adolescents watched a montage of media violence, youth exposed to high levels of community violence had lower baseline heart rates than those with low exposure. There were no between-group differences in physiologic reactivity. Regression analyses revealed that community violence exposure predicted posttraumatic stress and separation anxiety symptoms. The results suggest a significant link between community violence exposure and anxiety symptomatology. Clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed Central

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents’ sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens’ engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  1. Adolescent exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rowan, James D; McCarty, Madison K; Kundey, Shannon M A; Osburn, Crystal D; Renaud, Samantha M; Kelley, Brian M; Matoushek, Amanda Willey; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, adolescent exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast adolescent exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, adolescent MPD exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD exposure ended.

  2. Neurotoxicity of FireMaster 550® in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Chronic developmental and acute adolescent exposures

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J.M.; Levin, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) is the second most commonly used flame retardant (FR) product in consumer goods and has been detected in household dust samples. However, neurobehavioral effects associated with exposure have not been characterized in detail. We investigated the behavioral effects of FM 550 in zebrafish to facilitate the integration of the cellular and molecular effects of FM 550 with its behavioral consequences. The effects of developmental FM 550 exposure on zebrafish larvae swimming shortly after the end of exposure as well as the persisting effects of this exposure on adolescent behavior were studied. In addition, the acute effects of FM 550 on behavior with exposure during adolescence in zebrafish were studied. METHODS Developmental exposure to 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/L of FM 550 via immersion spanned 0–5 days post fertilization, with larval testing on day 6 and adolescent testing on days 40–45. Acute adolescent (45 dpf) exposure was to 0, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/L of FM 550 via immersion, for 24 hrs, with testing 2 hr or 1 week later. The vehicle condition was colony tank water with .0004% (developmental) or .0012% (adolescent) DMSO. Zebrafish behavior was characterized across several domains including learning, social affiliation, sensorimotor function, predator escape, and novel environment exploration. RESULTS Persisting effects of developmental FM 550 exposure included a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in social behavior among all dose groups. Acute FM550 exposure during adolescence caused hypoactivity and reduced social behavior (p’s < 0.05) when the fish were tested 2 hr after exposure. These effects were attenuated at the 1 week post exposure testing point. DISCUSSION Taken together, these data indicate that FM 550 may cause persisting neurobehavioral alterations to social behavior in the absence of perturbations along other behavioral domains and that developmental exposure is more costly to the organism than acute adolescent exposure

  3. Adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. Methods A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. Results Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n = 216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n = 342) of the non-smokers (n = 922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1) h of media daily, including 2.6 h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (Ptrend = 0.036 and Ptrend<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (Ptrend<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10–3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.94). Conclusion Exposure to films and music are associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking. PMID:18206196

  4. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.

  5. Frequency of Exposure to and Engagement in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Inpatient Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Westers, Nicholas J; Horton, Sarah E; King, Jessica D; Diederich, Andrew; Stewart, Sunita M; Kennard, Betsy D

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between frequency of exposure to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and engagement in NSSI among adolescents. Ninety inpatient adolescents with a history of NSSI, ages 12 to 17, completed a structured interview. The majority of participants had learned about NSSI prior to initiating the behavior themselves. More frequent exposure to specific methods of NSSI was associated with greater frequency of using those same methods. Greater exposure to NSSI in the media and seeking out NSSI content were related to greater frequency of engagement in NSSI. Clinicians may help those who self-injure to become more knowledgeable and educated consumers of media to prevent NSSI behavior and contagion.

  6. Differential effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on GABA transmission in sensory thalamic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Goitia, Belén; Raineri, Mariana; González, Laura E.; Rozas, José L.; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Bisagno, Verónica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used to treat children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although MPH shares mechanistic similarities to cocaine, its effects on GABAergic transmission in sensory thalamic nuclei are unknown. Our aim was to compare cocaine and MPH effects on GABAergic projections between thalamic reticular and ventrobasal (VB) nuclei. Mice (P18-30) were subjected to binge-like cocaine and MPH acute and sub-chronic administrations. Cocaine and MPH enhanced hyperlocomotion, though sub-chronic cocaine-mediated effects were stronger than MPH effects. Cocaine and MPH sub-chronic administration altered paired-pulse and spontaneous GABAergic input differently. The effects of cocaine on evoked paired-pulse GABA-A mediated currents changed from depression to facilitation with the duration of the protocols used, while MPH induced a constant increase throughout administration protocols. Thalamic reticular nucleus GAD67 and VB CaV3.1 protein levels were measured using Western blot in order to better understand their link to increased GABA release. Both proteins were increased by sub-chronic administration of cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine and MPH produced distinct presynaptic alterations on GABAergic transmission. MPH showed effects on GABAergic transmission that seems less disruptive than cocaine. Unique effects of cocaine on postsynaptic VB calcium currents might explain deleterious cocaine effects on sensory thalamic nuclei. These results might help to understand the impact of MPH repetitive administration on sensory thalamic nuclei. PMID:23205768

  7. Differential effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on GABA transmission in sensory thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Goitia, Belén; Raineri, Mariana; González, Laura E; Rozas, José L; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Bisagno, Verónica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used to treat children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although MPH shares mechanistic similarities to cocaine, its effects on GABAergic transmission in sensory thalamic nuclei are unknown. Our objective was to compare cocaine and MPH effects on GABAergic projections between thalamic reticular and ventrobasal (VB) nuclei. Mice (P18-30) were subjected to binge-like cocaine and MPH acute and sub-chronic administrations. Cocaine and MPH enhanced hyperlocomotion, although sub-chronic cocaine-mediated effects were stronger than MPH effects. Cocaine and MPH sub-chronic administration altered paired-pulse and spontaneous GABAergic input differently. The effects of cocaine on evoked paired-pulse GABA-mediated currents changed from depression to facilitation with the duration of the protocols used, while MPH induced a constant increase throughout the administration protocols. Thalamic reticular nucleus GAD67 and VB Ca(V) 3.1 protein levels were measured using western blot to better understand their link to increased GABA release. Both proteins were increased by sub-chronic administration of cocaine. MPH showed effects on GABAergic transmission that seems less disruptive than cocaine. Unique effects of cocaine on postsynaptic VB calcium currents might explain deleterious cocaine effects on sensory thalamic nuclei. These results suggest that cocaine and MPH produced distinct presynaptic alterations on GABAergic transmission.

  8. Adverse Respiratory Symptoms and Environmental Exposures Among Children and Adolescents Following Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R.; Ratard, Raoult; VanDyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Results Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, p<0.0001). Roof/glass/storm damage at home was associated with URS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 2.21) and LRS (AOR=1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), while mold growth at home was associated with LRS (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02, 2.12). Conclusions Children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:22043101

  9. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  10. Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Rodriguez-Vicente, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1997-01-17

    The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n = 6) were intraperitoneally administered a single dose of cocaine at 5 mg/kg. Animal hair was shaved just before drug administration and the newly grown back hair was subsequently shaved and collected daily over a period of two weeks. Samples were analyzed for cocaine and BE by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The profiles were quite similar for parent drug and metabolite. Cocaine and BE appeared in the first sampling (day 1), with peak concentration appearing that same day. 1.01 ng/mg and 0.51 ng/mg for cocaine and BE, respectively. Levels declined rapidly on day 2, remaining detectable for ten days after drug administration. This study demonstrates that the initial incorporation of cocaine compounds in rabbit hair is very rapid (24 h). A small fraction of the drug is detected ten days after exposure, at a time when concentrations in other biological specimens (blood or urine) are not detectable.

  11. Adolescent exposure to drink driving as a predictor of young adults' drink driving.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Toumbourou, John W; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12-17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18-24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others' drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68-2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted.

  12. [Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence].

    PubMed

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.

  13. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Eduardo D.; Santerre, Jessica L.; Carter, Jenna M.; Werner, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults. PMID:24874150

  14. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Eduardo D; Santerre, Jessica L; Carter, Jenna M; Werner, David F

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults.

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Alters GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Samuel W.; Teppen, Tara; Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Moss, Julia L.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Chandler, L. Judson; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol abuse that persist into adulthood are poorly understood and have not been widely investigated. We have shown that intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in hippocampal dentate granule cells in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enduring effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence or adulthood on the expression of hippocampal GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Methods We used a previously characterized tissue fractionation method to isolate detergent resistant membranes and soluble fractions, followed by western blots to measure GABAAR protein expression. We also measured mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Although the protein levels of α1-, α4- and δ-GABAAR subunits remained stable between postnatal day (PD) 30 (early adolescence) and PD71 (adulthood), the α5-GABAAR subunit was reduced across that period. In rats that were subjected to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure between PD30–46, there was a significant reduction in the protein levels of the δ-GABAAR, in the absence of any changes in mRNA levels, at 48 hours and 26 days after the last ethanol exposure. Protein levels of the α4-GABAAR subunit were significantly reduced, but mRNA levels were increased, 26 days (but not 48 hours) after the last AIE exposure. Protein levels of α5-GABAAR were not changed by AIE, but mRNA levels were reduced at 48hrs but normalized 26 days after AIE. In contrast to the effects of AIE, chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol during adulthood (CIE) had no effect on expression of any of the GABAAR subunits examined. Conclusions AIE produced both short- and long-term alterations of GABAAR subunits mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, whereas CIE produced no long lasting effects on those measures. The observed reduction of protein

  16. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  17. Functional consequences of cocaine expectation: findings in a non-human primate model of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Porrino, Linda J; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to stimuli and environments associated with drug use is considered one of the most important contributors to relapse among substance abusers. Neuroimaging studies have identified neural circuits underlying these responses in cocaine-dependent subjects. But these studies are often difficult to interpret because of the heterogeneity of the participants, substances abused, and differences in drug histories and social variables. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the functional effects of exposure to cocaine-associated stimuli in a non-human primate model of cocaine self-administration, providing precise control over these variables, with the 2-[(14) C]deoxyglucose method. Rhesus monkeys self-administered 0.3 mg/kg/injection cocaine (n = 4) under a fixed-interval 3-minute (FI 3-min) schedule of reinforcement (30 injections/session) for 100 sessions. Control animals (n = 4) underwent identical schedules of food reinforcement. Sessions were then discontinued for 30 days, after which time, monkeys were exposed to cocaine- or food-paired cues, and the 2-[(14) C]deoxyglucose experiment was conducted. The presentation of the cocaine-paired cues resulted in significant increases in functional activity within highly restricted circuits that included portions of the pre-commissural striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, rostral temporal cortex and limbic thalamus when compared with control animals presented with the food-paired cues. The presentation of cocaine-associated cues increased brain functional activity in contrast to the decreases observed after cocaine consumption. Furthermore, the topography of brain circuits engaged by the expectation of cocaine is similar to the distribution of effects during the earliest phases of cocaine self-administration, prior to the onset of neuroadaptations that accompany chronic cocaine exposure.

  18. Cocaine and the heart

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine is the second commonest illicit drug used and the most frequent cause of drug related deaths. Its use is associated with both acute and chronic complications that may involve any system, the most common being the cardiovascular system. Cocaine misuse has a major effect in young adult drug users with resulting loss of productivity and undue morbidity with cocaine related cardiac and cerebrovascular effects. Many cocaine users have little or no idea of the risks associated with its use. Patients, health care professionals, and the public should be educated about the dangers and the considerable risks of cocaine use. This review concentrates on the cardiovascular effects of cocaine and their management. PMID:16143686

  19. Cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A

    1994-07-15

    Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) deaths involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) deaths involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of deaths where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).

  20. Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mark; Paran, Daphna; Elkayam, Ori

    2016-01-01

    The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, otolaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients. PMID:27824551

  1. Relation between aggression exposure in adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress symptoms: Moderating role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Barry, Samantha A; Rabkin, Ari N; Olezeski, Christy L; Rivers, Alison J; Gordis, Elana B

    2015-03-15

    The present study examines the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), on the link between family aggression experienced during adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms during young adulthood. Participants completed retrospective self-report measures of interparental aggression and harsh parenting exposure during adolescence and measures of current posttraumatic stress symptoms. RSA indexed PNS activity. Among females, the three-way interaction between harsh parenting, interparental aggression, and resting RSA was significant in accounting for young adulthood PTSD symptoms. At higher values of resting RSA and higher levels of interparental aggression exposure, harsh parenting experienced during adolescence was positively associated with adulthood PTSD symptoms. Among males, adolescent aggression exposure and resting RSA did not significantly account for variation in adulthood PTSD symptoms. Thus, this study suggests that resting PNS activity may play an important role in the relationship between stressors during adolescence and later PTSD in females.

  2. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks.

  3. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  4. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  5. Medical consequences of cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Cocaine use among middle-class North Americans increased dramatically during the 1980s. Medical complications involve almost every organ system and are produced by intense vasoconstriction. Managing cocaine-induced disease requires careful identification and the use of alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, in addition to standard therapy and referral to specialists to manage cocaine withdrawal. Images p1976-a p1980-a PMID:8106032

  6. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.

  8. Nicotine exposure in adolescence alters the response of serotonin systems to nicotine administered subsequently in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J

    2009-01-01

    Developmental nicotine exposure produces lasting changes in serotonin (5-HT) function. We gave nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days, PD, 30-47), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and then examined the subsequent effects of nicotine given again in young adulthood (PD 90-107), focusing on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors and the 5-HT transporter during nicotine treatment (PD 105) and withdrawal (PD 110, 120, 130), and long-term changes (PD 180). Adolescent nicotine exposure by itself evoked long-term elevations in cerebrocortical binding parameters in males that emerged in young adulthood. Nicotine given in adulthood produced transient elevations in 5-HT receptor expression in both males and females during withdrawal, and persistent upregulation in the male cerebral cortex. In contrast, females showed decrements in cerebrocortical 5-HT receptors by PD 180. Adolescent nicotine exposure altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, sensitizing the initial effects and changing both the withdrawal response and long-term actions. Our results thus provide mechanistic evidence that nicotine exposure, during the period in which nearly all smokers begin to use tobacco, reprograms the future response of 5-HT systems to nicotine.

  9. Sun exposure and skin cancer prevention in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Richard, N

    2000-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of malignancy today, and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Sun exposure is believed to be the primary factor behind this trend. Nearly 80% of a person's lifetime sun exposure occurs before age 21. Many skin cancer risk behaviors begin in early childhood; therefore, it is important to target the pediatric population for skin cancer prevention education. Parents, teachers, day care providers, and health care professionals should make sun safety a regular part of their practice. School nurses, in particular, are in a prime setting for educating the greatest number of children about sun safety. Age-appropriate skin cancer prevention education should become a routine part of the health curriculum at all grade levels. Numerous on-line resources are available to assist school nurses in the development of age-appropriate teaching materials and sun exposure policies for schools.

  10. Adolescent nicotine exposure transiently increases high-affinity nicotinic receptors and modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Counotte, Danielle S.; Goriounova, Natalia A.; Moretti, Milena; Smoluch, Marek T.; Irth, Hubertus; Clementi, Francesco; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Smit, August B.; Gotti, Cecilia; Spijker, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period during which most adult smokers initiate their habit. Adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to nicotine’s long-term effects on addictive and cognitive behavior. We investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in rats modifies expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the short and/or long term, and whether this has functional consequences. Using receptor binding studies followed by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits, we showed that adolescent nicotine exposure, as compared with saline, caused an increase in mPFC nAChRs containing α4 or β2 subunits (24 and 18%, respectively) 24 h after the last injection. Nicotine exposure in adulthood had no such effect. This increase was transient and was not observed 5 wk following either adolescent or adult nicotine exposure. In line with increased nAChRs expression 1 d after adolescent nicotine exposure, we observed a 34% increase in amplitude of nicotine-induced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons. These effects were transient and specific, and observed only acutely after adolescent nicotine exposure, but not after 5 wk, and no changes were observed in adult-exposed animals. The acute nicotine-induced increase in α4β2-containing receptors in adolescents interferes with the normal developmental decrease (37%) of these receptors from early adolescence (postnatal day 34) to adulthood (postnatal day 104) in the mPFC. Together, this suggests that these receptors play a role in mediating the acute rewarding effects of nicotine and may underlie the increased sensitivity of adolescents to nicotine. PMID:22308197

  11. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  12. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  13. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  14. Exposure to alcohol among adolescent students and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. METHODS The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p < 0.10 were used in the final multivariate analysis model. RESULTS The highest alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon. PMID:24789637

  15. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  16. The Association between Exposure to "Tips" and Smoking-Related Outcomes among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The Tips From Former Smokers ("Tips") campaign in the United States primarily targets adult smokers, but considers adolescents an important secondary audience. This study examines the association between exposure to Tips and smoking outcomes in the adolescent population in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth…

  17. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  18. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental “acceptance” of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes. PMID:21765624

  19. Antenatal Steroid Exposure and Heart Rate Variability in Adolescents Born With Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Patricia A.; Washburn, Lisa K.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; Rose, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) suggests autonomic imbalance in the control of heart rate and is associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes. We examined whether antenatal corticosteroid (ANCS) exposure had long-term programming effects on heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescents born with very low birth weight (VLBW). Methods Follow-up study of a cohort of VLBW 14 year-olds born between 1992 and 1996 with 50% exposed to ANCS. HRV in both the time and frequency domains using Nevrokard Software was determined from a 5 minute electrocardiogram tracing. Results HRV data from 89 (35 male, 53 non-black) exposed (ANCS+) and 77 (28 male, 29 non-black) unexposed (ANCS−) adolescents were analyzed. HRV did not differ between ANCS+ and ANCS− black participants. However, in non-black participants, a significant interaction between ANCS and sex was observed, with ANCS− females having significantly greater HRV than ANCS+ females and males, and ANCS− males for both time and frequency domain variables. Conclusions Among non-black adolescents born with VLBW, ANCS exposure is associated with reduced HRV with apparent sex-specificity. Reduced HRV has been associated with development of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, thus supporting the need to monitor these outcomes in VLBW adolescents as they mature. PMID:27632775

  20. The consequences of adolescent chronic unpredictable stress exposure on brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hollis, F; Isgor, C; Kabbaj, M

    2013-09-26

    There is increasing evidence for adolescence as a time period vulnerable to environmental perturbations such as stress. What is unclear is the persistent nature of the effects of stress and how specific these effects are to the type of stressor. In this review, we describe the effects of chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure during adolescence on adult behavior and brain morphology and function in animal models. We provide evidence for adolescence as a critical window for the effects of physical CUS that persist into adulthood, with ramifications for morphological development, associated hippocampal-dependent tasks, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. The results of this investigation are contrasted against those of social CUS stress exposure from the same time period that show reversible and, in the case of responses to drugs of abuse, potentially protective effects in adulthood. Finally, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms for these morphological and behavioral findings. It is our aim that the research highlighted in this review will aid in our understanding of the role of stress in adolescent mental health and development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress, Emotional Behavior and the Endocannabinoid System.

  1. Inhibiting Glycine Transporter-1 Facilitates Cocaine-Cue Extinction and Attenuates Reacquisition of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Á; Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Wettstein, Joseph G.; Spealman, Roger D.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Combining extinction training with cognitive-enhancing pharmacotherapy represents a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of exposure therapy for drug relapse prevention. We investigated if the selective glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitor RO4543338 could facilitate extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses and attenuate reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.3 mg/kg), which was associated with a 2-sec light cue under a second-order schedule of i.v. drug injection. Rats received vehicle, 30 or 45 mg/kg of RO4543338 prior to three 1-hr extinction-training sessions spaced at weekly intervals. Responses were extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine while maintaining response-contingent cue presentations. Reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior during self-administration sessions began one week after the last extinction session. Control experiments were conducted under conditions that precluded explicit extinction of cocaine-conditioned responses. Results Compared to vehicle, 30 and 45 mg/kg RO4543338 significantly decreased responding early in extinction training and during subsequent reacquisition sessions. The latter effect persisted for at least five sessions. In control studies, reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior was not altered when RO4543338 was administered either prior to weekly self-administration control sessions or prior to weekly control sessions in which cocaine and cues were omitted and the levers retracted. Conclusions As the GlyT-1 inhibitor facilitated cocaine-cue extinction learning and attenuated subsequent reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior, this class of compounds may have utility as a pharmacological adjunct to cocaine-cue exposure therapy in addicts. PMID:21992874

  2. Conscientiousness and stress exposure and reactivity: a prospective study of adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael L M; Miller, Gregory E; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Conscientiousness is associated with health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. To explore the role that stress might play, this study examined whether conscientiousness was associated with exposure and reactivity to life stress. This study followed 133 adolescent women every 6 months for 2.5 years. Participants completed a baseline measure of conscientiousness, and at each visit underwent a structured interview to catalogue episodic and chronic stress and had blood drawn to assess inflammatory processes. Participants higher in conscientiousness experienced fewer self-dependent episodic stressors and less academic and interpersonal chronic stress throughout the study. However, at times when they experienced higher levels of chronic interpersonal stress, they became more resistant to glucocorticoids. Higher levels of conscientiousness may protect adolescent women from exposure to certain stressors. However, when stress occurs, highly conscientious individuals may become more resistant to glucocorticoids, increasing their risk for processes that influence inflammatory conditions.

  3. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  4. Leisure noise exposure in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, A.

    1991-12-01

    Many efforts have been made in recent times to combat occupational noise exposure, and noise preventive measures in many industries seem promising. Less positive, however, are noise exposure situations during leisure time activities. New noisy leisure activities are cropping up, and sound levels appear to have increased over the years. There is thus reason for concern over such noisy activities as listening to "walkman" devices, pop/rock concerts and car stereos, and being present at motor sports and shooting activities. Luckily, however, there seem not to be many reported cases of noise-induced hearing loss which can be clearly related to such leisure activities. In addition, recent animal experiments have shown that there is a possibility that the ear can be trained toward increased noise resistance. Nevertheless, general attitudes should be in favor of lowering the sound levels now found in connection with these activities.

  5. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  6. Adolescent Dietary Vitamin D and Sun Exposure in Relation to Benign Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Berkey, Catherine S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D may reduce cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast tissue, and exposure may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is developing. In the Nurses’ Health Study II, higher recalled adolescent vitamin D intake was associated with a lower risk of benign breast disease (BBD). Our study aim was to assess adolescent vitamin D exposure in relation to BBD in young women. Methods Vitamin D was assessed in 6,593 adolescent girls (9 to 15 years of age at baseline) in the prospective Growing Up Today Study cohort using the mean energy-adjusted intakes from food frequency questionnaires in 1996, 1997, and 1998. In 1999, 5286 girls reported skin color, sunscreen use, tanning bed use, and number of sunburns in the past year, and we used state of residence to assess low vs. high ultraviolet (UV) index. Biopsy-confirmed BBD was reported on questionnaires in 2005, 2007, and 2010 (n=122). Results Dietary vitamin D, tanning behaviors, and other sun exposure variables were not significantly associated with BBD in logistic regression models adjusted for age, family history of breast cancer or BBD, age at menarche, nulliparity, alcohol intake, body mass index, and physical activity. The relative risk for the top (>467 IU/day) vs. bottom (<243 IU/day) quartile of vitamin D intake was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.23). Conclusions Sun exposure was not significantly associated with BBD in this prospective cohort study. However, a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and BBD was observed that merits further study. PMID:26084210

  7. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  8. Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun exposure among apparently healthy Saudi children and adolescents, a little studied population. Methods A total of 331 Saudi children aged 6–17 years (153 boys and 178 girls) were included in this cross sectional study. Levels of physical activity and sun exposure were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry, serum calcium and 25-(OH) vitamin D were analyzed. Results All subjects were vitamin D deficient, the majority being moderately deficient (71.6%). Age was the single most significant predictor affecting 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels, explaining 21% of the variance perceived (p = 1.68 x 10-14). Age-matched comparisons revealed that for groups having the same amount of sun exposure, those with moderate or are physically active will have higher levels of vitamin D status, though levels in across groups remained deficient. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi children and adolescents, and is influenced by both sun exposure and physical activity. Promotion of an active outdoor lifestyle among Saudi children in both homes and schools may counteract the vitamin D deficiency epidemic in this vulnerable population. Vitamin D supplementation is suggested in all groups, including those with the highest sun exposure and physical activity. PMID:22759399

  9. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Effects of Cocaine on Brains and Bodies Previous Index Next ... About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | ...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  15. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    , no corresponding elevations were seen in adolescents after LPS; and (ii) neither adolescents nor adults demonstrated increases in plasma endotoxin concentrations following i.p. or i.g. ethanol administration. Analysis of BECs indicated that, for both routes of exposure, adolescents exhibited lower BECs than adults. Taken together, these data suggest that categorically different mechanisms are involved in the central cytokine response to antigen exposure versus ethanol administration. Furthermore, these findings confirm once again that acute ethanol intoxication is a potent activator of brain cytokines, and calls for future studies to identify the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in the cytokine response observed during ethanol intoxication.

  16. Persistent loss of hippocampal neurogenesis and increased cell death following adolescent, but not adult, chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Spear, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescence is a common age to initiate alcohol consumption, the long-term consequences of exposure to alcohol at this time of considerable brain maturation are largely unknown. In studies utilizing rodents, behavioral evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that the hippocampus may be persistently affected by repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence, but not by comparable alcohol exposure in adulthood. The purpose of this series of experiments was to explore a potential mechanism of hippocampal dysfunction in adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence. Given that disruption in adult neurogenesis has been reported to impair performance on tasks thought to be hippocampally related, we used immunohistochemistry to assess levels of doublecortin (DCX), an endogenous marker of immature neurons, in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus 3-4 weeks after adolescent (postnatal day, PD28-48) or adult (PD70-90) intermittent ethanol exposure to 4 g/kg ethanol administered intragastrically. We also investigated another neurogenic niche, the subventricular zone (SVZ), to determine if the effects of ethanol exposure were region specific. Levels of cell proliferation and cell death were also examined in the DG via assessing Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity, respectively. Significantly less DCX was observed in the DG of adolescent (but not adult) ethanol-exposed animals about 4 weeks after exposure when these animals were compared to control age-mates. The effects of adolescent ethanol on DCX immunoreactivity were specific to the hippocampus, with no significant exposure effects emerging in the SVZ. In both the DG and the SVZ there was a significant age-related decline in neurogenesis as indexed by DCX. The persistent effect of adolescent ethanol exposure on reduced DCX in the DG appears to be related to significant increases in cell death, with significantly more cleaved caspase-3-positive immunoreactivity observed in the adolescent ethanol group

  17. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult male rats: Effects on tolerance, social behavior and ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of the present study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Methods Adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10 day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), non-manipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10) or non-manipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, loss of righting reflex was tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and non-manipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hrs after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and non-manipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and non-manipulated animals using an 8 day 2 bottle choice, limited access ethanol intake procedure. Results Adolescents were less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents drank significantly more ethanol than adults on a g/kg basis, with intake uninfluenced by prior ethanol exposure at both ages. Conclusion Adolescents and adults may differ in

  18. An examination of the relation between traumatic event exposure and panic-relevant biological challenge responding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Erin; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Jones, Rachel

    2011-09-01

    The current study uniquely extended research that has linked traumatic event exposure to panic-spectrum problems among adolescents. It was hypothesized that among 127 adolescents (age range: 10 to 17 years; M = 14.63, SD = 2.24), those who endorsed a history of traumatic event exposure would evidence significantly greater anxious and fearful reactivity to a well-established 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure compared to nonexposed individuals. Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting traumatic event exposure is associated with anxious and fearful reactivity to abrupt increases in bodily arousal among adolescents. Moreover, consistent with hypotheses, anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relations between traumatic event exposure and both self-reported panic symptoms and panic symptoms elicited by the challenge. Future prospective research is now needed to better understand temporal relations between traumatic event exposure and indices of panic and related vulnerability.

  19. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth.

  20. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

  1. Effects of prenatal cocaine on hearing, vision, growth, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Crossland, W J; Holmes, P A; Overbeck, G W; Tilak, J P

    1998-06-21

    The illicit use of cocaine has increased dramatically over the last 10-12 years. There has been a corresponding increase in cocaine abuse among obstetric patients and in the number of "cocaine babies." According to some estimates, these children make up more than half of the drug-associated births. This problem is therefore a major public health concern. Consequently, our laboratory investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on hearing, vision, growth, and exploratory/stress behavior. This chapter summarizes the literature on animals and humans on these topics and presents new observations from our laboratory. In terms of maternal toxicity, prenatal cocaine exposure causes hypertension, placental abruption, spontaneous abortion, poor pregnancy weight gain, and undernutrition secondary to appetite suppression. Some offspring effects include in utero growth retardation, cephalic hemorrhage, fetal edema, altered body composition, congenital malformations, and even pre- and postnatal death. The offspring can also exhibit a variety of behavioral, visual, hearing, and language disorders. Differential effects of animal strain and late gestational cocaine exposure are discussed. Comparisons are made between prenatal cocaine, the fetal alcohol syndrome, and the effects of prenatal undernutrition. Recommendations for clinical assessment and intervention are made.

  2. The association between socioeconomic status and exposure to mobile telecommunication networks in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Kühnlein, Anja; Radon, Katja

    2010-01-01

    A potential association between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported use of mobile phones has been investigated in a few studies. If measured exposure to mobile phone networks differs by SES in children, it has not yet been studied. Interview data of 1,481 children and 1,505 adolescents on participants' mobile phone use, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were taken from the German MobilEe-study. Sociodemographic data was used to stratify participants into three "status groups" (low, middle, high). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for each of the participants. Exposure levels during waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Children with a low SES were more likely to own a mobile phone (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and also reported to use their mobile phone longer per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.4) than children with a high SES. For adolescents, self-reported duration of mobile phone use per day was also higher with a low SES (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4-8.4) compared with a high SES. No association between SES and measured exposure to mobile telecommunication networks was seen for children or adolescents. Mobile phone use may differ between status groups with higher use among disadvantaged groups. However, this does not result in higher overall exposure to mobile telecommunication networks. Whether short duration of own mobile phone use or the small numbers of participants with a low SES are causal, have to be investigated in further studies.

  3. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  4. Chronic nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence affects emotional behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Quentin; Speziali, Simona; Rubino, Tiziana; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella; Parolaro, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic androgen steroid (AAS) illicitly used by adult and adolescent athletes to enhance physical performance and body image, induces psychiatric side effects, such as aggression, depression as well as a spectrum of adverse physiological impairments. Since adolescence represents a neurodevelopmental window that is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of drug abuse, we investigated the long-term behavioral and neurophysiological consequences of nandrolone abuse during adolescence. Adolescent rats received daily injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg, i.m.) for 14 days (PND 40-53). At early adulthood (PND 68), forced swim, sucrose preference, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed to assess behavioral changes. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried out to monitor changes in electrical activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Our results show that after early exposure to nandrolone, rats display depression-related behavior, characterized by increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. In addition, adult rats presented anxiety-like behavior characterized by decreased time and number of entries in the central zone of the open field and decreased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Nandrolone decreased the firing rate of spontaneously active serotonergic neurons in the DRN while increasing the firing rate of noradrenergic neurons in the LC. These results provide evidence that nandrolone decanoate exposure during adolescence alters the emotional profile of animals in adulthood and significantly modifies both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  5. Cocaine and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Das, G

    1993-12-01

    Cocaine abuse today has reached greater heights than it did during the first cocaine epidemic in the late nineteenth century. It is estimated that one out of every four Americans has used cocaine and some six million people in the US use it regularly. Although cocaine affects all systems in the body, the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the neuronal synapses. Almost all CNS effects of cocaine can be attributed to this mechanism. Euphoria, pharmacological pleasure and intense cocaine craving share basis in this system. The effects of cocaine on other organ systems, in addition to its effects on the CNS, account for the majority of the complications associated with cocaine abuse. In this paper, the CNS effects following cocaine administration and their treatment are discussed.

  6. The effect of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial memory in adolescent rats: the dissociation of metabolic and cognitive tolerances.

    PubMed

    Van Skike, Candice E; Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2012-05-09

    Using a rapid chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure paradigm, we demonstrate the dissociability of metabolic tolerance from cognitive tolerance in adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were trained to spatially navigate in the Morris Water Maze and then exposed to CIE vapor or air 16 h a day for 4 days. After a final 28 h withdrawal, all rats received a saline or ethanol challenge, followed by a test of spatial memory 30 min after administration. Results indicate that CIE vapor exposure did not significantly impair adolescent spatial memory. Although CIE-exposed rats developed metabolic tolerance to a subsequent ethanol administration, CIE exposure did not alter dose-dependent ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments. These data indicate that metabolic ethanol tolerance can be distinguished from cognitive ethanol tolerance during adolescence and suggest that blood alcohol levels alone do not fully explain ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments.

  7. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  8. Chronic cocaine disrupts neurovascular networks and cerebral function: optical imaging studies in rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiujia; You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Choi, Jeonghun; Yin, Wei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine abuse can lead to cerebral strokes and hemorrhages secondary to cocaine's cerebrovascular effects, which are poorly understood. We assessed cocaine's effects on cerebrovascular anatomy and function in the somatosensory cortex of the rat's brain. Optical coherence tomography was used for in vivo imaging of three-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks and to quantify CBF velocities (CBFv), and multiwavelength laser-speckle-imaging was used to simultaneously measure changes in CBFv, oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbR]) concentrations prior to and after an acute cocaine challenge in chronically cocaine exposed rats. Immunofluorescence techniques on brain slices were used to quantify microvasculature density and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After chronic cocaine (2 and 4 weeks), CBFv in small vessels decreased, whereas vasculature density and VEGF levels increased. Acute cocaine further reduced CBFv and decreased Δ[HbO2] and this decline was larger and longer lasting in 4 weeks than 2 weeks cocaine-exposed rats, which indicates that risk for ischemia is heightened during intoxication and that it increases with chronic exposures. These results provide evidence of cocaine-induced angiogenesis in cortex. The CBF reduction after chronic cocaine exposure, despite the increases in vessel density, indicate that angiogenesis was insufficient to compensate for cocaine-induced disruption of cerebrovascular function.

  9. [Exposure to violence among adolescents in a low-income community in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Deborah Pedrosa; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Luna, Geisy Lanne Muniz; e Silva, Juliana Guimarães; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa

    2013-05-01

    This a cross-sectional study made in Fortaleza, Ceará, 2009, which included 458 teenagers and analyzed their exposure to violence, describing their access to weapons, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use and their self-esteem by investigating their socio-economic, school and family characteristics and exposure to the phenomenon. A questionnaire and/or structured interviews were used for data collection, and analysis involved Pearson's chi-square test, with 95% reliability. Of the 458 participants, 17.7% were considered to be exposed to criminal violence. Significant variables for exposure to violence included: place of birth (p = 0.020), years of schooling (p = 0,009), school absenteeism (p < 0.001), the father as the head of the family (p = 0.026), alcohol-addicted parents (p < 0.001), good/very good family relationships (p = 0.009), and parents' dissatisfaction with their children's friends (p < 0.001). Thus, it is necessary that public policies focus on a support network for care of adolescents and that urban centers organize themselves socially and politically in the quest for understanding the effects of exposure to violence among adolescents in low-income communities.

  10. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  11. The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

  12. Language Outcomes at 12 Years for Children Exposed Prenatally to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Singer, Lynn T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 12-year-old children using a prospective design, controlling for confounding prenatal drug exposure and environmental factors. Method: Children who were exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; "n" = 183)…

  13. Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and exposure to violence: parents' opinion1

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Scherer, Zeyne Alves Pires; Scherer, Edson Arthur; Cavalin, Luciana Aparecida; Guazzelli, Mariana Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the opinion of parents or guardians of adolescents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) about their children's exposure as perpetrators or victims of violence situations in family life or outside. Method: qualitative study with use of thematic oral history. Nine parents of 07 adolescents with ADHD participated. Data were collected from April to September of 2013 using thematic interview. The interviews were recorded at scheduled times at the participants' home, with an average duration of 30 minutes. The findings were submitted to inductive thematic analysis. Results: data analysis allowed the identification of the occurrence of "Conflicts in family life" and "Conflicts in the context of school and community". Parents reported the involvement of their children as victims, perpetrators and witnesses of physical and psychological violence, and the difficulty of them and the school to understand and handle these situations. Conclusion: violence occurs in ADHD adolescents' interpersonal relationships. Communication between health professionals, school and families is precarious. Through the systematization of nursing care, nurses can plan strategies that articulate support networks and interpersonal relationships of adolescents with the disorder (family and school). PMID:26626000

  14. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Children of Adolescent Mothers: Exposure to Negative Life Events and the Role of Social Supports on Their Socioemotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Shannon S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Children born to adolescent mothers have heightened vulnerability for exposure to multiple stressful life events owing to factors associated with teenaged parenthood such as poverty and low levels of maternal education. This study investigated whether early exposure to negative life events such as parental divorce, residential instability, and…

  16. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Adolescent Violence and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…

  17. Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette L; Koppen, Gudrun; Staessen, Jan A; Hond, Elly Den; Verheyen, Geert; Nawrot, Tim S; Roels, Harry A; Vlietinck, Robert; Schoeters, Greet E R

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we investigated 17- to 18-year-old boys and girls to determine whether changes in humoral or cellular immunity or respiratory complaints were related to blood serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds after lifetime exposure in Flanders (Belgium). We obtained blood samples from and administered questionnaires to 200 adolescents recruited from a rural area and two urban suburbs. Physicians recorded medical history and respiratory diseases. We measured immunologic biomarkers such as differential blood cell counts, lymphocyte phenotypes, and serum immunoglobulins. As biomarkers of exposure, we determined the serum concentrations of PCBs (PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180) and dioxin-like compounds [chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay]. The percentages of eosinophils and natural killer cells in blood were negatively correlated with CALUX toxic equivalents (TEQs) in serum (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). Increased serum CALUX TEQs resulted in an increase in serum IgA levels (p = 0.05). Furthermore, levels of specific IgEs (measured by radioallergosorbent tests) of cat dander, house dust mite, and grass pollen were also significantly and negatively associated with the CALUX TEQ, with odds ratios (ORs) equal to 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.96], 0.68 (0.5-0.93), and 0.70 (0.52-0.95), respectively. In addition, reported allergies of the upper airways and past use of antiallergic drugs were negatively associated with CALUX TEQs, with ORs equal to 0.66 (0.47-0.93) and 0.58 (0.39-0.85), respectively. We found a negative association between IgGs and marker PCBs in serum (p = 0.009). This study shows that immunologic measurements and respiratory complaints in adolescents were associated with environmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The negative correlation between PHAHs and allergic responses in adolescents suggested that exposure may entail alterations in the

  18. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure diminishes anhedonia during ethanol withdrawal in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent alcohol use may interfere with neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of adult alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters the adult reward response to ethanol. Adolescent rats were administered ethanol once (moderate exposure; Cohort 1) or three times per day (severe exposure; Cohort 2) in a 2 days on/2 days off pattern. In adulthood, subjects responded for electrical stimulation directed at the posterior lateral hypothalamus in a discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure that provides current-intensity thresholds as a measure of brain reward function. The effects of ethanol administration and withdrawal were assessed. Control rats showed dose-dependent threshold elevations after acute ethanol, indicating reward deficits. A majority of moderately AIE-exposed rats (Cohort 1) showed threshold lowering after ethanol, suggesting ethanol-induced reward enhancement in this sub-set of rats. Rats exposed to severe AIE (Cohort 2) showed no threshold elevation or lowering, suggesting a blunted affective ethanol response. Daily ethanol induced threshold elevations 24h after administration in control rats but not in either group of AIE-exposed rats, suggesting decreased sensitivity to the negative affective state of ethanol withdrawal. Withdrawal from a 4-day ethanol binge produced robust and enduring threshold elevations in all rats, although threshold elevations were diminished in rats exposed to severe AIE. These results indicate that AIE exposure diminished reward deficits associated with ethanol intoxication and withdrawal and may have increased ethanol-induced reward enhancement in a sub-set of rats. In humans, enhanced ethanol reward accompanied by reduced withdrawal severity may contribute to the development of AUDs.

  19. Exposure to violence, social cognitive processing, and sleep problems in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes.

  20. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure alters behavior and neuroglial parameters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Brolese, Giovana; Lunardi, Paula; Broetto, Núbia; Engelke, Douglas S; Lírio, Franciane; Batassini, Cristiane; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption by women during gestation has become increasingly common. Although it is widely accepted that exposure to high doses of ethanol has long-lasting detrimental effects on brain development, the case for moderate doses is underappreciated, and benchmark studies have demonstrated structural and behavioral defects associated with moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in humans and animal models. This study aimed to investigate the influence of in utero exposure to moderate levels of ethanol throughout pregnancy on learning/memory, anxiety parameters and neuroglial parameters in adolescent offspring. Female rats were exposed to an experimental protocol throughout gestation up to weaning. After mating, the dams were divided into three groups and treated with only water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (vv) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure - MPAE). Adolescent male offspring were subjected to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task to evaluate learning/memory and anxiety-like behavior. Hippocampi were dissected and slices were obtained for immunoquantification of GFAP, NeuN, S100B and the NMDA receptor. The MPAE group clearly presented anxiolytic-like behavior, even though they had learned how to avoid the aversive arm. S100B protein was increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the group treated with alcohol, and alterations in GFAP expression were also shown. This study indicates that moderate ethanol doses administered during pregnancy could induce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting an increase in risk-taking behavior in adolescent male offspring. Furthermore, the data show the possibility that glial cells are involved in the altered behavior present after prenatal ethanol treatment.

  1. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Short- and long-term adverse effects of cocaine abuse during pregnancy on the heart development.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kurt D; Zhang, Lubo

    2009-02-01

    The effect of cocaine on the developing fetus is a topic of considerable interest and debate. One of the potential effects of fetal cocaine exposure is damage to the developing heart. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the short- and long-term effects of fetal cocaine exposure on the heart in both humans and animal models. Human studies are still preliminary but have suggested that fetal cocaine exposure impacts on the developing heart. Studies in animal models provide strong evidence for a programming effect resulting in detrimental long-term changes to the heart induced by fetal cocaine exposure. In the rat model, fetal cocaine results in apoptosis in the term heart, left ventricular remodeling and myocyte hypertrophy, as well as increased sensitivity to ischemia/reperfusion injury in the adult male offspring. The rat model has also shown evidence of epigenetic modifications in response to intrauterine cocaine. Increased DNA methylation of promoter regions leads to a long-term decrease in the expression of the cardioprotective gene, PKCepsilon. The current data shows fetal cocaine exposure has significant immediate and long-term cardiac consequences in animal models and while human studies are still incomplete they suggest this phenomenon may also be significant in humans exposed to cocaine during development.

  3. Increased sensitivity to cocaine by cholinergic cell ablation in nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Hikida, Takatoshi; Kaneko, Satoshi; Isobe, Tomohiro; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Watanabe, Dai; Pastan, Ira; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cocaine causes long-lasting behavioral changes associated with cocaine reinforcement and addiction. An important neural substrate for cocaine addiction is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which receives dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area. Although the neural circuit of the NAc is controlled by several other neurotransmitters, their involvement in cocaine addiction remains elusive. In this investigation, we ablated cholinergic interneurons from the adult NAc with immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting and examined the role of acetylcholine transmitter in adaptive behavioral changes associated with cocaine reinforcement and addiction. Acute exposure to cocaine induced abnormal rotation in unilaterally cholinergic cell-eliminated mice. This abnormal turning was enhanced by repeated exposure of cocaine. In bilaterally cholinergic cell-eliminated mice, chronic cocaine administration induced a prominent and progressive increase in locomotor activity. Moreover, these mice showed robust conditioned place preference with a lower dose of cocaine, compared with wild-type littermates. This investigation demonstrates that acetylcholine in the NAc plays a key role in both acute and chronic actions of cocaine. PMID:11606786

  4. Potentiation of the expression of cocaine-induced sensitization by a conditioned stressor.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Aya; Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Hussain, Atif; Shanmuganathan, Purathani; Sivakumaran, Archana; Erb, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Repeated exposures to physical stressors cross-sensitize to the locomotor activating effects of psychostimulants in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of a conditioned stressor on expression of cocaine-induced sensitization in rats. We determined whether a mint odor cue previously paired with footshock stress (FS) would elicit a sensitized locomotor response in cocaine pre-exposed rats. Rats were given once daily injections of cocaine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 6 days in activity monitoring chambers. Subsequently, and in a different and distinct context, equal numbers of rats in each drug condition were exposed to 10 min of brief, intermittent FS or no FS, either in the presence or absence of the mint odor cue. Upon re-exposure to the activity chambers (in which cocaine exposures had been given), all rats previously exposed to cocaine showed robust conditioned locomotion. In response to a cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg, i.p.), cocaine relative to saline pre-exposed rats showed a sensitized locomotor response. Finally, in those cocaine pre-exposed rats that had been given prior odor-FS pairings, concurrent delivery of the cocaine challenge and presentation of the odor cue markedly potentiated the expression of sensitization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a facilitation of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization by a conditioned stressor.

  5. Mould/dampness exposure at home is associated with respiratory disorders in Italian children and adolescents: the SIDRIA-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, M; Lombardi, E; Berti, G; Rusconi, F; La Grutta, S; Piffer, S; Petronio, M; Galassi, C; Forastiere, F; Viegi, G; the, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To report on the relation between home mould and/or dampness exposure and respiratory disorders in a large sample of children and adolescents in Italy, accounting for age at time of exposure. Methods: 20 016 children (mean age 7 years) and 13 266 adolescents (mean age 13 years) completed questionnaires on indoor exposures and respiratory symptoms/diseases. Statistical analyses were adjusted for sex, age, questionnaire's compiler, area of residence, season of interview, parental educational status, family history of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presence of gas water heaters, passive smoking, pets, and active smoking (only for adolescents). Population attributable risk % (PAR) was also computed. Results: Asthma was more strongly related to only early than to only current exposure, both in children (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.30) and adolescents (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.59). The same result was found for rhino-conjunctivitis (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.82), in children, and for wheeze among adolescents (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.11). In children, wheeze (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.66) and eczema (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.91) were more strongly related to mould/dampness when exposed both early and currently; the same occurred in adolescents for rhino-conjunctivitis (1.78, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.45). Although persistent cough/phlegm was significantly related to mould/dampness exposure in children, regardless of exposure timing, no significant association between mould/dampness exposure and eczema or cough/phlegm was found among adolescents. PAR estimates were higher for only early than only current exposures. Avoiding early only exposure would abate wheeze by 6%, asthma or cough/phlegm by 7%, rhino-conjunctivitis in children by 4%, and in adolescents, asthma by 6%, and wheeze by 4%. Conclusions: Respiratory disorders such as wheeze and asthma can often be explained by exposure to home mould/dampness, especially early in life. The

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  7. Occupational and environmental lead exposure to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb), as other environmental neurotoxicant substances, has the capability to interfere with many biochemical events present in cells throughout the body. In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure to Pb has been assessed by analyzing the scalp hair samples of male adolescents aged 12-15 years, who have worked for the last 12-36 months in Pb battery recycling workshops (BRWs). For comparative purposes, gender and age-matched subjects living in the vicinity of recycling workshops as well as in areas without industrial activity were used as controls. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven prior to determination of Pb by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that both workers and nonworking exposed subjects had higher levels of Pb than nonexposed controls. The contents of Pb in scalp hair of adolescent workers in the present study were compared with those reported in other studies.

  8. Changes in the Adult GluN2B Associated Proteome following Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Risher, Mary-Louise; Miller, Kelsey M.; Colbran, Roger J.; Winder, Danny G.; Wills, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is the strongest predictor for alcohol use disorders. In rodents, adolescents have distinct responses to acute ethanol, and prolonged alcohol exposure during adolescence can maintain these phenotypes into adulthood. One brain region that is particularly sensitive to the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) produces long lasting changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology, as well as in the susceptibility to acute ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment. Given the pattern of changes in hippocampal structure and function, one potential target for these effects is the ethanol sensitive GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is known to be involved in synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology. Thus we sought to determine if there were persistent changes in hippocampal GluN2B signaling cascades following AIE. We employed a previously validated GluN2B-targeted proteomic strategy that was used to identify novel signaling mechanisms altered by chronic ethanol exposure in the adult hippocampus. We collected adult hippocampal tissue (P70) from rats that had been given 2 weeks of AIE from P30-45. Tissue extracts were fractionated into synaptic and non-synaptic pools, immuno-precipitated for GluN2B, and then analyzed using proteomic methods. We detected a large number of proteins associated with GluN2B. AIE produced significant changes in the association of many proteins with GluN2B in both synaptic and non-synaptic fractions. Intriguingly the number of proteins changed in the non-synaptic fraction was double that found in the synaptic fraction. Some of these proteins include those involved in glutamate signaling cytoskeleton rearrangement, calcium signaling, and plasticity. Disruptions in these pathways may contribute to the persistent cellular and behavioral changes found in the adult hippocampus following AIE. Further, the robust change in

  9. Israeli adolescents with ongoing exposure to terrorism: suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Madan, Anita; Pitman, Seth R; Wang, Yanping; Doppelt, Osnat; Burns, Kelly Dugan; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationships among terrorism exposure, functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and probable partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from exposure to terrorism in adolescents continuously exposed to this threat in Israel. A convenience sample of 2,094 students, aged 12 to 18, was drawn from 10 Israeli secondary schools. In terms of demographic factors, older age was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation, OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.62], p < .01, but was protective against probable partial or full PTSD, OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.54, 0.95], p < .05; female gender was associated with greater likelihood of probable partial or full PTSD, OR = 1.57, 95% CI [1.02, 2.40], p < .05. Exposure to trauma due to terrorism was associated with increased risk for each of the measured outcomes including probable partial or full PTSD, functional impairment, and suicidal ideation. When age, gender, level of exposure to terrorism, probable partial or full PTSD, and functional impairment were examined together, only terrorism exposure and functional impairment were associated with suicidal ideation. This study underscores the importance and feasibility of examining exposure to terrorism and functional impairment as risk factors for suicidal ideation.

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL AND WITHDRAWAL EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT AAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLUTAMATERGIC SYSTEM IN HAMSTERS

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression were examined following 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype. PMID:21500881

  11. Developmental and withdrawal effects of adolescent AAS exposure on the glutamatergic system in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2011-06-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression levels were examined following 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype.

  12. Asthma control in adolescents 10 to 11 y after exposure to the World Trade Center disaster

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Thomas, Pauline A.; Stellman, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about asthma control in adolescents who were exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001 and diagnosed with asthma after 9/11. This report examines asthma and asthma control 10–11 y after 9/11 among exposed adolescents. Methods: The WTC Health Registry adolescent Wave 3 survey (2011–2012) collected data on asthma diagnosed by a physician after 11 September 2001, extent of asthma control based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, probable mental health conditions, and behavior problems. Parents reported healthcare needs and 9/11-exposures. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between asthma and level of asthma control and 9/11-exposure, mental health and behavioral problems, and unmet healthcare needs. Results: Poorly/very poorly controlled asthma was significantly associated with a household income of ≤$75,000 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–8.8), having unmet healthcare needs (AOR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4–27.1), and screening positive for at least one mental health condition (AOR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.4–17.7), but not with behavioral problems. The impact of having at least one mental health condition on the level of asthma control was substantially greater in females than in males. Conclusions: Comprehensive care of post-9/11 asthma in adolescents should include management of mental health-related comorbidities. PMID:27656769

  13. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception.

    PubMed

    Post, Ryan J; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M; O'Loughlin, Lauren E; Bloom, Christopher M

    2014-05-28

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unconditioned fear-eliciting stimulus in order to induce stress in juvenile rats aged postnatal day (PND) 23 through 27. After further physical maturation characteristic of the adolescent stage (PND 42), animals were tested using an elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and plantar test (Hargreaves method) for pain to assess any lingering effects of the juvenile stress. To assess how an additional stress later in life affects anxiety and pain nociception, PND 43 rats were exposed to inescapable shock (0.8mA) and again tested on EPM and plantar test. A final testing period was conducted in the adult (PND 63) rats to assess resulting changes in adult behaviors. TMT-exposed rats were significantly more anxious in adolescence than controls, but this difference disappeared after exposure to the secondary stressor. In adulthood, but not in adolescence, TMT-exposed rats demonstrated lower pain sensitivity than controls. These results suggest that early life stress can play a significant role in later anxiety and pain nociception, and offer insight into the development and manifestation of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.

  14. The Bermuda Triangle of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Marina E

    2010-09-01

    Activation of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens is critical for goal-directed behaviors including cocaine seeking. Studies in cocaine-experienced rodents have revealed three major categories of neuroadaptations that influence the ability of glutamate inputs to activate MSNs: changes in synaptic AMPA receptor levels, changes in extracellular non-synaptic glutamate levels and changes in MSN intrinsic membrane excitability. Most studies have focused on one of these adaptations. This review will consider the possibility that they are causally related and speculate about how time-dependent changes in their interactions may regulate MSN output during early and late withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure.

  15. Combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol in adolescent mice differentially affects anxiety levels during exposure, short-term, and long-term withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Nunes, Fernanda; do E Queiroz-Gomes, Fabíola; Manhães, Alex C; Filgueiras, Cláudio C

    2008-02-01

    Smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are frequently associated during adolescence. This association could be explained by the cumulative behavioral effects of nicotine and ethanol, particularly those related to anxiety levels. However, despite epidemiological findings, there have been few animal studies of the basic neurobiology of the combined exposure in the adolescent brain. In the present work we assessed, through the use of the elevated plus maze, the short- and long-term anxiety effects of nicotine (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH) exposure during adolescence (from the 30th to the 45th postnatal day) in four groups of male and female C57BL/6 mice: (1) Concomitant NIC (nicotine free-base solution (50 microg/ml) in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (ethanol solution (25%, 2 g/kg) i.p. injected every other day) exposure; (2) NIC exposure; (3) ETOH exposure; (4) Vehicle. C57BL/6 mice were selected, in spite of the fact that they present slower ethanol metabolism, because they readily consume nicotine in the concentration used in the present study. During exposure (45th postnatal day: PN45), our results indicated that ethanol was anxiolytic in adolescent mice and that nicotine reverted this effect. Short-term drug withdrawal (PN50) elicited sex-dependent effects: exposure to nicotine and/or ethanol was anxiogenic only for females. Although neither nicotine nor ethanol effects persisted up to 1 month postexposure (PN75), the coadministration elicited an anxiogenic response. In spite of the fact that generalizations based on the results from a single strain of mice are prone to shortcomings, our results suggest that the deficient response to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol in adolescents co-exposed to nicotine may drive higher ethanol consumption. Additionally, increased anxiety during long-term smoking and drinking withdrawal may facilitate relapse to drug use.

  16. Differential peptidomics assessment of strain and age differences in mice in response to acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Ossyra, John R; Zombeck, Jonathan A; Nosek, Michael R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-12-01

    Neurochemical differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis between individuals and between ages may contribute to differential susceptibility to cocaine abuse. This study measured peptide levels in the pituitary gland (Pit) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in adolescent (age 30 days) and adult (age 65 days) mice from four standard inbred strains, FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/cByJ, which have previously been characterized for acute locomotor responses to cocaine. Individual peptide profiles were analyzed using mass spectrometric profiling and principal component analysis. Sequences of assigned peptides were verified by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis classified all strains according to their distinct peptide profiles in Pit samples from adolescent mice, but not adults. Select pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were significantly higher in adolescent BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice than in FVB/NJ or C57BL/6J mice. A subset of peptides in the LH, but not in the Pit, was altered by cocaine in adolescents. A 15 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced greater peptide alterations than a 30 mg/kg dose, particularly in FVB/NJ animals, with larger differences in adolescents than adults. Neuropeptides in the LH affected by acute cocaine administration included pro-opiomelanocortin-, myelin basic protein-, and glutamate transporter-derived peptides. The observed peptide differences could contribute to differential behavioral sensitivity to cocaine among strains and ages. Peptides were measured using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) in individual lateral hypothalamus and pituitary samples from four strains and two ages of inbred mice in response to acute cocaine administration. Principal component analyses (PCA) classified the strains according to their peptide profiles from adolescent mice, and a subset of peptides in the lateral hypothalamus was altered by cocaine in adolescents.

  17. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological, behavioral and maternal reported measures of reactivity. Five replicable clusters were identified which corresponded to 1) Dysregulated/High Maternal Report Reactors, 2) Low Behavioral Reactors, 3) High Reactors, 4) Optimal Reactors and 5) Dysregulated/Low Maternal Report Reactors. These clusters were associated with differences in prenatal cocaine exposure status, birthweight, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal negative affect during mother-infant interactions. These results support the presence of distinct reactivity profiles among high risk infants recruited on the basis of prenatal cocaine exposure and demographically similar control group infants not exposed to cocaine. PMID:23204615

  18. Psychological symptoms linking exposure to community violence and academic functioning in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-02-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. Adolescent bisphenol-A exposure decreases dendritic spine density: role of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA exposure during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at age 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA exposure did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both age and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA exposure warrants further investigation.

  20. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2007-03-01

    Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.

  1. Adolescent binge alcohol exposure alters hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation in rats: effects on cell cycle kinetics.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Hayes, Dayna M; Morris, Stephanie A; Nixon, Kimberly

    2011-09-01

    Binge alcohol exposure in adolescent rats potently inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis by altering neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and survival; however, it is not clear whether alcohol results in an increase or decrease in net proliferation. Thus, the effects of alcohol on hippocampal NPC cell cycle phase distribution and kinetics were assessed in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Cell cycle distribution was measured using a combination of markers (Ki-67, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and phosphohistone H3) to determine the proportion of NPCs within G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics were calculated using a cumulative bromodeoxyuridine injection protocol to determine the effect of alcohol on cell cycle length and S-phase duration. Binge alcohol exposure reduced the proportion of NPCs in S-phase, but had no effect on G1 or G2/M phases, indicating that alcohol specifically targets S-phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics studies revealed that alcohol reduced NPC cell cycle duration by 36% and shortened S-phase by 62%, suggesting that binge alcohol exposure accelerates progression through the cell cycle. This effect would be expected to increase NPC proliferation, which was supported by a slight, but significant increase in the number of Sox-2+ NPCs residing in the hippocampal subgranular zone following binge alcohol exposure. These studies suggest the mechanism of alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis and also reveal the earliest evidence of the compensatory neurogenesis reaction that has been observed a week after binge alcohol exposure.

  2. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behavior in adolescent offspring

    PubMed Central

    Huizink, Anja C.; Dick, Danielle M.; Sihvola, Elina; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the potential harmful effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986, and maternal anxiety associated with that exposure, on symptoms of behavior disorder observed at age 14. Method The sample included 419 Finnish twin pairs, born in 1985–1987. Prenatal exposure to Chernobyl was determined, and a group of exposed twins (n=232) were compared with a non-exposed reference group of twins (n= 572). The exposed group was further subdivided into three trimesters of pregnancy in which exposure occurred. The Finnish translation of the adolescent Semi-Structured Assessment of Genetics of Alcoholism (C-SSAGA-A) interview was used to assess symptoms of common psychiatric disorders based on DSM-III-R criteria when the twins were age 14. The number of lifetime symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms were compared by means of Poisson regression analyses, adjusted for SES, sex, age and clustering of data. Results Adolescents who were exposed from the second trimester in pregnancy onwards, had a 2.32-fold risk (95 % CI: 1.13 – 4.72) of having lifetime depression symptoms, an increased risk of fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria of a Major Depressive Disorder (OR = 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.06 – 5.7) , and a 2.01-fold risk (95 % CI: 1.14 – 3.52) of having ADHD symptoms. No associations with anxiety, CD or ODD symptoms were found. Conclusions Perturbations in fetal brain development may result in the increased prevalence of depressive and AHDH symptoms after prenatal stress exposure from second trimester onwards. PMID:17997723

  3. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking child maltreatment exposure and self-harm behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peh, Chao Xu; Shahwan, Shazana; Fauziana, Restria; Mahesh, Mithila V; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Zhang, YunJue; Ong, Say How; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-03-31

    Although child maltreatment exposure is a recognized risk factor for self-harm, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Self-harm may function as a compensatory strategy to regulate distressing emotions. This cross-sectional study examines if emotion dysregulation mediates between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm, adjusting for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Participants were 108 adolescent patients recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Singapore (mean age 17.0 years, SD=1.65; 59.3% female). Study measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Path analysis was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of maltreatment exposure on self-harm via emotion dysregulation, controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms. Indirect effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals (CI). Results showed that self-harm was highly prevalent in our sample (75.9%). Emotion dysregulation and depressive symptoms were found to be associated with higher self-harm frequency. In addition, results from path analysis showed that the association between the severity of maltreatment exposure and self-harm frequency was significantly mediated by emotion dysregulation B=0.07, p<0.05, 95% CI [0.02, 0.16]. Thus, emotion dysregulation may be a proximal mechanism linking maltreatment exposure and adolescent self-harm. Notably, self-harm may represent maladaptive attempts to manage emotion dysregulation that may have resulted from maltreatment. Findings from the study have implications for the prevention and treatment of self-harm in maltreated youth.

  4. Mesolimbic leptin signaling negatively regulates cocaine-conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Jiang, C; Liu, P; Wang, F; Ma, L

    2016-12-06

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Our results showed that inhibition of leptin signaling by intracerebroventricular infusion of the leptin receptor (LepR) antagonist SMLA during cocaine conditioning increased the cocaine-CPP and upregulated the level of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We then selectively knocked down the LepR in the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area (VTA), NAc core and central amygdala (CeA) by injecting AAV-Cre into Lepr(flox/flox) mice. LepR deletion in the VTA increased the dopamine levels in the NAc and enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward. LepR deletion in the NAc core enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward and impaired the effect of the D2-dopamine receptor on cocaine-CPP, whereas LepR deletion in the CeA had no effect on cocaine-CPP but increased the anxiety level of mice. In addition, prior exposure to saccharin increased LepR mRNA and STAT3 phosphorylation in the NAc and VTA and impaired cocaine-CPP. These results indicate that leptin signaling is critically involved in cocaine-conditioned reward and the regulation of drug reward by a natural reward and that these effects are dependent on mesolimbic LepR.

  5. Mesolimbic leptin signaling negatively regulates cocaine-conditioned reward

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M; Jiang, C; Liu, P; Wang, F; Ma, L

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Our results showed that inhibition of leptin signaling by intracerebroventricular infusion of the leptin receptor (LepR) antagonist SMLA during cocaine conditioning increased the cocaine-CPP and upregulated the level of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We then selectively knocked down the LepR in the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area (VTA), NAc core and central amygdala (CeA) by injecting AAV-Cre into Leprflox/flox mice. LepR deletion in the VTA increased the dopamine levels in the NAc and enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward. LepR deletion in the NAc core enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward and impaired the effect of the D2-dopamine receptor on cocaine-CPP, whereas LepR deletion in the CeA had no effect on cocaine-CPP but increased the anxiety level of mice. In addition, prior exposure to saccharin increased LepR mRNA and STAT3 phosphorylation in the NAc and VTA and impaired cocaine-CPP. These results indicate that leptin signaling is critically involved in cocaine-conditioned reward and the regulation of drug reward by a natural reward and that these effects are dependent on mesolimbic LepR. PMID:27922639

  6. Effect of sub-chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial learning and ethanol sensitivity in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H S; Hogan, A; Risher, M-Louise; Swartzwelder, Rita A; Wilson, Wilkie A; Acheson, Shawn K

    2014-06-01

    It has become clear that adolescence is a period of distinct responsiveness to the acute effects of ethanol on learning and other cognitive functions. However, the effects of repeated intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on learning and cognition are less well studied, and other effects of repeated ethanol exposure such as withdrawal and chronic tolerance complicate such experiments. Moreover, few studies have compared the effects of repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence and adulthood, and they have yielded mixed outcomes that may be related to methodological differences and/or secondary effects of ethanol on behavioral performance. One emerging question is whether relatively brief intermittent ethanol exposure (i.e., sub-chronic exposure) during adolescence or adulthood might alter learning at a time after exposure when chronic tolerance would be expected, and whether tolerance to the cognitive effects of ethanol might influence the effect of ethanol on learning at that time. To address this, male adolescent and adult rats were pre-treated with sub-chronic daily ethanol (five doses [4.0 g/kg, i.p.] or saline at 24-h intervals, across 5 days). Two days after the last pre-exposure, spatial learning was assessed on 4 consecutive days using the Morris water maze. Half of the animals from each treatment cell received ethanol (2.0 g/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to each testing session and half of the animals received saline. Ethanol pre-exposure altered water maze performance in adult animals but not in adolescents, and acute ethanol exposure impaired learning in animals of both ages independent of pre-exposure condition. There was no evidence of cognitive tolerance in animals of either age group. These results indicate that a relatively short period of intermittent ethanol exposure during adulthood, but not adolescence, promotes thigmotaxis in the water maze shortly after pre-exposure but does not induce cognitive tolerance to the effects of ethanol in

  7. In Utero Exposure to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Brenner, Alina V.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m2 per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine Use among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…

  9. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  10. fMRI of Cocaine Self-Administration in Macaques Reveals Functional Inhibition of Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism. Because the striatal ratio of D2 to D1 receptors is larger in human beings and NHP than rats, we hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of D2 receptor binding dominate the functional response in primates, whereas excitatory D1 receptor stimulation predominates in the rat. If the NHP accurately models the human response to cocaine, downregulation of D2 receptors in human cocaine-abusing populations can be expected to blunt cocaine-induced functional responses, contributing to the weak and variable fMRI responses reported in human basal ganglia following cocaine infusion. PMID:21307843

  11. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  12. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  13. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV+ donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV− donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. PMID:26311830

  14. Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: Direct and moderated associations

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Coles, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of mother-infant play interactions at 13 months of infant ages. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress and infant reactivity mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher negative affect and lower sensitivity toward their infant during play interactions at 13 months, and that their infants were less responsive toward them. Contrary to hypothesis, this association was not mediated by maternal psychological distress or by infant reactivity. However, results for both the cocaine and non-cocaine exposed infants were supportive of a transactional model where lower maternal sensitivity at 1 month was predictive of higher infant reactivity at 7 months, which in turn was predictive of lower maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months, controlling for potential stability in maternal behavior. Results also indicated that as hypothesized, infant reactivity moderated the association between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months of age. Cocaine using mothers who experienced their infants as being more reactive in early infancy were less warm/sensitive toward them in later infancy. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward improving maternal sensitivity among cocaine using mothers with more reactive infants. PMID:21256426

  15. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address Intimate Partner Violence-Related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Quinn, Camille R; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-09-29

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are 3-fold: (1) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents; (2) describe NET's theoretical principles, its therapeutic process, and provide a review of existing evidence; and (3) discuss NET as a potential treatment to address the mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression.

  16. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address IPV-related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Quinn, Camille R.; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are threefold: a) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents, b) describe NET’s theoretical principals, its therapeutic process, and provide review of existing evidence and c) to discuss NET as a potential treatment to address that mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression. PMID:26422231

  17. Role of Dopamine 2 Receptor in Impaired Drug-Cue Extinction in Adolescent Rats.

    PubMed

    Zbukvic, Isabel C; Ganella, Despina E; Perry, Christina J; Madsen, Heather B; Bye, Christopher R; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent drug users display resistance to treatment such as cue exposure therapy (CET), as well as increased liability to relapse. The basis of CET is extinction learning, which involves dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This system undergoes dramatic alterations during adolescence. Therefore, we investigated extinction of a cocaine-associated cue in adolescent and adult rats. While cocaine self-administration and lever-alone extinction were not different between the two ages, we observed that cue extinction reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adult but not adolescent rats. Infusion of the selective dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like agonist quinpirole into the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the mPFC prior to cue extinction significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adolescents. This effect was replicated by acute systemic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (Abilify), a partial D2R-like agonist. These data suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to relapse due to a deficit in cue extinction learning, and highlight the significance of D2R signaling in the IL for cue extinction during adolescence. These findings inspire new tactics for improving adolescent CET, with aripiprazole representing an exciting potential pharmacological adjunct for behavioral therapy.

  18. Domestic violence exposure in Colombian adolescents: pathways to violent and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Roberto; Kliewer, Wendy; Williams, Larry

    2006-04-01

    Associations between domestic violence exposure and violent and prosocial behavior were tested in a sample of Colombian adolescents, with attention to impulsivity and substance use problems as mediators of these associations. A representative sample of 1,152 school youths and a convenience group of 148 juvenile offenders aged 11-19 years participated. Results using structural equation modeling showed indirect effects of impulsivity and substance use problems between family violence (i.e., exposure to interparental violence) and violent behavior. Maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting) was directly associated with violent behavior, though impulsivity and substance use problems also mediated this relation. Maltreatment directly and inversely contributed to prosocial behavior but there was no evidence of mediation. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive and behavioral factors that explain violent and prosocial behavior among Colombian youths. Limitations and implications for prevention are described.

  19. Combined Effects of in Utero and Adolescent Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, David; Baravalle-Einaudi, Mélissa; Lezmi, Guillaume; Vibhushan, Shamila; Franco-Montoya, Marie-Laure; Hadchouel, Alice; Boczkowski, Jorge; Delacourt, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal determinants of airway function, such as in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoke (CS), may create a predisposition to adult airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood. It has been suggested that active smoking in adolescence and preexisting airflow obstruction have synergistic deleterious effects. Objective: We used a mouse model to investigate whether there is a synergistic effect of exposure to CS in utero and during adolescence on lung function. Methods: Female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to CS or to filtered room air during pregnancy. Exposure to CS began 2 weeks before mating and continued until delivery. After birth, the pups were not exposed to CS until day 21 (D21). Between D21 and D49, corresponding to “adolescence,” litters were randomized for an additional 4 weeks of exposure to CS. Lung morphometry, lung mechanics, and the expression of genes involved in senescence were evaluated in different subsets of mice on D21 and D49. Results: In utero exposure to CS induced significant lung function impairment by D21. CS exposure between D21 and D49 induced significant functional impairment only in mice exposed to CS prenatally. On D49, no difference was observed between subgroups in terms of lung p53, p16, p21, and Bax mRNA levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that prenatal and adolescent CS exposure have a synergistic effect on lung function in mice. The combined effect did not appear to be a consequence of early pulmonary senescence. Citation: Drummond D, Baravalle-Einaudi M, Lezmi G, Vibhushan S, Franco-Montoya ML, Hadchouel A, Boczkowski J, Delacourt C. 2017. Combined effects of in utero and adolescent tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in C57Bl/6J mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:392–399; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP54 PMID:27814244

  20. Cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, and metabolite plasma concentrations in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D A; Partridge, J C; Jones, R T; Rowbotham, M C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the umbilical cord plasma levels of cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, and their metabolites. Thirty-six neonates at risk for prenatal cocaine exposure were prospectively enrolled. Umbilical cord plasma was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine (BZE), nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine. Eighteen neonates were plasma positive for BZE, and 50% of these were also positive for cocaine. Cocaethylene was not found. The maximum plasma cocaine concentration was 88 ng/mL (mean, 39 ng/mL). The maximum plasma BZE concentration was 3880 ng/mL (mean, 844 ng/mL). Among BZE-positive babies, the mean plasma drug levels were as follows: nicotine, 1.8 ng/mL; cotinine, 94 ng/mL; and caffeine, 1205 ng/mL. Among the BZE-negative babies, the mean plasma drug levels were as follows: nicotine, 5.2 ng/mL; cotinine, 97 ng/mL; and caffeine, 1440 ng/mL. These cocaine levels raise the possibility of pharmacological effects of cocaine in the early neonatal period.

  1. Chronic methylphenidate exposure during adolescence reduces striatal synaptic responses to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Nicole A; Cody, Patrick A; Davis, Margaret I; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays an important role in integrative functions contributing to adaptive behaviors. In support of this essential function, DA modulates synaptic plasticity in different brain areas, including the striatum. Many drugs used for cognitive enhancement are psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which enhance DA levels. MPH treatment is of interest during adolescence, a period of enhanced neurodevelopment during which the DA system is in a state of flux. Recent epidemiological studies report the co-abuse of MPH and ethanol in adolescents and young adults. Although repeated MPH treatment produces enduring changes that affect subsequent behavioral responses to other psychostimulants, few studies have investigated the interactions between MPH and ethanol. Here we addressed whether chronic therapeutic exposure to MPH during adolescence predisposed mice to an altered response to ethanol and whether this was accompanied by altered DA release and striatal plasticity. C57BL/6J mice were administered MPH (3-6 mg/kg/day) via the drinking water between post-natal days 30 and 60. Voltammetry experiments showed that sufficient brain MPH concentrations were achieved during adolescence in mice to increase the DA clearance in adulthood. The treatment also increased long-term depression and reduced the effects of ethanol on striatal synaptic responses. Although the injection of 0.4 or 2 g/kg ethanol dose-dependently decreased locomotion in control mice, only the higher dose decreased locomotion in MPH-treated mice. These results suggested that the administration of MPH during development promoted long-term effects on synaptic plasticity in forebrain regions targeted by DA. These changes in plasticity might, in turn, underlie alterations in behaviors controlled by these brain regions into adulthood.

  2. Effects of adolescent trauma exposure on risky behavior in college women.

    PubMed

    Green, Bonnie L; Krupnick, Janice L; Stockton, Patricia; Goodman, Lisa; Corcoran, Carole; Petty, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with sexual assault or abuse histories are likely to engage in risky sexual and other self-destructive behaviors. Studies of these behaviors, however, have focused on target traumatic events without accounting for other events in the participant's history, recency of the events, and/or developmental level at time of occurrence. The present study addressed some of these confounds by creating groups with unique and non-overlapping trauma histories among adolescent participants whose first trauma occurred at age 12 or older. Sophomore women from six regional campuses were screened in a two-stage procedure, and 209 of 363 final interviewees were included in the present report. These were assigned to a no trauma group, or to one of five groups with a unique trauma history: a single traumatic loss, a single physical assault, a single sexual assault, ongoing sexual or physical abuse, or multiple single traumas. Risky sexual behavior, suicidal ideation, and elevated perpetration of violence were most prominent among those with ongoing abuse exposure, although a single exposure to interpersonal violence during adolescence was sufficient for some risky behaviors. Major depression (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with many of the behaviors, and may serve to heighten risk.

  3. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, Jung Woo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Noh, Ji Heon; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie Hongjian; Ryu, Jae Chun; Ahn, Young Min; Min, Jin-Hye; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Nam, Suk Woo

    2009-05-15

    The amphetamine derivative ({+-})-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  4. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    PubMed Central

    Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.

    2012-01-01

    Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830

  5. Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2005-10-01

    Estimates suggest that up to 90% or more youth between 12 and 18 years have access to the Internet. Concern has been raised that this increased accessibility may lead to a rise in pornography seeking among children and adolescents, with potentially serious ramifications for child and adolescent sexual development. Using data from the Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional telephone survey of 1501 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years), characteristics associated with self-reported pornography seeking behavior, both on the Internet and using traditional methods (e.g., magazines), are identified. Seekers of pornography, both online and offline, are significantly more likely to be male, with only 5% of self-identified seekers being female. The vast majority (87%) of youth who report looking for sexual images online are 14 years of age or older, when it is developmentally appropriate to be sexually curious. Children under the age of 14 who have intentionally looked at pornography are more likely to report traditional exposures, such as magazines or movies. Concerns about a large group of young children exposing themselves to pornography on the Internet may be overstated. Those who report intentional exposure to pornography, irrespective of source, are significantly more likely to cross-sectionally report delinquent behavior and substance use in the previous year. Further, online seekers versus offline seekers are more likely to report clinical features associated with depression and lower levels of emotional bonding with their caregiver. Results of the current investigation raise important questions for further inquiry. Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences.

  6. Adolescent mice are less sensitive to the effects of acute nicotine on context pre-exposure than adults.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Braak, David C; Tumolo, Jessica M; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with both increased vulnerability to substance abuse and maturation of certain brain regions important for learning and memory such as the hippocampus. In this study, we employed a hippocampus-dependent learning context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in order to test the effects of acute nicotine on contextual processing during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 38) and adulthood (PND 53). In Experiment 1, adolescent or adult C57BL6/J mice received either saline or one of three nicotine doses (0.09, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to contextual pre-exposure and testing. Our results demonstrated that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups. However, adolescent mice only showed acute nicotine enhancement of CPFE with the highest nicotine dose whereas adult mice showed the enhancing effects of acute nicotine with all three doses. In Experiment 2, to determine if the lack of nicotine's effects on CPFE shown by adolescent mice is specific to the age when they are tested, mice were either given contextual pre-exposure during adolescence or adulthood and received immediate shock and testing during adulthood after a 15day delay. We found that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups when tested during adulthood. However, like Experiment 1, mice that received contextual pre-exposure during adolescence did not show acute nicotine enhancement except at the highest dose (0.36mg/kg) whereas both low (0.09mg/kg) and high (0.36mg/kg) doses enhanced CPFE in adult mice. Finally, we showed that the enhanced freezing response found with 0.36mg/kg nicotine in the 15-day experiment may be a result of decreased locomotor activity as mice that received this dose of nicotine traveled shorter distances in an open field paradigm. Overall, our results indicate that while adolescent mice showed normal contextual processing when tested both during adolescence and adulthood, they

  7. Comparison of the deleterious effects of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David

    2015-03-01

    A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity.

  8. Cocaine Is Low on the Value Ladder of Rats: Possible Evidence for Resilience to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Serre, Fuschia; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessing the relative value of cocaine and how it changes with chronic drug use represents a long-standing goal in addiction research. Surprisingly, recent experiments in rats – by far the most frequently used animal model in this field – suggest that the value of cocaine is lower than previously thought. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a series of choice experiments that better define the relative position of cocaine on the value ladder of rats (i.e., preference rank-ordering of different rewards). Rats were allowed to choose either taking cocaine or drinking water sweetened with saccharin – a nondrug alternative that is not biologically essential. By systematically varying the cost and concentration of sweet water, we found that cocaine is low on the value ladder of the large majority of rats, near the lowest concentrations of sweet water. In addition, a retrospective analysis of all experiments over the past 5 years revealed that no matter how heavy was past cocaine use most rats readily give up cocaine use in favor of the nondrug alternative. Only a minority, fewer than 15% at the heaviest level of past cocaine use, continued to take cocaine, even when hungry and offered a natural sugar that could relieve their need of calories. Conclusions/Significance This pattern of results (cocaine abstinence in most rats; cocaine preference in few rats) maps well onto the epidemiology of human cocaine addiction and suggests that only a minority of rats would be vulnerable to cocaine addiction while the large majority would be resilient despite extensive drug use. Resilience to drug addiction has long been suspected in humans but could not be firmly established, mostly because it is difficult to control retrospectively for differences in drug self-exposure and/or availability in human drug users. This conclusion has important implications for preclinical research on the neurobiology of cocaine addiction and for future medication development

  9. Cerebrovascular adaptations to cocaine-induced transient ischemic attacks in the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Park, Kicheon; Zhang, Qiujia; Clare, Kevin; Du, Congwu

    2017-01-01

    Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection. Starting after 10 days of exposure, an acute cocaine challenge to these mice resulted in a TIA, which presented as hemiparalysis and was associated with an abrupt exacerbation of CBFv. The severity of the TIA correlated with the decreases in cortical CBFv such that the greater the decreases in flow, the longer the TIA duration. The severity of TIA peaked around 17–22 days of cocaine exposure and decreased thereafter in parallel to a reorganization of CBFv from superficial to deep cortical layers, along with an increase in vessel density into these layers. Here, we document for the first time to our knowledge evidence of a TIA in an animal model of chronic cocaine exposure that was associated with profound decreases in CBFv, and we revealed that while the severity of the TIA initially increased with repeated exposures, it subsequently improved in parallel to an increase in the vessel density. This suggests that strategies to accelerate cerebrovascular recovery might be therapeutically beneficial in cocaine abusers. PMID:28289715

  10. Adolescent Opiate Exposure in the Female Rat Induces Subtle Alterations in Maternal Care and Transgenerational Effects on Play Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Carini, Lindsay; Schenk, Marian E.; Stewart, Michelle; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1) demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e., social grooming and social exploration). Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal–offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring. PMID:21713113

  11. Genes and pathways co-associated with the exposure to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and/or nicotine: a review of proteomics analyses.