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Sample records for adolescent community reinforcement

  1. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  2. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  3. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  4. An Independent Replication of the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach With Justice-Involved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Wevodau, Amy L.; Henderson, Susan E.; Colbourn, Scholar L.; Gharagozloo, Laadan; North, Lindsey W.; Lotts, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Substance use disorders among youth remain a serious public health problem. Although research has overwhelmingly supported the use of evidenced-based interventions, one of the primary limitations of the current evidence base is that for the vast majority of treatments, the developers of the treatments are also the ones conducting research on them, raising the possibility of allegiance bias. Methods The present study was an independently conducted randomized controlled trial (n =126) comparing an evidenced-based treatment for adolescent substance use, Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), and assertive continuing care (ACC), to services as usual (SAU) provided by a juvenile probation department. Latent growth curve modeling was used to compare the treatments on change in substance use assessed by the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months following treatment entry. Results All youth evidenced a substantial reduction in substance use frequency and substance-related problems following treatment; however, youth treated with A-CRA/ACC evidenced a substantially greater decrease in substance-related problems. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Results are consistent with studies conducted by A-CRA/ACC model developers supporting the effectiveness of the clinical approach and, because the outcomes resulted from an independent replication, are encouraging for the transportation potential of A-CRA/ACC. PMID:26992083

  5. Feasibility of Implementing the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach in School Settings for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Brooke D.; Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, approximately 10% of adolescents in need of treatment for a substance use (SU) disorder receive treatment. School-based treatment may provide an important opportunity to reduce the treatment gap by facilitating access to services. While some school-based SU treatment exists, little is known about whether newer, evidence-based…

  6. Reinforcing Variability in Adolescents with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Neal; Neuringer, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Five adolescents with autism, 5 control participants, and 4 child controls received rewards for varying their sequences of responses while playing a computer game. In preceding and following phases, rewards were provided at approximately the same rate but were independent of variability. When reinforced, variability increased significantly in all…

  7. The community reinforcement approach: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Robert J; Roozen, Hendrik G; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), originally developed for individuals with alcohol use disorders, has been successfully employed to treat a variety of substance use disorders for more than 35 years. Based on operant conditioning, CRA helps people rearrange their lifestyles so that healthy, drug-free living becomes rewarding and thereby competes with alcohol and drug use. Consequently, practitioners encourage clients to become progressively involved in alternative non-substance-related pleasant social activities, and to work on enhancing the enjoyment they receive within the "community" of their family and job. Additionally, in the past 10-15 years, researchers have obtained scientific evidence for two off-shoots of CRA that are based on the same operant mechanism. The first variant is Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which targets adolescents with substance use problems and their caregivers. The second approach, Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), works through family members to engage treatment-refusing individuals into treatment. An overview of these treatments and their scientific backing is presented. PMID:23580022

  8. THE ENTRY INTO NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF REINFORCEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAER, DONALD M.; WOLF, MONTROSE M.

    THE PRESCHOOL IS A COMMUNITY OF REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES WHICH WILL SHAPE AND MAINTAIN AN INCREASING REPERTOIRE OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND WILL PUT THAT BEHAVIOR UNDER THE CONTROL OF PEERS. THIS STATEMENT WAS DEMONSTRATED IN A PROGRAM WHICH ANALYZED PROBLEM BEHAVIORS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. IN GENERAL, THE PROGRAM CONSISTED OF TWO PROCESSES--(1)…

  9. Designing Deeply Engaging Online Communities for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzick, David

    2009-01-01

    American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…

  10. Walkable Communities and Adolescent Weight

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Barker, Dianne; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood design features have been associated with health outcomes, including the prevalence of obesity. Purpose This study examined the association between walkability and adolescent weight in a national sample of public secondary school students and the communities in which they live. Methods Data were collected through student surveys and community observations between February and August 2010, and analyses were conducted in Spring 2012. The sample size was 154 communities and 11,041 students. A community walkability index and measures of the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity were constructed. Multivariable analyses from a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade public school students in the U.S. were run. Results The odds of students being overweight (OR 0.975; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) or obese (OR 0.971; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) decreased if they lived in communities with higher walkability index scores. Conclusions Results suggest that living in more-walkable communities is associated with reduced prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity. PMID:23332334

  11. Adolescents in Therapeutic Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann-Feder, Varda R.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the course of change of two groups of conduct-disoriented adolescents in two theoretically distinct residential treatment programs. Despite an overall trend toward improvement in both groups, there was little significant difference between the rates of progress over time. Supports the need for qualitative research focusing on the…

  12. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  13. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Stefano; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents’ behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults’ behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  14. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents towards action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggests possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  15. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  16. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  17. Community Experiences: Contributions to Adolescent Learning and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    Unpaid community activities have been widely recommended as learning experiences for adolescents. An evaluation was conducted of two community action learning programs, one which placed adolescents one-to-one in adult-dominated settings and the other which gave adolescents a group project to plan and carry out with adult assistance. Both programs…

  18. The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates hypothesis used to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent drug use, using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS). Reports that adolescents who resided in single-parent or stepparent families had heightened drug use. Higher adolescent drug use was found in communities with a large…

  19. Community Reinforcement and the Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milford, Jaime L.; Austin, Julia L.; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are both highly effective and empirically validated psychosocial approaches to the treatment of addictions whose unique designs may help achieve certain public health objectives. Literature will be reviewed to examine the potential impact of CRA and…

  20. Sex differences in yohimbine-induced increases in the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Zou, Sheng; Coen, Kathleen; Funk, Douglas; Shram, Megan J; Lê, A D

    2014-03-01

    Stress is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Women are more vulnerable to the development of addiction to smoking and have more difficulty quitting than men. Women also showe enhanced responses to stress. Despite these differences, no work has been done examining the effects of stress on the reinforcing efficacy of self-administered nicotine in adolescent rats, or if there are sex differences. Male and female adolescent Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer one of three different intravenous doses of nicotine (7.5, 15, 30 μg/kg/infusion) first on fixed ratio, and then on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule beginning on postnatal day 33. The effect of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.3, 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine was then determined using the PR schedule. Yohimbine stimulated nicotine intake and increased PR breakpoints and numbers of infusions received in both male and female adolescent rats. The infusion dose of nicotine was positively associated with yohimbine-induced increases in responding. Female rats showed significantly increased breakpoints at yohimbine doses and nicotine infusion doses at which males did not. The effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine are therefore linked to sex and nicotine infusion dose. Female rats are more sensitive to stress-induced potentiation of nicotine self-administration. PMID:22784103

  1. Assessing Community Effects on Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates community-level prediction of adolescent substance use and problem behaviors using ratings by community leaders to assess the effects of four risk factors on levels of drug use and problem behaviors. Three questions are examined: (a) Can psychometrically sound measures of community leader perceptions of risk factors in…

  2. A community-based comprehensive approach to serving adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Palmer, E

    1981-03-01

    A community-based social service center, working together with existing educational, medical, and social institutions, can offer a continuity of service to adolescent parents who cannot yet function independently and were not previously reached. PMID:16295132

  3. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity During Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of adolescents (N=765, mean baseline age 11.8 years, 54% female). SR and SP were assessed using a laboratory task. Across three annual assessments, SR increased, and rapid escalation was associated with increases in substance use. SP declined and was unrelated to substance use. Findings support contemporary views of adolescent brain development, and suggest that early adolescent substance use is motivated by approach responses to reward, rather than failure to avoid potential aversive consequences. PMID:23772169

  4. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity During Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-06-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of adolescents (N=765, mean baseline age 11.8 years, 54% female). SR and SP were assessed using a laboratory task. Across three annual assessments, SR increased, and rapid escalation was associated with increases in substance use. SP declined and was unrelated to substance use. Findings support contemporary views of adolescent brain development, and suggest that early adolescent substance use is motivated by approach responses to reward, rather than failure to avoid potential aversive consequences. PMID:23772169

  5. The Adolescent Community of Engagement: A Framework for Research on Adolescent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.; Davies, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) framework as a lens to guide research and design in adolescent online learning environments. Several online learning frameworks have emerged from higher education contexts, but these frameworks do not explicitly address the unique student and environmental characteristics of the…

  6. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity during Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of…

  7. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior. PMID:22987915

  8. Racial Differences in Adolescent Distress: Differential Effects of the Family and Community for Blacks and Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Noh, Samuel; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a sample of 15,885 adolescents derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined (1) unique additive influences of race, family, and community and (2) various multiplicative influences among race, family, and community factors on adolescent distress. Community characteristics such as community poverty and…

  9. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  10. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  11. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  12. Social change in adolescent sexual behavior, mate selection, and premarital pregnancy rates in a Kikuyu community.

    PubMed

    Worthman, C M; Whiting, J W

    1987-06-01

    This report documents an example of interactions of cultural change with adolescent fertility and marriage patterns in an East African community. Between 1950 and 1980 the rate of unwed motherhood in Ngeca, Kenya, showed a marked increase from 0% in the 1940s to 11.4% in the 1960s. The authors present evidence of recent changes in Kikuyu culture that may account for this change. Traditional Kikuyu culture structured adolescence through status and role changes bounded and reinforced by ritual and instruction. Abandonment of traditional initiation rites and attenuation of the age-set system have most markedly altered the structure of adolescent experience by shifting the content and context of socialization. Major agents for change in this process have been the school, church, and modern economy. Responsibility for mate selection has remained with young people, but the determinants of partner desirability and gender ratios in partner availability have shifted considerably. Traditional criteria of male desirability included ability to pay bridewealth and to provide the wife with land; diligence and demeanor measured female attractiveness. At present, education and wage earning capacity affect partner attractiveness of each sex. The decline of polygyny has both shifted the balance of competition for spouses toward females, and has had significant repercussions in the marital and reproductive histories of males. Decreases in brideprice and reversals in direction of transfers of wealth at marriage are tangible signs of change in the marriage market. Deritualization of genital operations and attendant weakening of the age-set system have interrupted the flow of information on sex behavior and reproduction, controlled physical intimacy, and partner selection reinforced by peer pressure. Denial of contraception, the continued importance of marriage and fertility, and ambivalence toward sexual activity in adolescence all support adolescent sexual experimentation and

  13. Assessing Sense of Community on Adolescents: Validating the Brief Scale of Sense of Community in Adolescents (SOC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiessi, Monica; Cicognani, Elvira; Sonn, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Sense of Community (SoC) is a key theoretical construct in community psychology. This study validated a SoC scale for adolescents (SoC-A) in Italy. The scale comprises 20 items and five components: satisfaction of needs and opportunities for involvement; support and emotional connection with peers; support and emotional connection in the…

  14. Psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kashani, J H; Beck, N C; Hoeper, E W; Fallahi, C; Corcoran, C M; McAllister, J A; Rosenberg, T K; Reid, J C

    1987-05-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed according to DSM-III in adolescents in the general population is not known. The authors address this issue in a community sample of 150 adolescents 14-16 years of age. Structured interviews as well as other instruments were used to collect data. Twenty-eight (18.7%) of the 150 adolescents were identified as having a psychiatric disorder. These 28 adolescents viewed their parents as less caring, had lower self-esteem, and resolved their conflicts through verbal aggression and physical violence more often than did the adolescents who did not have a psychiatric disorder. The authors make recommendations regarding the use of structured interviews in future research. PMID:3495187

  15. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G

    2015-06-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  17. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger. PMID:26201172

  18. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N=358; 45% male; 91% African American, M=12.10 years, SD=1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural equation modeling revealed that a six-factor correlated model best fit the data, indicating that the six subscales of the threat appraisal measure represent distinct but related constructs. The factor structure was invariant across age and gender. Exposure to violence was associated prospectively with caregiver- and adolescent-rated adjustment problems. Each of the six threat appraisals mediated links between exposure to violence at Wave 1 and adolescent-rated internalizing adjustment problems 1 year later. PMID:18991135

  19. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  20. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  1. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  2. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N = 52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

  3. Alcohol Use among Rural Middle School Students: Adolescents, Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although rural adolescents use of alcohol is at some of the highest rates nationally, rural adolescent alcohol use has not been studied extensively. This study examines how community attitudes and behaviors are related to adolescent drinking in rural environments. Methods: Data were gathered in 22 rural communities in the Upper Midwest…

  4. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  5. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  6. Functional communication training using assistive devices: recruiting natural communities of reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, V M

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) as an intervention for the problem behavior exhibited by 5 students with severe disabilities both in school and in the community. Following an assessment of the function of their problem behavior, the students were taught to use assistive communication devices in school to request the objects and activities that presumably were maintaining their behavior. Multiple baseline data collected across the students indicated that not only did the students use their devices successfully, but the intervention also reduced their problem behavior. In addition, data from community settings showed generalization to untrained community members. These results replicate other successful efforts to use FCT with individuals having limited communication skills, and demonstrate the value of teaching skills to recruit natural communities of reinforcement in order to generalize intervention effects to meaningful nontraining environments. PMID:10513023

  7. Community violence exposure of Southeast Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events. Additionally, the overrepresentation of Southeast Asian youth in the mental health and juvenile justice systems also necessitates a deeper understanding of the adjustment of this group of adolescents. Data from a sample of 80 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents who were between 13 and 18 years old revealed high rates of community violence witnessing and victimization, and a moderate level of negative life events. All of these stressors were related to higher externalizing and trauma-related symptoms, but only violence victimization and negative life events were related to higher internalizing symptoms. There was an additive effect of higher bicultural orientation related to lower externalizing and traumatic-stress symptoms in the face of stress and violence exposure, but no moderation effects were found. PMID:18087036

  8. Perspectives of Adolescents with Disabilities on Summer Employment and Community Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura; Cole, Odessa; Smith, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Although summer represents an opportune time for adolescents to garner employment and community experiences that may further long-term transition goals, little is known about the expectations and needs of adolescents with disabilities during this break in the academic school year. In this article, the authors explore adolescents' perceptions about…

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  10. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  11. Multilevel Predictors of Smoking Initiation among Adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Bernat, Debra H.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how factors at multiple levels of influence impact adolescent smoking initiation. Method Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort, a population-based cohort, were analyzed. Adolescents were recruited from randomly selected geopolitical units (GPUs) in Minnesota at ages 12 to 13 (n=1,953), and were surveyed every six months (2000–2006) until 18. The association between baseline social factors and smoking initiation was analyzed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to analyze predictors and age of initiation among smokers (n=603). Results Higher proportion of 15–16 year-olds who smoke at the area-level (GPU) was associated with younger initiation (15.47 vs 15.87, p<.05). Higher proportion of the population employed and higher median household income were associated with older initiation (15.90 vs. 15.56 p<.05). Parent education, living with parents or siblings who smoke, living in homes that allow smoking, and having friends who smoke at baseline were associated with smoking initiation or younger initiation (p<.05). Participants whose parents had less than a high school education were 1.6 times more likely than those with college educated parents to have smoked more than a whole cigarette (CI=1.06, 2.26). Conclusion Factors at multiple levels of influence affect adolescent smoking initiation. Smoking by older age peers and lower SES predicts earlier smoking. PMID:22245269

  12. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  13. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  14. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  15. [The experience of paternity during adolescence in a low-income Brazilian community].

    PubMed

    Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Reberte, Luciana Magnoni

    2009-03-01

    There are gaps in the knowledge related to paternity during adolescence. This investigation had the purpose to explore the experiences of paternity during adolescence. The investigation method was the thematic oral history, with 19 members of a low-income Brazilian community being interviewed. The categories describing the experience were: a) Gaps in sexual education, lack of attention to contraceptive methods and the desire for fatherhood contributed for the occurrence of paternity during adolescence; b) The adolescents were surprised by pregnancy and assumed the paternal responsibilities as best as they could; c) Paternity during adolescence meant a faster process of maturation and having their lives transformed; d) Regret or happiness: distinct results of paternity in adolescence. Interventions focused on adolescents must be performed in safe, ethical and contextualized ways. PMID:19437861

  16. Beyond the "Village" Rhetoric: Creating Healthy Communities for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.; Leffert, Nancy; Scales, Peter C.; Blyth, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of community in child and adolescent development is emerging as a significant area of theoretical inquiry, research, and application. This article describes the development and utilization of a comprehensive community change effort designed to increase the attention of all community members toward strengthening core developmental…

  17. Urban, Suburban, and Rural: Adolescents' Use and Preferences for Fitness Promotion Technologies across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mikulec, Erika; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An understanding of adolescents' use of technology across ages and communities could allow for future targeted obesity intervention strategies. Methods. Focus groups of adolescents from rural, suburban, and urban cities in three states were conducted. Focus groups were led by a trained facilitator to explore how participants used technologies and whether they applied them for fitness purposes. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Analysis was conducted by three investigators using an iterative process. Results. Five focus groups included adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years (20 females and 8 males.) Three themes were derived from our data. First, we found age differences regarding technology applied to fitness. Younger participants described technology as a complement to fitness; older participants viewed technology as a motivator for fitness. Second, differences in fitness approaches existed between rural and urban adolescents. Adolescents in rural communities reported focusing on the outdoors for fitness, while urban adolescents relied on fitness-oriented video games. Both rural and urban teens related having a lack of fitness-focused resources in their communities. Conclusions. Our findings indicate differences in adolescents' application of technology for fitness. Despite adolescents' differing uses of technology across communities, a common need exists to expand their resources. PMID:24533221

  18. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  20. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  1. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  2. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  3. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  4. Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Adolescents and Their Families in a Community Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…

  5. School-Based Required Community Service and Civic Development in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Heinz; Youniss, James

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the role of school-based required community service in promoting adolescents' prosocial behavior and intended future civic involvement when service is differentiated by types and by adolescents' perceived experience. A longitudinal data set of high school students (N = 603) was analyzed to investigate the developmental steps…

  6. Gendered Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents in an Emerging Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…

  7. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  8. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  9. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  10. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  11. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt. PMID:17919796

  12. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13–16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate “rules” to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  13. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  14. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  15. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  16. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  17. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  18. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  19. Community Conversations: An Approach for Expanding and Connecting Opportunities for Employment for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Pickett, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Although early work experiences can impart a number of benefits to adolescents with disabilities, few students have meaningful access to these opportunities. The authors examined "community conversations" to build capacity and interest in expanding employment opportunities. Events were held in seven different communities and used the World Cafe…

  20. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  1. Pace: A Residential Community Oriented Behavior Modification Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Bernard R.; Breitmeyer, Rudolf G.

    1975-01-01

    After briefly citing the wide scope and diversity of token programs, and reviewing some of these programs for adolescents in greater detail, the authors describe the structure and operation of a residential behavior modification program for emotionally disturbed, pre-delinquent, and mentally retarded adolescents. (Author)

  2. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  3. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  4. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  5. Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Reif, Lindsey K; Rivera, Vanessa; Louis, Bianca; Bertrand, Rachel; Peck, Mireille; Anglade, Benedict; Seo, Grace; Abrams, Elaine J; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care. Among 3425 individuals eligible for testing, 3348 (98%) accepted an HIV test. HIV prevalence was 2.65% (n = 89). Median age was 19 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-20]; 73% were female. HIV prevalence was 0.6-7.4% across slum neighborhoods. All HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care the same day as testing; median CD4 was 529 cells/μL [IQR 363-761]. Syphilis prevalence was 2.60% (65/2536) and gonorrhea/chlamydia prevalence was 6.25% (96/1536). Among 168 (5%) individuals who reported TB symptoms, 7.7% (13/168) had microbiologically confirmed disease. One hundred twenty-nine females (5% of all females) were pregnant. This community-based testing campaign identified an adolescent and youth population with an HIV prevalence six times higher than the estimated national adolescent HIV prevalence (0.4%) in Haiti, including perinatally infected adolescents. This type of community-based campaign for HIV testing within a package of services can serve as a model for other resource-poor settings to identify high-risk adolescents and youth, and curb the global HIV epidemic among adolescents. PMID:27509237

  6. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in Community-Based Participatory Research: Structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Marni LoIacono; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs in order to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development (YD) framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  7. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  8. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  9. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students' individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  10. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  11. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks. PMID:24846701

  12. Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: building community relationships to improve prosecution rates.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles. PMID:22124620

  13. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  14. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  15. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  16. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  17. Stages of Change for Physical Activity in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Philippaerts, Renaat; Crombez, Geert; Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Balduck, Anne-Line; Lefevre, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the proportion of adolescents in each of the stages of change, (2) the differences in psychosocial factors and in physical activity between the stages, and (3) the classification accuracy using several reference criteria. A random sample of 38 schools from the Flemish community in Belgium…

  18. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  19. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…

  20. Adolescent Borderline Symptoms in the Community: Prognosis for Functioning over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Greta; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2008-01-01

    Background: The long-term prognosis associated with adolescent symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the general population is virtually unknown. In this study, the relationship of early borderline symptoms to subsequent psychosocial functioning and attainment was investigated based on data from the Children in the Community cohort.…

  1. Development of Community-Based Health Services for Adolescents at Risk for Sociomedical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Julia Graham; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In 1981 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided funds to 20 teaching hospitals to support health services to high-risk adolescents (young people living in communities with high rates of pregnancy, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, accidents, homicide, suicide, and depression). The experiences of these institutions are described. (Author/MLW)

  2. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  3. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  4. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  5. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  6. Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how social support may protect Israeli early adolescents who have witnessed community violence from engaging in violent behavior when they have also witnessed terror violence. The study examines how support from parents, school, and friends could serve as protective, despite the interactive risk effects of witnessing…

  7. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  8. Caring and Fun: Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community within an Interdisciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study analyzed how one interdisciplinary team within a large middle school fostered a responsive adolescent-centered community for eighth-grade team students. Data were collected during the spring semester of the 2009 school year via observations, individual interviews, and focus group interviews with nine participants,…

  9. Effects of a replication of a multicomponent model for preventing adolescent pregnancy in three Kansas communities.

    PubMed

    Paine-Andrews, A; Harris, K J; Fisher, J L; Lewis, R K; Williams, E L; Fawcett, S B; Vincent, M L

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates a multi-component program for reducing pregnancy among adolescents in the US. The study employed a pretest-posttest comparison group design to analyze the effects of a comprehensive multi-component school and community intervention on estimated pregnancy rates and birthrates among young people in three Kansas communities: Geary County, Franklin County and selected neighborhoods of Wichita. Results revealed high levels of program activity in all three communities during the intervention period, including teacher training and sexuality education for students. From 1994-97, the proportion of adolescents who reported that they had experienced sex decreased significantly among all 9th and 10th graders in Geary County. Condom use among males in grades 11 and 12 in Franklin County increased from 39% in 1994 to 55% in 1996. In Franklin County and its comparison areas, the estimated pregnancy rates decreased among adolescents aged 14-17 years. The birthrate declined both in one target area of Wichita and in its comparison area from 1991-93 and 1994-96. In general, this research contributed to an understanding on the impact of multi-component school- and community-based interventions on adolescent pregnancy rates. PMID:10435217

  10. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  11. Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Sasagawa, Satoko; Frick, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure, distribution, and correlates of a new measure of self-reported callous-unemotional (CU) traits in 1,443 adolescents (774 boys, 669 girls) between the ages of 13 to 18 years. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory…

  12. Imaginary Community of the Mainstream Classroom: Adolescent Immigrants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the perspectives of three adolescent Mexican English language Learners regarding their high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom experiences within an urban city in the southwestern part of the U.S. An additional purpose is to demonstrate how the three student participants did or did not invest their…

  13. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  14. Community-Based Participatory Clinical Research in Obesity by Adolescents: Pipeline for Researchers of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can efficiently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n = 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  15. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  16. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed. PMID:25909321

  17. The behavioral medicine unit: a community hospital model for inpatient treatment of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Porter, J; Rypma, C B; Heuer, T; Granberg, A; Ruch, R

    1986-12-01

    This article describes one community hospital's response to the overwhelming needs of adolescents in central Iowa. It is based on the premise that many youths who have severe depression do not effectively respond to various outpatient counseling measures, and are in need of some type of inpatient treatment. Most such programs are locked psychiatric units run by child or adolescent psychiatrists. In our case, those wards already in existence are filled to capacity and cannot respond to outside needs. Placing these youth on traditional medical adolescent wards does not work, since medical staff are usually not geared to deal with the many, ever-changing mental health needs of these patients. Thus, we developed an unlocked adolescent inpatient unit with a pediatrician experienced in adolescent medicine as medical director; moreover, the program extensively utilizes psychologists, nurse-counselors, social worker-family therapists, recreation therapists, and other specialists. This program is a way for physicians trained in adolescent medicine and other appropriate persons to contribute to the complex health needs of youth; it is preferable to do this rather than send all depressed teenagers away by referrals, as seems to happen in some cases. It is also an important way for physicians and other specialists to demonstrate their expertise--both the Society for Adolescent Medicine and American Academy of Pediatrics have advocated such a demonstration--and to give physicians important training in the medical and mental health care needs of youth. Finally, the Spectrum Unit program provides a meaningful way for the primary care physician to be involved in the inpatient treatment of depressed adolescent patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3602650

  18. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  19. Community Risk and Protective Factors and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Scott P.; Hays, Carol E.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Study researched the impact of the contextual characteristics of the community on self-reported 8th grade alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Results indicate that community disorganization is an important risk factor for ATOD use while family supports is an important protective factor. Greater economic constraints decreases, rather than…

  20. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  1. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior Problems: An Examination of Mediation among Immigrant Latino Mothers and Their Adolescent Children Exposed to Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Trickett, Penelope K.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Saltzman, William; Zayas, Luis H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the psychological and behavioral effects of exposure to community violence of 47 Latino mothers and their young adolescent children. Using data gathered from multiple sources, this study tests the associations between lifetime exposure to community violence, maternal depression, and child behavior problems. More than 80% of the…

  2. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  3. A Pilot Study of Coping Processes Utilized by African-American Male Adolescents Living in Violent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Elizabeth

    This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…

  4. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  5. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  6. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  7. Multilevel Modeling of Direct Effects and Interactions of Peers, Parents, School, and Community Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…

  8. Fatherhood in adolescence: prevalence and associated factors in a community sample of youngsters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Milene Maria Saalfeld de; Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Mota, Denise Marques; Jansen, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to assess the prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence (FA) and associated factors in a community sample of 14 to 35 year-old men. Cross-sectional population-based study realized in the urban area of the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The sample was selected by clusters, according to the city census. This sub-study only comprised sexually active men. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the participants' homes. The sample was composed for 934 men. The prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence was 8% (n = 75). We verified higher prevalence of FA among those that reported paternal absence (p < 0.001), those that had lived with stepfather (p = 0.044), and among those that had sexual debut before the age of 14 (p = 0.011). Paternal absence, have lived with a stepfather, and early sexual experience are associated factors to fatherhood in adolescence. PMID:26602726

  9. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  10. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  11. Single-sitting, fiber-reinforced fixed bridges for the missing lateral or central incisors in adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Belvedere, P C

    1998-10-01

    Many materials, methods, and techniques for the reinforcing of composites to bond a pontic onto abutment teeth have been tried and promoted. In this article, the author examines the use of fiber reinforcement in fixed bridges, describing the various steps performed by the dentist during the procedure. PMID:9891649

  12. Smoking and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  13. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  14. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  15. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Ghassemi, Gholam Reza; Nouri, Fatemeh; Pashmi, Rezvan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA) and Arak district was reference area (RA). The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01). However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002) and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSION The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal. PMID:23696765

  16. Geospatial Ecology of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Contributions of Community Factors and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gartstein, Maria; Seamon, Erich; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Addressed the ecology of deviant peer involvement, antisocial behavior and alcohol use, utilizing publically available information for indices of community risk/protective factors. A geospatial model was developed, combining geographic data (census, crime proximity, race/ethnicity, transportation accessibility) with information gathered for individual adolescents/household, geo-coded by home address. Adolescent-report of delinquency, association with deviant peers, substance use, and parental monitoring was obtained, along with parent-report of demographic characteristics. Deviant peer involvement was predicted by the Crime Proximity Index, with closeness of crime being associated with more deviant peer affiliation, as well as the Transportation Index, with greater accessibility leading to more involvement with troubled peers. Antisocial behaviors also increased with greater access to transportation. Adolescent alcohol use was lower in communities with a higher proportion of a non-Caucasian population, and increased with greater transportation access. Adolescent outcomes were associated with different prediction models, yet parental monitoring emerged as a consistent contributing factor. PMID:25825548

  17. Dimensional psychotic experiences in adolescence: Evidence from a taxometric study of a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-07-30

    Psychotic experiences of varying severity levels are common in adolescence. It is not known whether beyond a certain severity in the general population, psychotic experiences represent a categorically distinct phenomena to milder psychotic experiences. We employed taxometric analytic procedures to determine whether psychotic experiences in adolescence are taxonic (i.e. categorical) or dimensional. Six different psychotic experiences were assessed in a community sample of approximately 5000 adolescents. Three taxometric procedures were conducted. Across all procedures, there was no evidence of a taxon (i.e. a separate latent population) underlying psychotic experiences in adolescence. Rather, a dimensional structure was supported. The results support the notion that psychotic experiences are continuously distributed throughout the general population, and there is no clear discontinuity between milder and more severe psychotic experiences. Thus, these findings support the use of dimensional approaches to understanding psychotic experiences in etiological studies. In clinical practice, categorical cut-offs are needed: the present findings show that a 'natural' break point is not present for identifying severe psychotic experiences, and it is likely therefore that other criteria (such as general functioning) might better aid decision-making with regards to identifying individuals with severe psychotic experiences in need of care during adolescence. PMID:27155285

  18. [The role of community-based public health services in child and adolescent health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wegner, R E

    2005-10-01

    Children and adolescents increasingly show health-related problems which may not be considered as diseases to be treated but nevertheless severely affect academic performance and social behaviour. Regarding the consequences, e.g. from the PISA study, the significance of health problems and their negative impact on academic success are still not sufficiently taken into account. The tasks of paediatric public health services include: (1) health promotion in schools and kindergartens, (2) preventive and other medical checkups in kindergartens and schools to detect the individual needs of children and adolescents for support, (3) reducing the risk of long-term damage in handicapped or retarded children and adolescents by seeking out these children where necessary, and (4) advising the political decision makers by reporting on the population's health and social situation. The main aim is to provide children with special needs with what they need in order to prevent them, especially those whose parents cannot ensure this support themselves, developing a deeper disturbance, or to make sure that these young people are able to participate in social life and to integrate into society in spite of health problems or handicaps. To achieve these goals and to improve the health of children and adolescents, a community-based paediatric public health service has to cooperate with other institutions such as youth authorities, social welfare, education authorities, schools and other local institutions with an input into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:16179986

  19. Community-based adolescent health services in Israel: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Sikron, Fabienne; Glasser, Saralee; Barell, Vita

    2002-01-01

    Despite their engagement in health-risk behaviors and their health-related concerns, adolescents have the lowest rate of health service utilization of any age group. Time constraints during routine medical encounters generally leave little opportunity for professional screening for health-risk behaviors or for discussing psychosocial problems. In addition, providers express low levels of perceived competency in areas such as sexuality, eating disorders or drug abuse. To address these needs, a walk-in Adolescent Health Service was established by the Sheba Medical Center to provide diagnosis and short-term treatment for individual adolescents, as well as counseling and support for local care providers. A three-way model of cooperation and partnership was developed and implemented. A professional and financial partnership with local authorities were established to help define the particular needs of the community's youth and to improve the ability to reach youth with special health needs. The partnership along with the main medical provider (Kupat Holim Clalit) helped define local health needs, served as a referral source of patients with unmet health needs, and improved the continuity of care. The regional medical center (Sheba Medical Center) provided supervision and consultation for the medical staff of the service, as well as a referral center for patients. It was emphasized that the service staff was intended as a professional source for the primary physician and should not be considered a rival. The core staff included a specialist in adolescent medicine, gynecologist, mental health specialist and social worker. A structured intake procedure was developed for assessing health concerns and problems of adolescents in the context of a community clinic. Findings from the first years of services showed that the first 547 female adolescents demonstrated that a majority of adolescents presented with primary complaints of a somatic nature, while one third were diagnosed

  20. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  1. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  2. Teacher Efficacy and Rural Community Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Veronica

    In the past decade, disappointing national outcomes have been reported regarding the transition of youth with disabilities to community and work environments. The transition outlook is even more dismal for rural youth with disabilities, in light of geographic barriers to special education service delivery, lack of jobs in rural areas, and rural…

  3. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  4. Increasing Community Independence for Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined whether a community-based habilitation program focusing on normalization and individual goal setting was effective in enhancing levels of independence in teenagers with spina bifida. Subjects (N=14) participated in an eight-week summer program. Results suggested the program was effective with the greatest strength being support and…

  5. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  6. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches. PMID:23159996

  7. Project Northland high school interventions: community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Williams, C L; Komro, K A; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Forster, J L; Bernstein-Lachter, R; Pratt, L K; Dudovitz, B; Munson, K A; Farbakhsh, K; Finnegan, J; McGovern, P

    2000-02-01

    Project Northland is a randomized community trial initially implemented in 24 school districts and communities in northeastern Minnesota, with goals of delaying onset and reducing adolescent alcohol use using community-wide, multiyear, multiple interventions. The study targets the Class of 1998 from the 6th to 12th grades (1991-1998). The early adolescent phase of Project Northland has been completed, and reductions in the prevalence of alcohol use at the end of 8th grade were achieved. Phase II of Project Northland, targeting 11th- and 12th-grade students, uses five major strategies: (1) direct action community organizing methods to encourage citizens to reduce underage access to alcohol, (2) youth development involving high school students in youth action teams, (3) print media to support community organizing and youth action initiatives and communicate healthy norms about underage drinking (e.g., providing alcohol to minors is unacceptable), (4) parent education and involvement, and (5) a classroom-based curriculum for 11th-grade students. This article describes the background, design, implementation, and process measures of the intervention strategies for Phase II of Project Northland. PMID:10709791

  8. Maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems: an examination of mediation among immigrant Latino mothers and their adolescent children exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Trickett, Penelope K; Mennen, Ferol E; Saltzman, William; Zayas, Luis H

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the psychological and behavioral effects of exposure to community violence of 47 Latino mothers and their young adolescent children. Using data gathered from multiple sources, this study tests the associations between lifetime exposure to community violence, maternal depression, and child behavior problems. More than 80% of the youngsters ranging from age 11 to 14 years and 68% of the mothers reported being exposed to at least one act of community violence either as a victim or as a witness. Analyses reveal that maternal depression is a mediator of child behavior problems, reducing the direct effect of community violence exposure by more than 50%. Findings suggest that maternal depression is a factor more important than child's community violence exposure in contributing to young adolescents' behavioral problems. PMID:17766724

  9. Community variation in adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ardis L; Carlos, Heather A; Sarnoff, Rachel A

    2013-04-01

    Melanoma rates among younger women in New Hampshire (NH) are rising. In urban studies, youth proximity to tanning facilities has been linked to indoor tanning, a proven cause of melanoma. Youth access has not been examined in rural settings. To determine on a statewide basis the influence of rurality and community income level on female students' ease of access to tanning facilities, all NH tanning facilities (N = 261) and high schools (N = 77) in 2011 were spatially and statistically analyzed to determine schools with more facilities within 2 miles of the school and greater capacity (fewer female students per facility), for indoor tanning. Schools above the state-wide average for both measures were classified as "Easy Access" to indoor tanning. Among NH high schools, 74 % have 1 or more tanning facility within two miles and 22 % have "Easy Access" to tanning facilities. Ease of access did not differ by rurality. Lower-income school status was an independent predictor of both greater capacity and "Easy Access". While urban and rural teens have similar access to indoor tanning, female students in lower-income communities have easier access. Variations in access by community size and income must be considered in planning interventions to address youth indoor tanning. PMID:23011517

  10. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence. PMID:26849005

  11. Using Topic Order to Reinforce Student Algebra Skills in a Community College Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Alan W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the impact of starting with gases in an introductory chemistry course at a community college. Students in the author's class frequently are very weak in algebra skills, and this has a cumulative impact over time that culminates in student struggles when moles and reaction stoichiometry are discussed. The rationale behind…

  12. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth. PMID:24907892

  13. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:26872478

  14. All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.

    This book challenges American communities to reclaim their responsibility for raising healthy, successful, and caring children and adolescents. The book also offers a critique of American culture along with practical strategies for uniting and mobilizing communities around a shared vision of healthy development. The book argues that three…

  15. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  16. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  17. Witnessed Community and Parental Violence in Relation to Substance Use and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether witnessed community and parental violence represented risk factors for substance use and delinquency among adolescents, beyond the contribution of direct violence and other risk factors. We also examined the role of violence characteristics. Participants were a national sample of 3,614 adolescents. Structured telephone interviews assessed demographics, trauma history, witnessed violence, delinquency, and substance use. While accounting for trauma history and other risk factors, witnessed community and parental violence were associated with delinquency. Community violence was associated with substance use. Chronic violence, knowing the perpetrator, and violence outside of school were correlated with substance use and delinquency among adolescents who witnessed community violence. These findings highlight the importance of targeting witnessed violence in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:19885872

  18. Parental coping with developmental disorders in adolescents within the ultraorthodox Jewish community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-05-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a higher sense of growth and a higher sense of coherence than the secular parents. In addition, there were associations found between demographic characteristics. Gender differences between mothers and fathers in the sense of growth and community differences between ultraorthodox fathers and secular fathers in the sense of coherence are discussed. The study highlights the uniqueness of the religious point of view in dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. PMID:21695559

  19. The experience of adolescent inpatient care and the anticipated transition to the community: Young people's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gill, Freya; Butler, Stephen; Pistrang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored adolescents' perspectives of inpatient mental health care, focussing on aspects of the inpatient environment they anticipated would help or hinder their transition back home. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 adolescent inpatients; transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants experienced inpatient treatment as offering a mix of benefits (e.g., supportive relationships) and drawbacks (e.g., living in a "fake world"). They anticipated the transition home as providing opportunities for personal growth and consolidation of new coping skills, but also posing challenges concerning re-entering the "real world" after the experience of being "wrapped in cotton wool". Self-determination theory and attachment theory offer two potential frameworks for understanding these opportunities and challenges. Inpatient care has the potential to foster key mechanisms for adaptive development, creating a platform for developing positive future behaviours. Community teams should work closely with inpatient units to support the generalisation of the young person's newly acquired coping skills. PMID:26599528

  20. Utilization of mental health services among adolescents in community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Godley, Mark D; Godley, Susan H; Dennis, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the rates and correlates of self-reported receipt for mental health services among 1,190 adolescents, aged 12-19, who were admitted to community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics and had a co-occurring mental health problem. Utilization of mental health service was ascertained 3 months post-intake. About one third (35%) of adolescents with a co-occurring mental health problem identified at intake received mental health service in the 3 months after treatment entry. After holding other correlates constant, history of mental health treatment, suicidal behavior, family history of mental disorder and insurance coverage at intake were associated with mental health service utilization at the 3-month follow up. Predictors of service utilization varied by gender and racial/ethnic status. Implications for integrated substance use and mental health services are discussed. PMID:18157641

  1. The Relationship Between Developmental Assets and Food Security In Adolescents From A Low-Income Community

    PubMed Central

    Shtasel-Gottlieb, Zoë; Palakshappa, Deepak; Yang, Fanyu; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the association between developmental assets (characteristics, experiences, and relationships that shape healthy development) and food insecurity among adolescents from a low-income, urban community. Methods This mixed methods study occurred in two phases. In Phase 1, using a census approach, 2350 6-12th graders from the public school district completed an anonymous survey that included the Development Assets Profile (DAP), youth self-report form of the Core Food Security Module, and demographic questions. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses determined independent associations between developmental assets and food security adjusting for demographics. In Phase 2, 20 adult key informant interviews and four semi-structured student focus groups were performed to explain findings from Phase 1. Results On average, DAP scores were consistent with national norms. Food insecurity was prevalent; 14.9% reported low food security and 8.6% very low food security (VLFS). Logistic regression revealed that higher DAP was associated with lower odds of food insecurity (OR=.96, 95% CI=.95-.97); family assets drove this association(OR=.93, 95% CI=.91-.95). In multinomial regression modeling, these associations persisted and, paradoxically, higher community assets were also associated with VLFS (ORVLFS=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.13). Qualitative analyses suggested that greater need among VLFS youth led to increased connections to community resources despite barriers to access such as stigma, home instability, and cultural differences. Conclusion Food insecurity is a pervasive problem among adolescents from low-income communities and is associated with lower developmental assets, particularly family assets. That community assets were higher among VLFS youth underscores the importance of community-level resources in struggling areas. PMID:25620305

  2. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  3. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: An HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal✩

    PubMed Central

    Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels. PMID:21794919

  4. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: an HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal.

    PubMed

    Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels. PMID:21794919

  5. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. Results Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. Conclusions The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay

  6. Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program.

    PubMed

    Lott, David C; Jencius, Simon

    2009-06-01

    Controlled studies have shown that motivational incentives reduce drug use, but community implementation has been limited. This observational study examines the effect of a contingency management (CM) program on urine, attendance, and cost measures in a community substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. Treatment included elements of 12-step facilitation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement. All urine tests included cannabinoids, opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and amphetamines. Patients with negative urines or perfect attendance earned chances to draw weekly from a bag for prizes of varying value, and the number of draws increased with each consecutive negative urine test. Data were collected for those patients (age 12-18) treated immediately before (n=83) and after (n=264) the CM program was introduced to the treatment center, and positive urine rates were compared using chi-square tests. Patients treated with the CM program had lower rates of urines positive for opioids (p<0.005) and cocaine (p<0.05), and non-significantly but consistently lower rates of urines positive for all other drug classes. Altogether, the proportion of urines positive for any drug decreased from 33.3% to 23.4% (p<0.01). Pre- and post-CM comparisons of attendance reveal lower daily attendance rates but longer retention in treatment. Expenses were minimal at $0.39 per patient per day. These data yield additional evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of CM methods in community adolescent treatment programs. PMID:19250774

  7. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  8. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, M = 13.6 years, SD = 2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Controlling for religious community, age, and gender, youths' lower academic achievement was associated with family environments characterized by high conflict and low cohesion. School ehaviour problems were related to greater exposure to community violence, or sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviour. Youths' expectations about educational attainment were undermined by conflict in the family environment and antisocial behaviour in the community, as well as parenting low in warmth and behavioural control. Findings underscore the importance of considering family and community contributions to youths' educational outcomes. Suggestions regarding targeted interventions toward promoting resilience are discussed, such as assessing both child and family functioning, developing multidimensional interventions for parents, and building community partnerships, among others. PMID:26834298

  9. Behavioral and Community Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Chlamydia Rates in Rural Counties in Minnesota1

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Methods Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15–19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota’s 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n=66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Findings Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. Conclusions This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  10. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  11. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed. PMID:25465319

  12. Perceptions of parents on how religion influences adolescents' sexual behaviours in two Ghanaian communities: implications for HIV and AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2014-08-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents' sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents' sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures-communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  13. Help-Seeking and Internal Obstacles to Receiving Support in the Wake of Community Violence Exposure: The Case of Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Vorhies, Vanessa; Ismayilova, Leyla; Leshem, Becky

    2010-01-01

    We examined help-seeking and internal obstacles to receiving psychosocial support in the wake of community violence exposure in a sample of 1,835 Arab and Jewish adolescents living in Israel. Paper and pencil surveys conducted in schools examined adolescents' personal victimization and witnessing of community violence in the past year, and then…

  14. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  15. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  16. Peer Status and Victimization as Possible Reinforcements of Adolescent Girls’ and Boys’ Weight-Related Behaviors and Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Reciprocal longitudinal associations among weight-related behaviors and cognitions and peer relations constructs were examined among adolescent males and females. Methods Participants included 576 adolescents aged 10–14 years, in grades 6–8. Measures assessed body dissatisfaction, negative weight-related cognitions, weight management behaviors, muscle-gaining behaviors, body mass index (BMI), likeability, popularity, and victimization at two time points, approximately 11 months apart. Multiple group path analyses were conducted to examine the reciprocal longitudinal associations between the peer relations constructs and weight-related behaviors and cognitions, controlling for participants’ Time 1 BMI, pubertal development, and age. Results Higher levels of body dissatisfaction were associated longitudinally with decreases in popularity. Higher popularity and lower likeability each were associated longitudinally with increases in negative body-related cognitions. Higher popularity was associated longitudinally with muscle-gaining behaviors for boys. Conclusions Findings suggest highly popular and disliked adolescents may be at greater risk of weight-related behaviors and cognitions than other adolescents. PMID:19667053

  17. Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention deficit-/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students ages 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High risk youths meeting full (n=94) and subthreshold (n=75) DSM-IV ADHD criteria were matched with demographically similar low risk peers (n=163). Outcomes domains included symptoms; functional impairment; quality of life; substance use; educational outcomes; and juvenile justice involvement. Results 44% of youths with childhood ADHD had not experienced remission. Compared to unaffected peers, adolescents with childhood ADHD were more likely to display oppositional defiant disorder (OR=12.9; 95% CI 5.6-30.0), anxiety/depression (OR=10.3; 95% CI 2.7-39.3), significant functional impairment (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.7-6.9), reduced quality of life (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7), and to have been involved with juvenile justice (OR=3.1; 95% CI 1.0-9.1). Subthreshold ADHD, but not full ADHD, increased the risk of grade retention, whereas both conditions increased the risk of graduation failure. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but not childhood ADHD, increased the risk of cannabis and alcohol use. None of the adolescent outcomes of childhood ADHD were moderated by gender, race or poverty. Conclusions ADHD heralds persistence of ADHD and comorbid symptoms into adolescence, as well as significant risks for functional impairment and juvenile justice involvement. Subthreshold ADHD symptoms typically do not qualify affected students for special educational interventions, yet increase the risk for adverse educational outcomes. Findings stress the importance of early ADHD recognition, especially its comorbid presentation with ODD, for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:20494269

  18. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  19. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  20. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services. PMID:25533404

  1. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups. PMID:24469301

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a Community Sample of Adolescents: Subgroups, Stability, and Associations with Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and their association with other psychological difficulties were studied in a community sample of young Swedish adolescents, by a two-wave longitudinal design with a 1-year interval. Hierarchical cluster analysis at T1 identified eight NSSI subgroups in each gender, of which five were clearly replicated…

  3. Patterns and predictors of health service utilization in adolescents with pain: comparison between a community and a clinical pain sample

    PubMed Central

    Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B.; Wilson, Anna C.; Lewandowski, Amy; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research describing the patterns of healthcare utilization in adolescents with chronic pain. This study describes healthcare utilization in a clinical chronic pain sample, and compares the patterns of service use of this group to a community sample with intermittent pain complaints. We also investigated demographic and clinical factors that predicted healthcare visits and medication use in the clinical sample. Data on 117 adolescents (aged 12-18; n=59 clinical pain sample, n=58 community) were collected. Caregivers and adolescents reported on sociodemographics, medical visits, current medications, pain, activity limitations, and depression. As hypothesized, the clinical pain sample had higher rates of healthcare consultation on all types of medical visits (general, specialty care, complementary medicine, mental health, OT/PT), and higher medication use compared to the community sample. Regression analyses revealed that higher annual income, greater pain frequency, and higher levels of caregiver reported activity limitations were associated with a greater number of healthcare visits for the total sample. Within the clinical pain sample, higher pain frequency and greater activity limitations (caregiver-report) predicted more specialty care visits. Additionally, higher income and greater levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher number of prescribed medications. Perspective This study contributes to the limited available data on health service and medication use in a clinical chronic pain sample versus a community sample of adolescents. We also identify clinical factors (pain frequency, parent-reported activity limitations, depressive symptoms) and demographic factors (gender, income) associated with healthcare utilization. PMID:21481647

  4. Adolescents' Psychological Response to the Experience of Community Interpersonal Violence: A Cross-National and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2006-01-01

    A comparative cross-national study investigating the level of experience with community interpersonal violence, level of psychological distress, and the relationship between exposure and distress among adolescents is presented. Participants were 617 first-year college students comprising African Americans and Jamaican Americans living in New York…

  5. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B.; David, Susan L.; Rao, Suman A.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) published the first edition of "Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide" to share the latest NIDA-funded prevention research findings with parents, educators, and community leaders. The guide introduced the concept of "research-based prevention" with questions…

  6. The Role of Stressful Life Events in the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence--A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaktaar, Trine; Borge, Anne Inger Helmen; Fundingsrud, Hans Petter; Christie, Helen Johnsen; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Depressive symptoms were measured in a cohort of community-based adolescents (n=163) at two time-points, with 1 year intervening. At Time 2, participants also answered a scale about past-year stressful life events. Depressive symptoms increased from Time 1 to Time 2, the effect being stronger for girls than for boys. Depressive symptoms were…

  7. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  8. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  9. The Impact of a Community Based Exercise Program in Children and Adolescents with Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; George, Cheryl L.; Blatt, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study sought to determine if participation in an after school community-based exercise program would result in improved fitness, self-concept, and social skills in a heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with disabilities. Eighteen participants with physical and/or cognitive disabilities were recruited for an 8-week exercise…

  10. Prevalence of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence among a Community Sample of Latinas: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…

  11. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  12. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  13. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  14. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  15. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  16. Effects of the Communities That Care Model in Pennsylvania on Change in Adolescent Risk and Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Damon; Greenberg, Mark T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Bontempo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the public health burden of adolescent substance use, delinquency, and other problem behavior, few comprehensive models of disseminating evidence-based prevention programs to communities have demonstrated positive youth outcomes at a population level, capacity to maintain program fidelity, and sustainability. We examined whether the Communities That Care (CTC; Hawkins and Catalano 1992) model had a positive impact on risk/protective factors and academic and behavioral outcomes among adolescents in a quasi-experimental effectiveness study. We conducted a longitudinal study of CTC in Pennsylvania utilizing biannual surveillance data collected through anonymous in-school student surveys. We utilized multilevel models to examine CTC impact on change in risk/protective factors, grades, delinquency, and substance use over time. Youth in CTC communities demonstrated less growth in delinquency, but not substance use, than youth in non-CTC communities. Levels of risk factors increased more slowly, and protective factors and academic performance decreased more slowly, among CTC community grade-cohorts that were exposed to evidence-based, universal prevention programs than comparison grade cohorts. Community coalitions can affect adolescent risk and protective behaviors at a population level when evidence-based programs are utilized. CTC represents an effective model for disseminating such programs. PMID:20020209

  17. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but

  18. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo E; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries ("LMICs"). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program ("TEP"), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP's implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP's social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program's goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program's cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID:26283972

  19. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  20. Effects of the Communities That Care System on Cross-Sectional Profiles of Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Fagan, Abigail A.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent substance use and delinquency are major public health problems. Although community–based prevention strategies have been recommended to produce population-level reductions in rates of substance use and delinquency, few models show evidence of effectiveness. Purpose To test the efficacy of a community–based prevention system, Communities That Care (CTC), in reducing community rates of problem behaviors, particularly effects on specific profiles of adolescent substance use and delinquency in eighth and tenth graders. Methods Twenty-four communities were randomized to CTC intervention or control groups. Data were collected from 14,099 eighth and tenth grade students in these communities using anonymous cross-sectional surveys in 2004 and 2010 and analyzed in 2012. Outcomes were four different profiles of self–reported substance use and delinquency in eighth grade and five profiles in tenth grade. Results In the cross-sectional 2010 data, there was no intervention effect on the probability of experimenting with substances or of substance use coupled with delinquent activities for either grade. However, tenth graders in intervention communities were significantly less likely to be alcohol users than those in control communities (OR=0.69, CI=0.48, 1.00). Conclusions Cross–sectional population surveys showed evidence of CTC effects in reducing tenth grade alcohol users but not experimenters. A community-wide reduction in adolescent alcohol use is important because alcohol is the most commonly used illicit substance during adolescence, and early initiation of alcohol use has been associated with alcohol-related disorders in adulthood. Failure to find hypothesized effects on experimenters qualifies these results. PMID:24986217

  1. Background for Community Level Work on Educational Adjustment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.

    Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…

  2. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old. Results Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled. Unexpectedly, early childhood eating problems were not associated with later eating problems. Conclusions The possible role of sleep in the development of eating problems needs further investigation. In particular, mediating mechanisms should be studied more closely. PMID:24999414

  3. [Exposure to violence among adolescents in a low-income community in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Deborah Pedrosa; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Luna, Geisy Lanne Muniz; e Silva, Juliana Guimarães; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa

    2013-05-01

    This a cross-sectional study made in Fortaleza, Ceará, 2009, which included 458 teenagers and analyzed their exposure to violence, describing their access to weapons, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use and their self-esteem by investigating their socio-economic, school and family characteristics and exposure to the phenomenon. A questionnaire and/or structured interviews were used for data collection, and analysis involved Pearson's chi-square test, with 95% reliability. Of the 458 participants, 17.7% were considered to be exposed to criminal violence. Significant variables for exposure to violence included: place of birth (p = 0.020), years of schooling (p = 0,009), school absenteeism (p < 0.001), the father as the head of the family (p = 0.026), alcohol-addicted parents (p < 0.001), good/very good family relationships (p = 0.009), and parents' dissatisfaction with their children's friends (p < 0.001). Thus, it is necessary that public policies focus on a support network for care of adolescents and that urban centers organize themselves socially and politically in the quest for understanding the effects of exposure to violence among adolescents in low-income communities. PMID:23670455

  4. Features of Online Health Communities for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O’Connor, Brendan H.; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  5. Using social marketing to create communities for our children and adolescents that do not model and encourage drinking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C

    2014-11-01

    Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding 'community-based' interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which 'community' interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few interventions that sought to comprehensively address social norms at a community level. We need to move (research and interventions) beyond narrowly-focused efforts targeting teens and their parents; it is only when we address alcohol consumption at a population level that we will be able to provide an environment for children and adolescents which does not model (excessive) drinking as a normative social behavior. PMID:25460909

  6. Community-Level Successes and Challenges to Implementing Adolescent Sex Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Maura; Resseguie, Jamie; Smith, Hannah; Woodcox, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Best practices for adolescent sex education recommend science-based approaches. However, little is known about the capacity and needs of organizations who implement sex education programs on the local level. The purpose of this research was to describe successes and challenges of community organizations in implementing science-based sex education. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed program directors and educators in 17 state-funded adolescent pregnancy prevention/sex education programs as part of a larger mixed methods evaluation. Semi-structured interviews focused on success and challenges faced in implementing science-based approaches to program design, implementation and evaluation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. Grantees included a range of programs, from short programs on puberty and HIV for late elementary students, to skills-based curricular sex education programs for high schools, to year-long youth development programs. Key aspects of curricular choice included meeting the needs of the population, and working within time constraints of schools and other community partners. Populations presenting specific challenges included rural youth, youth in juvenile justice facilities, and working with Indiana's growing Latino population. Programs self-developing curricula described challenges related to assessment and evaluation of impact. Programs using commercial curricula described challenges related to curricular selection and adaptation, in particularly shortening curricula, and adapting to different cultural or social groups. A remarkable degree of innovation was observed. The use of qualitative methods permitted the identification of key challenges and successes in a state-sponsored small grants program. Information can be used to enhance program capacity and quality. PMID:20180004

  7. A review of generalist and specialist community health workers for delivering adolescent health services in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health of adolescents is increasingly seen as an important international priority because the world’s one point eight billion young people (aged 10 to 24 years) accounts for 15.5% of the global burden of disease and are disproportionately located in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, an estimated 70% of premature adult deaths are attributable to unhealthy behaviors often initiated in adolescence (such as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity). In order for health services to reach adolescents in LMICs, innovative service delivery models need to be explored and tested. This paper reviews the literature on generalist and specialist community health workers (CHWs) to assess their potential for strengthening the delivery of adolescent health services. Methods We reviewed the literature on CHWs using Medline (PubMed), EBSCO Global Health, and Global Health Archive. Search terms (n = 19) were sourced from various review articles and combined with subject heading ‘sub-Saharan Africa’ to identify English language abstracts of original research articles on generalist and specialist CHWs. Results A total of 106 articles, from 1985 to 2012, and representing 24 African countries, matched our search criteria. A single study in sub-Saharan Africa used CHWs to deliver adolescent health services with promising results. Though few comprehensive evaluations of large-scale CHW programs exist, we found mixed evidence to support the use of either generalist or specialist CHW models for delivering adolescent health services. Conclusions This review found that innovative service delivery approaches, such as those potentially offered by CHWs, for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking, CHW programs have proliferated despite the absence of high quality evaluations, rigorous studies to establish the comparative effectiveness of generalist versus specialist CHW programs are needed, and further investigation of the role of CHWs in

  8. Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Demetriou, Chara A; Kimonis, Eva R

    2013-07-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research suggests that lower anxious primary and high-anxious secondary variants exist. Using a community sample of 2,306 Greek-Cypriot adolescents (M age = 16 years; 49.7 % female), the first aim of the study was to examine whether variants of callous-unemotional traits could be identified using latent profile analysis of scores on measures of callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety. Additional aims of the study were to compare the identified clusters on external measures theorized to distinguish them (i.e., self-esteem, narcissism, impulsivity, sensation seeking and proactive/reactive aggression) and social factors relevant to adolescent development. Results indicated that, in addition to low risk (i.e., low scores on callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety) and anxious (i.e., high scores on anxiety, low scores on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems) subgroups, two groups of youth scoring high on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems were identified. High-anxious secondary callous-unemotional variants were distinguished by lower self-esteem in combination with greater narcissism, aggression, and markedly higher conduct problems, whereas lower anxious primary variants showed higher self-esteem. Secondary callous-unemotional variants also reported greater susceptibility to peer pressure and popularity striving than primary variants. Both variants exhibited poorer outcomes relative to low risk and anxious youth, although anxious youth reported lower self-esteem and higher impulsivity and reactive aggression scores in comparison with low risk youth. Findings integrate two

  9. Associations between Community Attachments and Adolescent Substance Use in Nationally Representative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Social capital and social attachment theories of substance use argue that positive bonds to society and the conventional values they promote deter adolescents from substance use. Using nationally representative samples of U.S. high school seniors, we hypothesized that adolescents’ community attachments, measured by social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity, would be negatively associated with lifetime and 30-day substance use. Method We used repeated cross-sectional nationally representative high school senior data from 1976–2008 Monitoring the Future Study cohorts (weighted N = 64,246; 51.6% female). Participation rate ranged from 77% to 86% across years. A series of multiple linear and logistic regressions examined unique associations of adolescents’ social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity with lifetime and 30-day use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and narcotics. Models controlled for gender, race, college aspirations, high school grades, parents’ education, and survey year. Results Social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity showed independent negative associations with use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and six other types of drugs. After accounting for controls, community attachments related to lower lifetime and past 30-day use. Associations were consistent across measures, except social responsibility was not associated with binge drinking or lifetime illicit drugs besides marijuana. Conclusions Study strengths included the nationally representative sample, diverse substance use measures, and inclusion of controls. We extend theory by suggesting that distinct aspects of adolescents’ community attachments uniquely relate to lower substance use. Results suggest potential public health benefits of integrating promotion of community attachments with substance use prevention. PMID:22999832

  10. Relationships between community social capital and injury in Canadian adolescents: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Pickett, William; Alvarado, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    Background Characteristics of social environments are potential risk factors for adolescent injury. Impacts of social capital on the occurrence of such injuries have rarely been explored. Methods General health questionnaires were completed by 8910 youth aged 14 years and older as part of the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. These were supplemented with community-level data from the 2006 Canada Census of Population. Multilevel logistic regression models with random intercepts were fit to examine associations of interest. The reliability and validity of variables used in this analysis had been established in past studies, or in new analyses that employed factor analysis. Results Between school differences explained 2% of the variance in the occurrence of injuries. After adjustment for all confounders, community social capital did not have any impact on the occurrence of injuries in boys: OR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.29. However, living in areas with low social capital was associated with lower occurrence of injuries in girls (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.96). Other factors that were significantly related to injuries in both genders were younger age, engagement in more risky behaviours, and negative behavioural influences from peers. Conclusions After simultaneously taking into account the influence of community-level and individual-level factors, community levels of social capital remained a relatively strong predictor of injury among girls but not boys. Such gender effects provide important clues into the social aetiology of youth injury. PMID:26294708

  11. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  12. Brief report: The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on academic performance in an adolescent community sample.

    PubMed

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four participants, aged 15 and 16, in their final year of compulsory education, completed measures of ADHD, anxiety, depression, and motivation, and a test of general cognitive ability. Participants were also asked for permission for their academic grades to be viewed on a later occasion (approximately 6 months later). In regression analyses, ADHD symptoms were the most significant independent psychopathological predictor of academic performance, and were almost as significant as motivation and cognitive ability. The results suggest that adolescents with more ADHD symptoms are likely to encounter greater academic difficulties. PMID:20880572

  13. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted. PMID:22287568

  14. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  15. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  16. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  17. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional…

  18. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  19. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Deliberate Self-Harm in a Community Sample of Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Paaske, My; Ingesson, Stina; Bjärehed, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The associations between depressive symptoms and deliberate self-harm were studied by means of a 2-wave longitudinal design in a community sample of 1052 young adolescents, with longitudinal data for 83.6% of the sample. Evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship in girls, with depressive symptoms being a risk factor for increased self-harm one year later and self-harm a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms. Cluster analysis of profiles of depressive symptoms led to the identification of two clusters with clear depressive profiles (one severe, the other mild/moderate) which were both characterized by an overrepresentation of girls and elevated levels of self-harm. Clusters with more circumscribed problems were also identified; of these, significantly increased levels of self-harm were found in a cluster characterized by negative self-image and in a cluster characterized by dysphoric relations to parents. It is suggested that self-harm serves more to regulate negative self-related feelings than sadness. PMID:21234107

  1. Bacterial Communities of the Coronal Sulcus and Distal Urethra of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; Fan, Baochang; Katz, Barry P.; Mi, Deming; Rong, Ruichen; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium, Megasphaera, Mobiluncus, Prevotella and Gemella, were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity. PMID:22606251

  2. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  3. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire which examined their level of participation in physical activity and sedentary behavior along with a number of potential correlates. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the relationship between hypothesised factors and physical activity. Results: The boys unlike the girls showed significantly higher levels of physical activity (P=0.001). Respondents of both genders who perceive greater benefits from the physical activity (P=0.010). They have more confidence in their abilities (P=0.001), enjoy more in the physical activities (P=0.016), perceive greater social support from friends (P=0.008) and parents (P=0.001) and have higher levels of physical activity. Conclusions: The results indicate the importance of developing a national plan and program to promote physical activity in order to help young people to change unhealthy lifestyle habits and increase the physical activity, thus improving their health. PMID:27252917

  4. Bacterial communities of the coronal sulcus and distal urethra of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Dong, Qunfeng; Van der Pol, Barbara; Toh, Evelyn; Fan, Baochang; Katz, Barry P; Mi, Deming; Rong, Ruichen; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium, Megasphaera, Mobiluncus, Prevotella and Gemella, were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity. PMID:22606251

  5. Multiple components of fitness improved among overweight and obese adolescents following a community-based lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Abbott, Rebecca A; Olds, Tim S; Straker, Leon M

    2016-08-01

    Fitness is an important component of health, and obese adolescents regularly have poor fitness. Unfortunately, few have assessed the impact of community-based lifestyle interventions on multiple components of fitness. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in a community-based intervention involving adolescents and parents on multiple components of fitness of obese adolescents. In a within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months follow-up in Western Australia, participants (n = 56) completed multiple fitness measures at baseline, immediately prior to beginning an 8-week intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months during a maintenance period. Performance on the shuttle walk was improved immediately post-intervention (increase of 42.8 m, 95% CI: 7.5, 78.2) and at 12 months post-intervention (increase of 44.6 m, 95% CI: 1.3, 87.8) compared with pre-intervention. Muscle performance of quadriceps and deltoids were improved post-intervention (increase of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.1) kg · F and 1.0 (0.02, 2.1) kg · F, respectively) and all muscle performance measures were improved at 12 months following the intervention. There were no changes in waist circumference. A community-based lifestyle programme such as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP) may be a viable strategy for improving fitness in overweight adolescents. PMID:26654751

  6. Assessing the triarchic model of psychopathy in adolescence: Reliability and validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in three samples of Italian community-dwelling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Drislane, Laura E; Fossati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    To assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Italian translation of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in adolescents, we administered the inventory to 3 independent samples of Italian high school students (Ns = 609, 618, and 1,142). Cronbach's alpha values greater than .80 were observed for the TriPM scale scores in all samples. In Sample 1, overall scores on the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory correlated substantially with TriPM total scores, r = .77, p < .001. Data from Study 1 also demonstrated adequate 3-month test-retest reliabilities for the 3 TriPM subscales. In Study 2, TriPM scores significantly predicted scores on a self-report measure of delinquent behaviors, Radjusted2 = .25, p < .001. In Study 3, five-factor domain scores showed significant relations with TriPM scale scores consistent with results reported for adults. Consistent with a hypothesized role of fearlessness in psychopathy, adolescents at high psychopathy risk (i.e., >97th percentile on the TriPM) reported lower fear in response to emotion-eliciting movie clips than low-psychopathy participants. In addition, scores on a measure of hedonistic moral tendencies discriminated between adolescents at high as opposed to low psychopathy. Similarly, scores on the Reflective Function Questionnaire for Youths were negatively correlated with TriPM scores. As a whole, our findings provide further support for the reliability and validity of the TriPM and its cross-cultural utility, and provide initial evidence of its effectiveness with community-dwelling adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237210

  7. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  8. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally…

  9. Acceptability of a web-based community reinforcement approach for substance use disorders with treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-05-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version [therapeutic education system (TES)] of the community reinforcement approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N = 40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range 7.8-9.4 on 0-10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted. PMID:25022913

  10. Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

  11. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin. PMID:24481848

  12. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities. PMID:25448829

  13. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The…

  14. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  15. Transition into First Sex among Adolescents in Slum and Non-Slum Communities in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Undie, Chi-Chi; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    While early sexual experiences are a key marker of the transition from childhood to adulthood, it is widely acknowledged that precocious initiation of sexual activity predisposes adolescents to negative health and psychological outcomes. Extant studies investigating adolescent sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa often rely on cross-sectional data…

  16. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  17. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  18. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  19. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Deliberate Self-Harm among a Community Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…

  20. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  1. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A 5-Year Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Muris, Peter; Van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the adolescent developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms from the general population is conducted. Results using individually focused trajectory-based analyses show that the symptoms differed from one another for various adolescent age and sex cohorts.

  3. Academic Success Strategy Use among Community-Active Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Rebecca M.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Although much has been written about the "risky" behaviors in which some Hispanic adolescents participate, the predictors of academic success are less understood. Toward this end, predictors of academic self-regulation were investigated in Hispanic adolescents. Specifically, a predictive model incorporating self-efficacy, instrumentality, salience…

  4. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  5. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents…

  6. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  7. Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

  8. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  9. Specificity in the Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Atopic Disorders in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The specificity of relationships between anxiety and depressive symptoms, with each of the major atopic disorders of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) was systematically investigated within a single study sample. Participants included 367 adolescents who participated in a community, longitudinal study investigating risk factors for the development of psychiatric and physical health problems. Mental health symptoms were assessed at 7, 9, 11, and 13 years of age. Lifetime history of atopic disorders was assessed by parent report at age 13. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the specificity of the associations between anxiety and depression, and each of the atopic disorders. Results indicated that anxiety was associated with a lifetime history of atopic disorders as a group. The association was significantly strengthened when controlling for depression and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Among atopic disorders, “pure” anxiety was associated with asthma and AR, and having both asthma and AR strengthened the association compared to having either disorder alone. The association of “pure” anxiety with asthma and AR is consistent with existing data suggesting a relationship between anxiety and respiratory disorders. Having both asthma and AR appeared to confer an additive “dose effect” on the strength of the association. The lack of an association with depression suggests that other factors may contribute to the differential expression of anxiety and depression with atopic disorders. Findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the impact of co-morbid psychiatric symptoms and atopic disorders within individual studies to determine the specificity of underlying relationships between these conditions. PMID:21111430

  10. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  11. A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts. PMID:22234393

  12. Effects of parental monitoring and exposure to community violence on antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bacchini, Dario; Concetta Miranda, Maria; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from 16 to 19 (mean age = 17.53, standard deviation = 1.24). All were in the 3rd (11th grade) or 5th year (13th grade) of high school. Self-reported measures were used to assess antisocial behavior, symptoms of anxiety/depression, parental monitoring and exposure to community violence as a victim or as a witness. First of all we tested, through a hierarchical multiple regression, the independent contribution of gender, exposure to community violence and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and symptoms of anxiety/depression; then we tested the moderating role of gender and parental monitoring on the negative effects of exposure to violence. The results show that male gender, high level of exposure to community violence (both as a victim and a witness), and low level of parental monitoring predict a higher involvement in antisocial behavior. Female gender, being a victim and low level of parental monitoring predict symptoms of anxiety/depression. Furthermore, parental monitoring and gender play a moderating role, minimizing or amplifying the negative effects of exposure to community violence. The results of the research suggest that a similar pattern of risk and protective factors can give rise to multiple paths of adaptive or maladaptive development. PMID:20234055

  13. Partnership Selection and Formation: A Case Study of Developing Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships in 15 U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Diane M.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Peralta, Ligia; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the partner selection process in 15 U.S. communities developing community-researcher partnerships for the Connect to Protect® (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions, an initiative of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Methods Each site generated an epidemiological profile of urban youth in their community, selected a focus population and geographic area of youth at risk for HIV, conducted a series of successive structured interviews, and engaged in a process of relationship-building efforts culminating in a collaborative network of community agencies. Results Sites chose as their primary target population young women who have sex with men (n=8 sites), young men who have sex with men (n=6), and intravenous drug users (n=1). Of 1,162 agencies initially interviewed, 281 of 335 approached (84%) agreed to join the partnership (average 19/site). A diverse array of community agencies were represented in the final collaborative network; specific characteristics included: 93% served the sites' target population, 54% were predominantly youth-oriented, 59% were located in the geographical area of focus, and 39% reported provision of HIV/STI prevention services. Relationship-building activities, development of collaborative relationships, and lessons learned, including barriers and facilitators to partnership, are also described. Conclusions Study findings address a major gap in the community partner research literature. Health researchers and policy makers need an effective partner selection framework whereby community-researcher partnerships can develop a solid foundation to address public health concerns. PMID:17531754

  14. Pilot-scale study on nitrogen and aromatic compounds removal in printing and dyeing wastewater by reinforced hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Erqin; Tang, Siyuan; Li, Yi; Cao, Jiashun

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to efficiently dispose printing and dyeing wastewater with "high organic nitrogen and aromatic compounds, but low carbon source quality", the reinforced anaerobic hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process, based on improved UASB reactors and segregated collection-disposition strategy, was designed and applied at the pilot scale. Results showed that the coupling process displayed efficient removal for these two kinds of pollutants (nitrogen and aromatics), since the concentration of NH3-N (shortened as ρ (NH3-N)) < 8 mg/L, ρ (TN) < 15 mg/L with long-term stability for the effluent, and both species and abundances of aromatics reduced greatly by UASBs according to GC-MS. Microbial community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant communities in the bioreactors and some kinds of VFAs-producing, denitrifying and aromatic ring opening microorganisms were discovered. Further, the nirK and bcrA genes quantification also indicated the coupling process owned outstanding denitrification and aromatic compound-degrading potential, which demonstrates that the coupling process owns admirable applicability for this kind of wastewater treatment. PMID:25613804

  15. Applying qualitative data derived from a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) approach to develop a community-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watthayu, Nantiya; Wenzel, Jennifer; Panchareounworakul, Kobkul

    2015-01-01

    HIV education programs are needed to address risk-taking behavior for adolescents. The purpose of our study was to use the World Health Organization's Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) method to design a community-based, cultural- and age-appropriate HIV prevention program for adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent single-gender-specific focus groups (n = 3; 28 participants) were used to gather reactions/ideas about program topics/approaches. An adult, mixed-gender group was held to review information identified by adolescents. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Themes regarding HIV content and the process of implementation emerged from a qualitative content analysis of the data. Community representatives recommended incorporation of HIV information and risk-prevention skills. Information delivery suggestions included small group discussions, interactive games/role-playing, program materials/terminology, and HIV-infected program facilitators. Community members provided critical input toward an HIV prevention program tailored to meet adolescents' unique needs/interests. The RAR model provides opportunities to engage communities in developing health-related interventions. PMID:26279387

  16. Feasibility of Adolescents to Conduct Community-Based Participatory Research on Obesity and Diabetes in Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Bardwell, Genevieve; Morton, Cathy; Chester, Ann; Pancoska, Petr; Buch, Shama; Cecchetti, Alfred; Vecchio, Marcella; Paulsen, Stephanie; Groark, Stephen; Branch, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has been advocated to translate advances in health care sciences to the community. We describe a novel approach applied to obesity management and diabetes prevention. This takes advantage of a network of science clubs organized by the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) for extracurricular activity of disadvantaged high school students in rural Appalachia. Physician scientists and educators provided an intensive summer course on CBPR, ethics, and study design on obesity management and diabetes prevention. Ethical certification for CBPR investigation was obtained for 210 students and 18 mentors for a study on the prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes within their community. Over a 6-month period, 989 had a collection of complete analyzable data, of which 103 had diabetes. The proportion with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was over 50%. The frequency of diabetes was related to increasing BMI. When BMI ≥ 40, the frequency approached 50%, and exhibited a clear familial distribution. We conclude that trained adolescents can effectively conduct CBPR, and obesity and diabetes are more prevalent than previously reported in this community. This experience provides encouragement to conduct future studies to influence weight management from high-risk populations in this medically disadvantaged community. PMID:20443917

  17. Variation in the sustained effects of the communities that care prevention system on adolescent smoking, delinquency, and violence.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p = 0.08) larger for boys than for girls. PMID:23412948

  18. Variation in the Sustained Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Adolescent Smoking, Delinquency, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls’ and boys’ problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p=0.08) larger for boys than for girls. PMID:23412948

  19. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  20. [Malocclusions in children and adolescents from villages and native communities in the Ucayali Amazon region in Peru].

    PubMed

    Aliaga-Del Castillo, Arón; Mattos-Vela, Manuel Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Rosalinda; Del Castillo-Mendoza, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years of villages and native communities of the Ucayali jungle of Peru. We assessed the presence of malocclusions using Angle's classification and orthodontic changes. We evaluated 201 individuals, 106 (52.7%) were women, most of them (54.7%) had between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of malocclusions was 85.6%, the most prevalent according to Angle's classification was class I (59.6%). Orthodontic alterations were present in 67.2% of cases. The most frequent were dental crowding (28.4%), anterior crossbite (17.4%), exaggerated overjet (8.5%), excessive overbite (5.0%) and anterior open bite (5.0%). We found a high prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic changes in the evaluated native communities, highlighting the need to implement preventive programs to improve the oral health of these neglected populations. PMID:21537775

  1. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices

  2. Adolescents' Sense of Community on MySpace and Facebook: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    Communities are foundational to the field of Community Psychology yet they are difficult to define and measure. Once viewed as social groups with ties to geographical locations, online communities interact free of physical or face-to-face contact. This cyberexistence makes the study of communities more challenging. Social networking sites (SNS),…

  3. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  4. Collateral gains and short-term maintenance in reading and on-task responses by inner-city adolescents as a function of their use of social reinforcement while tutoring.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, R D; Polirstok, S R

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments are reported concerning the effects of the differential use of verbal approval by problematic adolescents serving as tutors in a remedial reading program for an inner-city school. The experiments, each with 3 tutors and 15 tutees, used a combined multiple baseline and ABCBC design. Data showed that tutors' approvals as well as tutors' and tutees' on-task and reading responses were low and stable during baseline. Tutors were trained to use verbal approval for tutees' on-task behavior. Tokens were presented and withdrawn to control the tutors' use of approval. During phases in which tutors' approvals were raised via token dispensation, tutor reading and on-task scores increased in a nonexperimental setting. Tutee reading scores also increased as a function of tutor approvals. The second experiment replicated these findings and, in addition, (a) tested the validity of changes in reading responses via standardized tests, (b) isolated and compared the covariance between variables in all phases, and (c) provided data on tutee attention to tutors as a possible natural reinforcer for short-term maintenance found in both studies. Data are discussed as evidence that tutors had acquired the ability to recruit reinforcement from the classroom for appropriate behavior. PMID:7096224

  5. Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy among African-American Adolescent Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…

  6. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Karen; Fox, Kathryn R.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Longitudinal data on adolescent self-injury are rare. Little is known regarding the associations between various forms of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over time, particularly within community samples that are most relevant for prevention efforts. This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a time-invariant,…

  7. Urban Adolescent Mothers Exposed to Community, Family, and Partner Violence: Is Cumulative Violence Exposure a Barrier to School Performance and Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.; Bennett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as…

  8. Adolescents and Teachers as Partners in a School-Based Research Project to Increase Physical Activity Opportunities in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James; Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; McClure, Darlene; Aleshire, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Schools are an important resource in combating the physical inactivity and obesity epidemics in rural economically depressed areas. Through a University-community partnership, teachers and adolescents in a rural West Virginia county with one of the highest obesity rates in the state developed a school-based research intervention to increase…

  9. Becoming Job-Ready: Collaborative Future Plans of Latina Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers in a Low-Income Urban Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Babineau, Maureen E.; Machado, Haidee

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the future plans constructed by Latina adolescent girls and their mothers within a lower income urban community. Seventeen high school juniors and their mothers were interviewed about the girls' pursuit of a trade during high school and anticipated postsecondary pathways in the nursing field. Thematic content analyses…

  10. Current Fear of Crime, Sense of Community, and Loneliness in Italian Adolescents: The Role of Autonomous Mobility and Play during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prezza, Miretta; Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    A structural equation model was used to examine the role of autonomous mobility and play in public and semipublic places in childhood to predict adolescents' sense of community, fear of crime, and, through the mediation of these two last psychosocial factors, feelings of loneliness. Participants included 789 Italian students (469 females and 320…

  11. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  12. Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

  13. Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents from different geographic settings use different ethnic labels, with youth from NC preferring heritage and panethnic labels and youth from LA preferring hyphenated American labels. Second generation youth were more likely than first generation youth to use hyphenated American labels, and less likely to use heritage or panethnic labels. Greater ethnic centrality increased the odds of heritage label use, and greater English proficiency increased the odds of heritage-American label use. These associations significantly mediated the initial effects of setting. Further results examine ethnic differences as well as links between labels and self-esteem. The discussion highlights implications of ethnic labeling and context. PMID:21049283

  14. A longitudinal investigation of childhood communication ability and adolescent psychotic experiences in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah A.; Hollen, Linda; Wren, Yvonne; Thompson, Andrew D.; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background Some childhood speech and language impairments precede psychosis but it is not clear whether they also precede adolescent psychotic experiences and whether this association is specific to psychotic experiences. Methods Pragmatic language and expressive speech and language (parent-assessed using the Children's Communication Checklist) at age 9 and psychotic experiences and depression at ages 12 and 18 were investigated in 7659 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Associations were investigated using multivariate modelling. Results Poorer pragmatic language at 9 years was associated with psychotic experiences at both ages (12 years OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34; 18 years OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.41) but only with depression at 18 years (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Poorer expressive speech and language ability was not associated with psychotic experiences or depression at either age. There was evidence that pragmatic language was specifically associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 but no evidence that the strength of any of the associations changed over time. Conclusions Deficits in pragmatic language precede early and late adolescent psychotic experiences and early adolescent depression. Interventions aimed at helping children improve pragmatic language skills may reduce the incidence of adolescent psychopathology and associated psychological disorder and dysfunction later in life. PMID:26972475

  15. Adolescent Suicide Prevention Program. A Guide for Schools and Communities. Revised, February 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Student Services and Special Education.

    The development and implementation of an adolescent suicide prevention program at the Fairfax County Public Schools in 1982 is described. The major components of the program are described: (1) background; (2) organizing and planning; (3) resources; (4) workshops; (5) activities for students; and (6) evaluation and review. Emergency visits to…

  16. Opportunity, Community, and Early Adolescent Pregnancy: A Replication of Research with Older Teenaged Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; McDonough, Meghan; Williams, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to broaden the analytic categories for understanding early-adolescent pregnancy, suggesting an antidote to the methodological individualism that emphasizes individual and family characteristics by using broader contextual factors. Seemingly imprudent behaviors can be rendered interpretably rational when placed in social context. Without…

  17. Building Emergency Contraception Awareness among Adolescents. A Toolkit for Schools and Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; Radosh, Alice; Nelsesteun, Kari; Silverstein, Stacy

    This toolkit presents emergency contraception (EC) as a method to help adolescent women avoid pregnancy and abortion after unprotected sexual intercourse. The sections of this toolkit are designed to help increase your knowledge of EC and stay up to date. They provide suggestions for increasing EC awareness in the workplace, whether it is a school…

  18. Adolescents Who Witness Community Violence: Can Parent Support and Prosocial Cognitions Protect Them from Committing Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of witnessing violence on committing violence among diverse urban middle school students (11-15 years old) over a 1-year period (N=1,599). It examined parent support and prosocial cognitions as moderators that might interact with one another in buffering adolescents from the effects of witnessing…

  19. Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

    2005-01-01

    A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…

  20. A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Studied the frequency of self-mutilation among adolescents through a literature review, epidemiological data, and screening measure results for 440 students from an urban and a suburban high school. Interviews suggest that 13.9% of students had hurt themselves on purpose at some time, with girls more likely to hurt themselves and cutting the most…

  1. Sustained Reduction in Adolescent Pregnancy Rates through School and Community-Based Education, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Murray; Drane, J. Wanzer; Joshi, Praphul; Shankarnarayan, Saikiran; Nimmons, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The resident population of Bamberg County, SC, has been exposed to multiples of public health information and education interventions since October 1982 with the intent to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. Data analyses were conducted to compare 20 years of pregnancy rates among girls aged 14-17 years for…

  2. Parental Coping with Developmental Disorders in Adolescents within the Ultraorthodox Jewish Community in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…

  3. Adolescent pregnancy prevention for Hispanic youth: the role of schools, families, and communities.

    PubMed

    Brindis, C

    1992-09-01

    A sociodemographic profile of Hispanic youth is presented as well as a description of the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in this population. Strategies and recommendations that should be implemented to provide Hispanic youth with viable options and assistance in delaying early childbearing also are offered. PMID:1434564

  4. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  5. Does It Take a Village? Community Effects on Children, Adolescents, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Crouter, Ann C., Ed.

    Although our society has made substantial investments in research and programs based on the idea that communities affect families and children, significant questions have emerged about the validity of the link between communities, children, and families. This book, presented in four sections, focuses on how communities undergird or undermine human…

  6. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860

  7. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  8. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  9. Global mental health reforms: Challenges in developing a community-based program for maltreated children and adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Sandra; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Vitor; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    This column describes the planning and development of The Equilibrium Program (TEP) for multiply traumatized and neglected children and adolescents with mental and general medical problems in São Paulo, Brazil. The program is a partnership between university faculty, various service providers, the courts, and the city government. In the first step, child psychiatry faculty from the University of São Paulo visited central-city areas and group shelters to talk to street youths to better understand their needs. A nearby community sports center building was chosen to be a center where youths could access services and engage in recreational activities and where the work of family integration could be facilitated. A multidisciplinary team conducts an in-depth assessment and creates an intervention plan, overseen by a case manager. Challenges to implementing such programs are discussed. PMID:24492897

  10. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  11. Reasons for Fighting among Violent Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Investigation from an Urban, Midwestern Community.

    PubMed

    Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828

  12. Prevalence and correlates of psychotic like experiences in a nationally representative community sample of adolescents in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Louise; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent psychotic like experiences (PLEs) are an important area of research, yet only a small number of community surveys have investigated their psychosocial correlates. This study presents the prevalence and correlates of three types of PLEs in a nationally representative community sample of 12-19 year olds in Ireland (N=5910). Correlates are considered across five domains: demographic, stressful life experiences, emotional/behavioral problems, substance use, and personal resources. Auditory hallucinations were reported by 13.7% of participants, 10.4% reported visual hallucinations and 13.1% reported paranoid thoughts. Participants who had experienced two of the three PLEs were assigned "risk" status (10.4%; n=616). Using binary logistic regression, PLEs were associated with a range of correlates across the five domains. Key correlates of risk status include depression (OR 4.07; 95% CI 3.39-4.88), low self-esteem (OR 4.03 95% CI 3.34-4.86), low optimism (OR 3.56; 95% CI 2.96-4.28), school misconduct (OR 3.10 95%; CI 2.56-3.75), and high avoidance coping (OR 2.86 95% CI 2.34-3.49). These associations remained significant in a multivariate analysis. While correlates for each of the three PLEs were similar, there were some nuances in these patterns. Notably, demographic and substance use variables were the weakest groups of correlates. Personal resources (e.g. self-esteem, optimism and coping) have been poorly studied in the adolescent PLE literature and these findings provide important insights for future research and intervention design. PMID:26416443

  13. Impact of violence on children and adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M

    1993-02-01

    The Children's National Medical Center is located in the inner-city area of Washington, DC. As is nationally now well publicized, the drug-related violence in Washington has earned the area the dubious title of "murder capital of the world." Our outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic at Children's Hospital provides walk-in services during daytime hours, Monday through Friday. Access to services is available at other times through the emergency room. PMID:8488207

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Acne Vulgaris: A Community-based Study with Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong Eun; Cho, Sun-Mi; In, Sung-Il; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Sungnack

    2009-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects the majority of adolescents, but the impact of acne vulgaris on the psychological aspects in this age group is poorly understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acne, and the level of emotional, social, and functional impairments among Korean adolescents with acne. Methods Five hundred four middle school students (13~16 years) participated. The severity of acne was graded by visual examination using the Korean Acne Grading System. Self-reported questionnaires, including subjective acne severity rating, the Self Image Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Index of Peer Relations, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess psychologic status. Results There was a prevalence of acne in 78.9% of the study samples, with 10.2% of students having moderate-to-severe acne. Acne was more prevalent and severe in boys than girls. Participants with severe acne and girls had higher levels of emotional and social impairments. The longer the acne persisted, the more stress the students felt. The degree of stress and extent of self-image impairment were related to subjective severity more than objective grading. Conclusion Acne is a common disorder among Korean adolescents and appears to have a considerable impact on mental health. Dermatologists should be aware of the importance of basic psychosomatic treatment in conjunction with early medical, educational intervention in the management of acne. PMID:20523769

  15. Reactive and proactive control in incarcerated and community adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n=44), male control adolescents (n=33), male incarcerated young adults (n=41), and male control young adults (n=35) using the AX-Continuous Performance Task. This task measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of goal-related information in preparation for a behavioral response) and reactive control (the ability to activate goal-related information in response to an external trigger). Incarcerated individuals had more difficulty implementing proactive control, whereas control individuals had more difficulty implementing reactive control. Adolescents had more difficulty with both reactive and proactive control compared to young adults, suggesting that both skills improve with age. Additional analyses indicated that the effect of age on proactive control was due to the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas the effect of age on reactive control appeared to be a natural developmental trend that could not be explained by other variables. These findings are considered in relation to the dual mechanisms of control theory (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). PMID:20161210

  16. Adolescent Parenthood. Developing A Comprehensive Community Planning Guide around the Issue of Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; And Others

    For individuals or groups interested in developing a comprehensive community plan to address the problems of teenage pregnancy and parenthood, this paper provides a process built around a community diagnostic conference, for mobilizing local decision makers. The process is divided into these six phases, which are discussed separately: (1)…

  17. Creating Effective Civic Engagement Policy for Adolescents: Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of Compulsory Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ailsa; Pancer, S. Mark; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    For high school community service programs to have a positive impact on subsequent civic engagement, students must volunteer in a sustained manner and must evaluate their volunteering experiences positively. Using a survey with 1,293 respondents and 100 semistructured interviews with past participants of the mandatory community service program…

  18. Environmental Learning in Adolescents from a Mexican Community Involved in Forestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, I.; Barraza, L.

    2006-01-01

    Education can generate knowledge and foster a change in attitude provided that people feel individually and collectively responsible for the state of the environment. San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro is an internationally recognised indigenous community located in western Mexico that manages its forest sustainably through a community-based forest…

  19. Plain Talk: Addressing Adolescent Sexuality through a Community Initiative. A Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen E.; Kotloff, Lauren J.

    Plain Talk is an approach to teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention that enlists a broad section of community adults in the effort to protect teens from pregnancy and disease. The Plain Talk design called for creation of community consensus around the needs of youth by focusing on adults, both as recipients of accurate…

  20. Are Adolescents from a Forest Community Well-Informed about Forest Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous community of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Mexico has been engaged in a successful Community Forest Enterprise employing sustainable management practices since 1981. These environmental practices do not seem to be reflected in the educational programmes developed at school. In this study, the environmental knowledge and interest…

  1. Balancing Social Responsibility and Personal Autonomy: Adolescents' Reasoning About Community Service Programs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Justin; Helwig, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Many jurisdictions in North America have implemented mandatory community service programs in high schools. However, little research exists examining the reasoning of youth themselves about such programs. This study examined how youth reason about community service programs, and how they balance the prosocial goals of these programs against their personal autonomy. Seventy-two participants between 10 and 18 years old evaluated voluntary community service along with 4 hypothetical mandatory programs that varied according to whether students or the government decided the areas in which students would serve, and whether a structured reflection component was included. The findings reveal that youth are not simply self-focused but rather balance and coordinate considerations of autonomy and community in their judgments and reasoning about community service. PMID:26287579

  2. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Stevenson, Kate; Lee, Anthea; Hill, Andrew J; Kohn, Michael R; Shah, Smita; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Baur, Louise A

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5) in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G). Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC). The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management intervention to incorporate

  3. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2015-10-01

    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning environment, whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform in a hybrid learning environment. Students completed the Classroom Community Scale survey as a pretest and posttest. Results indicated that the students who participated in the face-to-face classroom had higher overall sense of community and learning community than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  4. Polyvictimization and risk for suicidal phenomena in a community sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Segura, Anna; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide data regarding the association between reported degree of victimization and suicidal phenomena, with special emphasis on gender differences. There were 923 adolescents recruited from eight secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) were used to assess suicidal phenomena and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (nonvictim, victim, and polyvictim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization reported. Results showed that the polyvictim group reported significantly more suicidal phenomena than did the victim and nonvictim groups in both boys and girls. Furthermore, although no gender differences in reported suicidal phenomena were found in the nonvictim group, girls reported significantly more suicidal phenomena in both the victim and the polyvictim groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that victimization may play an important role in generating gender differences with respect to reported suicidal phenomena. In addition, this study highlights the importance of taking into account the whole range of victimizations suffered by adolescents when seeking to design suicide prevention and intervention policies. PMID:24364131

  5. Predictive ability and stability of adolescents' pregnancy intentions in a predominantly Latino community.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort of 555 adolescent girls and boys from a predominantly Latino neighborhood of San Francisco, we examined how well four survey questionnaire items measuring pregnancy intentions predicted the incidence of pregnancy. We also compared consistency of responses among items and assessed how intentions fluctuated over time. Girls experienced 72 pregnancies over two years (six-month cumulative incidence = 8 percent), and boys reported being responsible for 50 pregnancies (six-month cumulative incidence = 10 percent). Although the probability of becoming pregnant generally increased with higher intention to do so, the risk of becoming pregnant was elevated only at the highest response categories for each item. Most pregnancies occurred among teenagers reporting the lowest levels of intention: for instance, 73 percent of pregnancies occurred among girls who reported that they definitely did not want to become pregnant. Considerable change in respondents' intentions were found over short periods of time: 18 percent and 41 percent of responses to the wantedness and happiness items, respectively, changed between six-month survey visits. The development of appropriate strategies to reduce pregnancy among adolescents would benefit from a more nuanced understanding of how teenagers view the prospect of pregnancy and what determines whether they actively protect themselves from unintended pregnancy. PMID:21469271

  6. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  7. Teaching Self-Control with Qualitatively Different Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration…

  8. Socioemotional Adjustment as a Mediator of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Performance in Low-Income Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Larkby, Cynthia A.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Methods Three hundred eighteen mothers and adolescents who participated in a longitudinal investigation were interviewed when adolescents were age 10, 14, and 16. Results Community violence exposure at age 14 was significantly related to anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Delinquent behaviors (but not anxious/depressed symptoms) were significantly associated with academic performance at age 16. Exposure to community violence was indirectly related to academic performance through delinquent behaviors. There was no significant indirect effect of exposure to community violence on academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms. Covariates included sociodemographics and exposure to child abuse. Age 10 anxious/depressed symptoms, age 10 delinquent behaviors, and age 14 academic performance were also included in the model to control for preexisting differences in socioemotional adjustment and academic performance. Conclusions Results suggest that exposure to community violence may initiate a cascade of problems that spread from behavior problems to declines in academic performance. Our results highlight the need for schools to consider exposure to community violence as one form of trauma and to transform in ways that make them more trauma-sensitive. The use of trauma-sensitive practices that address the effects of violence exposure on youth may help limit the progression of adverse effects from delinquent behavior to other domains of functioning. PMID:25485167

  9. Community-oriented family-based intervention superior to standard treatment in improving depression, hopelessness and functioning among adolescents with any psychosis-risk symptoms.

    PubMed

    Granö, Niklas; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Ranta, Klaus; Lindgren, Maija; Roine, Mikko; Therman, Sebastian

    2016-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to compare change in functioning, affective symptoms and level of psychosis-risk symptoms in symptomatic adolescents who were treated either in an early intervention programme based on a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment Model (FCTM) or in standard adolescent psychiatric treatment (Treatment As Usual, TAU). 28 pairs were matched by length of follow-up, gender, age, and baseline functioning. At one year after the start of treatment, the matched groups were compared on change in functioning (GAF-M), five psychosis-risk dimensions of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), and self-reported anxiety, depression, and hopelessness symptoms (BAI, BDI-II, BHS). FCTM was more effective in improving functioning (20% vs. 6% improvement on GAF-M), as well as self-reported depression (53% vs. 14% improvement on BDI-II) and hopelessness (41% vs. 3% improvement on BHS). However, for psychosis-risk symptoms and anxiety symptoms, effectiveness differences between treatment models did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in the present study, we found greater improvement in functioning and self-reported depression and hopelessness among adolescents who received a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment than among those who were treated in standard adolescent psychiatry. PMID:26921045

  10. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations. PMID:25501543

  11. Risk of Cigarette Smoking Initiation During Adolescence Among US-Born and Non–US-Born Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Xue, Xiaonan; Bandiera, Frank C.; Cai, Jianwen; Lee, David J.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Perreira, Krista M.; Salgado, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed risk of cigarette smoking initiation among Hispanics/Latinos during adolescence by migration status and gender. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) surveyed persons aged 18 to 74 years in 2008 to 2011. Our cohort analysis (n = 2801 US-born, 13 200 non–US-born) reconstructed participants’ adolescence from 10 to 18 years of age. We assessed the association between migration status and length of US residence and risk of cigarette smoking initiation during adolescence, along with effects of gender and Hispanic/Latino background. Results. Among individuals who migrated by 18 years of age, median age and year of arrival were 13 years and 1980, respectively. Among women, but not men, risk of smoking initiation during adolescence was higher among the US-born (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73, 2.57; P < .001), and those who had resided in the United States for 2 or more years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.96; P = .01) than among persons who lived outside the United States. Conclusions. Research examining why some adolescents begin smoking after moving to the United States could inform targeted interventions. PMID:25322293

  12. The Interplay of Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms, Aggression and Perceived Parental Rejection: A Four-Year Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; VanderValk, Inge; Akse, Joyce; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    This study of early adolescents from the general population examined the direction of effects adolescents' depressive symptoms, aggression, and perceived parental rejection have on one another in a longitudinal study. Over a four-year period, data were collected yearly from 940 early adolescents (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls) who completed…

  13. Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA. PMID:25080940

  14. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  15. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  17. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning…

  18. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  19. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  20. Empowering Adolescents as Servant-Leaders: Promoting Resiliency, Positive Networking, and Community Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The leadership training model profiled here espouses the belief that all youth are gifted and are capable of making a positive difference in their communities. The program incorporates the key elements of a deliberate psychological education and embraces the philosophy of servant-leadership. Selected at-risk youth participated in a 7-month,…

  1. Evaluation of a Judo/Community Organization Program to Treat Predelinquent Hispanic Immigrant Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Stephen J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Ninety Latino immigrant children in grades 3-6, many of whom were referred due to aggressive or other problem behaviors, participated for 1 year in a twice-weekly community program that featured judo instruction, tutoring, and parent training. Children improved significantly in academic achievement and behavior. Parents improved significantly in…

  2. Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

    2012-01-01

    "Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with interactive tools and…

  3. Strong Community Service Learning: Philosophical Perspectives. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society, Volume 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Community Service Learning (CSL) is, potentially, the most powerful and far-reaching educational reform movement in recent memory. Yet, that potential has yet to be realized. One major reason for CSL's limited success is found in its runaway conceptual confusion: in becoming everything to everyone, CSL has lost its philosophical bearings and, not…

  4. Community and Religious Involvement as Contexts of Identity Change across Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Pratt, Michael W.; Pancer, S. Mark; Olsen, Joseph A.; Lawford, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to describe longitudinal trends in community and religious involvement and Marcia's (1966) four identity statuses (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement), as well as to assess relations between involvement and identity change. Cross-lagged regression models explored temporal ordering of relations…

  5. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  6. Fledgling Psychopathy in the Classroom: ADHD Subtypes Psychopathy, and Reading Comprehension in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores characteristics that are associated with fledgling psychopathy and educational outcomes relating to reading comprehension performance in a community sample of 432 middle school students. Latent class analysis (LCA) produced a four-class solution. Class 1 was a large (71.5% of sample) ‘‘control’’ group of youths with no attention/hyperactivity deficits and the highest reading comprehension scores. Class 2 was 11.6% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type. Class 3 was 7.4% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with ADHD predominantly hyperactive–impulsive type. Class 4 was 9.5% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with ADHD combined type. Classes 2 and 4 were characterized by elevated levels of psychopathic and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and lower educational performance. This study extends the utility of fledgling psychopathy to educational outcomes, which has broad implications for adolescent development, delinquency, and youth violence. PMID:21318082

  7. Effects of an Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention on Health Service Usage by Young People in Northern Ghana: A Community-Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aninanya, Gifty Apiung; Debpuur, Cornelius Y.; Awine, Timothy; Williams, John E.; Hodgson, Abraham; Howard, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background While many Ghanaian adolescents encounter sexual and reproductive health problems, their usage of services remains low. A social learning intervention, incorporating environment, motivation, education, and self-efficacy to change behaviour, was implemented in a low-income district of northern Ghana to increase adolescent services usage. This study aimed to assess the impact of this intervention on usage of sexual and reproductive health services by young people. Methods Twenty-six communities were randomly allocated to (i) an intervention consisting of school-based curriculum, out-of-school outreach, community mobilisation, and health-worker training in youth-friendly health services, or (ii) comparison consisting of community mobilisation and youth-friendly health services training only. Outcome measures were usage of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) management, HIV counselling and testing, antenatal care or perinatal services in the past year and reported service satisfaction. Data was collected, at baseline and three years after, from a cohort of 2,664 adolescents aged 15–17 at baseline. Results Exposure was associated with over twice the odds of using STI services (AOR 2.47; 95%CI 1.78–3.42), 89% greater odds of using perinatal services (AOR 1.89; 95%CI 1.37–2.60) and 56% greater odds of using antenatal services (AOR 1.56; 95%CI 1.10–2.20) among participants in intervention versus comparison communities, after adjustment for baseline differences. Conclusions The addition of targeted school-based and outreach activities increased service usage by young people more than community mobilisation and training providers in youth-friendly services provision alone. PMID:25928562

  8. Body Ideals and Body Dissatisfaction Among a Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents on Kauai, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Niide, Tiffany K.; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M.; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Yates, Alayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. Objective To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7th through 12th grade students. Results Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. Conclusions BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Implications Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes.

  9. Lipid Screening in Children and Adolescents in Community Practice 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Trower, Nicole K.; Daley, Matthew F.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Lo, Joan C.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Magid, David J.; Parker, Emily D.; Chandra, Malini; Tavel, Heather M.; O'Connor, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9-11 years and 17-21 years. Methods and Results We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301,080 children and adolescents aged 3-19 enrolled in three large U.S. health systems in 2007-2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by BMI percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9-11 year olds and 24.3% of 17-19 year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9-11 year olds and 22.0% of 17-19 year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and BMI category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for HDL-C, 12.0% for non-HDL-C, 8.0% for LDL-C and 21% for triglycerides (age 10-19). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with BMI, particularly for HDL-C and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese compared with normal weight children). Conclusions Lipid screening was uncommon in 9-11 year olds and was performed in a minority of 17-19 year olds during 2007-2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management. PMID:25160839

  10. REDUCING ADOLESCENT USE OF HARMFUL LEGAL PRODUCTS: INTERMEDIATE EFFECTS OF A COMMUNITY PREVENTION INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Knowlton; Shamblen, Steven R.; Ogilvie, Kristen A.; Collins, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study describes preliminary results from a preventive intervention to reduce the use of Harmful Legal Products (HLPs such as inhalants and over the counter drugs) among 5th through 7th grade students in three Alaskan rural communities. The intervention had two primary components, an environmental strategy (ES) to reduce access to HLPs at home, in schools, and from retail outlets and a school-based curriculum intended to enhance knowledge about HLP use and problems and improve refusal skills and assertiveness (ThinkSmart). Methods Two waves of survey data were collected from 5th, 6th and 7th grade students in all schools in all three communities assessing knowledge of HLP risks, use of refusal skills, assertiveness, peer attitudes and use of HLPs, perceived availability of HLPs, and intent to use and avoid use of HLPs in the future. Scales for the measurement of each dimension of risk and protective factors for HLP use were developed and tested. All were demonstrated to have good internal reliability (α > 0.70). Pretest surveys were given in classrooms in each school, the ES and ThinkSmart interventions fielded, then a pretest given one year later. Results A simple pretest – post-test design enabled preliminary tests of program effects on these intermediate variables related to HLP use. Evidence was found for significant increases in knowledge about HLP use and risks and decreases in perceived availability of HLP products in the home and at school. These effects were differentiated across grade groups, reflecting differential exposure to the ThinkSmart program. Discussion The results of this preliminary study provide encouragement to pursue mixed environmental and school-based strategies for the reduction of HLP use among young people in these Alaskan rural communities. As a preliminary feasibility study, the absence of a control group by which to assess preliminary effects on intermediate variables should lend some skepticism to these observed

  11. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image

    PubMed Central

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. Methods This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children’s stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Results Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P = 0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P = 0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI = 1.03-1.16, P < 0.002). Conclusion Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents. PMID:24170725

  12. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  13. Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

    PubMed

    Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning. PMID:25217145

  14. Transverse Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramblička, Štefan; Veróny, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the article we are dealing with the influence of transverse reinforcement to the resistance of a cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns and also with the effective detailing of the column reinforcement. We are verifying the correctness of design guides for detailing of transverse reinforcement. We are also taking into account the diameter of stirrups and its influence over transverse deformation of column.

  15. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  16. Rural parents' messages to their adolescent sons and daughters to leave their home communities.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Stracuzzi, Nena F; Van Gundy, Karen T; Rebellon, Cesar

    2013-10-01

    The perceptions of 354 seventh and eleventh graders regarding the frequency and nature of their rural parents' messages to them and their closest-in-age sibling to leave their home communities after high school were explored. Survey data showed that almost half (54%) perceived that their parents encouraged them and/or their closest-in-age sibling to leave the area and about 19% of that group reported that their parents' messages to leave were inconsistent between them and their closest sibling. Parents' messages did not differ by youths' sex or age. Consistency of parents' messages between siblings was associated with youths' well-being, family relationship experiences, and future residential preferences. Semi-structured interviews with a subsample of seventh graders and their mothers highlighted parents' and youths' perspectives on parents' messages. This work highlights the familial processes associated with youth future planning and extends the current work on parents' differential treatment of siblings. PMID:24011112

  17. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  18. Damaged Youth: Prevalence of Community Violence Exposure and Implications for Adolescent Well-Being in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; McCartan, Claire

    2009-01-01

    As Northern Ireland transitions to a post-conflict society the nature of violent victimization and its influence on adolescents following the "Troubles" becomes an even more important area of interest. Adolescents are particularly at risk of victimization and associated social, emotional, and psychological health problems. In this analysis of the…

  19. Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

    Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

  20. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  1. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  2. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  3. Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community Responsive to Student Needs: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Middle Level Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted…

  4. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  5. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  6. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  7. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Scheid, Jennifer L.; Gebre, Eden; O’Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A.; Temple, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8–12 year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are not strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  8. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  9. Neurocognition in the Extended Psychosis Phenotype: Performance of a Community Sample of Adolescents With Psychotic Symptoms on the MATRICS Neurocognitive Battery

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is well established in psychosis, but recent work suggests that processing speed deficits might represent a particularly important cognitive deficit. A number of significant confounds, however, such as disease chronicity and antipsychotic medication use, have been shown to affect processing speed, causing debate as to the core cognitive features of psychosis. We adopted a novel strategy of testing neurocognitive performance in the “extended psychosis phenotype,” involving community-based adolescents who are not clinically psychotic but who report psychotic symptoms and who are at increased risk of psychosis in adulthood. This allows investigation of the earliest cognitive factors associated with psychosis risk, while excluding potential confounds such as disease chronicity and antipsychotic use. A population sample of 212 school-going adolescents aged 11–13 years took part in this study. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the psychosis section of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Neurocognition was assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus neurocognitive battery. Adolescents with psychotic symptoms performed significantly more poorly on 3 processing speed tasks: Trail Making Test-A (F = 3.3, P < .05), Trail Making Test-B (F = 3.1, P < .05), and digit symbol coding task (F = 7.0, P < .001)—as well as on a nonverbal working memory (spatial span) task (F = 3.2, P < .05). Our findings support the idea that neurocognitive impairment, and processing speed impairment in particular, is a core feature of psychosis risk. This group likely demonstrates some of the earliest cognitive impairments associated with psychosis vulnerability.Key words: epidemiology/adolescents/cognition PMID:22927672

  10. Evaluation of a Community-Based Weight Management Program for Predominantly Severely Obese, Difficult-To-Reach, Inner-City Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Heo, Moonseong; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Blank, Arthur E.; Strauss, Temima; Viswanathan, Nisha; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few interventions targeting severely obese minority youth have been implemented in community-based settings. We evaluate a 9-month multicomponent, community-based program for obese, inner-city adolescents. Methods Of 5250 estimated eligible adolescents, 349 were recruited; they had a mean age of 15±2 years, mean BMI %ile 98.9±1.5, and comprised 52% African American and 44% Hispanic. Longitudinal trends of anthropometric measures were compared 1 year before enrollment (T−12), at baseline (T0) and after program completion (T9). Dietary and physical activity behaviors were compared at T0 and T9. Anthropometric changes were compared at T9 and 18 months (T18) in completers and noncompleters. Results A majority of participants were severely obese (67%) and expressed low readiness to change behaviors (82%). For intervals T−12 to T0 versus T0 to T9, there were significant decreases in rates of gain in BMI (0.13 vs. 0.04, p<0.01), BMI percentile (0.0002 vs. −0.0001, p<0.01), percent overweight (0.001 vs. −0.001, p<0.01), and BMI z-score (0.003 vs. −0.003, p<0.01). Significant increases in vegetable and fruit consumption and in vigorous physical activity participation were observed. From T9 to T18, except for a significant increase in BMI (38.3±7.4 vs. 39.0±7.5, p<0.01) in completers, all other anthropometric measures remained unchanged in completers and noncompleters. Conclusions We demonstrate modest clinical improvements and increased healthy lifestyle behaviors in predominantly severely obese, difficult-to-reach, ethnic minority adolescents attending a community-based weight management program. The loss of clinical improvements 9 months after program completion implies that extending the duration of such a program may prevent long-term weight regain in severely obese adolescents. PMID:23865528

  11. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized. PMID:24239513

  12. “Going Beyond the Call of Doula”: A Grounded Theory Analysis of the Diverse Roles Community-Based Doulas Play in the Lives of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Nolte, Kim M.; Gonzalez, Ainka; Pearson, Magan; Ivey, Symeon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the most salient qualitative results from a larger program evaluation of pregnant and parenting adolescents who participated in a community-based doula program. Using grounded theory analysis, seven problem-solving strategies emerged that doulas apply in helping pregnant and parenting adolescents navigate multiple social and health settings that often serve as barriers to positive maternal- and child-health outcomes. The ethnographic findings of this study suggest that the doulas provide valuable assistance to pregnant and parenting adolescents by addressing social-psychological issues and socio-economic disparities. “Diverse role-taking” results in doulas helping pregnant adolescents navigate more successfully through fragmented social and health service systems that are less supportive of low-income adolescents, who are often perceived to be draining scarce resources. The findings have implications for the roles of community-based doulas assigned to low-income adolescents of color seeking to overcome obstacles and attain better educational and economic opportunities. PMID:21886419

  13. Decreased Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren After Yearlong Information Sessions With Parents Reinforced With Web and Mobile Phone Resources: Community Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Duque, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Background The obesity pandemic has now reached children, and households should change their lifestyles to prevent it. Objective The objective was to assess the effect of a comprehensive intervention on body mass index z-score (BMIZ) in schoolchildren. Methods A yearlong study was conducted at 4 elementary schools in Mexico City. Intervention group (IG) and control group (CG) were split equally between governmental and private schools. Three educational in-person parents and children sessions were held at 2-month intervals to promote healthy eating habits and exercise. To reinforce the information, a website provided extensive discussion on a new topic every 2 weeks, including school snack menus and tools to calculate body mass index in children and adults. Text messages were sent to parents’ mobile phones reinforcing the information provided. The IG contained 226 children and CG 181 children. We measured their weight and height and calculated BMIZ at 0, 6, and 12 months. Results The CG children showed a change of +0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.11) and +0.05 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10) in their BMIZ at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The BMIZ of IG children decreased by -0.13 (95% CI -0.19 to -0.06) and -0.10 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.03), respectively, and the effect was greater in children with obesity. Conclusions The comprehensive intervention tested had beneficial effects, preserved the BMIZ of normal weight children, and reduced the BMIZ of children with obesity. PMID:27342650

  14. Adolescent pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.

  15. “ADHD Knowledge, Perceptions and Information Sources: Perspectives from a Community Sample of Adolescents and their Parents”

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Meyer, Johanna.M.; White, Kimberly; Garvan, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The chronic illness model advocates for psychoeducation within a collaborative care model to enhance outcomes. To inform psychoeducational approaches for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study describes parent and adolescent knowledge, perceptions and information sources and explores how these vary by sociodemographic characteristics, ADHD risk, and past child mental health service use. METHODS Parents and adolescents were assessed 7.7 years after initial school district screening for ADHD risk. The study sample included 374 adolescents (56% high and 44% low ADHD risk), on average 15.4 (SD 1.8) years old, and 36% were African American. Survey questions assessed ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and cues to action, and elicited utilized and preferred information sources. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine potential independent predictors of ADHD knowledge. McNemar's tests compared information source utilization against preference. RESULTS Despite relatively high self-rated ADHD familiarity, misperceptions among parents and adolescents were common, including a sugar etiology (25% and 27%, respectively) and medication overuse (85% and 67%). African American respondents expressed lower ADHD awareness and greater belief in sugar etiology than Caucasians. Parents used a wide range of ADHD information sources while adolescents relied on social network members and teachers/school. However, parents and adolescents expressed similar strong preferences for the Internet (49% and 51%) and doctor (40% and 27%) as ADHD information sources. CONCLUSION Culturally appropriate psychoeducational strategies are needed that combine doctor-provided ADHD information with reputable Internet sources. Despite time limitations during patient visits, both parents and teens place high priority on receiving information from their doctor. PMID:23174470

  16. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  17. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents: Targeting Substance Use and HIV/STI-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a family-based intervention for addressing both substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in adolescents presenting for outpatient substance use treatment. The intervention combines contingency management (CM) for adolescent substance use, which is a behavioral intervention modeled on the Community Reinforcement Approach, with a sexual risk reduction protocol that mirrors aspects of the CM model. As a family-based intervention, caregivers attend every session and actively collaborate with the therapist to address their youth’s behavior problems. The treatment is criterion-based with treatment duration determined by the youth’s achievement of reduced substance use and unprotected sexual behavior goals. A case study describes the implementation of this treatment with an adolescent presenting a history of polysubstance use and unprotected sexual intercourse. Following the adolescent and caregiver’s participation in weekly sessions, the adolescent demonstrated improvements in substance use, unprotected sexual behavior, and other behavior problems. Clinical summary data from two outpatient clinics reveal similar positive outcomes for youth receiving the intervention. This paper illustrates the potential utility of an integrated treatment approach targeting substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in an adolescent population. PMID:25419101

  18. How Does Longitudinally Measured Maternal Expressed Emotion Affect Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms of Adolescents from the General Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Keijsers, Loes; Klimstra, Theo A.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Hawk, Skyler; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, maternal expressed emotion (EE) has been found to be a good predictor of the course of adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, these studies have been cross-section as opposed to longitudinal. The goal of this study is to examine longitudinal data of perceived maternal EE and adolescent…

  19. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  20. Background for Community-Level Work on Emotional Well-Being in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…

  1. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  2. Family Involvement for Adolescents in a Community Poetry Workshop: Influences of Parent Roles and Life Context Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    While adolescents benefit from the involvement of caring adults who participate in their schooling experiences, their families' participation in school events decreases incrementally as they progress through their education. There is still much to be understood about how to develop supportive relationships that encourage families to contribute and…

  3. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse and a Bulimic Behavior: Findings from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom

    Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…

  4. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  5. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  6. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  7. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  8. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  9. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  10. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  11. Randomization of Group Contingencies and Reinforcers To Reduce Classroom Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of randomizing both contingencies for reinforcement and reinforcers to decrease classroom disruptive behavior in five adolescent students with serious emotional disorder. Results reveal that the percentage of observed intervals of disruptive behaviors decreased immediately and dramatically in all students. (Contains 24…

  12. Effects of Reinforcer Quality on Behavioral Momentum: Coordinated Applied and Basic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, R. Charles; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to study the relationship between reinforcer quality and behavioral momentum by varying reinforcer quality in two applied experiments and a basic laboratory experiment with rats. A study of two adolescent boys with mental retardation showed that compliance increasing effects could be improved by reinforcing…

  13. Stimulus Fading and Differential Reinforcement for the Treatment of Needle Phobia in a Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabani, Daniel B.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulus fading in the form of gradually increased exposure to a fear-evoking stimulus, often combined with differential reinforcement, has been used to treat phobias in children who are otherwise normal and in children with autism. In this investigation, we applied stimulus fading plus differential reinforcement with an adolescent with autism and…

  14. Self-Reported Emotion Reactivity Among Early-Adolescent Girls: Evidence for Convergent and Discriminant Validity in an Urban Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025

  15. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  16. Can the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents predict the necessity of inpatient stay during assertive community treatment?

    PubMed

    Urben, Sébastien; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Baier, Vanessa; Halfon, Olivier; Villard, Eva; Holzer, Laurent

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the trajectories of youths within Child and Adolescents Mental Health Service (CAMHS) is of primary importance. Our objective is to assess the usefulness of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) to predict inpatient (IP) stay for youths followed by assertive community treatment (ACT) teams. 82 youths followed exclusively by ACT and 42 who needed IP were assessed with the HoNOSCA at admission to the program. The HoNOSCA allowed the computing of three scores: a total score, an externalizing symptoms (Ext) score and an emotional problems (Emo) score. Logistic regressions revealed that the three HoNOSCA scores at admission of ACT predicted later need for hospitalization. Using ROC curve analyses, we set up cut off scores with appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the HoNOSCA Total and Ext to optimally predict the need for hospitalization. This study revealed that the HoNOSCA may be a useful tool to predict the need for later IP during ACT. Such knowledge is important to set up the best therapeutic strategies. PMID:27341331

  17. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects. PMID:21710106

  18. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial of "directly observed home-based daily iron therapy" in lowering prevalence of anemia in rural women and adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sahul; Bharti, Bhavneet; Naseem, Shano; Attri, Savita Verma

    2015-03-01

    In a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned clusters of anemic women and adolescent girls to either "directly observed home-based daily iron therapy" (DOHBIT; n = 524 in 16 villages) or unsupervised self-treatment at home (n = 535 in 16 villages) for a period of 90 days. Those in the DOHBIT group, when compared with those in the unsupervised self-treatment group, had significantly lower relative risk (RR) of anemia (16.8% vs 35.3%, RR = 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33-0.65]; P < .0001), higher hemoglobin (Hb) rise of ≥2 g/dL (70.2% vs 42.2%, RR = 1.56 [95% CI = 1.31-1.87]; P <.0001), and nonsignificant trend for lower side effects (3.5% vs 6.7%, RR = 0.49 [95% CI = 0.22-1.08; P < .08) on intention-to-treat analyses. On linear mixed model analysis, the subjects in the intervention group demonstrated higher mean Hb levels (13.01 vs 12.32 g/dL; P < .0001) and higher adherence to iron therapy (93% vs 60%; P < .0001). DOHBIT is effective in lowering the prevalence of anemia in rural women and adolescent girls. PMID:23666832

  19. Evaluation of an Assertive Continuing Care Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric; Jungerman, Joanna; Kinyua, Juliet; Frew, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated an Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) and Assertive Continuing Care (ACC) program targeting Hispanic adolescents at risk for substance abuse. Method: The Clinic for Education, Treatment, and Prevention of Addiction (CETPA, Inc.), a behavioral health provider offering culturally appropriate substance use and mental health services, carried out the intervention. We examined longitudinal substance use data in relation to time spent in the program and possible confounders. Results: We analyzed data from 72 adolescent clients collected between 2010 and 2012. Self-reported data were evaluated to determine if time spent in the program was associated with substance use reduction. The data were correlated, zero-inflated, and overdispersed; consequently, we employed a mixed-effects zero-inflated negative-binomial model. Time spent in CETPA’s program was significantly associated with reductions in the number of days of substance use (p = .039), but not with the likelihood of fully abstaining from use (p = .290). For non-abstinent participants who spend a year in the program, our models revealed an average decline of 46% in reported days of substance use. Conclusions: A culturally tailored and age-appropriate substance abuse program for Hispanic adolescents resulted in a significant reduction of the numbers of days using alcohol, drugs, or other illicit substances. The A-CRA/ACC approach can yield successful results in culturally diverse settings. PMID:26156933

  20. Evaluation of Community-Level Effects of Communities That Care on Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency Using a Repeated Cross-Sectional Design.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Isaac C; Hawkins, J David; Murray, David M; Fagan, Abigail A; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-02-01

    The Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system has shown effects on reducing incidence and prevalence of problem behaviors among a panel of youth followed from 5th through 12th grade. The present report examines whether similar intervention effects could be observed using a repeated cross-sectional design in the same study. Data were from a community-randomized trial of 24 US towns. Cross-sectional samples of sixth, eighth, and tenth graders were surveyed at four waves. Two-stage ANCOVA analyses estimated differences between CTC and control communities in community-level prevalence of problem behaviors for each grade, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No statistically significant reductions in prevalence of problem behaviors were observed at any grade in CTC compared to control communities. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects within a “pseudo cohort” where cross-sectional data were used from sixth graders at baseline and tenth graders 4 years later. When examining effects within the pseudo cohort, CTC compared to control communities showed a significantly slower increase from sixth to tenth grade in lifetime smokeless tobacco use but not for other outcomes. Exploratory analyses showed significantly slower increases in lifetime problem behaviors within the pseudo cohort for CTC communities with high, but not low, prevention program saturation compared to control communities. Although CTC demonstrated effects in a longitudinal panel from the same community-randomized trial, we did not find similar effects on problem behaviors using a repeated cross-sectional design. These differences may be due to a reduced ability to detect effects because of potential cohort effects, accretion of those who were not exposed, and attrition of those who were exposed to CTC programming in the repeated cross-sectional sample. PMID:26462492

  1. The Relation of Severity and Type of Community Violence Exposure to Emotional Distress and Problem Behaviors Among Urban African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Jonathan; Gross, Israel M; Richards, Maryse H; Ragsdale, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Severity level and type of exposure to community violence were examined to determine their effect on emotional distress and problem behaviors among 234 low-income urban African American early adolescents. There were 4 violence exposure scales developed from a principal component analysis of the Richters and Martinez (1993) exposure to violence scale: moderate and severe witnessing and moderate and severe victimization. Regression analyses indicated that moderate victimization was the most consistent predictor of emotional distress and behavioral problems, whereas moderate witnessing did not relate to any of the dependent variables. Severe victimization predicted depression and delinquency, whereas severe witnessing predicted posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and delinquency. Witnessing and victimization scales based on severity of exposure better represented the experience than combining all data into a single exposure or simply witnessing and victimization scales. PMID:26118265

  2. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  3. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  4. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

  5. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  6. The Self, the Spirit and the Social Being: The Formation of Adolescent Identity within Community--Wesley College at Clunes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Doug; McDonough, Sharon

    Wesley College, a private urban secondary school, operates a campus in the small, rural town of Clunes, Victoria (Australia), where ninth-grade students can spend a term in a community-based, experientially-derived curriculum to enhance their sense of self and community. Students are accommodated in houses of eight as single-sex groups and are…

  7. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  8. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  9. Selective simplification and reinforcement of microbial community in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion to enhancing stabilization process of sewage sludge by conditioning with ferric nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ningben; Shou, Zongqi; Yuan, Haiping; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-03-01

    The effect of ferric nitrate on microbial community and enhancement of stabilization process for sewage sludge was investigated in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion. The disinhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was obtained with alteration of individual VFA concentration order. Bacterial taxonomic identification by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing found the dominant phylum Proteobacteria in non-dosing group was converted to phylum Firmicutes in dosing group after ferric nitrate added and simplification of bacteria phylotypes was achieved. The preponderant Tepidiphilus sp. vanished, and Symbiobacterium sp. and Tepidimicrobium sp. were the most advantageous phylotypes with conditioning of ferric nitrate. Consequently, biodegradable substances in dissolved organic matters increased, which contributed to the favorable environment for microbial metabolism and resulted in acceleration of sludge stabilization. Ultimately, higher stabilization level was achieved as ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) decreased while TCOD reduced as well in dosing group comparing to non-dosing group. PMID:26773954

  10. Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Pentz, M A; Weber, M D; Dwyer, J H; Baer, N; MacKinnon, D P; Hansen, W B; Flay, B R

    1990-08-01

    This article reviews major risk factors for cigarette smoking, alcohol, and other drug abuse and promising community-based approaches to primary prevention. In a longitudinal experimental study, 8 representative Kansas City communities were assigned randomly to program (school, parent, mass media, and community organization) and control (mass media and community organization only) conditions. Programs were delivered at either 6th or 7th grade, and panels were followed through Grade 9 or 10. The primary findings were (a) significant reductions at 3 years in tobacco and marijuana use and (b) equivalent reductions for youth at different levels of risk. This study provides evidence that a comprehensive community program-based approach can prevent the onset of substance abuse and that the benefits are experienced equally by youth at high and low risk. PMID:2212182

  11. Addressing Health Disparities in the Mental Health of Refugee Children and Adolescents Through Community-Based Participatory Research: A Study in 2 Communities

    PubMed Central

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Mishra, Tej; Hussein, Aweis; Falzarano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to understand the problems, strengths, and help-seeking behaviors of Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees and determine local expressions of mental health problems among youths in both communities. Methods. We used qualitative research methods to develop community needs assessments and identify local terms for child mental health problems among Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees in Greater Boston and Springfield, Massachusetts, between 2011 and 2014. A total of 56 Somali Bantu and 93 Bhutanese refugees participated in free list and key informant interviews. Results. Financial and language barriers impeded the abilities of families to assist youths who were struggling academically and socially. Participants identified resources both within and outside the refugee community to help with these problems. Both communities identified areas of distress corresponding to Western concepts of conduct disorders, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. There are numerous challenges faced by Somali Bantu and Bhutanese youths, as well as strengths and resources that promote resilience. Future steps include using culturally informed methods for identifying those in need of services and developing community-based prevention programs. PMID:25905818

  12. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  13. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  14. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to

  15. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. PMID:26212268

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual abuse among Female Out-of- School Adolescents in Iwaya Community, Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kunnuji, Michael O N; Esiet, Adenike

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to document the prevalence and predictors of sexual intercourse with persons below the age of consent (statutory rape) and outright sex without consent (rape) among out-of-school adolescents in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathered from a survey of 480 participants were employed. About 14% and 35% of the participants had been victims of rape and statutory rape respectively. Experience of rape was found to be a function of age and basic deprivation (Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.060 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.108). Another model (with a Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.286 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.394) shows that predictors of the experience of statutory rape include age, basic deprivation, living arrangement and previous attendance of school. In view of the overarching influence of basic deprivation on the experience of sexual abuse, an intervention programme that addresses the material conditions of adolescent girls in Nigeria is recommended. PMID:26103698

  17. Reinforced plastics durability

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, G.

    1999-01-01

    Written especially for first-time users of reinforced plastics. The book offers substantial introductory information with key concepts. Chapters examine the long-term threats to the integrity of reinforced plastics: outdoor weathering, solvent/water attack, high temperatures, and repetitive stress.

  18. Composite Intersection Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  19. Composite intersection reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  20. Testing the universality of the effects of the communities that care prevention system for preventing adolescent drug use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2010-12-01

    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: The effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline. PMID:20422289

  1. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  2. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  3. Adolescent Services & the TC. Chapter 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with adolescent clients and TCs. Papers include: (1) Preliminary Consideration on "Adolescence and the TC" (David Deitch); (2) "Daytop's Full Service Adolescent Treatment Program" (Charles Devlin and Lois Morris); (3) "Adolescent…

  4. Reinforced concrete offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Martyshenko, J.P.; Martyshenko, S.J.; Kotelnikov, J.S.; Kutukhtin, E.G.; Petrosian, M.S.; Ilyasova, N.I.; Volkov, J.S.; Vardanian, A.M.

    1987-10-20

    A reinforced concrete offshore platform is described comprising a honeycomb foundation (A), a supporting structure (B) and an above-surface section (C) carrying appropriate equipment. The honeycomb foundation (A) and the supporting structure (B) are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements which are polyhedral hollow prisms arranged with gaps between the external sides thereof and joined by a system of prestressed vertical diaphragm walls and horizontal diaphragm walls formed by pre-tensioning reinforcing bars placed in the gaps between the faces of the prisms and casting in-situ the gaps later on.

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  6. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  7. The Impact of a Community-Based Comprehensive Sex Education Program on Chinese Adolescents' Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Meier, Ann; Shah, Iqbal; Li, Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexual knowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…

  8. Background for Community-Level Work on Positive Citizenship in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Michelsen, Erik

    Although American youth seem to be knowledgeable about civic matters and say they wish to participate in civic activities, a relatively low percentage of youth are engaged in their communities. This review examines various antecedents of positive citizenship among 12- to 18-year-olds, focusing on proximal and distal influences on organized forms…

  9. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  10. Multiple Dimensions of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ann H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses what the Jacksonville (Florida) community is doing for teens to prevent pregnancy, help pregnant adolescents, and help adolescent parents. Discusses whether these activities are sufficient and effective. Suggests specific ways to improve programs and indicates that there are many factors to consider when attempting to deter teen…

  11. The status of adolescent medicine: building a global adolescent workforce.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lana; Upadhya, Krishna K; Matson, Pamela A; Adger, Hoover; Trent, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Remarkable public health achievements to reduce infant and child mortality as well as improve the health and well-being of children worldwide have successfully resulted in increased survival and a growing population of young people aged 10-24 years. Population trends indicate that the current generation of 1.8 billion young people is the largest in history. However, there is a scarcity of dedicated resources available to effectively meet the health needs of adolescents and young adults worldwide. Growing recognition of the pivotal roles young people play in the cultures, societies, and countries in which they live has spurred an expanding global movement to address the needs of this special population. Building an effective global workforce of highly-skilled adolescent health professionals who understand the unique biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that affect the health of adolescents is a critical step in addressing the health needs of the growing cohort of young people. In this review, we aim to: 1) define a global assessment of the health needs for adolescents around the world; 2) describe examples of current training programs and requirements in adolescent medicine; 3) identify existing gaps and barriers to develop an effective adolescent health workforce; and 4) develop a call for targeted actions to build capacity of the adolescent health workforce, broaden culturally relevant research and evidence-based intervention strategies, and reinforce existing interdisciplinary global networks of youth advocates and adolescent health professionals to maximize the opportunities for training, research, and care delivery. PMID:26167974

  12. Fibre-reinforced materials.

    PubMed

    Brown, D

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the role of fibres in the reinforcement of composite materials, and the significance of the form the fibre takes and the material from which it is made. The current dental applications of fibre reinforcement, including dental cements and splints, fibres made into structures for use in composites, denture bases and the contemporary use of fibres in fixed partial dentures, are reviewed. Their role in biomedical implants is surveyed and their future forecast. PMID:11218597

  13. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  14. Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form of a response modulation deficit in lowanxious, Caucasian psychopaths. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) may be used to identify children with a similar vulnerability. Using a representative community sample of 308 16-year-olds from the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), we tested and corroborated the hypotheses that participants with relatively low anxiety and high APSD scores would display poorer passive avoidance learning and less interference on a spatially separated, picture-word Stroop task than controls. Consistent with hypotheses, the expected group differences in picture-word Stroop interference were found with male and female participants, whereas predicted differences in passive avoidance were specific to male participants. To the extent that response modulation deficits contributing to poor socialization among psychopathic adult offenders also characterize a subgroup of adolescents with mild conduct problems, clarification of the developmental processes that moderate the expression of this vulnerability could inform early interventions. PMID:16118992

  15. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  16. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  17. Community Violence Exposure and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Testing Parental Support as a Promotive Versus Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tess; Ammons, Chrissy; Dahl, Alexandra; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 yrs, SD = 1.56 yrs; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU. PMID:25580047

  18. Hawaii's Adolescent Wellness Plan: Laulima in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu.

    Based on a need in Hawaii for a multilevel responsibility and commitment to ensure adolescent wellness, the Hawaii Adolescent Wellness Team developed a plan based on research and discussions with a variety of professionals and community leaders in health, education, and social service. This resource handbook is designed to assist communities in…

  19. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  20. Recruitment of Minority Adolescents and Young Adults into Randomised Clinical Trials: Testing the Design of the Technology Enhanced Community Health Nursing (TECH-N) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Chung, Shang-en; Gaydos, Charlotte; Frick, Kevin D.; Anders, Jennifer; Huettner, Steven; Rothman, Richard; Butz, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) disproportionately affects adolescent and young adult (AYA) women and can negatively influence reproductive health trajectories. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have focused on strategies to improve outpatient adherence or to reduce reproductive morbidity in this population. This paper describes the research methods and preliminary effectiveness of recruitment, retention, and intervention strategies employed in a novel RCT designed to test a technology-enhanced community-health nursing (TECH-N) intervention among urban AYA with PID. Methods AYA women aged 13–25 years were recruited during acute PID visits in outpatient clinics and emergency departments (ED) to participate in this IRB-approved trial. Participants completed an audio-computerized self-interview (ACASI), provided vaginal specimens, and were randomized to standard treatment or the intervention. Intervention participants received text-messaging support for 30 days and a community health nurse (CHN) interventionist performed a home visit with clinical assessment within 5 days after enrollment. All patients received a full course of medications and completed research visits at 14-days (adherence), 30 days and 90 days with by an outreach worker. STI testing performed at the 30-and 90-day visits. Exploratory analyses using descriptive statistics were conducted to examine recruitment, retention, and follow-up data to test the overall design of the intervention. Results In the first 48 months, 64% of 463 patients were eligible for the study and 81.2% of 293 eligible patients were recruited for the study (63.3%); 238 (81.2%) of eligible patients were enrolled. Most participants were African American (95.6%) with a mean age of 18.6 (2.3). Ninety-four percent of individuals assigned to the TECH-N intervention completed the nursing visits. All completed visits have been within the 5-day window and over 90% of patients in both arms have been retained over the 3

  1. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  2. The Parent Participation Engagement Measure (PPEM): Reliability and Validity in Child and Adolescent Community Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Roesch, Scott C; Trask, Emily V; Fawley-King, Kya; Ganger, William C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Parent participation in community-based child mental health services is an important yet understudied process associated with treatment effectiveness. This paper describes the development and psychometrics of the Parent Participation Engagement Measure in a sample of 1374 parents and 563 youth receiving publicly-funded mental health services. Analyses indicated excellent internal consistency, and model fit indices/factor loadings supported a one-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported, although some coefficients were modest in magnitude. Psychometric results were consistent for Caucasian versus Hispanic, parent versus youth, and English versus Spanish-language respondents. The clinical and research utility of this measure are discussed. PMID:26520104

  3. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  4. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  5. Every reinforcer counts: reinforcer magnitude and local preference.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules. Sessions consisted of seven components, each lasting 10 reinforcers, with the conditions of reinforcement differing between components. The component sequence was randomly selected without replacement. In Experiment 1, the concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratios in components were all equal to 1.0, but across components reinforcer-magnitude ratios varied from 1:7 through 7:1. Three different overall reinforcer rates were arranged across conditions. In Experiment 2, the reinforcer-rate ratios varied across components from 27:1 to 1:27, and the reinforcer-magnitude ratios for each alternative were changed across conditions from 1:7 to 7:1. The results of Experiment 1 replicated the results for changing reinforcer-rate ratios across components reported by Davison and Baum (2000, 2002): Sensitivity to reinforcer-magnitude ratios increased with increasing numbers of reinforcers in components. Sensitivity to magnitude ratio, however, fell short of sensitivity to reinforcer-rate ratio. The degree of carryover from component to component depended on the reinforcer rate. Larger reinforcers produced larger and longer postreinforcer preference pulses than did smaller reinforcers. Similar results were found in Experiment 2, except that sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude was considerably higher and was greater for magnitudes that differed more from one another. Visit durations following reinforcers measured either as number of responses emitted or time spent responding before a changeover were longer following larger than following smaller reinforcers, and were longer following sequences of same reinforcers than following other sequences. The results add to the growing body of research that informs model building at local levels. PMID:13677611

  6. Fiber-reinforced glass

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, W.; Markman, S.

    1997-12-01

    Fiber-reinforced glass composites are glass or glass ceramic matrices reinforced with long fibers of carbon or silicon carbide. These composites are lighter than steel but just as strong as many steel grades, and can resist higher temperatures. They also have outstanding resistance to impact, thermal shock, and wear, and can be formulated to control thermal and electrical conductivity. With proper tooling, operations such as drilling, grinding, and turning can be completed in half the time required for non-reinforced glass. Currently, fiber-reinforced glass components are primarily used for handling hot glass or molten aluminum during manufacturing operations. But FRG is also under test as an engineering material in a variety of markets, including the aerospace, automotive, and semiconductor industries. Toward this end, research is being carried out to increase the size of components that can be delivered on a production basis, to develop economical methods of achieving complex near-net shapes, and to reduce the cycle time for production of specific shapes. This article focuses on the properties and applications of fiber-reinforced glass composites.

  7. Motives to drink or not to drink: Longitudinal relations among personality, motives and alcohol use across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Briggs, Kristen E.L.; White, Helene R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Methods Using three waves of data from three cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18 and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink three years later (ages 18, 21 and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems seven years subsequently (ages 25, 28, 31 years). Results Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, disinhibition and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems seven years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering disinhibition as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. Conclusions The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing

  8. Examination of the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Hampton, H L

    2000-03-01

    Adolescent patients need knowledge and motivation to practice a healthy lifestyle. The provider of adolescent health care is uniquely qualified to provide factual health information and practical advice. Enlisting parental support for confidential adolescent health services usually is not problematic when parents and health care providers share common goals and responsibility. The health care provider must develop rapport to foster high-risk health behavior disclosure and must promote health messages that are stronger than those received from peers, television, movies, and magazines. Adolescents who elect to abstain from sexual activity need as much support as sexually active patients. Depression, substance abuse, and eating disorders must be recognized and treated. Preventative health care services for adolescents can be optimized when office staff understand the special needs of these young women. The physician's concerns regarding the health of adolescent patients will be welcomed by patients, their parents, and the community. PMID:10693179

  9. Community Monitoring Systems: Tracking and Improving the Well-Being of America's Children and Adolescents. NIH Publication No. 07-5852

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the well-being of children and adolescents is a critical component of efforts to prevent psychological, behavioral, and health problems and to promote their successful development. Research during the past 40 years has helped identify aspects of child and adolescent functioning that are important to monitor. These aspects, which…

  10. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  11. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  12. Evaluating The Influence of Postsession Reinforcement on Choice of Reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic findings indicate that this is an important factor to consider (Hursh, 1978; Zeiler, 1999). In this bridge investigation, we evaluated the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of two food items when task responding was reinforced on progressive-ratio schedules. Participants were 3 children who had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that response allocation shifted from one food item to the other food item under thinner schedules of reinforcement when no postsession reinforcement was provided. These findings suggest that the efficacy of instructional programs or treatments for problem behavior may be improved by restricting reinforcers outside treatment sessions. PMID:17970264

  13. History of reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Rosato, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    This history of reinforced plastics is told by combining the individual histories of each reinforcement and the way in which they added to and changed the direction and rate of growth of the industry. The early history is based on all resins, fillers, and fibers found in nature. Then came the Baekeland revolution with the first synthetic resin which lasted about 25 years, at which time synthetic fiber glass and polyester resin dramatically changed the industry. Now, for the 1980s, the high modulus fibers developed 10 to 20 years ago are reshaping the industry. 32 figures.

  14. Evaluating the Influence of Postsession Reinforcement on Choice of Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic…

  15. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  16. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  17. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  18. Evidence for two different ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorders in a community sample of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Perkonigg, Axel; Höfler, Michael; Cloitre, Marylène; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    For the 11th revision of the International classification of diseases, a general category of posttraumatic stress disorders has been proposed with two distinct sibling disorders: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). General population data are examined on evidence for these two disorders. Data were drawn from a 10-year prospective longitudinal, epidemiological study with a representative community sample (N = 3021, 14-24 years at baseline) in Germany. Mixture modelling on latent classes was conducted in a subset of all reported episodes with exposure to interpersonal traumas. Associations between class membership, symptom criteria, and other mental disorders were investigated. Four distinctly interpretable latent classes were found. Class 1 episodes (N = 181) typically included core PTSD symptoms associated with strong impairment (OR 11.68; 95 % CI 4.54-30.05). 18.3 % of these episodes matched the criteria of ICD-11 PTSD. Class 2 episodes (N = 78) had a high probability of PTSD core symptoms and disturbances in self-organization and were associated with strong impairment (OR 38.47; 95 % CI 15.77-93.86). Half of them (49.4 %) matched the proposed ICD-11 criteria of CPTSD. Class 3 (N = 79) was typically characterized by episodes with disturbances in self-organization but a low probability of PTSD core symptoms and impairment. Class 4 (N = 633) was related to a relatively low probability of symptom reports. Membership in class 2 was associated with lower educational attainment, a lower social class, and more other mental disorders. Findings support the ICD-11 proposal to differentiate between PTSD and CPTSD. Further studies should extend exploration to other types of traumatic events in samples covering the full age range. PMID:26320578

  19. Quasicrystalline particulate reinforced aluminum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Unal, O.

    1997-07-01

    Particulate reinforced aluminum and aluminum alloy composites are rapidly emerging as new commercial materials for aerospace, automotive, electronic packaging and other high performance applications. However, their low processing ductility and difficulty in recyclability have been the key concern. In this study, two composite systems having the same aluminum alloy matrix, one reinforced with quasicrystals and the other reinforced with the conventional SiC reinforcements were produced with identical processing routes. Their processing characteristics and tensile mechanical properties were compared.

  20. Teaching self-care to delinquent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ervin, M H

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent delinquency is an ever-increasing societal concern. Certain health problems are concentrated in the delinquent population. Families of delinquent youths often fail to reinforce self-care. Therefore health care providers need to focus on ways to teach delinquent adolescents to care for themselves. This article reviews delinquency and characteristics of juvenile delinquents and their families. A model is presented to guide health care providers to assess delinquent adolescents' abilities to care for themselves and to teach them strategies for self-care. PMID:9515494

  1. New Thrust for Community Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1981-01-01

    Two new components of the Center for Community Education Facility Planning project are the provision of planning assistance to community groups and the development of a public relations campaign to reinforce cooperative planning efforts. (Author/MLF)

  2. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  3. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  4. Teaching Helping to Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…

  5. Mainstream Television, Adolescent Homosexuality, and Significant Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielwasser, Alfred P.; Wolf, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that the symbolic annihilation of gay and lesbian youth exhibited by network television contributes to a dysfunctional isolation supported by the mutually reinforcing invisibility of homosexual adolescents on television and in the real world. Suggests that the spiral of silence also partially accounts for the inefficacy of oppositional…

  6. Reciprocal Contracting with Families of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, Judith M.; Lawrence, P. Scott

    The use of reciprocal behavior contracts with families of behavior-problem adolescents was investigated. Most family contracting to date has involved one-way contracts; that is, the child agrees to certain responsibilities for which he will be reinforced by the parents. A reciprocal contract requires the parents, in addition to the child, to agree…

  7. Decreasing Adolescent Swearing in an Instructional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice, Ashton D.; Parker, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    Excessive use of six obscene words by two adolescents in a resource classroom was reduced using social reinforcement of low rates of behavior and a response cost procedure. Both procedures were effective in reducing swearing in both students and produced short-term maintenance of effects. (Author/CL)

  8. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  9. Reinforcement Learning Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings. PMID:26903687

  10. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  11. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One.

    PubMed

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent-teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent-teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to intervention

  12. Enhancing Substance Abuse Treatment Engagement in Incarcerated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L. A. R.; Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca; Miranda, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI), compared with an attention control condition (relaxation training [RT]) enhances substance abuse treatment engagement in incarcerated adolescents. At the start of incarceration, adolescents were randomly assigned to individually administered MI or RT. Subsequently, therapists and adolescents (N = 130) rated degree of adolescent participation in the facility's standard care group-based treatments targeting crime and substance use. All adolescents received the facility standard care treatment after their individual MI or RT session. MI statistically significantly mitigated negative substance abuse treatment engagement. Other indicators of treatment engagement were in the expected direction; however, effect sizes were small and nonsignificant. These findings are significant, given concerns regarding the deleterious effects of treating delinquent adolescents in groups and the potential for adolescents to reinforce each other's negative behavior, which in turn may lead to escalated substance use and other delinquent behaviors after release. PMID:20617117

  13. UNM in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quantum: Research & Scholarship, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Profiles 10 University of New Mexico community programs: University Art Museum, Rio Grande and Four Corners Writing Projects, Blacks in the Southwest (exhibit), New Mexico Engineering Research Institute's Environmental Finance Center, Adolescent Social Action Program, Minority Engineering Programs, Rural Community College Initiative, Valencia…

  14. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  15. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  16. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  17. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  18. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G., Ed.; Roberts, Michael C., Ed.; Worell, Judith, Ed.

    This book provides a new look at adolescent girls. The sections and chapters reveal the strengths and positive assets of adolescent girls, their relationships, and their communities. It takes a new look at the strengths and successes of adolescents within the context of their race, ethnicity, class, self, sexual orientation, relationships and…

  19. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  20. Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

  1. Could a brief assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem identify adolescents at current and future risk of self-harm in the community? A prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-harm is common in adolescents, but it is often unreported and undetected. Available screening tools typically ask directly about self-harm and suicidal ideation. Although in an ideal world, direct enquiry and open discussion around self-harm would be advocated, non-psychiatric professionals in community settings are often reluctant to ask about this directly and disclosure can be met with feeling of intense anxiety. Training non-specialist staff to directly ask about self-harm has limited effects suggesting that alternative approaches are required. This study investigated whether a targeted analysis of negative emotions and self-esteem could identify young adolescents at risk of self-harm in community settings. Methods Data were collected as part of a clinical trial from young people in school years 8–11 (aged 12–16) at eight UK secondary schools (N = 4503 at baseline, N = 3263 in prospective analysis). The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, personal failure (Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale), and two items on self-harm were completed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results Following a process of Principal Components Analysis, item reduction, and logistic regression analysis, three internally reliable factors were identified from the original measures that were independently associated with current and future self-harm; personal failure (3 items), physical symptoms of depression/anxiety (6 items), positive self-esteem (5 items). The summed score of these 14 items had good accuracy in identifying current self-harm (AUC 0.87 girls, 0.81 boys) and at six months for girls (0.81), and fair accuracy at six months for boys (AUC 0.74) and 12 months for girls (AUC 0.77). Conclusions A brief and targeted assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem, focusing on factors that are strongly associated with current and future self-harm, could potentially be used to

  2. Slender reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdošová, K.; Bilčík, J.

    2011-06-01

    The requirement for a long life with relatively low maintenance costs relates to the use of building structures. Even though the structure is correctly designed, constructed and maintained, the need for extensions of its lifetime can appear. The preservation of the original structure with a higher level of resistance or reliability is enabled by strengthening. Conventional materials are replaced by progressive composites - mainly carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). They are used for strengthening reinforced concrete columns in two ways: added reinforcement in the form of CFRP strips in grooves or CFRP sheet confinement and eventually their combination. This paper presents the effect of the mentioned strengthening methods on slender reinforced concrete columns.

  3. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  4. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  5. Reinforcement in opinion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, Daniel

    I consider the evolution and acceptance of a new opinion in a population of unaware agents by using physics-based models of contagion spread. These models rely upon agent-based dynamics, in which an agent changes opinion by interactions with neighbors according to specific interactions. Most of these models have the feature that only a single input is required to change the opinion of an agent --- an agent has no commitment to its current opinion and accepts a new idea at the slightest provocation. These single-input models fail to account for people's confidence in their own beliefs. Thus I study the concept of social reinforcement --- that an agent adopts a new opinion only after multiple reinforcing prompts. Building on single-input models, I introduce two models of opinion spreading that incorporate a social reinforcement mechanism. (a) In the irreversible innovation and in the transient fad spreading models, a development is initially known only to a small portion of the population and subsequently spreads. An individual requires M > 1 interactions with an adopter before adopting the development. The ultimate extent of a transient fad depends critically on the characteristic time the fad keeps the attention of an adopting agent. (b) In the confident voter model, a voter can be in one of two opinion states and can additionally have two levels of commitment to an opinion: confident and vacillating. Upon interacting with an agent of a different opinion, a confident voter becomes less committed, or vacillating, but does not change opinion. However, a vacillating agent changes opinion by interacting with an agent of a different opinion. In two dimensions, the distribution of consensus times is characterized by two distinct times one that scales linearly with N and another that appears to scale as N 3/2. The longer time arises from configurations that fall into long-lived states that consist of multiple single-opinion stripes before consensus is reached.

  6. Examination of the community-specific prevalence of and factors associated with substance use and misuse among Rural and Urban adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Zenic, Natasa; Ostojic, Ljerka; Sisic, Nedim; Pojskic, Haris; Peric, Mia; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Objective The community of residence (ie, urban vs rural) is one of the known factors of influence on substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to explore the community-specific prevalence of SUM and the associations that exist between scholastic, familial, sports and sociodemographic factors with SUM in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this cross-sectional study, which was completed between November and December 2014, the participants were 957 adolescents (aged 17 to 18 years) from Bosnia and Herzegovina (485; 50.6% females). The independent variables were sociodemographic, academic, sport and familial factors. The dependent variables consisted of questions on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. We have calculated differences between groups of participants (gender, community), while the logistic regressions were applied to define associations between the independent and dependent variables. Results In the urban community, cigarette smoking is more prevalent in girls (OR=2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.35), while harmful drinking is more prevalent in boys (OR=2.07; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.73). When data are weighted by gender and community, harmful drinking is more prevalent in urban boys (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.31 to 2.95), cigarette smoking is more frequent in rural boys (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.39), and urban girls misuse substances to a greater extent than rural girls (OR=1.70; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.51,OR=2.85; 95% CI 1.88 to 4.31,OR=2.78; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.61 for cigarette smoking, harmful drinking and simultaneous smoking-drinking, respectively). Academic failure is strongly associated with a higher likelihood of SUM. The associations between parental factors and SUM are more evident in urban youth. Sports factors are specifically correlated with SUM for urban girls. Conclusions Living in an urban environment should be considered as a higher risk factor for SUM in girls. Parental variables are more strongly associated with SUM among urban

  7. Fiber reinforced superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Signorelli, Robert A.; Caulfield, Thomas; Tien, John K.

    1987-01-01

    Improved performance of heat engines is largely dependent upon maximum cycle temperatures. Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloys (TFRS) are the first of a family of high temperature composites that offer the potential for significantly raising hot component operating temperatures and thus leading to improved heat engine performance. This status review of TFRS research emphasizes the promising property data developed to date, the status of TFRS composite airfoil fabrication technology, and the areas requiring more attention to assure their applicability to hot section components of aircraft gas turbine engines.

  8. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  9. Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Anchorage.

    The goal of this first comprehensive report on adolescent health in Alaska is to stimulate interest, activity, and support for improved health among teenagers (ages 10-19). This plan was developed as a tool for use by governments, organizations, and communities. The plan seeks to provide information on the scope and nature of adolescent health…

  10. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    The major goal of the 2-year child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program at the University of Maryland is to provide an integrated but flexible set of learning experiences, with areas of emphasis including child and adolescent development, early intervention and prevention of mental health problems, community child psychiatry, and research.…

  11. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  12. Comprehensive Adolescent Pregnancy Services: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, K. A., Ed.; Langlykke, K., Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled to assist state, county, and community personnel in developing comprehensive adolescent health programs which address adolescent pregnancy, prevention, and care. It includes a broad range of topics with materials suitable for both professionals and consumers and for use by regional, state, and local government…

  13. Temporal discrimination and delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Buriticá, Jonathan; Vilchez, Zirahuén; Santos, Cristiano Valerio Dos

    2016-09-01

    We attempted to determine the effect of reinforcement delay on time discrimination in an interval bisection task. Three groups of rats were exposed to immediate, delayed reinforcement and longer signals with immediate reinforcement in acquisition and test. Results show differences in the amount of training necessary to reach the acquisition criteria, the Weber fraction and the range or overall stimulus control. The results suggest an increased difficulty to discriminate the difference among durations rather than an increase in estimated time as main effect of delayed reinforcement. PMID:27431922

  14. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  15. Longitudinal change mechanisms for substance use and illegal activity for adolescents in treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Brooke D; Godley, Susan H; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Roozen, Hendrik G

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated: (a) the relationships of exposure to the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) with reductions in substance use, illegal activity, and juvenile justice system involvement in adolescents diagnosed with a substance use disorder, and (b) the pathways by which reductions in the target behaviors were achieved. This study is a secondary data analysis of longitudinal data from a large-scale implementation effort for A-CRA. The sample consisted of 1,467 adolescents who presented to substance use treatment and reported past-year engagement in illegal activity. Participants had an average age of 15.8 years (SD = 1.3) and were 25% female, 14% African American, 29% Hispanic, 35% Caucasian, 16% mixed ethnicity, and 6% other ethnicity. Path analyses provided support that participation in A-CRA had a significant, direct association with reduced substance use; a significant, indirect association with reduced illegal activity through reductions in substance use; and a significant indirect association with reduced juvenile justice system involvement through reductions in both substance use and illegal activity. In addition, post hoc analyses using a bootstrapping strategy provided evidence that reductions in substance use partially mediated the relationship between A-CRA and illegal activity. PMID:24128291

  16. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  17. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  18. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  19. Show and Tell: Photo-Interviews with Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Ellison, Katherine L.; Sequenzia, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, we used photo-interviews as a method to investigate the hopes and fears of urban adolescent girls who actively participated in their community organization. The photo-interviews were featured in a collaborative, creative arts program involving urban adolescent girls from a community organization and college students enrolled in a…

  20. Classroom Application of Structured Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Katherine A.; Schroeder, Glenn B.

    Results of pilot and field tests suggest that teachers should be encouraged to use the classroom management technique of structured reinforcement. In the 1967-68 pilot test 18 teachers (eight experimental and 10 control) systematically varied several parameters of reinforcement in classroom situations to determine their effects on the attainment…

  1. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  2. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  3. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  4. Teacher Preferences for Various Positive Reinforcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Rose, Malcolm I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between applied behavioral training and reinforcement preferences of classroom teachers. Data obtained from the Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule, a paired comparison task, indicated minimal differential reinforcement preferences for classroom teachers with no training, limited training, or extensive…

  5. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. PMID:27354459

  6. Helping Families Deal With Adolescent Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Pavilanis, Alan V.

    1985-01-01

    Developing an independent sexual identity is one of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence. The only recent change in adolescent sexual activity is an increased percentage of teenage girls having intercourse. Coitus carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also an area of conflict with parents. There are healthy and unhealthy approaches to these problems. Family physicians must demystify adolescent sexuality. They must give the adolescent non-judgmental, confidential, and comprehensive care. They must pursue the many possible underlying causes for parental conflict with their teenagers over sexuality. Community involvement is very important in this aspect of practice. PMID:21274175

  7. Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2015-04-01

    The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. PMID:25747527

  8. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  9. Self-Help Books for Parents of Adolescents, 1980-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Vartanian, Lesa R.; DeFrates-Densch, Nancy; Van Loon, Preston C.; Locke, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the contents of self-help books for parents of adolescents that were published from 1980 to 1993. Examines the scope of topics presented and the authors' views about parenting practices to determine the extent to which these parenting books reinforce or debunk cultural stereotypes about adolescents. (Contains 36 references.) (GCP)

  10. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  11. Whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1996-06-03

    The process for making an in-situ whisker reinforced glass-ceramic that is up to 1.5 times as strong as conventional glass-ceramics was developed at Virginia Tech and patented in 1993. This technology has been identified as having commercial potential for use in high temperature heat exchanger applications for the electric power generation field by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). This technology was licensed by MATVA, Inc., a small Virginia business, for further development. In particular, the goal of this project was to develop a property database and conduct initial testing of heat exchanger prototypes to demonstrate its potential application. This final report describes how the glass precursor was formed, physical properties of the glass-ceramic, techniques for making heat exchanger prototypes.

  12. Adolescent health care education and training: insights from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kerem, Nogah C; Hardoff, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing need for health care professionals to extend their knowledge in adolescent health care. Formal training curricula in adolescent medicine have been established in the United States, Canada, and Australia, yet many other countries have developed shorter training programs to enable interested physicians to further pursue knowledge and practical experience in delivering improved quality health care for adolescents. The Israeli experience in building an infrastructure that allows students and physicians to learn about adolescent medicine and to train in the field is described. It includes a series of lectures and seminars for medical students during medical school and at the clinical rotations in pediatric wards; the development of hospital-based and community-based multidisciplinary adolescent health services where residents can practice adolescent health care; a 3-year diploma course in adolescent medicine for specialists in pediatrics and family medicine; mini courses in adolescent medicine for pediatricians and family practitioners working in community settings; and a simulated patient-based program regarding communication with adolescents, aimed for all professional levels - medical students, residents, and specialists. This infrastructure has been developed to create a leading group of physicians, who are able to operate adolescent clinics and to teach adolescent medicine. Recently, a formal fellowship program in adolescent medicine has been approved by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association. The Israeli experience described here could be applied in countries, where formal training programs in adolescent health care are not yet established. PMID:27341557

  13. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  14. Adolescents and Androgens, Receptors and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with increases in pleasure-seeking behaviors, which, in turn, are shaped by the pubertal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In animal models of naturally rewarding behaviors, such as sex, testicular androgens contribute to the development and expression of the behavior in males. To effect behavioral maturation, the brain undergoes significant remodeling during adolescence, and many of the changes are likewise sensitive to androgens, presumably acting through androgen receptors (AR). Given the delicate interaction of gonadal hormones and brain development, it is no surprise that disruption of hormone levels during this sensitive period significantly alters adolescent and adult behaviors. In male hamsters, exposure to testosterone during adolescence is required for normal expression of adult sexual behavior. Males deprived of androgens during puberty display sustained deficits in mating. Conversely, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce mating in prepubertal males, even though brain AR are present before puberty. In this context, wide-spread use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence is a significant concern. AAS abuse has the potential to alter both the timing and the levels of androgens in adolescent males. In hamsters, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggression, and causes lasting changes in neurotransmitter systems. In addition, AAS are themselves reinforcing, as demonstrated by self-administration of testosterone and other AAS. However, recent evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of androgens may not require classical AR. Therefore, further examination of interactions between androgens and rewarding behaviors in the adolescent brain is required for a better understanding of AAS abuse. PMID:18343381

  15. The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health. PMID:22273341

  16. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  17. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  18. Adolescent Connections: A Guide to Selecting Resource Materials for Parents of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheriff, Christine M.

    Since 1989, ParentLink has been devoted to supporting Missouri families and children by working with community teams to promote and support parenting efforts through a variety of means. Noting the widespread problem with high-risk behavior among Missouri adolescents and the importance of communication between parents and their adolescents in…

  19. The Long Arm of Community: The Influence of Childhood Community Contexts across the Early Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Noh, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal effects of childhood community contexts on young adult outcomes. The study uses a sample of 14,000 adolescents (52% female) derived from the 1990 US Census and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Addhealth). The study examines whether community and family environments exert separate and/or…

  20. Fiber-reinforced composites in fixed partial dentures

    PubMed Central

    Vallittu, Pekka

    2006-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) prostheses offer the advantages of good aesthetics, minimal invasive treatment, and an ability to bond to the abutment teeth, thereby compensating for less-than-optimal abutment tooth retention and resistance form. These prostheses are composed of two types of composite materials: fiber composites to build the framework and hybrid or microfill particulate composites to create the external veneer surface. This review concentrates on the use of fiber reinforcement in the fabrication of laboratory or chairsidemade composite-fixed partial dentures of conventional preparation. Other applications of FRC in dentistry are briefly mentioned. The possibilities fiber reinforcement technology offers must be emphasized to the dental community. Rather than limiting discussion to whether FRC prostheses will replace metal-ceramic or full-ceramic prostheses, attention should be focused on the additional treatment options brought by the use of fibers. However, more clinical experience is needed. PMID:21526023