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Sample records for adolescent community reinforcement

  1. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  2. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  3. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  4. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent’s treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however, there are no controlled trials for parents with a substance-abusing child. We examined the behavioral parent training literature to guide us in tailoring CRAFT for parents of adolescents. We discuss adaptations to CRAFT, outcomes and experiences gained from a brief pilot of the revised CRAFT program, and the future directions of this work. PMID:25883523

  5. Feasibility of Implementing the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach in School Settings for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Brooke D.; Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, approximately 10% of adolescents in need of treatment for a substance use (SU) disorder receive treatment. School-based treatment may provide an important opportunity to reduce the treatment gap by facilitating access to services. While some school-based SU treatment exists, little is known about whether newer, evidence-based…

  6. THE ENTRY INTO NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF REINFORCEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAER, DONALD M.; WOLF, MONTROSE M.

    THE PRESCHOOL IS A COMMUNITY OF REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES WHICH WILL SHAPE AND MAINTAIN AN INCREASING REPERTOIRE OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND WILL PUT THAT BEHAVIOR UNDER THE CONTROL OF PEERS. THIS STATEMENT WAS DEMONSTRATED IN A PROGRAM WHICH ANALYZED PROBLEM BEHAVIORS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. IN GENERAL, THE PROGRAM CONSISTED OF TWO PROCESSES--(1)…

  7. Designing Deeply Engaging Online Communities for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzick, David

    2009-01-01

    American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…

  8. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.

  9. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  10. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Stefano; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents’ behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults’ behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  11. Mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco.

    PubMed

    Biglan, A; Ary, D; Koehn, V; Levings, D; Smith, S; Wright, Z; James, L; Henderson, J

    1996-10-01

    A community intervention to mobilize positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people was evaluated. The intervention had five components: (a) mobilization of community support, (b) merchant education, (c) changing consequences to clerks for selling or not selling to those under 18, (d) publicity about clerks' refusals to sell, and (e) feedback to store owners or managers about the extent of their sales to adolescents. A multiple baseline design experiment was conducted, in which two small Oregon communities received the intervention, while two other continued in baseline. Outlets' willingness to sell was assessed repeatedly by teenage volunteers. The intervention significantly reduced the proportion of stores willing to sell. Mobilizing social and material reinforcement for stores not selling tobacco to young people is a viable means of reducing such sales. It may be especially valuable in communities where laws against sales to minors go unenforced.

  12. Reinforcement sensitivity, coping, and delinquent behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A

    2007-10-01

    Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides an alternative conceptualisation of the role of personality in criminal behaviour, and has generally produced more consistent findings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity and delinquent behaviour in a sample of 259 adolescents, and to examine the role that coping strategies play in this relationship. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that use of problem solving mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and delinquent behaviour, while use of non-productive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BAS drive and delinquency. Consequently, it was suggested that coping skills training could be an effective early intervention for delinquent behaviour.

  13. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed.

  14. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706

  15. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents towards action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggests possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  16. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  17. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.

  18. Self-Regulation and External Reinforcement in Problem-Solving Strategies of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Trevor E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among self-regulatory behaviors, perceptions of social reinforcement from significant persons, and problem-solving performance of Black adolescents (N=33). Components of self-regulatory processes--self-reinforcement, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring--were interrelated highly. Perceptions of neither positive nor negative…

  19. Relay Writing in an Adolescent Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Youngjoo

    2008-01-01

    "Welcome to Buckeye City" is an adolescent online community that was maintained by 25 Korean students who attended American schools. On the website, the students engaged in "relay writing"--a writing activity in which each person contributed a portion of an evolving story in a relayed manner. Relay writing offers teachers a new and valuable window…

  20. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  1. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  2. Community Experiences: Contributions to Adolescent Learning and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    Unpaid community activities have been widely recommended as learning experiences for adolescents. An evaluation was conducted of two community action learning programs, one which placed adolescents one-to-one in adult-dominated settings and the other which gave adolescents a group project to plan and carry out with adult assistance. Both programs…

  3. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    PubMed

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior. PMID:23163417

  4. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    PubMed

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  5. The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Meyers, R J; Delaney, H D

    1998-06-01

    Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

  6. Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community…

  7. Treating stereotypy in adolescents diagnosed with autism by refining the tactic of "using stereotypy as reinforcement".

    PubMed

    Potter, Jacqueline N; Hanley, Gregory P; Augustine, Matotopa; Clay, Casey J; Phelps, Meredith C

    2013-01-01

    Use of automatically reinforced stereotypy as reinforcement has been shown to be successful for increasing socially desirable behaviors in persons with intellectual disabilities (Charlop, Kurtz, & Casey, 1990; Hanley, Iwata, Thompson, & Lindberg, 2000; Hung, 1978). A component analysis of this treatment was conducted with 3 adolescents who had been diagnosed with autism, and then extended by (a) progressively increasing the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the response requirement to earn access to stereotypy, (b) arranging objective measures of client preference for contingent access to stereotypy compared to other relevant treatments for their automatically reinforced stereotypy, and (c) assessing the social validity of this treatment with other relevant stakeholders. Implications for addressing stereotypy and increasing the leisure skills of adolescents with autism are discussed.

  8. Training preschool children to recruit natural communities of reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, T F; Fowler, S A; Baer, D M

    1978-01-01

    Four normal and four deviant children aged four-to-six years were taught to judge the quality of their academic work in a preschool classroom, and to prompt or cue their teachers to comment about the quality of that work. When these skills did not generalize spontaneously to other teachers in concurrent natural situations, generalized responding was taught by the experimenter, in multiple-baseline design across subjects. This generalization programming enabled the children to contact a sometimes dormant, but readily available natural community of teacher praise and reinforcement, i.e., to recruit an increase in cued praise and schedules of praise for their good work. These behaviors may be important to young children who find themselves bereft of attention in classrooms. PMID:670114

  9. Community Reinforcement and the Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milford, Jaime L.; Austin, Julia L.; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are both highly effective and empirically validated psychosocial approaches to the treatment of addictions whose unique designs may help achieve certain public health objectives. Literature will be reviewed to examine the potential impact of CRA and…

  10. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  11. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  12. The Adolescent Community of Engagement: A Framework for Research on Adolescent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.; Davies, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) framework as a lens to guide research and design in adolescent online learning environments. Several online learning frameworks have emerged from higher education contexts, but these frameworks do not explicitly address the unique student and environmental characteristics of the…

  13. Self-control in mentally retarded adolescents: choice as a function of amount and delay of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Ragotzy, S P; Blakely, E; Poling, A

    1988-03-01

    Three severely mentally retarded adolescents were studied under discrete-trial procedures in which a choice was arranged between edible reinforcers that differed in magnitude and, in some conditions, delay. In the absence of delays the larger reinforcer was consistently chosen. Under conditions in which the smaller reinforcer was not delayed, increasing the delay to delivery of the larger reinforcer decreased the percentage of trials in which that reinforcer was chosen. All subjects directed the majority of choice responses to the smaller reinforcer when the larger reinforcer was sufficiently delayed, although the value at which this occurred differed across subjects. Under conditions in which the larger reinforcer initially was sufficiently delayed to result in preference for the smaller one, progressively increasing in 5-s increments the delay to both reinforcers increased percentage of trials with the larger reinforcer chosen. At sufficiently long delays, 2 of the subjects consistently chose the larger, but more delayed, reinforcer, and the 3rd subject chose that reinforcer on half of the trials. These results are consistent with the findings of prior studies in which adult humans responded to terminate noise and pigeons responded to produce food. PMID:3361265

  14. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  15. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  16. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  17. Protective factors in American Indian communities and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2013-09-01

    With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.

  18. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity during Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of…

  19. Feedback-related negativity is enhanced in adolescence during a gambling task with and without probabilistic reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Velázquez, Eduardo S; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-21

    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection that appears around 250 ms after the gain or loss of feedback to chosen alternatives in a gambling task in frontocentral regions following outcomes. Few studies have reported FRN enhancement in adolescents compared with adults in a gambling task without probabilistic reinforcement learning, despite the fact that learning from positive or negative consequences is crucial for decision-making during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to identify differences in FRN amplitude and latency between adolescents and adults on a gambling task with favorable and unfavorable probabilistic reinforcement learning conditions, in addition to a nonlearning condition with monetary gains and losses. Higher rate scores of high-magnitude choices during the final 30 trials compared with the first 30 trials were observed during the favorable condition, whereas lower rates were observed during the unfavorable condition in both groups. Higher FRN amplitude in all conditions and longer latency in the nonlearning condition were observed in adolescents compared with adults and in relation to losses. Results indicate that both the adolescents and the adults improved their performance in relation to positive and negative feedback. However, the FRN findings suggest an increased sensitivity to external feedback to losses in adolescents compared with adults, irrespective of the presence or absence of probabilistic reinforcement learning. These results reflect processing differences on the neural monitoring system and provide new perspectives on the dynamic development of an adolescent's brain.

  20. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  1. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  2. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development. PMID:20405186

  3. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.

  4. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger.

  5. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger. PMID:26201172

  6. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  7. Community Residential Treatment of MR Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denkowski, George C.; And Others

    A model for habilitating mentally retarded adolescent offenders is described. Discussion of historical background indicates a lack of programs for this population. A data-based profile of the population covers range of developmental delay, adaptive behavior scores, social skill development, academic achievement, arrest history, racial composition,…

  8. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  9. Alcohol Use among Rural Middle School Students: Adolescents, Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although rural adolescents use of alcohol is at some of the highest rates nationally, rural adolescent alcohol use has not been studied extensively. This study examines how community attitudes and behaviors are related to adolescent drinking in rural environments. Methods: Data were gathered in 22 rural communities in the Upper Midwest…

  10. Validity of a Demand Curve Measure of Nicotine Reinforcement with Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; MacKillop, James; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Brazil, Linda A.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    High or inelastic demand for drugs is central to many laboratory and theoretical models of drug abuse, but it has not been widely measured with human substance abusers. The authors used a simulated cigarette purchase task to generate a demand curve measure of nicotine reinforcement in a sample of 138 adolescent smokers. Participants reported the number of cigarettes they would purchase and smoke in a hypothetical day across a range of prices, and their responses were well-described by a regression equation that has been used to construct demand curves in drug self-administration studies. Several demand curve measures were generated, including breakpoint, intensity, elasticity, Pmax, and Omax. Although simulated cigarette smoking was price sensitive, smoking levels were high (8+ cigarettes/day) at prices up to 50¢ per cigarette, and the majority of the sample reported that they would purchase at least 1 cigarette at prices as high as $2.50 per cigarette. Higher scores on the demand indices Omax (maximum cigarette purchase expenditure), intensity (reported smoking level when cigarettes were free), and breakpoint (the first price to completely suppress consumption), and lower elasticity (sensitivity of cigarette consumption to increases in cost), were associated with greater levels of naturalistic smoking and nicotine dependence. Greater demand intensity was associated with lower motivation to change smoking. These results provide initial support for the validity of a self-report cigarette purchase task as a measure of economic demand for nicotine with adolescent smokers. PMID:20832200

  11. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  12. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  13. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole. PMID:21360063

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  15. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  16. Family factors as moderators of link between reinforcement sensitivity and child and adolescent problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Valeriya B

    2015-02-01

    Moderating effects of family factors on the association between children's reinforcement sensitivity and problem behaviour have been examined in a community sample of 533 children aged from 3 to 17 years. Family type and living in urban areas exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing, internalizing and impact of problems on everyday life; a high level of the father's education exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing; family aggression and harsh parenting were found to strengthen the link between sensitivity to reward and the impact of problems on everyday life, whereas family cohesion buffered the negative effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing and the impact of problems in everyday life.

  17. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  18. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  19. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  20. The Power of Literature: Establishing and Enhancing the Young Adolescent Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Andrea M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers can use literature written for the young adolescent as a powerful tool for establishing and enhancing the community in the classroom that is arguably a necessity for learning to occur. In order for the young adolescent to be successful in the school classroom, a shared sense of community must exist. The students must feel connected to,…

  1. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  2. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  3. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  4. Token Reinforcement: Effects for Reducing Tardiness with a Socially Disadvantaged Adolescent Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkster, J. A.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A token reinforcement program with microcomputer free time as the reinforcer was implemented to decrease the tardiness of a middle school economically disadvantaged student. The microcomputer time was a very effective reinforcer; school personnel reported improved school attendance and a decrease in administrative discipline related to tardiness;…

  5. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  6. Inequality and adolescent violence: an exploration of community, family, and individual factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study seeks to examine whether the relationships among community, family, individual factors, and violent behavior are parallel across race- and gender-specific segments of the adolescent population. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are analyzed to highlight the complex relationships between inequality, community, family, individual behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The results from robust regression analysis provide evidence that social environmental factors can influence adolescent violence in race- and gender-specific ways. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study establish the plausibility of multidimensional models that specify a complex relationship between inequality and adolescent violence. PMID:15101669

  7. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy

    2014-02-28

    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  8. Ex Uno Plures: Clonal Reinforcement Drives Evolution of a Simple Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Margie; Wenger, Jared; Kroll, Evgueny; Adams, Julian; Sherlock, Gavin; Rosenzweig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of genetics is to define the relationship between phenotype and genotype, while a major goal of ecology is to identify the rules that govern community assembly. Achieving these goals by analyzing natural systems can be difficult, as selective pressures create dynamic fitness landscapes that vary in both space and time. Laboratory experimental evolution offers the benefit of controlling variables that shape fitness landscapes, helping to achieve both goals. We previously showed that a clonal population of E. coli experimentally evolved under continuous glucose limitation gives rise to a genetically diverse community consisting of one clone, CV103, that best scavenges but incompletely utilizes the limiting resource, and others, CV101 and CV116, that consume its overflow metabolites. Because this community can be disassembled and reassembled, and involves cooperative interactions that are stable over time, its genetic diversity is sustained by clonal reinforcement rather than by clonal interference. To understand the genetic factors that produce this outcome, and to illuminate the community's underlying physiology, we sequenced the genomes of ancestral and evolved clones. We identified ancestral mutations in intermediary metabolism that may have predisposed the evolution of metabolic interdependence. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the lineages that gave rise to this community diverged early, as CV103 shares only one Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with the other evolved clones. Underlying CV103's phenotype we identified a set of mutations that likely enhance glucose scavenging and maintain redox balance, but may do so at the expense of carbon excreted in overflow metabolites. Because these overflow metabolites serve as growth substrates that are differentially accessible to the other community members, and because the scavenging lineage shares only one SNP with these other clones, we conclude that this lineage likely served as an

  9. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  10. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment. PMID:25558962

  11. Practice Parameter on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Community Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…

  12. Work, Community, and Parenting Resources and Demands as Predictors of Adolescent Problems and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This article uses a resources and demands approach to examine the extent to which work, community, and parenting resources and demands are related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems and grades in school. The analysis is based on data from 489 married two-earner couples and adolescents aged 10 to 17 interviewed for the…

  13. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  14. The Relation of Family and School Attachment to Adolescent Deviance in Diverse Groups and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Laird, Jennifer; Wong, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether attachments to family and school reduced five forms of adolescent deviance (smoking, drinking, marijuana use, delinquency, and violent behavior). Found that adolescent attachments to family and school reduced overall frequency, prevalence, and intensity of deviant involvement, regardless of community context, gender, or ethnic…

  15. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  16. Mother, Daughter, Teenager-Who Am I? Perceptions of Adolescent Maternity in a Navajo Reservation Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle L.; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2000-01-01

    Intensive interviews focusing on perceptions of teenage parenting were conducted with Navajo teenage mothers, their mothers, and community informants. Two central themes representing commitment to maternity or adolescence were found. Factors associated with the prevalence of adolescent parenting on the Navajo reservation are discussed, as are…

  17. Community Health Nurses' Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Involvement with Adolescent Contraceptive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed national sample of 844 community health nurses to assess their knowledge of, attitudes toward, involvement with reproductive health services. Slightly more than 50 percent of nurses provided or administered contraceptive services to adolescents. Ninety-five percent agreed that contraceptives should be available to adolescents; 90 percent…

  18. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  19. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  20. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  2. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  3. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  4. Effects of Locus of Control and Type of Reinforcement on Programmed Instruction Performance of Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Mary K.

    1976-01-01

    Students with an internal locus of control functioned well under a variety of conditions while students needing extrinsic reinforcement functioned well only when feedback was provided by the experimenter. (MM)

  5. Community Reinforcement and Family Training: a pilot comparison of group and self-directed delivery.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Jennifer K; Austin, Julia L; Miller, William R; McCrady, Barbara S; Tonigan, J Scott; Meyers, Robert J; Smith, Jane Ellen; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    In a randomized clinical pilot study, 40 concerned significant others (CSOs) of treatment-refusing alcohol- and drug-using individuals were randomized to either Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) conducted in a group format (Group CRAFT) or a Self-Directed CRAFT condition. Although results indicated no significant between-group difference in engaging treatment-refusing substance-using individuals (referred to as identified patients or IPs) into treatment, the engagement rate in Group CRAFT was similar to rates previously reported with individual CRAFT. For the intent-to-treat analysis, 60% of Group CRAFT CSOs engaged their loved one into treatment, as compared with 40% in Self-Directed CRAFT. Of CSOs in the Group condition who received at least one session of group therapy, 71% engaged their IP into treatment. CSOs in both conditions reported improvements in family cohesion and conflict at the 3- and 6-month follow-up, replicating prior CRAFT findings.

  6. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt.

  7. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13–16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate “rules” to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  8. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hae-Jin; Park, Sin-Gi; Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Kyu; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association between

  9. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  10. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    PubMed

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention.

  11. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    PubMed

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention. PMID:27497999

  12. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    PubMed

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners.

  13. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities.

  14. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  15. Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers among cocaine-dependent outpatients: twelve-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; García-Fernández, Gloria; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernandez-Hermida, José R; Higgins, Stephen T

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) plus vouchers treatment in a cohort of Spanish cocaine-dependent outpatients, and to examine the maintenance of treatment effects after the voucher intervention was discontinued. Sixty-four adult outpatients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, CRA plus vouchers or standard care. The vouchers program was implemented from weeks 1 to 24. Among patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition, 65.5% completed 12 months of treatment versus 28.6% of those assigned to the standard care condition (p = .003). At the 12-month assessment, 58.6% of patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition were abstinent, compared with 25.7% in the standard care condition (p = .008); furthermore, 34.5% of patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition achieved twelve months of continuous cocaine abstinence, versus 17.1% in the standard care condition. Those treated in the CRA plus vouchers condition also achieved greater improvements in psychosocial functioning than those treated in the standard care condition. Overall, these results reveal an extension of the effectiveness of the CRA plus vouchers treatment to a community sample of cocaine-dependent outpatients, while also supporting the maintenance of treatment effects for 6 months after completion of the voucher program.

  16. A Structural Equation Model for the School Reinforcement Survey Schedule: Italian and American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, George R.; Galeazzi, Aldo; Franceschina, Emilio; McNulty, George F.; Forand, Angela Q.; Stader, Sandra R.; Myers, deRosset, Jr.; Wright, Harry H.

    2004-01-01

    The School Reinforcement Survey Schedule (SRSS) was administered to 2,828 boys and girls in middle schools in the United States and an Italian translation was administered to 342 boys and girls in middle schools in Northern Italy. An exploratory factor analysis using half the American data set was performed using maximum likelihood estimation with…

  17. Using differential reinforcement to decrease academic response latencies of an adolescent with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks.

  18. Community Conversations: An Approach for Expanding and Connecting Opportunities for Employment for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Pickett, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Although early work experiences can impart a number of benefits to adolescents with disabilities, few students have meaningful access to these opportunities. The authors examined "community conversations" to build capacity and interest in expanding employment opportunities. Events were held in seven different communities and used the World Cafe…

  19. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  20. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  2. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  3. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  4. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed.

  5. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  6. Preference for spirituality and twelve-step-oriented approaches among adolescents in a residential therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    Aromin, Romulo A; Galanter, Marc; Solhkhah, Ramon; Bunt, Gregory; Dermatis, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine which adolescents being treated for substance use in a residential Therapeutic Community (TC) would endorse spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches as part of their treatment. By identifying individual difference characteristics associated with preference for spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches, integrated substance abuse treatments can be targeted to appropriate subgroups of adolescents. A total of 181 adolescents completed a survey assessing their substance use and attitudes toward spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches that was similar to a survey completed by 322 adults in the same residential TC program. In the adolescent sample, three spirituality related characteristics: perceived connectedness to others, frequency of prayer, and spiritual orientation to life were associated with preference for both spirituality and twelve step oriented approaches being featured more in TC treatment. Adolescents were less likely than adults to express a preference that both approaches be featured more in TC treatment.

  7. The association between early cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences in a community adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I; Buckby, Joe; Yuen, Hok Pan; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison R

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with greater risk of developing psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and psychosis. This paper aims to determine if different levels of cannabis (lifetime, regular, recent) exposure are associated with PLEs and specific PLE subscales among adolescents. Participants consisted of a community sample of 880 adolescents in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescents were administered the positive symptom scale of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and measures of substance use and depression. Lifetime cannabis use and the frequency of cannabis use in the last year (recent use) were associated with PLEs, primarily the experience of auditory and visual hallucinations (perceptual abnormalities). Low levels of recent cannabis use were more strongly associated with PLEs than more frequent use. These findings indicate that different levels of cannabis exposure were differentially associated with PLEs and highlight the need for early detection and treatment strategies for PLEs and cannabis use in adolescents.

  8. USING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE ACADEMIC RESPONSE LATENCIES OF AN ADOLESCENT WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks. PMID:20514195

  9. A simple reinforcement system for methadone clients in a community-based treatment program.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Szal, G; Joe, G W; Chatham, L R; Simpson, D D

    1994-01-01

    Clients in a community-based methadone treatment program earned stars for attending counseling sessions as scheduled and for providing clean urines. These stars were later redeemed for contingent rewards (food or gas coupons or bus tokens) according to one of three randomly assigned reward schedules, including high reward (four stars per prize), low reward (eight stars per prize), or delayed reward (those who had to wait 3 months to earn a prize). Clients in the high-reward condition showed a pattern of increasing the number of stars earned for group sessions and clean urines across the 3-month intervention. All clients, independent of reward condition, attended significantly more group counseling sessions during the months that contingent reinforcers were available than in the months prior to, and after, the intervention. Finally, urinalysis data indicated that, in the postintervention period, high-reward clients had fewer dirty urines than did low-reward or delayed-reward clients. This study suggests that a simple system of recognizing client progress with stars and modest prizes for performing specific behaviors can be an effective tool in increasing clinic attendance rates and reducing positive urines. PMID:8072049

  10. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  11. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  12. Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Reif, Lindsey K; Rivera, Vanessa; Louis, Bianca; Bertrand, Rachel; Peck, Mireille; Anglade, Benedict; Seo, Grace; Abrams, Elaine J; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care. Among 3425 individuals eligible for testing, 3348 (98%) accepted an HIV test. HIV prevalence was 2.65% (n = 89). Median age was 19 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-20]; 73% were female. HIV prevalence was 0.6-7.4% across slum neighborhoods. All HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care the same day as testing; median CD4 was 529 cells/μL [IQR 363-761]. Syphilis prevalence was 2.60% (65/2536) and gonorrhea/chlamydia prevalence was 6.25% (96/1536). Among 168 (5%) individuals who reported TB symptoms, 7.7% (13/168) had microbiologically confirmed disease. One hundred twenty-nine females (5% of all females) were pregnant. This community-based testing campaign identified an adolescent and youth population with an HIV prevalence six times higher than the estimated national adolescent HIV prevalence (0.4%) in Haiti, including perinatally infected adolescents. This type of community-based campaign for HIV testing within a package of services can serve as a model for other resource-poor settings to identify high-risk adolescents and youth, and curb the global HIV epidemic among adolescents. PMID:27509237

  13. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in Community-Based Participatory Research: Structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Marni LoIacono; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs in order to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development (YD) framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  14. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  15. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  16. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  17. The protective role of maternal racial socialization for African American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia

    2015-08-01

    Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence.

  18. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  19. Social capital and adolescent smoking in schools and communities: a cross-classified multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.

  20. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students' individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  1. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  2. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  3. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  4. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  5. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  6. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  7. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II for Hong Kong Community Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lee, Peter W. H.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test for the validity of a Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (C-BDI-II) for use with Hong Kong community (i.e., nonclinical) adolescents. Based on a randomized triadic split of the data (N = 1460), we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group1 (n = 486) and confirmatory factor…

  8. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  9. Exposure to Community Violence and Political Socialization among Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of adolescent exposure to cross-community violence, intense paramilitary operations, aggression, and intimidation in Northern Ireland. Using publicly available survey data gathered by agencies in Northern Ireland, the research examines the effects of exposure to political violence with focus upon the manner by…

  10. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  11. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  12. Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how social support may protect Israeli early adolescents who have witnessed community violence from engaging in violent behavior when they have also witnessed terror violence. The study examines how support from parents, school, and friends could serve as protective, despite the interactive risk effects of witnessing…

  13. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  14. Promoting Academic Engagement among Immigrant Adolescents through School-Family-Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Onaga, Marie; de Lardemelle, Cecile

    2010-01-01

    Schools are receiving students of immigrant origin in unprecedented numbers. Using an ecological framework, the authors reviewed the community, school, familial, and individual challenges that immigrant adolescent students encounter. They examined cognitive, relational, and behavioral dimensions of student engagement as well as culturally…

  15. The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

  16. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  17. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  18. Imaginary Community of the Mainstream Classroom: Adolescent Immigrants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the perspectives of three adolescent Mexican English language Learners regarding their high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom experiences within an urban city in the southwestern part of the U.S. An additional purpose is to demonstrate how the three student participants did or did not invest their…

  19. Adolescent Fertility: Selected, Annotated Resources for the International Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Celia

    This bibliography on adolescent fertility contains over 300 annotations of articles, audiovisual materials, books, charts, comic books, games, journals, papers, pamphlets, and packets. With a few exceptions entries were published from 1974 through 1978; they are categorized according to geographic section: World, Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin…

  20. New Roles for Early Adolescents in Schools and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schine, Joan; And Others

    This booklet is intended to stimulate new interest in the need of young adolescents to take on meaningful roles and to help planners and practitioneers to translate that interest into youth participation programs. There are three major sections. Section I examines the special needs and characteristics of youth in the 10 to 14 age group. Discussed…

  1. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  2. Community Factors Shaping Early Age at First Sex among Adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents’ sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents’ sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions. PMID:25076654

  3. Growing up in violent communities: do family conflict and gender moderate impacts on adolescents' psychosocial development?

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H; Casey, Patrick H; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Barrett, Kathleen W

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent psychosocial outcomes were predicted by community violence differently for male and female children and based on their experiences of conflict at home. For male children, being in a high conflict family as a child exacerbated the negative effects of community violence such that internalizing problems (depression and anxiety) and risk-taking behaviors increased as community violence increased, while being in a low conflict family protected the child against the negative impacts of the community. For female adolescents, there were no moderating effects of family conflict on the relationship between community violence and externalizing problems. Moderating effects for internalizing problems demonstrated that being in low conflict families did not serve as protection against community violence for girls as was demonstrated for boys. These findings demonstrate the long-term effects of community violence on child development, highlighting the importance of gender and family context in the development of internalizing and externalizing problems.

  4. The Role of Community Resource Assessments in the Development of 15 Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Straub, Diane M.; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Ellen, Jonathan; Peralta, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Background Connect to Protect (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions is an initiative that alters the community’s structural elements to reduce youth HIV rates. Objectives This study details a community resource assessment and describes how resources were evaluated in the context of local needs. Methods Fifteen sites developed a community resource list, conducted a brief survey, created a youth service directory, and mapped where disease prevalence and community resources intersected. Sites also completed a survey to review and verify local site findings. Results On average, sites identified 267 potential community resources. Sites narrowed their resource list to conduct a brief survey with 1,162 agencies; the site average was 78. Final products of this process included maps comparing resources with risk data. Conclusions The evaluation of local resources is an important initial step in partnership development and is essential for the success of health promotion and disease prevention interventions that target adolescents. PMID:20208189

  5. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed.

  6. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed. PMID:25909321

  7. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  8. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  9. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  10. Exposure to Community Violence in Adolescence: Trauma Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner

    2000-01-01

    Considerable exposure to recurring community violence with considerable variation in the amount of exposure was found in a sample of 455 first-year students at an urban college. Exposure to recurring community violence was moderately correlated with the manifestation of psychological trauma symptoms. Further, being victimized and witnessing…

  11. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  12. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  13. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  14. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  15. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  16. Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: prevalence, outcomes, and welfare policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C

    2006-01-01

    The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.

  17. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  18. In response to community violence: coping strategies and involuntary stress responses among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Maurizi, Laura K; Bregman, Allyson; Ceballo, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Among poor, urban adolescents, high rates of community violence are a pressing public health concern. This study relies on a contextual framework of stress and coping to investigate how coping strategies and involuntary stress responses may both mediate and moderate the relation between exposure to community violence and psychological well-being. Our sample consists of 223 ninth grade Latino adolescents from poor, urban families. In response to community violence, these adolescents reported using an array of coping strategies as well as experiencing a number of involuntary stress responses; the most frequent coping responses were turning to religion and seeking social support. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that involuntary stress responses mediated the relations between both witnessing or being victimized by violence and poorer psychological functioning, while coping strategies moderated these relations. These findings suggest that the negative psychological effects of exposure to community violence may, in part, be explained by involuntary stress responses, while religious-based coping may serve as a protective factor.

  19. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  20. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.

  1. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  2. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  3. Physical Activity Among Adolescents in an East Malaysian Rural Indigenous Community: Exploring the Influence of Neighborhood Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chang, Kam Hock; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the rural environmental factors that influence adolescents' participation in physical activities (PA). Thirty-six indigenous adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years from rural communities of East Malaysia were involved in the photovoice procedures: photo-taking, selecting, contextualizing, and codifying themes. Despite being endowed with natural resources such as river, forest, hills, and so on, the adolescents and the community did not capitalize on these rich resources to promote and engage in PA. Poor maintenance of natural resources, the lack of pedestrian infrastructures and road safety, the lack of PA facilities, and negative perception of ancestors' agricultural activities were among factors that constrained adolescents' PA. Although basic amenities such as play spaces and pedestrian infrastructures are necessary to increase adolescents' PA, any intervention should make the most of the natural resources, which are cheaper, environment friendly, and sustainable.

  4. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  5. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  6. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  7. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  8. Teacher Efficacy and Rural Community Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Veronica

    In the past decade, disappointing national outcomes have been reported regarding the transition of youth with disabilities to community and work environments. The transition outlook is even more dismal for rural youth with disabilities, in light of geographic barriers to special education service delivery, lack of jobs in rural areas, and rural…

  9. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches.

  10. Community variation in adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ardis L; Carlos, Heather A; Sarnoff, Rachel A

    2013-04-01

    Melanoma rates among younger women in New Hampshire (NH) are rising. In urban studies, youth proximity to tanning facilities has been linked to indoor tanning, a proven cause of melanoma. Youth access has not been examined in rural settings. To determine on a statewide basis the influence of rurality and community income level on female students' ease of access to tanning facilities, all NH tanning facilities (N = 261) and high schools (N = 77) in 2011 were spatially and statistically analyzed to determine schools with more facilities within 2 miles of the school and greater capacity (fewer female students per facility), for indoor tanning. Schools above the state-wide average for both measures were classified as "Easy Access" to indoor tanning. Among NH high schools, 74 % have 1 or more tanning facility within two miles and 22 % have "Easy Access" to tanning facilities. Ease of access did not differ by rurality. Lower-income school status was an independent predictor of both greater capacity and "Easy Access". While urban and rural teens have similar access to indoor tanning, female students in lower-income communities have easier access. Variations in access by community size and income must be considered in planning interventions to address youth indoor tanning.

  11. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  12. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth. PMID:24907892

  13. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  14. Iron status and dietary iron intake of adolescents from a rural community in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Khor, Geok Lin; Tee, E-Siong; Prabakaran, Dhanaraj

    2004-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world affecting the general health and wellbeing of millions. In Malaysia, moderately high prevalences of anaemia have been reported amongst infants, young children and women of childbearing age. Data is scant for the adolescents. This study was undertaken to assess the iron status and dietary intake of 165 adolescents, comprising 74 male and 91 female subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, from the rural communities in Tuaran District of Sabah, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of study subjects. Multiple iron status indicators namely, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TS), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) were determined for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 15.2 +/-2.1 years. While the majority of the subjects (77.6%) had normal body mass index (BMI) values, 17.6% were underweight and 4.8% overweight. About 35% to 40% of the subjects showed deficient values for haematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and transferrin saturation (TS), and 20% were anaemic (Hb <12 g/L). Using the multiple criteria of iron status indicators, the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency and IDA in the male and female adolescents were 5.4% vs. 6.6%, 18.9% vs. 26.4% and 5.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively. Iron deficiency anaemia (85.0%) contributed largely to the prevalence of anaemia. The dietary iron intake of the adolescents was unsatisfactory, with approximately 98% of subjects failing to meet the Malaysian RDA level. Almost all the female subjects (91%) had dietary iron intake below two-thirds of the RDA level compared with a much smaller proportion for the male adolescents (68%). The prevalence of IDA in the present study population, especially in the female adolescents, appears to be a significant public health problem. Priority should therefore be given to the eradication of

  15. All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.

    This book challenges American communities to reclaim their responsibility for raising healthy, successful, and caring children and adolescents. The book also offers a critique of American culture along with practical strategies for uniting and mobilizing communities around a shared vision of healthy development. The book argues that three…

  16. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  17. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  18. Intergenerational concepts of adolescent sexuality: implications for community-based reproductive health care with Haitian immigrants.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T; Sinnett, K

    1999-04-01

    Intergenerational conflict occurs when immigrant parents hold different values from those of their more rapidly acculturating offspring. These conflicts frequently involve disparate views related to sex roles and reproduction. A community-based study of 19 immigrant Haitian parent-adolescent pairs in South Florida compared their attitudes and values about sexuality and reproduction. Data were obtained through focused, open-ended interviews. Content analysis procedures at the level of words and phrases facilitated the categorization of responses. Data revealed considerable differences between parents and adolescents about the sources and types of information learned about reproduction and contraception, when such information is learned, and expectations regarding premarital sexual intercourse. Both parents and adolescents lacked accurate biomedical information about contraception, placed responsibility for contraceptive use primarily on the female partner, considered reproduction a natural rather than a medical event, and believed parents have the major responsibility for educating children about reproduction and contraception. Implications for culturally-appropriate health care center on increasing the role of the public health nurse in health education, minimizing intergenerational and intercultural conflict, and engaging the Haitian immigrant community in the promotion of reproductive health. PMID:10319660

  19. The experience of adolescent inpatient care and the anticipated transition to the community: Young people's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gill, Freya; Butler, Stephen; Pistrang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored adolescents' perspectives of inpatient mental health care, focussing on aspects of the inpatient environment they anticipated would help or hinder their transition back home. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 adolescent inpatients; transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants experienced inpatient treatment as offering a mix of benefits (e.g., supportive relationships) and drawbacks (e.g., living in a "fake world"). They anticipated the transition home as providing opportunities for personal growth and consolidation of new coping skills, but also posing challenges concerning re-entering the "real world" after the experience of being "wrapped in cotton wool". Self-determination theory and attachment theory offer two potential frameworks for understanding these opportunities and challenges. Inpatient care has the potential to foster key mechanisms for adaptive development, creating a platform for developing positive future behaviours. Community teams should work closely with inpatient units to support the generalisation of the young person's newly acquired coping skills. PMID:26599528

  20. 3:00 TO 6:00 P.M.: Young Adolescents at Home and in the Community. [With] an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Leah M.; And Others

    This collection of four articles focuses on the needs of and services for young adolescents in the after-school hours. In "Young Adolescents and Their Communities: A Shared Responsibility," William Kerewsky and Leah M. Lefstein discuss the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of young adolescents. Elliot A. Medrich, in "Time…

  1. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  2. Using Topic Order to Reinforce Student Algebra Skills in a Community College Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Alan W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the impact of starting with gases in an introductory chemistry course at a community college. Students in the author's class frequently are very weak in algebra skills, and this has a cumulative impact over time that culminates in student struggles when moles and reaction stoichiometry are discussed. The rationale behind…

  3. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. Results Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. Conclusions The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay

  4. Six Month Outcomes of a Peer-Enhanced Community Reinforcement Approach for Emerging Adults with Substance Misuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Ureche, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M

    2016-02-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18-25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n=35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n=34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another's treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes.

  5. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.

  6. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, M = 13.6 years, SD = 2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Controlling for religious community, age, and gender, youths' lower academic achievement was associated with family environments characterized by high conflict and low cohesion. School ehaviour problems were related to greater exposure to community violence, or sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviour. Youths' expectations about educational attainment were undermined by conflict in the family environment and antisocial behaviour in the community, as well as parenting low in warmth and behavioural control. Findings underscore the importance of considering family and community contributions to youths' educational outcomes. Suggestions regarding targeted interventions toward promoting resilience are discussed, such as assessing both child and family functioning, developing multidimensional interventions for parents, and building community partnerships, among others. PMID:26834298

  7. Preventing adolescent tobacco use and assisting young people to quit: population-, community-, and individually focused evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, Diana P

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco use among adolescents is declining in the United States but remains a major public health problem in the United States and globally. The Healthy People 2020 model of determinants of health is useful in understanding the complex interaction of factors that help explain adolescent smoking-related behaviors. Nurses are well positioned to take leadership roles in health care settings, schools, and their own communities as well as at the state, national, and global levels in advocating for policies that prevent and treat adolescent tobacco use and the subsequent burden of disease in future populations.

  8. Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Daily Living Skills in Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Matthew R.; Motta, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Examined contingent positive and negative reinforcement and adaptive behavior and mood among 36 chronic, psychiatric outpatients who received either contingent positive token reinforcement to improve daily living skills, negative reinforcement procedure based on removal of free-tokens, or no treatment. Found significant differences between control…

  9. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  10. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.

  11. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed.

  12. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: an HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal.

    PubMed

    Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels.

  13. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Otero, Angel

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use (depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence). We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1,328 adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April 2007. The mean age of sample participants was 15.7 years. Almost all (96.5%) had their own cell phone (80.5% had one, and 15.9% had two or more). Some 54.8% take it to school and 46.1% keep it on during class; 41.7% use it intensively. The estimated prevalence of cell phone dependence was 20% (26.1% in females, 13% in males). Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure. More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities. PMID:19072078

  14. Process and outcome evaluation of a community intervention for orphan adolescents in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hallfors, Denise D; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Itindi, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a 2-year pilot randomized controlled trial (N = 105) in a high HIV-prevalence area in rural western Kenya to test whether providing young orphan adolescents with uniforms, school fees, and community visitors improves school retention and reduces HIV risk factors. The trial was a community intervention, limited to one community. In this paper, we examined intervention implementation and its association with outcomes using longitudinal data. We used both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the community-based model for orphan HIV prevention, with recommendations for future studies. Despite promising effects after 1 year, GEE analyses showed null effects after 2 years. Volunteer community visitors, a key element of the intervention, showed little of the expected effect although qualitative reports documented active assistance to prevent orphans' school absence. For future research, we recommend capturing the transition to high school, a larger sample size, and biomarker data to add strength to the research design. We also recommend a school-based intervention approach to improve implementation and reduce infrastructure costs. Finally, we recommend evaluating nurses as agents for improving school attendance and preventing dropout because of their unique ability to address critical biopsychosocial problems. PMID:22350730

  15. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  16. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  17. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: An HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal✩

    PubMed Central

    Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels. PMID:21794919

  18. Expanding the vision: the strengths-based, community-oriented child and adolescent psychiatrist working in schools.

    PubMed

    Kriechman, Avron; Salvador, Melina; Adelsheim, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Because the majority of children with mental health needs are most likely to receive treatment in a school setting, there is a long history of linking child and adolescent psychiatrists to schools. Psychiatrists traditionally have been involved in assessing, diagnosing, and treating the severely mentally ill or consulting with school-based providers. With no end in sight to the dearth of child and adolescent psychiatrists, not to mention child and adolescent behavioral health providers in other disciplines, this role has been broadened in recent years by several programs in which the child and adolescent psychiatrist provides flexible, population-based, systemic, and context-specific approaches to working in schools. In this article, the authors first review some of the traditional roles for child and adolescent psychiatrists working in school mental health settings. Then 2 national programs are highlighted, which successfully integrate psychiatrist trainees into comprehensive school mental health programs. The theoretical approach to a specific community-oriented, strengths-based model for school mental health support used in New Mexico by the University of New Mexico (UNM) Psychiatry Department's Center for Rural and Community Behavioral Health school telepsychiatry program, which supports rural and frontier school mental health programs and school-based health centers, is discussed in detail. The UNM model involves a strength-and resiliency-based collaboration between the child and adolescent psychiatrist, students, families, educators, and those who support them. The psychiatrist co-creates a "community of concern" and support for students, including not only customary participants such as parents, educators, and health care providers but also peers, families of choice, lay professionals, community gatekeepers, and others identified by the student as critical to his or her well-being. The advantages for child and adolescent psychiatry trainees being exposed to

  19. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  20. A collaborative model for community-based health care screening of homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Beech, B

    1997-01-01

    Because of their survival life-style, homeless youth are at extremely high risk for contracting life-threatening and debilitating diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hepatitis B, and for engaging in chronic substance abuse; yet health services are often limited and not easily accessed. This article describes an innovative health-screening project for 150 homeless youth between the ages of 11 and 23 years in an urban metroplex. The Homeless Youth Services Project was the initial phase of a multiphase project to investigate the social and health services available to homeless youth. The study project was a collaborative effort between several community agencies that shared the multiple goals of identifying the homeless adolescent population, documenting the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and level of risk, and identifying community services and resources. Results of the screening project included the psychosocial and physical risks associated with homeless adolescents as well as the laboratory results of blood and urine screens. Consistent with the literature, the study population had a history of runaway behavior; physical, sexual, and substance abuse; and high rates of HIV seroprevalence and hepatitis B. Implications for advanced practice nurses working with homeless youth are also addressed.

  1. Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

  2. From the macro to the micro: a geographic examination of the community context and early adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proximal alcohol and tobacco retailers, and youth-serving organizations with an early-adolescent problem behavior index were tested in Nonlinear Mixed Models that controlled for multiple district-level and individual characteristics. Multi-level model results demonstrated that the number of alcohol and tobacco retail locations within a one-mile radius of each adolescent's home positively associated with student-reported problem behaviors above and beyond the influence of school district and individual characteristics. Results suggest that the proximal community context added significantly to the district context when understanding the occurrence of early adolescent problem behaviors. Recognizing this variability in geographically determined risk within a community will likely enhance the effectiveness of community prevention activities.

  3. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  4. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  5. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups. PMID:24469301

  6. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  7. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them. PMID:23684196

  8. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a Community Sample of Adolescents: Subgroups, Stability, and Associations with Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and their association with other psychological difficulties were studied in a community sample of young Swedish adolescents, by a two-wave longitudinal design with a 1-year interval. Hierarchical cluster analysis at T1 identified eight NSSI subgroups in each gender, of which five were clearly replicated…

  9. Adolescents' Psychological Response to the Experience of Community Interpersonal Violence: A Cross-National and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2006-01-01

    A comparative cross-national study investigating the level of experience with community interpersonal violence, level of psychological distress, and the relationship between exposure and distress among adolescents is presented. Participants were 617 first-year college students comprising African Americans and Jamaican Americans living in New York…

  10. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  11. "Passing It On" during a "Day in the Life" of Resilient Adolescents in Diverse Communities around the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lau, Cindy; Tapanya, Sombat

    2009-01-01

    This social-ecological inquiry explores youth resiliency in diverse communities using innovative qualitative visual methodologies. It engages adolescents in a process of sharing their daily experiences and reflecting on the resources they bring to bear to thrive in the face of geographic and social relocations. The four youth participants were…

  12. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  13. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  14. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  15. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  16. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  17. Structural determinants of adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV: views from community members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Skinner, Joanna; Osman, Nadia; Schwandt, Hilary

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three to four times more likely than adolescent boys to be living with HIV/AIDS. A literature review revealed only four studies that had examined HIV vulnerability from the perspective of community members. None of the studies focused specifically on adolescent girls. To fill this gap, in 2008 12 focus group discussions were held in selected peri-urban and rural sites in Botswana, 12 in Malawi, and 11 in Mozambique to identify factors that render girls vulnerable to HIV infection from the community members' perspective. The preponderance of comments identified structural factors--insufficient economic, educational, socio-cultural, and legal support for adolescent girls--as the root causes of girls' vulnerability to HIV through exposure to unprotected sexual relationships, primarily relationships that are transactional and age-disparate. Community members explicitly called for policies and interventions to strengthen cultural, economic, educational, and legal structures to protect girls, recognized community members' responsibility to take action, and requested programs to enhance adult-child communication, thus revealing an understanding that girls' vulnerability is multi-level and multi-faceted, so must be addressed through a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  18. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  19. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  20. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  1. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  2. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo E; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries ("LMICs"). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program ("TEP"), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP's implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP's social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program's goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program's cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  3. Background for Community Level Work on Educational Adjustment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.

    Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…

  4. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28). PMID:27474526

  5. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28).

  6. Features of Online Health Communities for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O’Connor, Brendan H.; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  7. Features of online health communities for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O'Connor, Brendan H; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  8. Community-level successes and challenges to implementing adolescent sex education programs.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Rouse, Maura; Resseguie, Jamie; Smith, Hannah; Woodcox, Stephanie

    2011-02-01

    Best practices for adolescent sex education recommend science-based approaches. However, little is known about the capacity and needs of organizations who implement sex education programs on the local level. The purpose of this research was to describe successes and challenges of community organizations in implementing science-based sex education. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed program directors and educators in 17 state-funded adolescent pregnancy prevention/sex education programs as part of a larger mixed methods evaluation. Semi-structured interviews focused on success and challenges faced in implementing science-based approaches to program design, implementation and evaluation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. Grantees included a range of programs, from short programs on puberty and HIV for late elementary students, to skills-based curricular sex education programs for high schools, to year-long youth development programs. Key aspects of curricular choice included meeting the needs of the population, and working within time constraints of schools and other community partners. Populations presenting specific challenges included rural youth, youth in juvenile justice facilities, and working with Indiana's growing Latino population. Programs self-developing curricula described challenges related to assessment and evaluation of impact. Programs using commercial curricula described challenges related to curricular selection and adaptation, in particularly shortening curricula, and adapting to different cultural or social groups. A remarkable degree of innovation was observed. The use of qualitative methods permitted the identification of key challenges and successes in a state-sponsored small grants program. Information can be used to enhance program capacity and quality.

  9. Using social marketing to create communities for our children and adolescents that do not model and encourage drinking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C

    2014-11-01

    Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding 'community-based' interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which 'community' interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few interventions that sought to comprehensively address social norms at a community level. We need to move (research and interventions) beyond narrowly-focused efforts targeting teens and their parents; it is only when we address alcohol consumption at a population level that we will be able to provide an environment for children and adolescents which does not model (excessive) drinking as a normative social behavior.

  10. Relationships between community social capital and injury in Canadian adolescents: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Pickett, William; Alvarado, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    Background Characteristics of social environments are potential risk factors for adolescent injury. Impacts of social capital on the occurrence of such injuries have rarely been explored. Methods General health questionnaires were completed by 8910 youth aged 14 years and older as part of the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. These were supplemented with community-level data from the 2006 Canada Census of Population. Multilevel logistic regression models with random intercepts were fit to examine associations of interest. The reliability and validity of variables used in this analysis had been established in past studies, or in new analyses that employed factor analysis. Results Between school differences explained 2% of the variance in the occurrence of injuries. After adjustment for all confounders, community social capital did not have any impact on the occurrence of injuries in boys: OR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.29. However, living in areas with low social capital was associated with lower occurrence of injuries in girls (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.96). Other factors that were significantly related to injuries in both genders were younger age, engagement in more risky behaviours, and negative behavioural influences from peers. Conclusions After simultaneously taking into account the influence of community-level and individual-level factors, community levels of social capital remained a relatively strong predictor of injury among girls but not boys. Such gender effects provide important clues into the social aetiology of youth injury. PMID:26294708

  11. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  12. The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13–17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance use being examined, as well as by gender. Social phobia was associated with cigarette smoking among boys only. For girls, social phobia appeared to be negatively associated with drug use. For the other anxiety disorders, the associations with substance use tended to be stronger among girls. These findings highlight the need to improve clinical recognition of the anxiety disorders and to improve treatment access for afflicted adolescents. Future studies based on longitudinal data could further elucidate the relationships among anxiety disorders, gender, and substance use. PMID:20084563

  13. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  14. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077

  15. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  16. Educational-entertainment as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Valerie Dorsey; Solomon, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing violence is one adverse childhood experience (ACE) associated with living in impoverished Black urban communities. Youth with higher violence avoidance self-efficacy and positive coping are more likely to avoid violence. This study evaluates educational entertainment (edutainment) as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence. Edutainment has shown success in increasing self-efficacy and positive coping skills in other domains. Self-administered scales were used to measure stress, anxiety, violence avoidance self-efficacy, and coping strategies. Data were collected pre- and nine days post-interventions/no intervention from 20 subjects receiving the edutainment intervention, 19 subjects participating in a group discussion about violence, and 21 subjects receiving no intervention (N = 60). Edutainment and no intervention were more effective than group discussion alone in increasing violence avoidance self-efficacy. Violence avoidance self-efficacy was found to have an intervening relationship between edutainment and the outcome of stress. This study indicates limited but positive effects for edutainment.

  17. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  18. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  19. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  20. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional…

  1. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P < 0.0001), there were no differences in outcomes for any anthropometric variables between groups and behavioural changes did not follow a clear positive pattern. In conclusion, the Ma'alahi Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight.

  2. A cross-cultural examination of adolescent civic engagement: comparing Italian and American community-oriented and political involvement.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Parissa; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Christy M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate community-oriented and political civic engagement activities and intentions among youth in Italy and the United States. Adolescents (N = 566) from academically rigorous schools in both countries completed surveys assessing frequency of civic activity participation, motivation for activity, evaluations of activity, and intentions for future civic engagement. Results suggest that youth in both countries were more likely to participate in community-oriented than political civic activities and that youth in both countries found their civic experiences to be meaningful. American youth reported more past civic activities of both types and higher intentions for future community-oriented civic engagement compared to Italian youth. Finally, a model was tested to examine links between peer and school contexts and civic activities and intentions. Findings highlighted that, in both countries, peer and school contexts had a stronger impact on community-oriented than on political civic activity.

  3. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  4. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  5. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire which examined their level of participation in physical activity and sedentary behavior along with a number of potential correlates. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the relationship between hypothesised factors and physical activity. Results: The boys unlike the girls showed significantly higher levels of physical activity (P=0.001). Respondents of both genders who perceive greater benefits from the physical activity (P=0.010). They have more confidence in their abilities (P=0.001), enjoy more in the physical activities (P=0.016), perceive greater social support from friends (P=0.008) and parents (P=0.001) and have higher levels of physical activity. Conclusions: The results indicate the importance of developing a national plan and program to promote physical activity in order to help young people to change unhealthy lifestyle habits and increase the physical activity, thus improving their health. PMID:27252917

  6. Multiple components of fitness improved among overweight and obese adolescents following a community-based lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Abbott, Rebecca A; Olds, Tim S; Straker, Leon M

    2016-08-01

    Fitness is an important component of health, and obese adolescents regularly have poor fitness. Unfortunately, few have assessed the impact of community-based lifestyle interventions on multiple components of fitness. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in a community-based intervention involving adolescents and parents on multiple components of fitness of obese adolescents. In a within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months follow-up in Western Australia, participants (n = 56) completed multiple fitness measures at baseline, immediately prior to beginning an 8-week intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months during a maintenance period. Performance on the shuttle walk was improved immediately post-intervention (increase of 42.8 m, 95% CI: 7.5, 78.2) and at 12 months post-intervention (increase of 44.6 m, 95% CI: 1.3, 87.8) compared with pre-intervention. Muscle performance of quadriceps and deltoids were improved post-intervention (increase of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.1) kg · F and 1.0 (0.02, 2.1) kg · F, respectively) and all muscle performance measures were improved at 12 months following the intervention. There were no changes in waist circumference. A community-based lifestyle programme such as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP) may be a viable strategy for improving fitness in overweight adolescents.

  7. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  8. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  9. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally…

  10. The psychometric development and initial validation of the DCI-A short form for adolescent therapeutic community treatment process.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A; Tucker, Joan S; Butler, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses suggested selection of seven DCI-A items to comprise the short form. Three items are from the treatment motivation factor, and one item was selected from each of the remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-item DCI-A-SF is strongly unidimensional, and unidimensional IRT analysis of the items indicated good internal consistency. A structural equation model that demonstrates the mediating relationship of DCI-A-SF with other measures, including demographic and pre-treatment characteristics, and subsequent treatment completion, provides preliminary evidence of internal validity.

  11. The Psychometric Development and Initial Validation of the DCI-A Short Form for Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment Process

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Butler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses suggested selection of seven DCI-A items to comprise the short form. Three items are from the Treatment Motivation factor, and one item was selected from each of the remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-item DCI-A-SF is strongly unidimensional, and unidimensional IRT analysis of the items indicated good internal consistency. A structural equation model that demonstrates the mediating relationship of DCI-A-SF with other measures, including demographic and pre-treatment characteristics, and subsequent treatment completion, provides preliminary evidence of internal validity. PMID:24462245

  12. Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

  13. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  14. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The…

  15. Academic Success Strategy Use among Community-Active Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Rebecca M.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Although much has been written about the "risky" behaviors in which some Hispanic adolescents participate, the predictors of academic success are less understood. Toward this end, predictors of academic self-regulation were investigated in Hispanic adolescents. Specifically, a predictive model incorporating self-efficacy, instrumentality, salience…

  16. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  17. Brief Report: Adolescent Adjustment in Affluent Communities: The Role of Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Lea V.; Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescent adjustment.…

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Deliberate Self-Harm among a Community Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…

  19. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  20. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  1. Transition into First Sex among Adolescents in Slum and Non-Slum Communities in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Undie, Chi-Chi; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    While early sexual experiences are a key marker of the transition from childhood to adulthood, it is widely acknowledged that precocious initiation of sexual activity predisposes adolescents to negative health and psychological outcomes. Extant studies investigating adolescent sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa often rely on cross-sectional data…

  2. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents…

  3. Rural Adolescents and Mental Health: Growing Up in the Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Beverly Hartung

    1987-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on the subject of rural adolescent mental health. Discusses demographics, unique situations, and problems of rural youth. Presents impact of the rural economic crisis. Suggests treatment strategies to deal with mental health problems of rural adolescents: individual therapy, family therapy, and peer group programs. (NEC)

  4. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  5. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  6. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

  7. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin. PMID:24481848

  8. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  9. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  10. Specificity in the Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Atopic Disorders in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The specificity of relationships between anxiety and depressive symptoms, with each of the major atopic disorders of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) was systematically investigated within a single study sample. Participants included 367 adolescents who participated in a community, longitudinal study investigating risk factors for the development of psychiatric and physical health problems. Mental health symptoms were assessed at 7, 9, 11, and 13 years of age. Lifetime history of atopic disorders was assessed by parent report at age 13. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the specificity of the associations between anxiety and depression, and each of the atopic disorders. Results indicated that anxiety was associated with a lifetime history of atopic disorders as a group. The association was significantly strengthened when controlling for depression and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Among atopic disorders, “pure” anxiety was associated with asthma and AR, and having both asthma and AR strengthened the association compared to having either disorder alone. The association of “pure” anxiety with asthma and AR is consistent with existing data suggesting a relationship between anxiety and respiratory disorders. Having both asthma and AR appeared to confer an additive “dose effect” on the strength of the association. The lack of an association with depression suggests that other factors may contribute to the differential expression of anxiety and depression with atopic disorders. Findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the impact of co-morbid psychiatric symptoms and atopic disorders within individual studies to determine the specificity of underlying relationships between these conditions. PMID:21111430

  11. Cultural practices and sexual risk behaviour among adolescent orphans and non-orphans: a qualitative study on perceptions from a community in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Results Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Conclusions Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans. PMID:24467940

  12. Acceptability of a Web-based Community Reinforcement Approach for Substance Use Disorders with Treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) of the Community Reinforcement Approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N=40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range=7.8 to 9.4 on 0 to 10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted. PMID:25022913

  13. Acceptability of a web-based community reinforcement approach for substance use disorders with treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-05-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version [therapeutic education system (TES)] of the community reinforcement approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N = 40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range 7.8-9.4 on 0-10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted.

  14. Partnership Selection and Formation: A Case Study of Developing Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships in 15 U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Diane M.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Peralta, Ligia; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the partner selection process in 15 U.S. communities developing community-researcher partnerships for the Connect to Protect® (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions, an initiative of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Methods Each site generated an epidemiological profile of urban youth in their community, selected a focus population and geographic area of youth at risk for HIV, conducted a series of successive structured interviews, and engaged in a process of relationship-building efforts culminating in a collaborative network of community agencies. Results Sites chose as their primary target population young women who have sex with men (n=8 sites), young men who have sex with men (n=6), and intravenous drug users (n=1). Of 1,162 agencies initially interviewed, 281 of 335 approached (84%) agreed to join the partnership (average 19/site). A diverse array of community agencies were represented in the final collaborative network; specific characteristics included: 93% served the sites' target population, 54% were predominantly youth-oriented, 59% were located in the geographical area of focus, and 39% reported provision of HIV/STI prevention services. Relationship-building activities, development of collaborative relationships, and lessons learned, including barriers and facilitators to partnership, are also described. Conclusions Study findings address a major gap in the community partner research literature. Health researchers and policy makers need an effective partner selection framework whereby community-researcher partnerships can develop a solid foundation to address public health concerns. PMID:17531754

  15. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-06-30

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'.

  16. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation to Adolescent Girls and Boys through Peer Educators at Community Level in the Tribal Area of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093

  17. Variation in the Sustained Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Adolescent Smoking, Delinquency, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls’ and boys’ problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p=0.08) larger for boys than for girls. PMID:23412948

  18. Variation in the sustained effects of the communities that care prevention system on adolescent smoking, delinquency, and violence.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p = 0.08) larger for boys than for girls.

  19. Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

  20. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices

  1. Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high-STI prevalence communities

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Teresa; Auerswald, Colette L.; Ott, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Abstinence is a core pregnancy and STI prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys. Methods Adolescent boys ages 14–17 were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex, relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. Results We enrolled 667 participants, age 15.7 years, of diverse ethnicity. 252 (38%) were abstinent. Abstinent participants were younger, less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values. Among abstinent participants, 62% planned to delay sex, while 38% anticipated sex in the next year. Participants with lower conventional masculine values, and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Discussion Abstinence among boys is common, even in high STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision, influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors and masculine values. Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex, can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. PMID:24355627

  2. The effects of a comprehensive community trial on cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sarrazadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Pashmi, Rezvan; Bahonar, Ahmad; Heidari, Hossein; Asgary, Sedigheh; Boshtam, Maryam; Mardani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the effects of a 6-year-long community-participatory program including school-based interventions on mean values and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: The interventions of this community trial, conducted from 2000 to 2007 in Iran, targeted the whole population (of nearly two millions) living in two cities considered as the intervention area (IA) in comparison with a reference area (RA). Data from surveys conducted before and after interventions was used to compare the differences between the secondary school students of the IA and RA. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia declined significantly in girls and boys in the IA (P < 0.01). The prevalence of high LDL-C decreased significantly in the girls in the RA (P = 0.002). Among both sexes in the IA, the prevalence of low HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in the girls and boys in the RA (P = 0.04). Although in the IA, the prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased significantly in girls (P = 0.001), it increased in boys (P = 0.001) as well as in the girls of the RA (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: By performing school-based interventions, our study was successful, at least in part, in controlling some cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Such modifications may have long-term impacts on non-communicable diseases prevention in adulthood. PMID:23205053

  3. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  4. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  5. Adolescents' Sense of Community on MySpace and Facebook: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    Communities are foundational to the field of Community Psychology yet they are difficult to define and measure. Once viewed as social groups with ties to geographical locations, online communities interact free of physical or face-to-face contact. This cyberexistence makes the study of communities more challenging. Social networking sites (SNS),…

  6. "Going beyond the call of doula": a grounded theory analysis of the diverse roles community-based doulas play in the lives of pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Quinn M; Nolte, Kim M; Gonzalez, Ainka; Pearson, Magan; Ivey, Symeon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the most salient qualitative results from a larger program evaluation of pregnant and parenting adolescents who participated in a community-based doula program. Using grounded theory analysis, seven problem-solving strategies emerged that doulas apply in helping pregnant and parenting adolescents navigate multiple social and health settings that often serve as barriers to positive maternal- and child-health outcomes. The ethnographic findings of this study suggest that the doulas provide valuable assistance to pregnant and parenting adolescents by addressing social-psychological issues and socio-economic disparities. "Diverse role-taking" results in doulas helping pregnant adolescents navigate more successfully through fragmented social and health service systems that are less supportive of low-income adolescents, who are often perceived to be draining scarce resources. The findings have implications for the roles of community-based doulas assigned to low-income adolescents of color seeking to overcome obstacles and attain better educational and economic opportunities.

  7. Pilot-scale study on nitrogen and aromatic compounds removal in printing and dyeing wastewater by reinforced hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Erqin; Tang, Siyuan; Li, Yi; Cao, Jiashun

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to efficiently dispose printing and dyeing wastewater with "high organic nitrogen and aromatic compounds, but low carbon source quality", the reinforced anaerobic hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process, based on improved UASB reactors and segregated collection-disposition strategy, was designed and applied at the pilot scale. Results showed that the coupling process displayed efficient removal for these two kinds of pollutants (nitrogen and aromatics), since the concentration of NH3-N (shortened as ρ (NH3-N)) < 8 mg/L, ρ (TN) < 15 mg/L with long-term stability for the effluent, and both species and abundances of aromatics reduced greatly by UASBs according to GC-MS. Microbial community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant communities in the bioreactors and some kinds of VFAs-producing, denitrifying and aromatic ring opening microorganisms were discovered. Further, the nirK and bcrA genes quantification also indicated the coupling process owned outstanding denitrification and aromatic compound-degrading potential, which demonstrates that the coupling process owns admirable applicability for this kind of wastewater treatment.

  8. Exit Interviews from Adolescent Girls who Participated in a Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention: Implications for Community-Based, Health Education Promotion for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Passmore, Denise; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to invite girls who participated in a gender-specific, sexual risk-reduction intervention to describe their experiences and identify program characteristics most or least beneficial to their involvement. Method Semi-structured interviews were completed with 26 African American, low income girls ages 15–19 who had participated in a sexual risk reduction intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. The girls were interviewed after completing a 12-month post-intervention survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed for categories. Results Analyses of the interview data identified six categories: 1) reasons for participating, 2) strategies for maintaining behavior changes, 3) interacting with others, 4) communicating with mothers, 5) disseminating information to friends and family, and 6) disseminating information to the males in the community. Implications and Conclusions Many of the girls participating in the theory-based behavior change intervention reported selecting from a “menu” of strategies learned through the intervention to reduce their sexual risk. Having the opportunity to discuss sexual health with peers and trained facilitators, particularly in an all-female environment, was cited as a positive benefit. Community health organizations and clinicians who care for adolescent girls can adapt many aspects of this intervention to help reduce their sexual risk. PMID:23758719

  9. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  10. Increasing healthy behaviors in adolescents of Mexican heritage in rural emerging Latino communities: results from a school-based health intervention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Villalba, José A; Amirehsani, Karen; Lewis, Todd F

    2011-06-01

    The rapid Latino population growth in emerging Latino communities (EmLCs) presents a challenge to health care providers as most current health interventions and health promotion programs intended for Latinas/os are based on characteristics of established Latino communities (EsLCs). This study addresses the gap in the literature by modifying and testing the beginning efficacy of a school-based health intervention for adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC. Seventy adolescents of Mexican heritage attending a rural middle school participated in the intervention. Paired samples t-tests were performed to determine differences between healthy behaviors at post-intervention compared to pre-intervention. Significant improvements in participants' physical activity and healthy eating were observed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. A school-based health intervention designed to increase healthy behaviors of adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC was successful. PMID:20803071

  11. Adolescents and Teachers as Partners in a School-Based Research Project to Increase Physical Activity Opportunities in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James; Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; McClure, Darlene; Aleshire, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Schools are an important resource in combating the physical inactivity and obesity epidemics in rural economically depressed areas. Through a University-community partnership, teachers and adolescents in a rural West Virginia county with one of the highest obesity rates in the state developed a school-based research intervention to increase…

  12. Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy among African-American Adolescent Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…

  13. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B.; David, Susan L.; Rao, Suman A.

    2003-01-01

    This "In Brief" edition provides highlights from the "Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition." It presents the updated prevention principles, an overview of program planning, and critical first steps for those learning about prevention. Thus, this…

  14. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Karen; Fox, Kathryn R.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Longitudinal data on adolescent self-injury are rare. Little is known regarding the associations between various forms of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over time, particularly within community samples that are most relevant for prevention efforts. This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a time-invariant,…

  15. Current Fear of Crime, Sense of Community, and Loneliness in Italian Adolescents: The Role of Autonomous Mobility and Play during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prezza, Miretta; Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    A structural equation model was used to examine the role of autonomous mobility and play in public and semipublic places in childhood to predict adolescents' sense of community, fear of crime, and, through the mediation of these two last psychosocial factors, feelings of loneliness. Participants included 789 Italian students (469 females and 320…

  16. Becoming Job-Ready: Collaborative Future Plans of Latina Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers in a Low-Income Urban Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Babineau, Maureen E.; Machado, Haidee

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the future plans constructed by Latina adolescent girls and their mothers within a lower income urban community. Seventeen high school juniors and their mothers were interviewed about the girls' pursuit of a trade during high school and anticipated postsecondary pathways in the nursing field. Thematic content analyses…

  17. Sustained Reduction in Adolescent Pregnancy Rates through School and Community-Based Education, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Murray; Drane, J. Wanzer; Joshi, Praphul; Shankarnarayan, Saikiran; Nimmons, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The resident population of Bamberg County, SC, has been exposed to multiples of public health information and education interventions since October 1982 with the intent to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. Data analyses were conducted to compare 20 years of pregnancy rates among girls aged 14-17 years for…

  18. Family, Community, and School Influences on Resilience among American Indian Adolescents in the Upper Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Oliver, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines resilience among a sample of American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations in the upper Midwest. Data are from a baseline survey of 212 youth (115 boys and 97 girls) who were enrolled in the fifth through eighth grades. Based upon the definition of resilience, latent class analyses were conducted to identify youth…

  19. Building Emergency Contraception Awareness among Adolescents. A Toolkit for Schools and Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; Radosh, Alice; Nelsesteun, Kari; Silverstein, Stacy

    This toolkit presents emergency contraception (EC) as a method to help adolescent women avoid pregnancy and abortion after unprotected sexual intercourse. The sections of this toolkit are designed to help increase your knowledge of EC and stay up to date. They provide suggestions for increasing EC awareness in the workplace, whether it is a school…

  20. A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Studied the frequency of self-mutilation among adolescents through a literature review, epidemiological data, and screening measure results for 440 students from an urban and a suburban high school. Interviews suggest that 13.9% of students had hurt themselves on purpose at some time, with girls more likely to hurt themselves and cutting the most…

  1. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  2. Adolescents Who Witness Community Violence: Can Parent Support and Prosocial Cognitions Protect Them from Committing Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of witnessing violence on committing violence among diverse urban middle school students (11-15 years old) over a 1-year period (N=1,599). It examined parent support and prosocial cognitions as moderators that might interact with one another in buffering adolescents from the effects of witnessing…

  3. Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents: Interpersonal, Individual, and Community Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Melissa L.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Conner, Wendy; Vacek, Kim Bena; Coyle, Laura Dick

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being criteria (negative affect, positive affect, and subjective well-being) and individual, family, friend, school, and neighborhood predictor variables in 159 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents. Results indicated that negative affect was significantly predicted by family variables,…

  4. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  5. Striving for Effectiveness in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Multisite Community Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John F.; Wells, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) was designed to compare the relative and combined effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, each of which had demonstrated efficacy in carefully controlled single-site studies. Models of CBT from these efficacy studies served as the foundation for the TADS…

  6. Parental Coping with Developmental Disorders in Adolescents within the Ultraorthodox Jewish Community in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…

  7. A longitudinal investigation of childhood communication ability and adolescent psychotic experiences in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah A.; Hollen, Linda; Wren, Yvonne; Thompson, Andrew D.; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background Some childhood speech and language impairments precede psychosis but it is not clear whether they also precede adolescent psychotic experiences and whether this association is specific to psychotic experiences. Methods Pragmatic language and expressive speech and language (parent-assessed using the Children's Communication Checklist) at age 9 and psychotic experiences and depression at ages 12 and 18 were investigated in 7659 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Associations were investigated using multivariate modelling. Results Poorer pragmatic language at 9 years was associated with psychotic experiences at both ages (12 years OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34; 18 years OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.41) but only with depression at 18 years (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Poorer expressive speech and language ability was not associated with psychotic experiences or depression at either age. There was evidence that pragmatic language was specifically associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 but no evidence that the strength of any of the associations changed over time. Conclusions Deficits in pragmatic language precede early and late adolescent psychotic experiences and early adolescent depression. Interventions aimed at helping children improve pragmatic language skills may reduce the incidence of adolescent psychopathology and associated psychological disorder and dysfunction later in life. PMID:26972475

  8. Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

  9. Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents from different geographic settings use different ethnic labels, with youth from NC preferring heritage and panethnic labels and youth from LA preferring hyphenated American labels. Second generation youth were more likely than first generation youth to use hyphenated American labels, and less likely to use heritage or panethnic labels. Greater ethnic centrality increased the odds of heritage label use, and greater English proficiency increased the odds of heritage-American label use. These associations significantly mediated the initial effects of setting. Further results examine ethnic differences as well as links between labels and self-esteem. The discussion highlights implications of ethnic labeling and context.

  10. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  11. A COMMUNITY WIDE PROGRAM OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION FOR PARENTS OF ADOLESCENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAMBLE, BETTY ROBERTS

    A STUDY WAS MADE IN THE KINGS MOUNTAIN AREA OF NORTH CAROLINA TO DETERMINE THE NEEDS FOR FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION FOR PARENTS OF ADOLESCENTS, TO PROMOTE A SUITABLE PROGRAM, TO EVALUATE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES, AND TO DEVELOP IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION. ENROLLED IN THE FOUR WEEK PROGRAM, WHICH MET ONCE A WEEK IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL,…

  12. Adolescent pregnancy prevention for Hispanic youth: the role of schools, families, and communities.

    PubMed

    Brindis, C

    1992-09-01

    A sociodemographic profile of Hispanic youth is presented as well as a description of the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in this population. Strategies and recommendations that should be implemented to provide Hispanic youth with viable options and assistance in delaying early childbearing also are offered.

  13. Does It Take a Village? Community Effects on Children, Adolescents, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Crouter, Ann C., Ed.

    Although our society has made substantial investments in research and programs based on the idea that communities affect families and children, significant questions have emerged about the validity of the link between communities, children, and families. This book, presented in four sections, focuses on how communities undergird or undermine human…

  14. “There are bugs in condoms”: Tanzanian close-to-community providers' ability to offer effective adolescent reproductive health services

    PubMed Central

    Dusabe, John; Mchome, Zaina; Nnko, Soori; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Young people in Tanzania are known to access reproductive health services from a range of close-to-community providers outside formal health settings such as drug stores, village AIDS committees, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, questions remain about the quality of services such agents provide. This study investigated their capacity to provide adolescent reproductive health (ARH) services and explored their readiness and ability to integrate with the mainstream health sector through community referral interventions. Methods Thirty-five focus group discussions exploring close-to-community provider experiences and attitudes to ARH service provision were carried out in two districts in Northern Tanzania. Discussions were conducted in Kiswahili, digitally recorded, verbatim-transcribed, translated and back-translated from Swahili to English. A thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 9. Results The major close-to-community cadres providing reproductive health services were drug stores, traditional healers, TBAs and village health workers. They reported being the first port of call for adolescents seeking reproductive health services, but their knowledge of ARH needs was poor. They had negative attitudes to, and lacked the necessary resources for, the provision of such services for adolescents. Some were particularly unwilling to provide condom services and were prejudiced against adolescents using them. There was poor integration between the close-to-community providers and the formal health sector, further limiting their ability to provide adequate services. Conclusions Although close-to-community providers are considered a key resource in the community, most have limited capacity to provide ARH services. Without capacity-building investments such as training and cooperation with the mainstream health sector, their contribution to positive reproductive health outcomes is limited, or could indeed lead to adverse

  15. Exploring psychosocial support online: a content analysis of messages in an adolescent and young adult cancer community.

    PubMed

    Love, Brad; Crook, Brittani; Thompson, Charee M; Zaitchik, Sarah; Knapp, Jessica; Lefebvre, Leah; Jones, Barbara; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Eargle, Emily; Rechis, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    The increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support has sparked numerous discussions about the role of online support in healthcare. However, little is known about the role of social-networking groups focused on supporting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) dealing with cancer. The current investigation report findings from a content analysis designed to explore how AYAs use an online support group to meet their psychosocial needs. Overall, members of the community focused on exchanging emotional and informational support, coping with difficult emotions through expression, describing experiences of being an AYA dealing with cancer through language (metaphors), enacting identity through evaluations of the new normal (life with and after cancer), and communicating membership as an AYA with cancer. This study highlights the unique needs of the AYA cancer community and offers a preliminary roadmap for practitioners, and network members, such as family and friends, to attempt to meet the needs of this unique community. PMID:22970826

  16. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis.

  17. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. PMID:25771751

  18. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  19. Teaching self-control with qualitatively different reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially short and then increased incrementally relative to the delay to a less preferred reinforcer. Self-control training effectively increased time on task to earn the delayed reinforcer. PMID:23322941

  20. Collateral gains and short-term maintenance in reading and on-task responses by inner-city adolescents as a function of their use of social reinforcement while tutoring.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, R D; Polirstok, S R

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments are reported concerning the effects of the differential use of verbal approval by problematic adolescents serving as tutors in a remedial reading program for an inner-city school. The experiments, each with 3 tutors and 15 tutees, used a combined multiple baseline and ABCBC design. Data showed that tutors' approvals as well as tutors' and tutees' on-task and reading responses were low and stable during baseline. Tutors were trained to use verbal approval for tutees' on-task behavior. Tokens were presented and withdrawn to control the tutors' use of approval. During phases in which tutors' approvals were raised via token dispensation, tutor reading and on-task scores increased in a nonexperimental setting. Tutee reading scores also increased as a function of tutor approvals. The second experiment replicated these findings and, in addition, (a) tested the validity of changes in reading responses via standardized tests, (b) isolated and compared the covariance between variables in all phases, and (c) provided data on tutee attention to tutors as a possible natural reinforcer for short-term maintenance found in both studies. Data are discussed as evidence that tutors had acquired the ability to recruit reinforcement from the classroom for appropriate behavior. PMID:7096224

  1. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  2. Reward-Related Neural Activity and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, James G; Crowley, Michael J; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Desatnik, Alexander; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral research has found evidence supporting reward dominance in adolescence with externalizing disorders, but findings from neuroimaging studies have been largely heterogeneous. We examined the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P3b in relation to self-reported externalizing behavior among 78 adolescents (11-18 yrs) during a monetary gambling task with concurrent high-density electroencephalogram. As expected, the P3b and the FRN demonstrated greater evoked activity to reward and punishment, respectively. Further, high externalizing behavior was associated with greater P3b difference and reduced FRN difference in response to reward and punishment, suggesting that externalizing behaviors may be associated with both reward dominance and reduced feedback-monitoring. PMID:26491989

  3. Reasons for Fighting among Violent Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Investigation from an Urban, Midwestern Community.

    PubMed

    Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828

  4. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  5. Community epidemiology of risk and adolescent substance use: practical questions for enhancing prevention.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor-problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect.

  6. Gender hierarchy and adolescent sexuality: the control of female reproduction in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Burbank, V K

    1995-03-01

    Women can bear children; men cannot. The author explores why women fail to realize more power from their ability to procreate. An instance is considered in which the practice and resistance of female Australian Aboriginal adolescents created circumstances in which their sexuality and reproduction were largely uncontrolled. The products of women's reproductive ability, children, are socially appropriated, but not women's reproductive abilities. The author views gender as a system of power relations both generated and changed in the quotidian interactions between human males and females. Adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Mangrove, and culture, power, and reproduction are discussed. The author finds women's sexual and reproductive freedom, as it is currently experienced by adolescent girls in Mangrove, to be supported by the confluence of the following factors: the diminished force of ideologies which may circumscribe women's behavior, the control of male violence, and the appreciation of motherhood and of any child simply by virtue of its being a child. It is unclear how long this arrangement will persist. Changes which may presage diminished freedom for women can already be discerned. Women's sexual and reproductive freedom are clearly human possibilities, but they are possibilities which can easily be denied.

  7. Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebellon, Cesar J.

    2006-01-01

    Although social-learning theory remains among the dominant perspectives in micro-level research concerning the causes of delinquency, research has yet to provide an adequate test of its social-reinforcement component using the methods required by the logic of operant psychology. The present article discusses the limits of existing attempts to test…

  8. Adolescent pregnancy: combating the problem from a multi-systemic health perspective.

    PubMed

    Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W

    1993-01-01

    Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.

  9. Environmental Learning in Adolescents from a Mexican Community Involved in Forestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, I.; Barraza, L.

    2006-01-01

    Education can generate knowledge and foster a change in attitude provided that people feel individually and collectively responsible for the state of the environment. San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro is an internationally recognised indigenous community located in western Mexico that manages its forest sustainably through a community-based forest…

  10. Creating Effective Civic Engagement Policy for Adolescents: Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of Compulsory Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ailsa; Pancer, S. Mark; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    For high school community service programs to have a positive impact on subsequent civic engagement, students must volunteer in a sustained manner and must evaluate their volunteering experiences positively. Using a survey with 1,293 respondents and 100 semistructured interviews with past participants of the mandatory community service program…

  11. Are Adolescents from a Forest Community Well-Informed about Forest Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous community of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Mexico has been engaged in a successful Community Forest Enterprise employing sustainable management practices since 1981. These environmental practices do not seem to be reflected in the educational programmes developed at school. In this study, the environmental knowledge and interest…

  12. Community-Based Interventions for Young Adolescents: The Penn State PRIDE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    With local Cooperative Extension agents serving as a bridge between university-based researchers and local community members, the PRIDE Project's collaborative activities have included building university-community relationships; carrying out needs assessments, program planning, and program evaluation research; and conducting policy seminars at…

  13. Balancing Social Responsibility and Personal Autonomy: Adolescents' Reasoning About Community Service Programs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Justin; Helwig, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Many jurisdictions in North America have implemented mandatory community service programs in high schools. However, little research exists examining the reasoning of youth themselves about such programs. This study examined how youth reason about community service programs, and how they balance the prosocial goals of these programs against their personal autonomy. Seventy-two participants between 10 and 18 years old evaluated voluntary community service along with 4 hypothetical mandatory programs that varied according to whether students or the government decided the areas in which students would serve, and whether a structured reflection component was included. The findings reveal that youth are not simply self-focused but rather balance and coordinate considerations of autonomy and community in their judgments and reasoning about community service.

  14. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  15. The influence of nondisclosure on the mental health of urban African-American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.

  16. Elaborating Developmental Contextualism in Adolescent Research and Intervention: Paradigm Contributions from Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined shared paradigm assumptions between developmental contextualism and community psychology, including: models for understanding social context; sociocultural influences; research methods for investigating relations between people and contexts; empowerment; and ethical issues in research and intervention. Purpose was to promote discussion…

  17. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2015-10-01

    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning environment, whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform in a hybrid learning environment. Students completed the Classroom Community Scale survey as a pretest and posttest. Results indicated that the students who participated in the face-to-face classroom had higher overall sense of community and learning community than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  18. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  19. Polyvictimization and risk for suicidal phenomena in a community sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Segura, Anna; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide data regarding the association between reported degree of victimization and suicidal phenomena, with special emphasis on gender differences. There were 923 adolescents recruited from eight secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) were used to assess suicidal phenomena and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (nonvictim, victim, and polyvictim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization reported. Results showed that the polyvictim group reported significantly more suicidal phenomena than did the victim and nonvictim groups in both boys and girls. Furthermore, although no gender differences in reported suicidal phenomena were found in the nonvictim group, girls reported significantly more suicidal phenomena in both the victim and the polyvictim groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that victimization may play an important role in generating gender differences with respect to reported suicidal phenomena. In addition, this study highlights the importance of taking into account the whole range of victimizations suffered by adolescents when seeking to design suicide prevention and intervention policies. PMID:24364131

  20. Predictive ability and stability of adolescents' pregnancy intentions in a predominantly Latino community.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort of 555 adolescent girls and boys from a predominantly Latino neighborhood of San Francisco, we examined how well four survey questionnaire items measuring pregnancy intentions predicted the incidence of pregnancy. We also compared consistency of responses among items and assessed how intentions fluctuated over time. Girls experienced 72 pregnancies over two years (six-month cumulative incidence = 8 percent), and boys reported being responsible for 50 pregnancies (six-month cumulative incidence = 10 percent). Although the probability of becoming pregnant generally increased with higher intention to do so, the risk of becoming pregnant was elevated only at the highest response categories for each item. Most pregnancies occurred among teenagers reporting the lowest levels of intention: for instance, 73 percent of pregnancies occurred among girls who reported that they definitely did not want to become pregnant. Considerable change in respondents' intentions were found over short periods of time: 18 percent and 41 percent of responses to the wantedness and happiness items, respectively, changed between six-month survey visits. The development of appropriate strategies to reduce pregnancy among adolescents would benefit from a more nuanced understanding of how teenagers view the prospect of pregnancy and what determines whether they actively protect themselves from unintended pregnancy. PMID:21469271

  1. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  2. Long term effects of community-based STI screening and mass media HIV prevention messages on sexual risk behaviors of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Brown, Larry K; DiClemente, Ralph; Hennessy, Michael; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We examined the long-term effects of two interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. African American adolescents (N = 1383, ages 14-17) were recruited from community-based organizations over a period of 16 months in two northeastern and two southeastern mid-sized U.S. cities with high rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Participants were screened for three STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis) and completed an audio computer-assisted attitude, intention, and behavior self-interview. Youth who tested positive for an STI (8.3%) received treatment and risk reduction counseling. In addition, television and radio HIV-prevention messages were delivered during the recruitment period and 18 months of follow-up in one randomly selected city in each region. Analyses determined effects of the media program for those receiving a positive versus negative STI test result on number of sexual partners and occurrence of unprotected sex. Adolescents who tested STI-positive reduced their number of vaginal sex partners and the probability of unprotected sex over the first 6 months. However, in the absence of the mass media program, adolescents returned to their previously high levels of sexual risk behavior after 6 months. Adolescents who tested STI-positive and received the mass media program showed more stable reductions in unprotected sex. Community-based STI treatment and counseling can achieve significant, but short-lived reductions in sexual risk behavior among STI-positive youth. A culturally sensitive mass media program has the potential to achieve more stable reductions in sexual risk behavior and can help to optimize the effects of community-based STI screening.

  3. Socioemotional Adjustment as a Mediator of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Performance in Low-Income Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Larkby, Cynthia A.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Methods Three hundred eighteen mothers and adolescents who participated in a longitudinal investigation were interviewed when adolescents were age 10, 14, and 16. Results Community violence exposure at age 14 was significantly related to anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Delinquent behaviors (but not anxious/depressed symptoms) were significantly associated with academic performance at age 16. Exposure to community violence was indirectly related to academic performance through delinquent behaviors. There was no significant indirect effect of exposure to community violence on academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms. Covariates included sociodemographics and exposure to child abuse. Age 10 anxious/depressed symptoms, age 10 delinquent behaviors, and age 14 academic performance were also included in the model to control for preexisting differences in socioemotional adjustment and academic performance. Conclusions Results suggest that exposure to community violence may initiate a cascade of problems that spread from behavior problems to declines in academic performance. Our results highlight the need for schools to consider exposure to community violence as one form of trauma and to transform in ways that make them more trauma-sensitive. The use of trauma-sensitive practices that address the effects of violence exposure on youth may help limit the progression of adverse effects from delinquent behavior to other domains of functioning. PMID:25485167

  4. Risk of Cigarette Smoking Initiation During Adolescence Among US-Born and Non–US-Born Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Xue, Xiaonan; Bandiera, Frank C.; Cai, Jianwen; Lee, David J.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Perreira, Krista M.; Salgado, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed risk of cigarette smoking initiation among Hispanics/Latinos during adolescence by migration status and gender. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) surveyed persons aged 18 to 74 years in 2008 to 2011. Our cohort analysis (n = 2801 US-born, 13 200 non–US-born) reconstructed participants’ adolescence from 10 to 18 years of age. We assessed the association between migration status and length of US residence and risk of cigarette smoking initiation during adolescence, along with effects of gender and Hispanic/Latino background. Results. Among individuals who migrated by 18 years of age, median age and year of arrival were 13 years and 1980, respectively. Among women, but not men, risk of smoking initiation during adolescence was higher among the US-born (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73, 2.57; P < .001), and those who had resided in the United States for 2 or more years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.96; P = .01) than among persons who lived outside the United States. Conclusions. Research examining why some adolescents begin smoking after moving to the United States could inform targeted interventions. PMID:25322293

  5. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations. PMID:25501543

  6. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations.

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    PubMed Central

    Mirtz, Timothy A; Thompson, Mark A; Greene, Leon; Wyatt, Lawrence A; Akagi, Cynthia G

    2005-01-01

    Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP) model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by school/community health

  8. Background for Community-Level Work on Positive Reproductive Health in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Papillo, Angela Romano; Franzetta, Kerry; Williams, Stephanie; Ryan, Suzanne

    There is an extensive body of research on the factors that are associated with reproductive health, focusing on factors within the adolescent as well as within the various components of the adolescents environment. This paper presents a selective review of the research pertaining to each layer of the adolescent's ecosystem. Emphasized are (1)…

  9. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  10. Exposures of lead to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops and surrounding communities.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure of lead (Pb) has been assessed by analyzing the whole-blood samples of early adolescents (boys) aged 12-15 years working for the past 1-3 years in battery recycling workshops (BRW). For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group residing in the vicinity of BRW (exposed non-workers) and who lived in domestic areas devoid of any industrial activity (referents boys) were selected. The blood samples were analyzed for Pb, along with biochemical parameters of blood. Both biological samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven before determination of Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean value of Pb concentration in blood samples of working boys was threefold higher as compared with referent boys. The significant negative correlations of blood Pb level with % Hb (r=-0.862) were observed in working boys.

  11. Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA. PMID:25080940

  12. Implicit attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression: differences between male community and offender adolescents, and associations with psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; de Ridder, Jill; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Stephan, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Research suggests that implicit attitudes play a key role in the occurrence of antisocial behaviours. This study assessed implicit attitudes and self-concepts related to aggression and transgression in community and offender adolescents, using a new set of Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and examined their association with of psychopathic traits. Thirty-six offenders and 66 community adolescents performed 4 IATs assessing 1) implicit attitudes about a) aggression and b) transgression as good, and 2) implicit self-concepts about a) aggression and b) transgression as self-descriptive. They filled in self-report questionnaires: the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, and explicit measures of their attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression. Results showed few differences between community and offender adolescents on implicit attitudes and self-concepts, and unexpected negative associations between some implicit attitudes and psychopathic traits, while the association was positive for the corresponding explicit attitudes. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  13. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  14. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  15. Empowering Adolescents as Servant-Leaders: Promoting Resiliency, Positive Networking, and Community Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The leadership training model profiled here espouses the belief that all youth are gifted and are capable of making a positive difference in their communities. The program incorporates the key elements of a deliberate psychological education and embraces the philosophy of servant-leadership. Selected at-risk youth participated in a 7-month,…

  16. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning…

  17. Adolescent Drug Use in Three Small Rural Communities in the Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Randall; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Differences were found among three small Rocky Mountain towns in both lifetime prevalence and frequency of occurrence of different types of drug users, indicating that small, rural communities are likely to develop idiosyncratic patterns of drug use. These differences were more evident among eighth-grade than among twelfth-grade students.…

  18. Strong Community Service Learning: Philosophical Perspectives. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society, Volume 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Community Service Learning (CSL) is, potentially, the most powerful and far-reaching educational reform movement in recent memory. Yet, that potential has yet to be realized. One major reason for CSL's limited success is found in its runaway conceptual confusion: in becoming everything to everyone, CSL has lost its philosophical bearings and, not…

  19. African-American Adolescents in the Urban Community: Social Services Policy and Practice Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on the realities confronting African American youth living in urban areas and offers successful strategies and practical implications for mentors, community organizers, and educators. The papers are: "African American Youth in the New Millennium: An Overview" (Judith L. Rozie-Battle); "Youth Development: A…

  20. Evaluation of a Judo/Community Organization Program to Treat Predelinquent Hispanic Immigrant Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Stephen J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Ninety Latino immigrant children in grades 3-6, many of whom were referred due to aggressive or other problem behaviors, participated for 1 year in a twice-weekly community program that featured judo instruction, tutoring, and parent training. Children improved significantly in academic achievement and behavior. Parents improved significantly in…

  1. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  2. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  3. Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

    2012-01-01

    "Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with interactive tools and…

  4. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  5. Community and Religious Involvement as Contexts of Identity Change across Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Pratt, Michael W.; Pancer, S. Mark; Olsen, Joseph A.; Lawford, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to describe longitudinal trends in community and religious involvement and Marcia's (1966) four identity statuses (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement), as well as to assess relations between involvement and identity change. Cross-lagged regression models explored temporal ordering of relations…

  6. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  7. Microbiota from the distal guts of lean and obese adolescents exhibit partial functional redundancy besides clear differences in community structure.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Manuel; Ruiz, Alicia; Lanza, Francesca; Haange, Sven-Bastiaan; Oberbach, Andreas; Till, Holger; Bargiela, Rafael; Campoy, Cristina; Segura, Maria Teresa; Richter, Michael; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana; Suarez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has disclosed a tight connection between obesity, metabolic gut microbial activities and host health. Obtaining a complete understanding of this relationship remains a major goal. Here, we conducted a comparative metagenomic and metaproteomic investigation of gut microbial communities in faecal samples taken from an obese and a lean adolescent. By analysing the diversity of 16S rDNA amplicons (10% operational phylogenetic units being common), 22 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences (~70% common) and the expression profiles of 613 distinct proteins (82% common), we found that in the obese gut, the total microbiota was more abundant on the phylum Firmicutes (94.6%) as compared with Bacteroidetes (3.2%), although the metabolically active microbiota clearly behaves in a more homogeneous manner with both contributing equally. The lean gut showed a remarkable shift towards Bacteroidetes (18.9% total 16S rDNA), which become the most active fraction (81% proteins). Although the two gut communities maintained largely similar gene repertoires and functional profiles, improved pili- and flagella-mediated host colonization and improved capacity for both complementary aerobic and anaerobic de novo B(12) synthesis, 1,2-propanediol catabolism (most likely participating in de novo B(12) synthesis) and butyrate production were observed in the obese gut, whereas bacteria from lean gut seem to be more engaged in vitamin B(6) synthesis. Furthermore, this study provides functional evidence that variable combinations of species from different phyla could 'presumptively' fulfil overlapping and/or complementary functional roles required by the host, a scenario where minor bacterial taxa seem to be significant active contributors.

  8. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  9. Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: findings of a community-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J G; Smailes, E M; Cohen, P; Brown, J; Bernstein, D P

    2000-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the association between childhood neglect and personality disorder (PD) symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychosocial and psychiatric interviews were administered to a representative sample of 738 youths and their mothers from upstate New York in 1975, 1983, 1985-1986, and 1991-1993. Evidence of childhood cognitive, emotional, physical, and supervision neglect was obtained from the maternal interviews that were conducted in 1975, 1983, and 1985-1986, and from New York State records. PDs were assessed among the youths in 1985-1986, when they were adolescents, and in 1991-1993, when they were young adults. Findings indicated that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect were associated with increased risk for PDs and with elevated PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood, after age, sex, childhood physical or sexual abuse, other types of childhood neglect, and cooccurring PD symptoms were controlled statistically. Childhood emotional neglect was associated with increased risk for avoidant PD and with paranoid and Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood physical neglect was associated with increased risk for schizotypal PD and with Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood supervision neglect was associated with increased risk for passive-aggressive and Cluster B PDs and with borderline, paranoid, and passive-aggressive PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. The present findings suggest that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect may play a role in the etiology of some PDs.

  10. Teaching Self-Control with Qualitatively Different Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration…

  11. Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

    PubMed

    Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning.

  12. Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

    PubMed

    Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning. PMID:25217145

  13. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  14. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  15. Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community Responsive to Student Needs: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Middle Level Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted…

  16. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  17. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  18. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  19. Adolescents in Crisis: Implementing Carnegie Recommendations in Middle Level Teacher Education by Collaborating with Community Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Jan E.

    According to the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, young adolescents are felt to be far more at risk for self-destructive behaviors than ever before, and middle grades schools are failing to meet students' needs. As part of a plan for restructuring middle grades education, Illinois has created a middle school endorsement added to…

  20. Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

    Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

  1. A Community Study on the Relationship of Posttraumatic Cognitions to Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Tsen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2015-11-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that posttraumatic cognitions play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effects of posttraumatic cognitions on general psychopathology beyond PTSD remain unclear. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-C) and to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic cognitions and psychopathology. A community sample of 285 school-aged children and adolescents (aged 9-17, 160 [56.1 %] female) reported their trauma-related cognitions on the CPTCI-C and completed measures of symptoms of PTSD, depression, and generalized anxiety. Parents reported their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We validated a revised version of the CPTCI-C based on the results of confirmatory factor analyses. The resulting evidence suggests that this revised CPTCI-C possesses good internal consistency, fair 6-week temporal stability, and good concurrent validity. In addition to significant correlations between posttraumatic cognitions and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, after controlling for age, gender, and trauma types, both the revised CPTCI-C subscale scores conveyed unique contributions to psychological distress while only the maladaptive appraisals of the trauma remained weakly associated with externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that maladaptive appraisals of the trauma had a direct longitudinal impact on chronic PTSD severity. No mediation effect of posttraumatic cognitions on the relationship between acute and chronic PTSD activity was observed. The implications of our findings are discussed for the specificity of posttraumatic cognitions to posttraumatic internalizing psychopathology and cognitive interventions that target negative trauma-related cognitions. PMID:25957269

  2. A Community Study on the Relationship of Posttraumatic Cognitions to Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Tsen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2015-11-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that posttraumatic cognitions play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effects of posttraumatic cognitions on general psychopathology beyond PTSD remain unclear. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-C) and to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic cognitions and psychopathology. A community sample of 285 school-aged children and adolescents (aged 9-17, 160 [56.1 %] female) reported their trauma-related cognitions on the CPTCI-C and completed measures of symptoms of PTSD, depression, and generalized anxiety. Parents reported their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We validated a revised version of the CPTCI-C based on the results of confirmatory factor analyses. The resulting evidence suggests that this revised CPTCI-C possesses good internal consistency, fair 6-week temporal stability, and good concurrent validity. In addition to significant correlations between posttraumatic cognitions and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, after controlling for age, gender, and trauma types, both the revised CPTCI-C subscale scores conveyed unique contributions to psychological distress while only the maladaptive appraisals of the trauma remained weakly associated with externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that maladaptive appraisals of the trauma had a direct longitudinal impact on chronic PTSD severity. No mediation effect of posttraumatic cognitions on the relationship between acute and chronic PTSD activity was observed. The implications of our findings are discussed for the specificity of posttraumatic cognitions to posttraumatic internalizing psychopathology and cognitive interventions that target negative trauma-related cognitions.

  3. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  4. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  5. Reinforced structural plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubowitz, H. R.; Kendrick, W. P.; Jones, J. F.; Thorpe, R. S.; Burns, E. A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Reinforced polyimide structures are described. Reinforcing materials are impregnated with a suspension of polyimide prepolymer and bonded together by heat and pressure to form a cured, hard-reinforced, polyimide structure.

  6. The association of tattooing/body piercing and psychopathology in adolescents: a community based study from Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Topcuoglu, Volkan; Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral; Akin, Elif; Gumustas, Funda Ozer

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of psychopathology with tattooing and body piercing among adolescents in Istanbul by means of self-report questionnaires. Tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade students from 2 high schools in Istanbul with a total number of 607 participated in the study. The Youth Self Report, Children's Depression Inventory and a detailed semi-structured inquiry assessing tattooing, body piercing and some psychiatric and psychosocial variables were administered to the students. The prevalence of tattooing and body piercing were 4.8 and 7 %, respectively. The adolescents with tattooing and body piercing were found to have a higher frequency of alcohol and drug use, smoking, going to bars/night clubs and lower school grades when compared to those without tattooing and body piercing. Externalizing problems, mainly delinquent and aggressive behaviours were more prominent in the adolescents with tattooing and body piercing. Tattooing and body piercing in adolescents may be indicative of mental health risks.

  7. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  8. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  9. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  10. Evaluation of a Community-Based Weight Management Program for Predominantly Severely Obese, Difficult-To-Reach, Inner-City Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Heo, Moonseong; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Blank, Arthur E.; Strauss, Temima; Viswanathan, Nisha; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few interventions targeting severely obese minority youth have been implemented in community-based settings. We evaluate a 9-month multicomponent, community-based program for obese, inner-city adolescents. Methods Of 5250 estimated eligible adolescents, 349 were recruited; they had a mean age of 15±2 years, mean BMI %ile 98.9±1.5, and comprised 52% African American and 44% Hispanic. Longitudinal trends of anthropometric measures were compared 1 year before enrollment (T−12), at baseline (T0) and after program completion (T9). Dietary and physical activity behaviors were compared at T0 and T9. Anthropometric changes were compared at T9 and 18 months (T18) in completers and noncompleters. Results A majority of participants were severely obese (67%) and expressed low readiness to change behaviors (82%). For intervals T−12 to T0 versus T0 to T9, there were significant decreases in rates of gain in BMI (0.13 vs. 0.04, p<0.01), BMI percentile (0.0002 vs. −0.0001, p<0.01), percent overweight (0.001 vs. −0.001, p<0.01), and BMI z-score (0.003 vs. −0.003, p<0.01). Significant increases in vegetable and fruit consumption and in vigorous physical activity participation were observed. From T9 to T18, except for a significant increase in BMI (38.3±7.4 vs. 39.0±7.5, p<0.01) in completers, all other anthropometric measures remained unchanged in completers and noncompleters. Conclusions We demonstrate modest clinical improvements and increased healthy lifestyle behaviors in predominantly severely obese, difficult-to-reach, ethnic minority adolescents attending a community-based weight management program. The loss of clinical improvements 9 months after program completion implies that extending the duration of such a program may prevent long-term weight regain in severely obese adolescents. PMID:23865528

  11. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized.

  12. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  13. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression. PMID:23105161

  14. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.

  15. “Going Beyond the Call of Doula”: A Grounded Theory Analysis of the Diverse Roles Community-Based Doulas Play in the Lives of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Nolte, Kim M.; Gonzalez, Ainka; Pearson, Magan; Ivey, Symeon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents some of the most salient qualitative results from a larger program evaluation of pregnant and parenting adolescents who participated in a community-based doula program. Using grounded theory analysis, seven problem-solving strategies emerged that doulas apply in helping pregnant and parenting adolescents navigate multiple social and health settings that often serve as barriers to positive maternal- and child-health outcomes. The ethnographic findings of this study suggest that the doulas provide valuable assistance to pregnant and parenting adolescents by addressing social-psychological issues and socio-economic disparities. “Diverse role-taking” results in doulas helping pregnant adolescents navigate more successfully through fragmented social and health service systems that are less supportive of low-income adolescents, who are often perceived to be draining scarce resources. The findings have implications for the roles of community-based doulas assigned to low-income adolescents of color seeking to overcome obstacles and attain better educational and economic opportunities. PMID:21886419

  16. The Reinforcement Hierarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.

    1973-01-01

    Reinforcement hierarchy implies movement along a continuum from top to bottom, from primitive levels of reinforcement to more sophisticated levels. Unless it is immediately obvious that a child cannot function without the use of lower-order reinforcers, we should approach him as though he responds to topmost reinforcers until he demonstrates…

  17. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  18. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake.

  19. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Scheid, Jennifer L.; Gebre, Eden; O’Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A.; Temple, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8–12 year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are not strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  20. Adolescent pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.

  1. Providing a Structure for Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1989-01-01

    As teenagers mature, they seek to move away from the adult community's normative pressures. A 10-year survey of adolescents in 10 communities found more congruence than conflict between parent and adolescent world views. Seattle, Washington's innovative youth charter offers an ideal way to map out adult and adolescent roles. Includes nine…

  2. The acceptability and feasibility of the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project, a community-based contingency management methamphetamine treatment program for gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Strona, Frank V; McCright, Jacque; Hjord, Hanna; Ahrens, Katherine; Tierney, Steven; Shoptaw, Steven; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    The Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP) was a pilot program developed to build on the efficacy of contingency management (CM) using positive reinforcement to address the treatment needs of gay and bisexual men currently using crystal methamphetamines (meth). It was hypothesized that a version of CM could be implemented in San Francisco that was less costly than traditional treatment methods and reached gay and other MSM using meth who also engaged in high-risk sexual activity. Of the 178 men who participated in PROPfrom December 2003 to December 2005, many self-reported behaviors for acquiring and spreading sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. During the initial intake, 73% reported high-risk sexual behavior in the prior three months, with 60% reporting anal receptive and/or insertive sex without condoms. This report describes the implementation of PROP and suggest both its limitations and potential strengths. Initial findings suggest that PROP was a useful and low cost substance use treatment option that resulted in a 35% 90-day completion rate, which is similar to graduation rates from traditional, more costly treatment options. Further evaluation of the limited data from three- and six-month follow-up of those who completed PROP is currently ongoing.

  3. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI) to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19%) showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6%) experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55%) over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape adversity, for many this

  4. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  5. Background for Community-Level Work on Physical Health and Safety in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    Although adolescence is characterized by general good health, this developmental stage is a key time for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing health-compromising behaviors and injuries. This paper presents a selective review of research into factors predicting health and safety behavior patterns and injury occurrence, focusing on…

  6. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  7. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  8. Familial and Religious Influences on Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Multi-Level Study of Students and School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Welch, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-level Durkheimian theory of familial and religious influences on adolescent alcohol use is developed and tested with hierarchical linear modeling of data from Icelandic schools and students. On the individual level, traditional family structure, parental monitoring, parental support, religious participation, and perceptions of divine…

  9. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  10. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  11. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  12. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  13. Background for Community-Level Work on Emotional Well-Being in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…

  14. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  15. Family Involvement for Adolescents in a Community Poetry Workshop: Influences of Parent Roles and Life Context Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    While adolescents benefit from the involvement of caring adults who participate in their schooling experiences, their families' participation in school events decreases incrementally as they progress through their education. There is still much to be understood about how to develop supportive relationships that encourage families to contribute and…

  16. Decreased Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren After Yearlong Information Sessions With Parents Reinforced With Web and Mobile Phone Resources: Community Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Duque, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Background The obesity pandemic has now reached children, and households should change their lifestyles to prevent it. Objective The objective was to assess the effect of a comprehensive intervention on body mass index z-score (BMIZ) in schoolchildren. Methods A yearlong study was conducted at 4 elementary schools in Mexico City. Intervention group (IG) and control group (CG) were split equally between governmental and private schools. Three educational in-person parents and children sessions were held at 2-month intervals to promote healthy eating habits and exercise. To reinforce the information, a website provided extensive discussion on a new topic every 2 weeks, including school snack menus and tools to calculate body mass index in children and adults. Text messages were sent to parents’ mobile phones reinforcing the information provided. The IG contained 226 children and CG 181 children. We measured their weight and height and calculated BMIZ at 0, 6, and 12 months. Results The CG children showed a change of +0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.11) and +0.05 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10) in their BMIZ at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The BMIZ of IG children decreased by -0.13 (95% CI -0.19 to -0.06) and -0.10 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.03), respectively, and the effect was greater in children with obesity. Conclusions The comprehensive intervention tested had beneficial effects, preserved the BMIZ of normal weight children, and reduced the BMIZ of children with obesity. PMID:27342650

  17. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2010-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of adolescents experienced some form of eating disorder. Subthreshold BN and BED and threshold PD were associated with elevated treatment, impairment, and distress. Peak age of onset was 17-18 for BN and BED, and 18-20 for PD. Average episode duration in months was 3.9 for BN and BED, and 5.1 for PD. One-year recovery rates ranged from 91% to 96%. Relapse rates were 41% for BN, 33% for BED, and 5% for PD. For BN and BED subthreshold cases often progressed to threshold cases and diagnostic crossover was most likely for these disorders. Results suggest that subthreshold eating disorders are more prevalent than threshold eating disorders and are associated with marked impairment. PMID:19685955

  18. Self-Reported Emotion Reactivity Among Early-Adolescent Girls: Evidence for Convergent and Discriminant Validity in an Urban Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025

  19. Can the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents predict the necessity of inpatient stay during assertive community treatment?

    PubMed

    Urben, Sébastien; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Baier, Vanessa; Halfon, Olivier; Villard, Eva; Holzer, Laurent

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the trajectories of youths within Child and Adolescents Mental Health Service (CAMHS) is of primary importance. Our objective is to assess the usefulness of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) to predict inpatient (IP) stay for youths followed by assertive community treatment (ACT) teams. 82 youths followed exclusively by ACT and 42 who needed IP were assessed with the HoNOSCA at admission to the program. The HoNOSCA allowed the computing of three scores: a total score, an externalizing symptoms (Ext) score and an emotional problems (Emo) score. Logistic regressions revealed that the three HoNOSCA scores at admission of ACT predicted later need for hospitalization. Using ROC curve analyses, we set up cut off scores with appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the HoNOSCA Total and Ext to optimally predict the need for hospitalization. This study revealed that the HoNOSCA may be a useful tool to predict the need for later IP during ACT. Such knowledge is important to set up the best therapeutic strategies. PMID:27341331

  20. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  1. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  2. Identification with social groups is associated with mental health in adolescents: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2015-08-30

    The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond.

  3. Reinforcement, Expectancy, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Surveys some of the difficulties currently confronting the reinforcement concept and cosiders some alternatives to reinforcement as the fundamental basis of learning. Two specific alternatives considered are: an incentive motivation approach and a cognitive approach. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of an Assertive Continuing Care Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric; Jungerman, Joanna; Kinyua, Juliet; Frew, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated an Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) and Assertive Continuing Care (ACC) program targeting Hispanic adolescents at risk for substance abuse. Method: The Clinic for Education, Treatment, and Prevention of Addiction (CETPA, Inc.), a behavioral health provider offering culturally appropriate substance use and mental health services, carried out the intervention. We examined longitudinal substance use data in relation to time spent in the program and possible confounders. Results: We analyzed data from 72 adolescent clients collected between 2010 and 2012. Self-reported data were evaluated to determine if time spent in the program was associated with substance use reduction. The data were correlated, zero-inflated, and overdispersed; consequently, we employed a mixed-effects zero-inflated negative-binomial model. Time spent in CETPA’s program was significantly associated with reductions in the number of days of substance use (p = .039), but not with the likelihood of fully abstaining from use (p = .290). For non-abstinent participants who spend a year in the program, our models revealed an average decline of 46% in reported days of substance use. Conclusions: A culturally tailored and age-appropriate substance abuse program for Hispanic adolescents resulted in a significant reduction of the numbers of days using alcohol, drugs, or other illicit substances. The A-CRA/ACC approach can yield successful results in culturally diverse settings. PMID:26156933

  5. Reinforcement of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1977-01-01

    A company trainer shows some ways of scheduling reinforcement of learning for trainees: continuous reinforcement, fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. As there are problems with all methods, he suggests trying combinations of various types of reinforcement. (MF)

  6. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  7. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  8. Addressing Health Disparities in the Mental Health of Refugee Children and Adolescents Through Community-Based Participatory Research: A Study in 2 Communities

    PubMed Central

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Mishra, Tej; Hussein, Aweis; Falzarano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to understand the problems, strengths, and help-seeking behaviors of Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees and determine local expressions of mental health problems among youths in both communities. Methods. We used qualitative research methods to develop community needs assessments and identify local terms for child mental health problems among Somali Bantu and Bhutanese refugees in Greater Boston and Springfield, Massachusetts, between 2011 and 2014. A total of 56 Somali Bantu and 93 Bhutanese refugees participated in free list and key informant interviews. Results. Financial and language barriers impeded the abilities of families to assist youths who were struggling academically and socially. Participants identified resources both within and outside the refugee community to help with these problems. Both communities identified areas of distress corresponding to Western concepts of conduct disorders, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. There are numerous challenges faced by Somali Bantu and Bhutanese youths, as well as strengths and resources that promote resilience. Future steps include using culturally informed methods for identifying those in need of services and developing community-based prevention programs. PMID:25905818

  9. General level of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cautela, J R

    1984-06-01

    A concept of General Level of Reinforcement (GLR) is introduced. This concept is defined as the number, quality and duration of reinforcements per unit time. The assumptions of this theory are discussed. A crucial assumption is that the theory is related to psychological and physiological well-being. Ways to measure general level of reinforcement are described, and clinical implications presented. Methods to increase the level of reinforcement, such as covert reinforcement and the Self-Control Triad, are specified. Finally, suggestions for research are provided.

  10. Stimulus Fading and Differential Reinforcement for the Treatment of Needle Phobia in a Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabani, Daniel B.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulus fading in the form of gradually increased exposure to a fear-evoking stimulus, often combined with differential reinforcement, has been used to treat phobias in children who are otherwise normal and in children with autism. In this investigation, we applied stimulus fading plus differential reinforcement with an adolescent with autism and…

  11. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  12. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to

  13. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  14. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating.

  15. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. PMID:26212268

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual abuse among Female Out-of- School Adolescents in Iwaya Community, Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kunnuji, Michael O N; Esiet, Adenike

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to document the prevalence and predictors of sexual intercourse with persons below the age of consent (statutory rape) and outright sex without consent (rape) among out-of-school adolescents in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathered from a survey of 480 participants were employed. About 14% and 35% of the participants had been victims of rape and statutory rape respectively. Experience of rape was found to be a function of age and basic deprivation (Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.060 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.108). Another model (with a Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.286 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.394) shows that predictors of the experience of statutory rape include age, basic deprivation, living arrangement and previous attendance of school. In view of the overarching influence of basic deprivation on the experience of sexual abuse, an intervention programme that addresses the material conditions of adolescent girls in Nigeria is recommended. PMID:26103698

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual abuse among Female Out-of- School Adolescents in Iwaya Community, Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kunnuji, Michael O N; Esiet, Adenike

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to document the prevalence and predictors of sexual intercourse with persons below the age of consent (statutory rape) and outright sex without consent (rape) among out-of-school adolescents in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathered from a survey of 480 participants were employed. About 14% and 35% of the participants had been victims of rape and statutory rape respectively. Experience of rape was found to be a function of age and basic deprivation (Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.060 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.108). Another model (with a Cox and Snell's R2 of 0.286 and a Nagelkerke's R2 of 0.394) shows that predictors of the experience of statutory rape include age, basic deprivation, living arrangement and previous attendance of school. In view of the overarching influence of basic deprivation on the experience of sexual abuse, an intervention programme that addresses the material conditions of adolescent girls in Nigeria is recommended.

  18. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  19. Adolescents, Parents, and Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; McLeod, Jack M.

    Three hypotheses could explain a positive correlation between violence viewing and social aggressiveness in adolescents: 1) Heavy exposure to television (TV) violence somehow reinforces or induces aggressive tendencies; 2) An aggressive child is more likely to be attracted to violent TV programs; 3) Some third factors exist which could cause both…

  20. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, David R.; Medina, Douglas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Richards, Jerry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect “accelerated-HRE.” Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

  2. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  3. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  4. Adolescent Services & the TC. Chapter 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with adolescent clients and TCs. Papers include: (1) Preliminary Consideration on "Adolescence and the TC" (David Deitch); (2) "Daytop's Full Service Adolescent Treatment Program" (Charles Devlin and Lois Morris); (3) "Adolescent…

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  6. The Impact of a Community-Based Comprehensive Sex Education Program on Chinese Adolescents' Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Meier, Ann; Shah, Iqbal; Li, Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexual knowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…

  7. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  8. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  9. The Role of Young Adolescents' Perception in Understanding the Severity of Exposure to Community Violence and PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Ayon, Cecilia; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to (a) identify and measure the lifetime exposure to community violence of 137 African American and Latino middle school students from a low income neighborhood and apply numerical weights to each violent event; (b) examine the relationship between the objective severity of child self reported violence exposure and the child's…

  10. The Interactive Relationship among Adolescent Violence, Street Violence, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Robert D.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown community violence to be detrimental to adolescent well-being, yet relatively little is known about how adolescents respond to violence in their community. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the interactive associations among exposure to street violence, adolescent…

  11. Promoting the implementation of an evidence-based intervention for adolescent marijuana abuse in community settings: testing the use of intensive quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Sheidow, Ashli J; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Donohue, Bradley C; Ford, Julian D

    2008-07-01

    The development and evaluation of effective strategies for transporting evidence-based practices to community-based clinicians has become a research and policy priority. Using multisystemic therapy programs as a platform, an experimental design examined the capacity of an Intensive Quality Assurance (IQA) system to promote therapist implementation of contingency management (CM) for adolescent marijuana abuse. Participants included 30 therapists assigned to Workshop Only (WSO) versus IQA training conditions, and 70 marijuana-abusing youths and their caregivers who were treated by these clinicians. Analyses showed that IQA was more effective than WSO at increasing practitioner implementation of CM cognitive-behavioral techniques in the short-term based on youth and caregiver reports, and these increases were sustained based on youth reports. On the other hand, IQA did not increase therapist use of CM monitoring techniques relative to WSO, likely because of an unanticipated ceiling effect. Both sets of findings contribute to the emerging literature on the transport of evidence-based practice to real-world clinical settings.

  12. Reinforced plastics durability

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, G.

    1999-01-01

    Written especially for first-time users of reinforced plastics. The book offers substantial introductory information with key concepts. Chapters examine the long-term threats to the integrity of reinforced plastics: outdoor weathering, solvent/water attack, high temperatures, and repetitive stress.

  13. Negative reinforcement learning is affected in substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laetitia L.; Claus, Eric D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas; Krmpotich, Theodore; Miller, David; Tanabe, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Background Negative reinforcement results in behavior to escape or avoid an aversive outcome. Withdrawal symptoms are purported to be negative reinforcers in perpetuating substance dependence, but little is known about negative reinforcement learning in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine reinforcement learning in substance dependent individuals (SDI), with an emphasis on assessing negative reinforcement learning. We modified the Iowa Gambling Task to separately assess positive and negative reinforcement. We hypothesized that SDI would show differences in negative reinforcement learning compared to controls and we investigated whether learning differed as a function of the relative magnitude or frequency of the reinforcer. Methods Thirty subjects dependent on psychostimulants were compared with 28 community controls on a decision making task that manipulated outcome frequencies and magnitudes and required an action to avoid a negative outcome. Results SDI did not learn to avoid negative outcomes to the same degree as controls. This difference was driven by the magnitude, not the frequency, of negative feedback. In contrast, approach behaviors in response to positive reinforcement were similar in both groups. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with a specific deficit in negative reinforcement learning in SDI. SDI were relatively insensitive to the magnitude, not frequency, of loss. If this generalizes to drug-related stimuli, it suggests that repeated episodes of withdrawal may drive relapse more than the severity of a single episode. PMID:22079143

  14. [Psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Desirée Pereira de; Viñas, Ferran; Casas, Ferran; Montserrat, Carme; González-Carrasco, Mònica; Alcantara, Stefania Carneiro de

    2016-01-01

    The study's overall objective was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in urban and rural schoolchildren in Northeast Brazil, focusing on differences according to territorial context. The sample consisted of 757 participants, 495 from urban schools and 262 from rural schools, enrolled in the 6th and 7th grades (9 to 18 years of age) in 21 municipal and state public schools, of which 13 urban and 8 rural, in 7 municipalities (counties) in Ceará State, Brazil. The study instruments were inventory of stressful events, scale of life satisfaction for students, index of sense of community, and satisfaction indices by life domains (family, material goods, relations, neighborhood/zone, health, time, school, and personal). The results indicate that socioeconomically underprivileged public schoolchildren from urban areas are more exposed to daily stress and score lower on satisfaction in specific domains of life and on sense of community. This latter is an important indicator for evaluating wellbeing in this young population. PMID:27653200

  15. Community Violence Exposure and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Testing Parental Support as a Promotive Versus Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tess; Ammons, Chrissy; Dahl, Alexandra; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 yrs, SD = 1.56 yrs; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU. PMID:25580047

  16. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1978-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory.

  17. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1995-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the stand-point of reflex behavior theory.

  18. Composite Intersection Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  19. Composite intersection reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  20. The Parent Participation Engagement Measure (PPEM): Reliability and Validity in Child and Adolescent Community Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Roesch, Scott C; Trask, Emily V; Fawley-King, Kya; Ganger, William C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Parent participation in community-based child mental health services is an important yet understudied process associated with treatment effectiveness. This paper describes the development and psychometrics of the Parent Participation Engagement Measure in a sample of 1374 parents and 563 youth receiving publicly-funded mental health services. Analyses indicated excellent internal consistency, and model fit indices/factor loadings supported a one-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported, although some coefficients were modest in magnitude. Psychometric results were consistent for Caucasian versus Hispanic, parent versus youth, and English versus Spanish-language respondents. The clinical and research utility of this measure are discussed.

  1. Recruitment of Minority Adolescents and Young Adults into Randomised Clinical Trials: Testing the Design of the Technology Enhanced Community Health Nursing (TECH-N) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Chung, Shang-en; Gaydos, Charlotte; Frick, Kevin D.; Anders, Jennifer; Huettner, Steven; Rothman, Richard; Butz, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) disproportionately affects adolescent and young adult (AYA) women and can negatively influence reproductive health trajectories. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have focused on strategies to improve outpatient adherence or to reduce reproductive morbidity in this population. This paper describes the research methods and preliminary effectiveness of recruitment, retention, and intervention strategies employed in a novel RCT designed to test a technology-enhanced community-health nursing (TECH-N) intervention among urban AYA with PID. Methods AYA women aged 13–25 years were recruited during acute PID visits in outpatient clinics and emergency departments (ED) to participate in this IRB-approved trial. Participants completed an audio-computerized self-interview (ACASI), provided vaginal specimens, and were randomized to standard treatment or the intervention. Intervention participants received text-messaging support for 30 days and a community health nurse (CHN) interventionist performed a home visit with clinical assessment within 5 days after enrollment. All patients received a full course of medications and completed research visits at 14-days (adherence), 30 days and 90 days with by an outreach worker. STI testing performed at the 30-and 90-day visits. Exploratory analyses using descriptive statistics were conducted to examine recruitment, retention, and follow-up data to test the overall design of the intervention. Results In the first 48 months, 64% of 463 patients were eligible for the study and 81.2% of 293 eligible patients were recruited for the study (63.3%); 238 (81.2%) of eligible patients were enrolled. Most participants were African American (95.6%) with a mean age of 18.6 (2.3). Ninety-four percent of individuals assigned to the TECH-N intervention completed the nursing visits. All completed visits have been within the 5-day window and over 90% of patients in both arms have been retained over the 3

  2. Recruitment of Minority Adolescents and Young Adults into Randomised Clinical Trials: Testing the Design of the Technology Enhanced Community Health Nursing (TECH-N) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Chung, Shang-en; Gaydos, Charlotte; Frick, Kevin D.; Anders, Jennifer; Huettner, Steven; Rothman, Richard; Butz, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) disproportionately affects adolescent and young adult (AYA) women and can negatively influence reproductive health trajectories. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have focused on strategies to improve outpatient adherence or to reduce reproductive morbidity in this population. This paper describes the research methods and preliminary effectiveness of recruitment, retention, and intervention strategies employed in a novel RCT designed to test a technology-enhanced community-health nursing (TECH-N) intervention among urban AYA with PID. Methods AYA women aged 13–25 years were recruited during acute PID visits in outpatient clinics and emergency departments (ED) to participate in this IRB-approved trial. Participants completed an audio-computerized self-interview (ACASI), provided vaginal specimens, and were randomized to standard treatment or the intervention. Intervention participants received text-messaging support for 30 days and a community health nurse (CHN) interventionist performed a home visit with clinical assessment within 5 days after enrollment. All patients received a full course of medications and completed research visits at 14-days (adherence), 30 days and 90 days with by an outreach worker. STI testing performed at the 30-and 90-day visits. Exploratory analyses using descriptive statistics were conducted to examine recruitment, retention, and follow-up data to test the overall design of the intervention. Results In the first 48 months, 64% of 463 patients were eligible for the study and 81.2% of 293 eligible patients were recruited for the study (63.3%); 238 (81.2%) of eligible patients were enrolled. Most participants were African American (95.6%) with a mean age of 18.6 (2.3). Ninety-four percent of individuals assigned to the TECH-N intervention completed the nursing visits. All completed visits have been within the 5-day window and over 90% of patients in both arms have been retained over the 3

  3. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  4. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

    1991-03-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice.

  5. Reinforcement learning: Computational theory and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Doya, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a computational framework for an active agent to learn behaviors on the basis of a scalar reward signal. The agent can be an animal, a human, or an artificial system such as a robot or a computer program. The reward can be food, water, money, or whatever measure of the performance of the agent. The theory of reinforcement learning, which was developed in an artificial intelligence community with intuitions from animal learning theory, is now giving a coherent account on the function of the basal ganglia. It now serves as the "common language" in which biologists, engineers, and social scientists can exchange their problems and findings. This article reviews the basic theoretical framework of reinforcement learning and discusses its recent and future contributions toward the understanding of animal behaviors and human decision making.

  6. Reinforcement learning: Computational theory and biological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Doya, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a computational framework for an active agent to learn behaviors on the basis of a scalar reward signal. The agent can be an animal, a human, or an artificial system such as a robot or a computer program. The reward can be food, water, money, or whatever measure of the performance of the agent. The theory of reinforcement learning, which was developed in an artificial intelligence community with intuitions from animal learning theory, is now giving a coherent account on the function of the basal ganglia. It now serves as the “common language” in which biologists, engineers, and social scientists can exchange their problems and findings. This article reviews the basic theoretical framework of reinforcement learning and discusses its recent and future contributions toward the understanding of animal behaviors and human decision making. PMID:19404458

  7. HPV Vaccination Completion and Compliance with Recommended Dosing Intervals Among Female and Male Adolescents in an Inner-City Community Health Center.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rula M; Brown, Diane R; Carmody, Dennis P; Fogarty, Sushanna

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination continues to lag behind other adolescent vaccines, especially in areas with pervasive disparities in HPV-related cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine HPV vaccine completion and dosing intervals among low-income adolescents in urban areas. The study included electronic health record data on HPV vaccination for 872 adolescents who received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Only 28.4% completed the 3-dose series. For the whole sample, HPV vaccine completion was higher for non-English speakers and among adolescents seen at Newark-South and East Orange sites. Completion was higher among non-English speaking female and Hispanic adolescents, females seen in Newark-South and East Orange sites, and insured Black adolescents. Completion was also dramatically lower among non-English speaking Black adolescents seen at Newark-North, Irvington, and Orange sites (12.5%) compared to other Black adolescents (22.0-44.4%). The mean dosing intervals were 5.5 months (SD = 4.6) between dose 1 and 2 and 10 months (SD = 6.1) between dose 1 and 3. Longer durations between vaccine doses were found among uninsured adolescents and those seen at Newark-North, Irvington, and Orange sites. Non-English speakers had longer duration between dose 1 and 3. Further, durations between dose 1 and 3 were dramatically longer among insured adolescents seen at Newark-North, Irvington, and Orange locations for the whole sample (M = 11.70; SD = 7.12) and among Hispanic adolescents (M = 13.45; SD = 8.54). Understanding how the study predictors facilitate or impede HPV vaccination is critical to reducing disparities in cervical and other HPV-related cancer, especially among Black, Hispanic, and low-income populations.

  8. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  9. Quality-of-life factors in adolescent inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, M; Hoffenberg, E J; Feranchak, A

    1998-02-01

    Little is known about the specific psychosocial factors that influence quality of life in adolescents with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We adapted a model by Garrett and Drossman to assess adolescent adjustment to recent-onset IBD. Thirty adolescent-parent pairs completed a set of standardized questionnaires. The inclusion criteria were adolescents 12-18 years of age with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis of < 5 years' duration. Adolescents' health-related quality-of-life scores significantly correlated with satisfaction and degree of closeness with their social support members, such as parents. An unexpected finding was that the adolescents included more extended family than peers in their social support networks. Also of note was that parental coping styles rather than adolescent coping styles significantly correlated with adolescents' quality-of-life health scores. Severity of illness did not correlate with adolescent quality-of-life health scores. There was significant agreement between adolescent and parental quality-of-life health scores and stressful event ratings. Adolescents with recent-onset IBD rely more on family members than their peers for emotional support, and they depend more on their parents' coping skills than their own. These findings may indicate lags in normal adolescent development. Adolescents and parents do communicate and share concerns with each other. Support programs for adolescents with IBD should reinforce existing coping skills and parent-adolescent communication while promoting normative development.

  10. Effectiveness of a school-community linked program on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life for adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-community program on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL; the primary outcome), physical activity (PA), and potential mediators of PA among adolescent girls living in low-socioeconomic rural/regional settings. Method The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Twelve communities with the requisite sports clubs and facilities were paired according to relevant criteria; one of each pair was randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Eight schools per condition were randomly selected from these communities and the intervention was conducted over one school year (2011). Female students in grades 7–9 in intervention schools participated in two 6-session PA units – a sport unit (football or tennis) and a recreational unit (leisure centre-based). These were incorporated into physical education (PE) curriculum and linked to PA opportunities for participation outside school. Students were surveyed at baseline and endpoint, self-reporting impact on primary and secondary outcome measures (HRQoL, PA) and PA mediators (e.g. self-efficacy). Linear mixed models for two-group (intervention, control) and three-group (completers, non-completers, control) analyses were conducted with baseline value, age and BMI as covariates, group as a fixed effect and school as random cluster effect. Results Participants completing baseline and endpoint measures included: 358 intervention (baseline response rate 33.7%, retention rate 61.3%) and 256 control (14.1% and 84.0%). Adjustment for age and BMI made no substantive difference to outcomes, and there were no cluster effects. For HRQoL, after adjustment for baseline scores, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores on all three PedsQL scores (physical functioning: M ± SE = 83.9 ± 0.7, p = .005; psychosocial: 79.9 ± 0.8, p = .001; total score: 81.3 ± 0.7, p = .001) than the control group (80.9 ± 0

  11. Community Monitoring Systems: Tracking and Improving the Well-Being of America's Children and Adolescents. NIH Publication No. 07-5852

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the well-being of children and adolescents is a critical component of efforts to prevent psychological, behavioral, and health problems and to promote their successful development. Research during the past 40 years has helped identify aspects of child and adolescent functioning that are important to monitor. These aspects, which…

  12. Disentangling the complex relations among caregiver and adolescent responses to adolescent chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vowles, Kevin E; Cohen, Lindsey L; McCracken, Lance M; Eccleston, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    The social context surrounding chronic pain is important, particularly in the case of pain in adolescents, where caregivers can be a key influence on adolescent social and physical activities. In general, greater adolescent difficulties are related to greater caregiver difficulties, and vice versa, although the strength of these relations has not been consistent across studies. Further, existing analyses have not evaluated more complex multivariate models involving both direct and indirect relations among adolescents and caregivers. There is consequently a lack of clarity in this area. The present analyses represent an initial attempt at explicating more precisely how adolescent and caregiver behaviors in response to pain influence adolescent functioning. Initially, a hypothetical model was constructed that included caregiver pain management behaviors, as well as adolescent and caregiver psychosocial responses to pain. The adequacy of this model was first evaluated with Pearson correlations and then with structural equation modelling using data from 120 adolescent-caregiver dyads. After some modification of the model to allow for adequate fit with the data, findings indicated that caregiver variables were only indirectly related to adolescent functioning via adolescent psychosocial responses to pain. This indirect relation may explain previous inconsistency across studies. Perhaps more importantly, the model tested may allow for an improved understanding of the complex relations among adolescents and caregivers factors. Finally, the need to adequately understand caregiver experiences in response to adolescent pain is highlighted and calls for appropriate intervention in young people struggling with chronic pain are reinforced within these analyses.

  13. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  14. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  15. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  16. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  17. Preference pulses without reinforcers.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Pitts, Raymond C; Hughes, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Preference pulses are thought to represent strong, short-term effects of reinforcers on preference in concurrent schedules. However, the general shape of preference pulses is substantially determined by the distributions of responses-per-visit (visit lengths) for the two choice alternatives. In several series of simulations, we varied the means and standard deviations of distributions describing visits to two concurrently available response alternatives, arranged "reinforcers" according to concurrent variable-interval schedules, and found a range of different preference pulses. Because characteristics of these distributions describe global aspects of behavior, and the simulations assumed no local effects of reinforcement, these preference pulses derive from the visit structure alone. This strongly questions whether preference pulses should continue to be interpreted as representing local effects of reinforcement. We suggest an alternative approach whereby local effects are assessed by subtracting the artifactual part, which derives from visit structure, from the observed preference pulses. This yields "residual" preference pulses. We illustrate this method in application to published data from mixed dependent concurrent schedules, revealing evidence that the delivery of reinforcers had modest lengthening effects on the duration of the current visit, a conclusion that is quantitatively consistent with early research on short-term effects of reinforcement.

  18. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  19. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  20. Perceptions and Experiences about Self-Disclosure of HIV Status among Adolescents with Perinatal Acquired HIV in Poor-Resourced Communities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is limited research on the disclosure experiences of adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH). The study explores how adolescents with PAH experience living with HIV and examined their perceptions and experiences regarding disclosure and onward self-disclosure to friends and sexual partners. Methods. Thematic analysis was used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with 37 adolescents. Findings. Adolescents received disclosure about their status at mean age of 12 years. They perceived disclosure as necessary and appreciated the truthful communication they received. Adolescents have learned to accept and live with HIV, and they desired to be healthy and normal like other people. After receiving disclosure, they found their treatment meaningful, and they adhered to medication. However, they also expressed a strong message that their HIV status was truly their secret and that self-disclosure to others will take the feeling of being normal away from them because they will be treated differently. Conclusion. Adolescents maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation. Given that adolescents want to be informed of their HIV status but desire controlling self-disclosure of their HIV status, these should form the basis for development of disclosure interventions. PMID:27672451

  1. Perceptions and Experiences about Self-Disclosure of HIV Status among Adolescents with Perinatal Acquired HIV in Poor-Resourced Communities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is limited research on the disclosure experiences of adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH). The study explores how adolescents with PAH experience living with HIV and examined their perceptions and experiences regarding disclosure and onward self-disclosure to friends and sexual partners. Methods. Thematic analysis was used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with 37 adolescents. Findings. Adolescents received disclosure about their status at mean age of 12 years. They perceived disclosure as necessary and appreciated the truthful communication they received. Adolescents have learned to accept and live with HIV, and they desired to be healthy and normal like other people. After receiving disclosure, they found their treatment meaningful, and they adhered to medication. However, they also expressed a strong message that their HIV status was truly their secret and that self-disclosure to others will take the feeling of being normal away from them because they will be treated differently. Conclusion. Adolescents maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation. Given that adolescents want to be informed of their HIV status but desire controlling self-disclosure of their HIV status, these should form the basis for development of disclosure interventions.

  2. Perceptions and Experiences about Self-Disclosure of HIV Status among Adolescents with Perinatal Acquired HIV in Poor-Resourced Communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is limited research on the disclosure experiences of adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH). The study explores how adolescents with PAH experience living with HIV and examined their perceptions and experiences regarding disclosure and onward self-disclosure to friends and sexual partners. Methods. Thematic analysis was used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with 37 adolescents. Findings. Adolescents received disclosure about their status at mean age of 12 years. They perceived disclosure as necessary and appreciated the truthful communication they received. Adolescents have learned to accept and live with HIV, and they desired to be healthy and normal like other people. After receiving disclosure, they found their treatment meaningful, and they adhered to medication. However, they also expressed a strong message that their HIV status was truly their secret and that self-disclosure to others will take the feeling of being normal away from them because they will be treated differently. Conclusion. Adolescents maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation. Given that adolescents want to be informed of their HIV status but desire controlling self-disclosure of their HIV status, these should form the basis for development of disclosure interventions. PMID:27672451

  3. Every reinforcer counts: reinforcer magnitude and local preference.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules. Sessions consisted of seven components, each lasting 10 reinforcers, with the conditions of reinforcement differing between components. The component sequence was randomly selected without replacement. In Experiment 1, the concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratios in components were all equal to 1.0, but across components reinforcer-magnitude ratios varied from 1:7 through 7:1. Three different overall reinforcer rates were arranged across conditions. In Experiment 2, the reinforcer-rate ratios varied across components from 27:1 to 1:27, and the reinforcer-magnitude ratios for each alternative were changed across conditions from 1:7 to 7:1. The results of Experiment 1 replicated the results for changing reinforcer-rate ratios across components reported by Davison and Baum (2000, 2002): Sensitivity to reinforcer-magnitude ratios increased with increasing numbers of reinforcers in components. Sensitivity to magnitude ratio, however, fell short of sensitivity to reinforcer-rate ratio. The degree of carryover from component to component depended on the reinforcer rate. Larger reinforcers produced larger and longer postreinforcer preference pulses than did smaller reinforcers. Similar results were found in Experiment 2, except that sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude was considerably higher and was greater for magnitudes that differed more from one another. Visit durations following reinforcers measured either as number of responses emitted or time spent responding before a changeover were longer following larger than following smaller reinforcers, and were longer following sequences of same reinforcers than following other sequences. The results add to the growing body of research that informs model building at local levels. PMID:13677611

  4. Creating an Adolescent Health Promotion Internet Site. A Community Partnership between University Nursing Students and an Inner-City High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyhn, Kim; Kosmyna, Bonnie; Lea, Holly; Munch, Krista R.; Reynolds, Heather S.; Specht, Corey; Tinker, Elizabeth C.; Yee, Anne Jezzamine; French, Laura R.

    2000-01-01

    Nursing students collaborated with urban high school students to identify adolescent health needs and to build and maintain a health information Web site. Student empowerment and ownership of the project were the keys to its sustainability. (SK)

  5. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment. PMID:21999693

  6. History of reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Rosato, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    This history of reinforced plastics is told by combining the individual histories of each reinforcement and the way in which they added to and changed the direction and rate of growth of the industry. The early history is based on all resins, fillers, and fibers found in nature. Then came the Baekeland revolution with the first synthetic resin which lasted about 25 years, at which time synthetic fiber glass and polyester resin dramatically changed the industry. Now, for the 1980s, the high modulus fibers developed 10 to 20 years ago are reshaping the industry. 32 figures.

  7. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  8. Evaluating the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic findings indicate that this is an important factor to consider (Hursh, 1978; Zeiler, 1999). In this bridge investigation, we evaluated the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of two food items when task responding was reinforced on progressive-ratio schedules. Participants were 3 children who had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that response allocation shifted from one food item to the other food item under thinner schedules of reinforcement when no postsession reinforcement was provided. These findings suggest that the efficacy of instructional programs or treatments for problem behavior may be improved by restricting reinforcers outside treatment sessions. PMID:17970264

  9. Evaluating The Influence of Postsession Reinforcement on Choice of Reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic findings indicate that this is an important factor to consider (Hursh, 1978; Zeiler, 1999). In this bridge investigation, we evaluated the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of two food items when task responding was reinforced on progressive-ratio schedules. Participants were 3 children who had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that response allocation shifted from one food item to the other food item under thinner schedules of reinforcement when no postsession reinforcement was provided. These findings suggest that the efficacy of instructional programs or treatments for problem behavior may be improved by restricting reinforcers outside treatment sessions. PMID:17970264

  10. Evaluating the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic findings indicate that this is an important factor to consider (Hursh, 1978; Zeiler, 1999). In this bridge investigation, we evaluated the influence of postsession reinforcement on choice of two food items when task responding was reinforced on progressive-ratio schedules. Participants were 3 children who had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that response allocation shifted from one food item to the other food item under thinner schedules of reinforcement when no postsession reinforcement was provided. These findings suggest that the efficacy of instructional programs or treatments for problem behavior may be improved by restricting reinforcers outside treatment sessions.

  11. Teaching Helping to Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…

  12. Decreasing Adolescent Swearing in an Instructional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice, Ashton D.; Parker, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    Excessive use of six obscene words by two adolescents in a resource classroom was reduced using social reinforcement of low rates of behavior and a response cost procedure. Both procedures were effective in reducing swearing in both students and produced short-term maintenance of effects. (Author/CL)

  13. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One.

    PubMed

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent-teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent-teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to intervention

  14. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One.

    PubMed

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent-teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent-teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to intervention

  15. Evaluating the Influence of Postsession Reinforcement on Choice of Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence reinforcer choice have been examined in a number of applied studies (e.g., Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade, 1992; Shore, Iwata, DeLeon, Kahng, & Smith, 1997; Tustin, 1994). However, no applied studies have evaluated the effects of postsession reinforcement on choice between concurrently available reinforcers, even though basic…

  16. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  17. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  18. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    DOEpatents

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  19. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  20. UNM in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quantum: Research & Scholarship, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Profiles 10 University of New Mexico community programs: University Art Museum, Rio Grande and Four Corners Writing Projects, Blacks in the Southwest (exhibit), New Mexico Engineering Research Institute's Environmental Finance Center, Adolescent Social Action Program, Minority Engineering Programs, Rural Community College Initiative, Valencia…