Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent community sample

  1. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  3. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  4. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  6. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  7. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  8. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  9. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  10. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  11. The association between early cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences in a community adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I; Buckby, Joe; Yuen, Hok Pan; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison R

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with greater risk of developing psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and psychosis. This paper aims to determine if different levels of cannabis (lifetime, regular, recent) exposure are associated with PLEs and specific PLE subscales among adolescents. Participants consisted of a community sample of 880 adolescents in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescents were administered the positive symptom scale of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and measures of substance use and depression. Lifetime cannabis use and the frequency of cannabis use in the last year (recent use) were associated with PLEs, primarily the experience of auditory and visual hallucinations (perceptual abnormalities). Low levels of recent cannabis use were more strongly associated with PLEs than more frequent use. These findings indicate that different levels of cannabis exposure were differentially associated with PLEs and highlight the need for early detection and treatment strategies for PLEs and cannabis use in adolescents.

  12. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  13. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  14. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.

  15. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  16. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Deliberate Self-Harm among a Community Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…

  18. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents…

  19. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a Community Sample of Adolescents: Subgroups, Stability, and Associations with Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and their association with other psychological difficulties were studied in a community sample of young Swedish adolescents, by a two-wave longitudinal design with a 1-year interval. Hierarchical cluster analysis at T1 identified eight NSSI subgroups in each gender, of which five were clearly replicated…

  20. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed.

  1. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed. PMID:25909321

  2. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  3. Specificity in the Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Atopic Disorders in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The specificity of relationships between anxiety and depressive symptoms, with each of the major atopic disorders of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) was systematically investigated within a single study sample. Participants included 367 adolescents who participated in a community, longitudinal study investigating risk factors for the development of psychiatric and physical health problems. Mental health symptoms were assessed at 7, 9, 11, and 13 years of age. Lifetime history of atopic disorders was assessed by parent report at age 13. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the specificity of the associations between anxiety and depression, and each of the atopic disorders. Results indicated that anxiety was associated with a lifetime history of atopic disorders as a group. The association was significantly strengthened when controlling for depression and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Among atopic disorders, “pure” anxiety was associated with asthma and AR, and having both asthma and AR strengthened the association compared to having either disorder alone. The association of “pure” anxiety with asthma and AR is consistent with existing data suggesting a relationship between anxiety and respiratory disorders. Having both asthma and AR appeared to confer an additive “dose effect” on the strength of the association. The lack of an association with depression suggests that other factors may contribute to the differential expression of anxiety and depression with atopic disorders. Findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the impact of co-morbid psychiatric symptoms and atopic disorders within individual studies to determine the specificity of underlying relationships between these conditions. PMID:21111430

  4. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  5. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  6. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  7. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  8. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment. PMID:25558962

  9. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  10. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis.

  11. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. PMID:25771751

  12. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  13. A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Studied the frequency of self-mutilation among adolescents through a literature review, epidemiological data, and screening measure results for 440 students from an urban and a suburban high school. Interviews suggest that 13.9% of students had hurt themselves on purpose at some time, with girls more likely to hurt themselves and cutting the most…

  14. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  15. A longitudinal investigation of childhood communication ability and adolescent psychotic experiences in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah A.; Hollen, Linda; Wren, Yvonne; Thompson, Andrew D.; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background Some childhood speech and language impairments precede psychosis but it is not clear whether they also precede adolescent psychotic experiences and whether this association is specific to psychotic experiences. Methods Pragmatic language and expressive speech and language (parent-assessed using the Children's Communication Checklist) at age 9 and psychotic experiences and depression at ages 12 and 18 were investigated in 7659 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Associations were investigated using multivariate modelling. Results Poorer pragmatic language at 9 years was associated with psychotic experiences at both ages (12 years OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34; 18 years OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.41) but only with depression at 18 years (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Poorer expressive speech and language ability was not associated with psychotic experiences or depression at either age. There was evidence that pragmatic language was specifically associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 but no evidence that the strength of any of the associations changed over time. Conclusions Deficits in pragmatic language precede early and late adolescent psychotic experiences and early adolescent depression. Interventions aimed at helping children improve pragmatic language skills may reduce the incidence of adolescent psychopathology and associated psychological disorder and dysfunction later in life. PMID:26972475

  16. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Karen; Fox, Kathryn R.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Longitudinal data on adolescent self-injury are rare. Little is known regarding the associations between various forms of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over time, particularly within community samples that are most relevant for prevention efforts. This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a time-invariant,…

  17. Reward-Related Neural Activity and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, James G; Crowley, Michael J; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Desatnik, Alexander; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral research has found evidence supporting reward dominance in adolescence with externalizing disorders, but findings from neuroimaging studies have been largely heterogeneous. We examined the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P3b in relation to self-reported externalizing behavior among 78 adolescents (11-18 yrs) during a monetary gambling task with concurrent high-density electroencephalogram. As expected, the P3b and the FRN demonstrated greater evoked activity to reward and punishment, respectively. Further, high externalizing behavior was associated with greater P3b difference and reduced FRN difference in response to reward and punishment, suggesting that externalizing behaviors may be associated with both reward dominance and reduced feedback-monitoring. PMID:26491989

  18. Polyvictimization and risk for suicidal phenomena in a community sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Segura, Anna; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide data regarding the association between reported degree of victimization and suicidal phenomena, with special emphasis on gender differences. There were 923 adolescents recruited from eight secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) were used to assess suicidal phenomena and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (nonvictim, victim, and polyvictim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization reported. Results showed that the polyvictim group reported significantly more suicidal phenomena than did the victim and nonvictim groups in both boys and girls. Furthermore, although no gender differences in reported suicidal phenomena were found in the nonvictim group, girls reported significantly more suicidal phenomena in both the victim and the polyvictim groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that victimization may play an important role in generating gender differences with respect to reported suicidal phenomena. In addition, this study highlights the importance of taking into account the whole range of victimizations suffered by adolescents when seeking to design suicide prevention and intervention policies. PMID:24364131

  19. Examination of the Response Styles Theory in a Community Sample of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Response Styles Theory in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 722) of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. We examined the role of response styles (rumination, distraction, and problem-solving) as predictors of changes in depressive symptoms over a seven-month period. Higher levels of rumination and lower levels of…

  20. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed.

  1. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706

  2. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  3. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  4. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  5. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed.

  6. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  7. Designing Deeply Engaging Online Communities for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzick, David

    2009-01-01

    American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…

  8. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  9. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally…

  10. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2010-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of adolescents experienced some form of eating disorder. Subthreshold BN and BED and threshold PD were associated with elevated treatment, impairment, and distress. Peak age of onset was 17-18 for BN and BED, and 18-20 for PD. Average episode duration in months was 3.9 for BN and BED, and 5.1 for PD. One-year recovery rates ranged from 91% to 96%. Relapse rates were 41% for BN, 33% for BED, and 5% for PD. For BN and BED subthreshold cases often progressed to threshold cases and diagnostic crossover was most likely for these disorders. Results suggest that subthreshold eating disorders are more prevalent than threshold eating disorders and are associated with marked impairment. PMID:19685955

  11. Self-Reported Emotion Reactivity Among Early-Adolescent Girls: Evidence for Convergent and Discriminant Validity in an Urban Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025

  12. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  13. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  14. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  15. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  16. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  17. Identification with social groups is associated with mental health in adolescents: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2015-08-30

    The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond.

  18. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: A cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Ciairano, Silvia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (Mage=15.69, S.D.=0.87) from Italy (n=827), the Netherlands (n=675), and United States (n=360), including measures of NSSI, substance use, internal (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness), and interpersonal factors (i.e., peer victimization, peer preference). After controlling for socio-demographic differences, similar prevalence of NSSI was found across the three samples, with approximately 24% of the adolescents reporting at least one NSSI episode within the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that adolescents' victimization and higher levels of depressive symptoms and family-related loneliness were associated concurrently with NSSI comparably in all three samples. However, multi-group analyses indicated that the association between NSSI and substance use varied significantly across samples, indicating that NSSI related more strongly to substance use (i.e., cigarette smoking and frequent marijuana use) in the sample from the United States rather than the samples from the Netherlands and Italy. Findings provide evidence of NSSI and suggest high similarities in rates and correlates across samples from different countries. Future research should further explore NSSI cross-nationally. PMID:22436348

  19. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: a cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States.

    PubMed

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Ciairano, Silvia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2012-05-15

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (M(age)=15.69, S.D.=0.87) from Italy (n=827), the Netherlands (n=675), and United States (n=360), including measures of NSSI, substance use, internal (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness), and interpersonal factors (i.e., peer victimization, peer preference). After controlling for socio-demographic differences, similar prevalence of NSSI was found across the three samples, with approximately 24% of the adolescents reporting at least one NSSI episode within the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that adolescents' victimization and higher levels of depressive symptoms and family-related loneliness were associated concurrently with NSSI comparably in all three samples. However, multi-group analyses indicated that the association between NSSI and substance use varied significantly across samples, indicating that NSSI related more strongly to substance use (i.e., cigarette smoking and frequent marijuana use) in the sample from the United States rather than the samples from the Netherlands and Italy. Findings provide evidence of NSSI and suggest high similarities in rates and correlates across samples from different countries. Future research should further explore NSSI cross-nationally.

  20. Reasons for Deliberate Self-Harm: Comparison of Self-Poisoners and Self-Cutters in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodham, Karen; Hawton, Keith; Evans, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare motives and premeditation between adolescent deliberate self-poisoners and self-cutters. Method: In a sample of 6,020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years who completed a self-report questionnaire, those who had deliberately cut themselves in the previous year (n = 220) were compared with those who had taken overdoses (n = 86).…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Child PTSD Checklist in a Community Sample of South African Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, Mark E.; Cluver, Lucie D.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large sample of South African youth. Methodology The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female) South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years). The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. Results Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales) were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues’ Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms) which provided a better fit to the observed data. Conclusion Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made. PMID:23056523

  2. Factor Structure of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Community Sample of Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siu Mui; Leung, Chi Hung

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested the factor structure of the 41-item SCARED in assessing anxiety in a sample of Hong Kong adolescents. Data were collected from 5,226 youths (54.5 % boys) aged 12-18. Results showed that the scale and the five subscales had high internal consistency. However, confirmatory factor analyses showed that the original five-factor model did not fit the data collected in this sample. Instead, the results revealed a seven-factor model consisting of one second-order factor of anxiety and seven first-order factors: the four original factors of General Anxiety, Panic/Somatic Syndromes, Social Anxiety, and School Phobia and three new factors representing different aspects of Separation Anxiety. Group invariance in the Boys and Girls models was found. It is recommended that the three new factors (Fear of Loneliness, Separation Fear, Worry about Harm) be further developed by adding new items so as to enhance the content and construct validities of the SCARED when used with Hong Kong adolescents.

  3. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  4. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  5. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development. PMID:20405186

  6. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.

  7. Relay Writing in an Adolescent Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Youngjoo

    2008-01-01

    "Welcome to Buckeye City" is an adolescent online community that was maintained by 25 Korean students who attended American schools. On the website, the students engaged in "relay writing"--a writing activity in which each person contributed a portion of an evolving story in a relayed manner. Relay writing offers teachers a new and valuable window…

  8. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  9. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger.

  10. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger. PMID:26201172

  11. Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2015-04-01

    The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. PMID:25747527

  12. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  13. Community Experiences: Contributions to Adolescent Learning and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    Unpaid community activities have been widely recommended as learning experiences for adolescents. An evaluation was conducted of two community action learning programs, one which placed adolescents one-to-one in adult-dominated settings and the other which gave adolescents a group project to plan and carry out with adult assistance. Both programs…

  14. Community Health Nurses' Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Involvement with Adolescent Contraceptive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed national sample of 844 community health nurses to assess their knowledge of, attitudes toward, involvement with reproductive health services. Slightly more than 50 percent of nurses provided or administered contraceptive services to adolescents. Ninety-five percent agreed that contraceptives should be available to adolescents; 90 percent…

  15. Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community…

  16. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  17. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole. PMID:21360063

  18. Childhood ADHD and Addictive Behaviours in Adolescence: A Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Dragana; Charach, Alice; Henderson, Joanna; McAuley, Tara; Crosbie, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare rates of early addictive behaviours in a clinic sample of youth with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with those in community populations. Method: We surveyed 142 adolescents (14.1 ± 1.14 years), diagnosed with ADHD before age 12, about early substance use and problem gambling using questions from two cross-sectional population studies: the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, Ontario subsample, (N=1,317; 10–15 years) and the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (N=9,288; 12–18 years). Results: The ADHD sample reported using cigarettes, 17.8% (95% CI 12.1–25.5), alcohol, 27.1% (20.1–35.5), cannabis, 14.2% (8.9–21.7), at a similar or lower rate than the NLSCY (cigarettes, 28.3% (25.8–30.9), alcohol, 28.6% (26.0–31.3), cannabis, 16.5% (14.0–19.4), and OSDUHS samples (cigarettes, 21.9% (20.2–23.7), alcohol, 58.6% (56.0–61.2), cannabis, 26.0% (23.9–28.2). With regards to gambling, there is a non-significant trend for ADHD youth to report gambling more frequently than the provincial average, 7.9% (3.3–17.9) vs. 4.3% (2.9–6.3). Conclusions: Our findings support the emerging literature that youth diagnosed with ADHD in childhood may not be at greater risk for onset of substance use in early adolescence. The study identified two areas that warrant further investigation in this population; the possible increased risk for substance use among females and a trend toward early onset of gambling behaviours. PMID:24872828

  19. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  20. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  1. Has Adolescent Suicidality Decreased in the United States? Data from Two National Samples of Adolescents Interviewed in 1995 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…

  2. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  3. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  4. Preference for spirituality and twelve-step-oriented approaches among adolescents in a residential therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    Aromin, Romulo A; Galanter, Marc; Solhkhah, Ramon; Bunt, Gregory; Dermatis, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine which adolescents being treated for substance use in a residential Therapeutic Community (TC) would endorse spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches as part of their treatment. By identifying individual difference characteristics associated with preference for spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches, integrated substance abuse treatments can be targeted to appropriate subgroups of adolescents. A total of 181 adolescents completed a survey assessing their substance use and attitudes toward spirituality and Twelve Step oriented approaches that was similar to a survey completed by 322 adults in the same residential TC program. In the adolescent sample, three spirituality related characteristics: perceived connectedness to others, frequency of prayer, and spiritual orientation to life were associated with preference for both spirituality and twelve step oriented approaches being featured more in TC treatment. Adolescents were less likely than adults to express a preference that both approaches be featured more in TC treatment.

  5. The Adolescent Community of Engagement: A Framework for Research on Adolescent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.; Davies, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) framework as a lens to guide research and design in adolescent online learning environments. Several online learning frameworks have emerged from higher education contexts, but these frameworks do not explicitly address the unique student and environmental characteristics of the…

  6. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  8. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  9. The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

  10. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  11. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  12. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  13. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  14. Protective factors in American Indian communities and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2013-09-01

    With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.

  15. Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

  16. The protective role of maternal racial socialization for African American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia

    2015-08-01

    Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence.

  17. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  18. Smokeless Tobacco Expectancies Among a Sample of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of expectancies in adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST) use. Methods: Self-report measures of students' ST expectancies, cigarette and ST use, and peer and family tobacco use were collected from a sample of 978 rural high school students. Results: Student expectancy beliefs significantly predicted ST use and intention…

  19. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  20. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13–16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate “rules” to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  1. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hae-Jin; Park, Sin-Gi; Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Kyu; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association between

  2. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O.; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Method Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Results Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Discussion Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed. PMID:26046352

  3. Growing up in violent communities: do family conflict and gender moderate impacts on adolescents' psychosocial development?

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H; Casey, Patrick H; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Barrett, Kathleen W

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent psychosocial outcomes were predicted by community violence differently for male and female children and based on their experiences of conflict at home. For male children, being in a high conflict family as a child exacerbated the negative effects of community violence such that internalizing problems (depression and anxiety) and risk-taking behaviors increased as community violence increased, while being in a low conflict family protected the child against the negative impacts of the community. For female adolescents, there were no moderating effects of family conflict on the relationship between community violence and externalizing problems. Moderating effects for internalizing problems demonstrated that being in low conflict families did not serve as protection against community violence for girls as was demonstrated for boys. These findings demonstrate the long-term effects of community violence on child development, highlighting the importance of gender and family context in the development of internalizing and externalizing problems.

  4. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  5. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  6. Community Residential Treatment of MR Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denkowski, George C.; And Others

    A model for habilitating mentally retarded adolescent offenders is described. Discussion of historical background indicates a lack of programs for this population. A data-based profile of the population covers range of developmental delay, adaptive behavior scores, social skill development, academic achievement, arrest history, racial composition,…

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  8. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  9. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  10. Alcohol Use among Rural Middle School Students: Adolescents, Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although rural adolescents use of alcohol is at some of the highest rates nationally, rural adolescent alcohol use has not been studied extensively. This study examines how community attitudes and behaviors are related to adolescent drinking in rural environments. Methods: Data were gathered in 22 rural communities in the Upper Midwest…

  11. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  12. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  13. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  14. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  15. Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish children and youth: results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit

    2014-04-01

    Most research into adolescent victimization and polyvictimization has been carried out in the United States and in northern European countries. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of victimization and polyvictimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The sample consisted of 1,107 youth (M=14.52, SD=1.76), 590 males and 517 females, randomly recruited from 7 secondary schools in a north-eastern region in Spain. The Spanish version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was applied, assessing 6 aggregate categories of childhood victimization (conventional crimes, caregiver, peer and sibling, witnessed and indirect, sexual, and electronic victimization). A total of 83% of adolescents reported at least 1 type of victimization during their lives, and 68.6% during the last year. Boys were generally more exposed to conventional crimes (68.0%), and girls to emotional abuse by caregivers (23.0%) and to sexual (13.9%) and electronic (17.6%) victimization during their lifetime. Age differences obtained in victimization rates for the past year confirmed that peer and sibling victimization peak in early adolescence (33.9%). Witnessing community violence was more frequent in older adolescents (34.7%). Almost 20% of the sample was considered as polyvictims (i.e., experienced 4 [corrected] or more forms of victimization). Adolescent polyvictims experienced victimization in 4 or more domains during their lifetime. This study adds new information on the epidemiology of victimization in the international context and is the first to do so from the perspective of a country in south-western Europe. It illustrates that Spanish youth experience a higher level of victimization than official records suggest, and that gender and age should be taken into account when analyzing this complex area of study.

  16. Correlates of Suicidality: Investigation of a Representative Sample of Manitoba First Nations Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natalie; Elias, Brenda; Tefft, Bruce; Medved, Maria; Munro, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual, friend or family, and community or tribe correlates of suicidality in a representative on-reserve sample of First Nations adolescents. Methods. Data came from the 2002–2003 Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey of Youth. Interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 1125) from 23 First Nations communities in Manitoba. We used bivariate logistic regression analyses to examine the relationships between a range of factors and lifetime suicidality. We conducted sex-by-correlate interactions for each significant correlate at the bivariate level. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified those correlates most strongly related to suicidality. Results. We found several variables to be associated with an increased likelihood of suicidality in the multivariate model, including being female, depressed mood, abuse or fear of abuse, a hospital stay, and substance use (adjusted odds ratio range = 2.43–11.73). Perceived community caring was protective against suicidality (adjusted odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 0.97) in the same model. Conclusions. Results of this study may be important in informing First Nations and government policy related to the implementation of suicide prevention strategies in First Nations communities. PMID:22676500

  17. In response to community violence: coping strategies and involuntary stress responses among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Maurizi, Laura K; Bregman, Allyson; Ceballo, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Among poor, urban adolescents, high rates of community violence are a pressing public health concern. This study relies on a contextual framework of stress and coping to investigate how coping strategies and involuntary stress responses may both mediate and moderate the relation between exposure to community violence and psychological well-being. Our sample consists of 223 ninth grade Latino adolescents from poor, urban families. In response to community violence, these adolescents reported using an array of coping strategies as well as experiencing a number of involuntary stress responses; the most frequent coping responses were turning to religion and seeking social support. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that involuntary stress responses mediated the relations between both witnessing or being victimized by violence and poorer psychological functioning, while coping strategies moderated these relations. These findings suggest that the negative psychological effects of exposure to community violence may, in part, be explained by involuntary stress responses, while religious-based coping may serve as a protective factor.

  18. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression.

  19. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  20. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  1. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  2. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  3. Adolescent psychopathy and the big five: results from two samples.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness, whereas the aspect of psychopathy representing impulsivity, instability, and social deviance (Factor 2) is associated with low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism. Data from 13- and 16-year-old boys and their mothers from two samples of the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to test these hypotheses. Results were consistent across age and rating source in supporting the initial hypotheses, providing support for the construct of juvenile psychopathy and the interpretation of psychopathy as a constellation of traits drawn from a general model of personality functioning.

  4. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed.

  5. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  6. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

  7. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  8. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Lifetime Substance Use among a Rural and Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael J.; Drescher, Christopher F.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Tull, Matthew T.; Heiden, Laurie; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data are limited regarding the prevalence of substance use among adolescents in rural and ethnically diverse communities. This study examined rates and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime substance use among adolescents in Mississippi, a rural state that is the poorest in the country (21.3% poverty rate) and has the largest…

  9. Exposure to Community Violence in Adolescence: Trauma Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner

    2000-01-01

    Considerable exposure to recurring community violence with considerable variation in the amount of exposure was found in a sample of 455 first-year students at an urban college. Exposure to recurring community violence was moderately correlated with the manifestation of psychological trauma symptoms. Further, being victimized and witnessing…

  10. The Power of Literature: Establishing and Enhancing the Young Adolescent Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Andrea M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers can use literature written for the young adolescent as a powerful tool for establishing and enhancing the community in the classroom that is arguably a necessity for learning to occur. In order for the young adolescent to be successful in the school classroom, a shared sense of community must exist. The students must feel connected to,…

  11. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  12. Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory across Hispanic and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.; Braman, O. Randall

    2007-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analysis, the current study provided further evidence for the two-factor structure of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory [AESI; Ang RP, Huan VS (2006) Educ Psych Meas 66:522-539] using a sample of 191 US Hispanic adolescents and a sample of 211 Singapore Chinese adolescents. This study also examined the…

  13. Protective and Risk Influences of Drug Use among a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaif, E. R.; Newcomb, M. D.; Vega, W. A.; Krell, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement model was analyzed to demonstrate a differential distribution and cumulative exposure to psychosocial risk and protective influences of adolescent drug use among ethnically-diverse adolescent samples. The sample included U.S.-born (US) Latino (N = 837), foreign-born (FB) Latino (N = 447), White (N = 632), and African American (N =…

  14. Iron status and dietary iron intake of adolescents from a rural community in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Khor, Geok Lin; Tee, E-Siong; Prabakaran, Dhanaraj

    2004-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world affecting the general health and wellbeing of millions. In Malaysia, moderately high prevalences of anaemia have been reported amongst infants, young children and women of childbearing age. Data is scant for the adolescents. This study was undertaken to assess the iron status and dietary intake of 165 adolescents, comprising 74 male and 91 female subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, from the rural communities in Tuaran District of Sabah, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of study subjects. Multiple iron status indicators namely, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TS), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) were determined for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 15.2 +/-2.1 years. While the majority of the subjects (77.6%) had normal body mass index (BMI) values, 17.6% were underweight and 4.8% overweight. About 35% to 40% of the subjects showed deficient values for haematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and transferrin saturation (TS), and 20% were anaemic (Hb <12 g/L). Using the multiple criteria of iron status indicators, the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency and IDA in the male and female adolescents were 5.4% vs. 6.6%, 18.9% vs. 26.4% and 5.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively. Iron deficiency anaemia (85.0%) contributed largely to the prevalence of anaemia. The dietary iron intake of the adolescents was unsatisfactory, with approximately 98% of subjects failing to meet the Malaysian RDA level. Almost all the female subjects (91%) had dietary iron intake below two-thirds of the RDA level compared with a much smaller proportion for the male adolescents (68%). The prevalence of IDA in the present study population, especially in the female adolescents, appears to be a significant public health problem. Priority should therefore be given to the eradication of

  15. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  16. Inequality and adolescent violence: an exploration of community, family, and individual factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study seeks to examine whether the relationships among community, family, individual factors, and violent behavior are parallel across race- and gender-specific segments of the adolescent population. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are analyzed to highlight the complex relationships between inequality, community, family, individual behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The results from robust regression analysis provide evidence that social environmental factors can influence adolescent violence in race- and gender-specific ways. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study establish the plausibility of multidimensional models that specify a complex relationship between inequality and adolescent violence. PMID:15101669

  17. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  18. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  19. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context.

  20. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  1. Design and Analysis of the Community Youth Development Study Longitudinal Cohort Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Graham, John W.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Baldwin, Megan M.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24…

  2. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  3. Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Adolescent Samples from Canada and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable…

  4. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  5. Validation of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a Nonclinical Sample of German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Portner, Franca; Duketis, Eftichia; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Angst, Jules; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a sample of nonclinical adolescents, examined the association with current psychopathology, and tested if "hypomanic" adolescents differ from other participants regarding HCL-scores and psychopathology. A total of 294 students completed the HCL-32 and the SDQ, a screening…

  6. SAMPLING EFFORT AFFECTS MULTIVARIATE COMPARISONS OF STREAM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estimation of ecological trends and patterns is often dependent on the size of individual samples from each site (sample size) or spatial scale in general. Multivariate analysis is widely used for determining patterns of community structure, inferring species-environment rela...

  7. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Zytynska, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  8. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  9. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Otero, Angel

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use (depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence). We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1,328 adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April 2007. The mean age of sample participants was 15.7 years. Almost all (96.5%) had their own cell phone (80.5% had one, and 15.9% had two or more). Some 54.8% take it to school and 46.1% keep it on during class; 41.7% use it intensively. The estimated prevalence of cell phone dependence was 20% (26.1% in females, 13% in males). Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure. More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities. PMID:19072078

  10. Practice Parameter on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Community Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…

  11. Work, Community, and Parenting Resources and Demands as Predictors of Adolescent Problems and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This article uses a resources and demands approach to examine the extent to which work, community, and parenting resources and demands are related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems and grades in school. The analysis is based on data from 489 married two-earner couples and adolescents aged 10 to 17 interviewed for the…

  12. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  13. The Relation of Family and School Attachment to Adolescent Deviance in Diverse Groups and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Laird, Jennifer; Wong, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether attachments to family and school reduced five forms of adolescent deviance (smoking, drinking, marijuana use, delinquency, and violent behavior). Found that adolescent attachments to family and school reduced overall frequency, prevalence, and intensity of deviant involvement, regardless of community context, gender, or ethnic…

  14. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  15. Mother, Daughter, Teenager-Who Am I? Perceptions of Adolescent Maternity in a Navajo Reservation Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle L.; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2000-01-01

    Intensive interviews focusing on perceptions of teenage parenting were conducted with Navajo teenage mothers, their mothers, and community informants. Two central themes representing commitment to maternity or adolescence were found. Factors associated with the prevalence of adolescent parenting on the Navajo reservation are discussed, as are…

  16. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  17. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  18. Process and outcome evaluation of a community intervention for orphan adolescents in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hallfors, Denise D; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Itindi, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a 2-year pilot randomized controlled trial (N = 105) in a high HIV-prevalence area in rural western Kenya to test whether providing young orphan adolescents with uniforms, school fees, and community visitors improves school retention and reduces HIV risk factors. The trial was a community intervention, limited to one community. In this paper, we examined intervention implementation and its association with outcomes using longitudinal data. We used both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the community-based model for orphan HIV prevention, with recommendations for future studies. Despite promising effects after 1 year, GEE analyses showed null effects after 2 years. Volunteer community visitors, a key element of the intervention, showed little of the expected effect although qualitative reports documented active assistance to prevent orphans' school absence. For future research, we recommend capturing the transition to high school, a larger sample size, and biomarker data to add strength to the research design. We also recommend a school-based intervention approach to improve implementation and reduce infrastructure costs. Finally, we recommend evaluating nurses as agents for improving school attendance and preventing dropout because of their unique ability to address critical biopsychosocial problems. PMID:22350730

  19. Health-related quality of life in a clinical sample of obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity affects ethnic minority groups disproportionately, especially in the pediatric population. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents from mixed-ethnic samples. The purpose of this study was to: 1) measure HRQoL in a mixed-ethnic clinical sample of obese children and adolescents, 2) compare HRQoL assessments in obese participants and healthy controls, and 3) compare HRQoL in obese children and adolescents according to their pubertal status. Methods A clinical sample of children and adolescents with obesity (n = 96) and healthy children and adolescents attending local schools (n = 444) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL; UK version 4). Age-appropriate versions were self-administered by children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, and interview administered to children aged 5-7 years. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, gender, pubertal status, and ethnicity were used to compare the PedsQL scores of the two samples. Results The clinical sample of obese children and adolescents had poorer HRQoL scores on all dimensions of the PedsQL compared to the healthy controls (p < 0.005). Subsequent analyses also demonstrated that in this sample of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents, prepubescent obese children achieved the poorest scores in the emotional functioning dimension. Conclusions Obesity significantly impacts on physical, emotional, social and school functioning of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents. Clinicians need to be aware of the significant impact of obesity on all aspects of functioning. More effort is required to target interventions to improve the quality of life of children with obesity. PMID:21078146

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  1. The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13–17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance use being examined, as well as by gender. Social phobia was associated with cigarette smoking among boys only. For girls, social phobia appeared to be negatively associated with drug use. For the other anxiety disorders, the associations with substance use tended to be stronger among girls. These findings highlight the need to improve clinical recognition of the anxiety disorders and to improve treatment access for afflicted adolescents. Future studies based on longitudinal data could further elucidate the relationships among anxiety disorders, gender, and substance use. PMID:20084563

  2. Factorial Invariance of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents across Spanish and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…

  3. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt.

  4. Resilience in a sample of Mexican American adolescents with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Corrales, Carolina; Ortiz Jensen, Cynthia; Meyers, Kimberly

    2014-09-01

    Resolving the many tasks of adolescent development requires resilience. However, understanding the role that resilience plays in adolescent development involves adequate measurement of the construct. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is a widely used measure of resilience, but a stable latent factor structure has not been identified across studies. The measure has typically been examined in adult samples while little attention has been given to its use with adolescents in general and ethnic minority adolescents in particular. The primary purpose of the current study is to identify a latent factor structure of the CD-RISC in a sample of primarily Mexican American adolescents (N = 106). Two competing model structures were tested via confirmatory factor analysis and results supported a 7-item unidimensional factor model. Support was also found for the construct validity of the measure in relation to ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for adolescents in this sample. Implications of the study findings for adolescents and avenues of future research are discussed.

  5. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  6. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    PubMed

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention.

  7. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    PubMed

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention. PMID:27497999

  8. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    PubMed

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners.

  9. Traumatic events involving friends and family members in a sample of African American early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Esther J; Wang, Edward; Turner, Larry

    2009-07-01

    The current study examines violent and nonviolent traumatic events involving friends and family members as predictors of PTSD, depression, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 403 African American early adolescents from chronically violent environments. Although there are many studies of urban children's exposure to community violence, few address the unique contribution of events involving significant others, and almost no research addresses African American youths' exposure to traumatic events other than violence. This study found that violent and nonviolent traumatic events were pervasive in the lives of these urban youth, and that they were as likely to report loss and injury of a close other through an accident as an act of violence. There were strong gender differences in the data. Unexpectedly, injury or loss of a close friend or family member from nonviolent events, but not from violent events, predicted PTSD, internalizing, and depression for boys. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for school-based universal interventions in communities where large numbers of children live with loss and trauma.

  10. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities.

  11. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  12. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

  13. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. PMID:27203825

  14. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ). Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD is the strongest predictor of experiences of stigma. More severely personality disordered adolescents tend to experience the highest level of stigma. PMID:25999774

  15. Social Self-control, Sensation Seeking and Substance Use in Samples of US and Russian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Kniazer, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the relations of social self-control and sensation seeking with substance use across samples of US and Russian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from 362 tenth-graders from Ufa, Russia, and 965 tenth-graders from California. Results Lack of social self-control was significantly related with higher alcohol and hard drug use in the Russian sample and higher cigarette use in the US sample. Higher sensation-seeking showed significant associations with higher cigarette and alcohol use in the Russian sample and higher alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use in the US sample. Conclusion As with US adolescents, prevention programs for Russian adolescents may also benefit from being tailored to higher sensation-seekers and including self-control skills training. PMID:20001194

  16. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  17. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293

  18. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  19. Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy among African-American Adolescent Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…

  20. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized. PMID:26563413

  1. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized.

  2. Community Conversations: An Approach for Expanding and Connecting Opportunities for Employment for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Pickett, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Although early work experiences can impart a number of benefits to adolescents with disabilities, few students have meaningful access to these opportunities. The authors examined "community conversations" to build capacity and interest in expanding employment opportunities. Events were held in seven different communities and used the World Cafe…

  3. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  4. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  5. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  6. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  7. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  8. Eating Attitudes in a Diverse Sample of Israeli Adolescent Females: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…

  9. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  10. Sociometric types and social interaction styles in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Delgado, Beatriz; García-Fernández, José M; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Díaz-Herrero, Angela

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between social interaction styles and sociometric types in a sample of 1,349 (51.7% boys, and 48.3% girls) Spanish adolescents. The results revealed that the proportion of prosocial adolescents nominated as liked by peers was significantly higher than prosocial with social anxiety, whereas the proportion of aggressive adolescents nominated by peers as rejected was significantly higher than the proportion of rejected-prosocial and rejected-with social anxiety. The percentages of sociometric types and social interaction styles varied significantly according to gender and academic grade. Logistic regression analyses showed that being prosocial was 48% more likely when adolescents are nominated by peers as liked, whereas being prosocial was 41% and 79% less likely when adolescents were nominated as rejected and neglected, respectively. Furthermore, prosocial adolescents were 67% more likely nominated by peers as liked, and were less likely nominated as rejected (42%) and neglected (78%). Finally, being neglected was 83% more likely in aggressive adolescents.

  11. Sociometric types and social interaction styles in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Delgado, Beatriz; García-Fernández, José M; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Díaz-Herrero, Angela

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between social interaction styles and sociometric types in a sample of 1,349 (51.7% boys, and 48.3% girls) Spanish adolescents. The results revealed that the proportion of prosocial adolescents nominated as liked by peers was significantly higher than prosocial with social anxiety, whereas the proportion of aggressive adolescents nominated by peers as rejected was significantly higher than the proportion of rejected-prosocial and rejected-with social anxiety. The percentages of sociometric types and social interaction styles varied significantly according to gender and academic grade. Logistic regression analyses showed that being prosocial was 48% more likely when adolescents are nominated by peers as liked, whereas being prosocial was 41% and 79% less likely when adolescents were nominated as rejected and neglected, respectively. Furthermore, prosocial adolescents were 67% more likely nominated by peers as liked, and were less likely nominated as rejected (42%) and neglected (78%). Finally, being neglected was 83% more likely in aggressive adolescents. PMID:20977022

  12. Brief Report: Adolescent Adjustment in Affluent Communities: The Role of Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Lea V.; Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescent adjustment.…

  13. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  14. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  15. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  16. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  17. Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Khor, G L; Merlin, A; Bahaman, A S; Norimah, K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents. PMID:16708734

  18. Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Reif, Lindsey K; Rivera, Vanessa; Louis, Bianca; Bertrand, Rachel; Peck, Mireille; Anglade, Benedict; Seo, Grace; Abrams, Elaine J; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care. Among 3425 individuals eligible for testing, 3348 (98%) accepted an HIV test. HIV prevalence was 2.65% (n = 89). Median age was 19 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-20]; 73% were female. HIV prevalence was 0.6-7.4% across slum neighborhoods. All HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care the same day as testing; median CD4 was 529 cells/μL [IQR 363-761]. Syphilis prevalence was 2.60% (65/2536) and gonorrhea/chlamydia prevalence was 6.25% (96/1536). Among 168 (5%) individuals who reported TB symptoms, 7.7% (13/168) had microbiologically confirmed disease. One hundred twenty-nine females (5% of all females) were pregnant. This community-based testing campaign identified an adolescent and youth population with an HIV prevalence six times higher than the estimated national adolescent HIV prevalence (0.4%) in Haiti, including perinatally infected adolescents. This type of community-based campaign for HIV testing within a package of services can serve as a model for other resource-poor settings to identify high-risk adolescents and youth, and curb the global HIV epidemic among adolescents. PMID:27509237

  19. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in Community-Based Participatory Research: Structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Marni LoIacono; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs in order to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development (YD) framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  20. Cross-cultural invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: adolescent samples from Canada and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Klassen, Robert M; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S; Wong, Isabella Y F; Yeo, Lay See; Krawchuk, Lindsey L

    2009-10-01

    We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable across groups. This study also examined the cross-cultural validity of the AESI using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis across both the Canadian and Singaporean adolescent samples. The results suggested cross-cultural invariance of form, factor loadings, and factor variances and covariances of the AESI across both samples. Evidence of AESI's convergent and discriminant validity was also reported. Findings from t-tests revealed that Singaporean adolescents reported a significantly higher level of academic stress arising from self expectations, other expectations, and overall academic stress, compared to Canadian adolescents. Also, a larger cross-cultural effect was associated with academic stress arising from other expectations compared with academic stress arising from self expectations.

  1. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  2. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  3. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  4. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  5. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  6. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness. PMID:26861709

  7. Sample storage for soil enzyme activity and bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, K; Rita, H; Simpanen, S; Mikkonen, A; Niemi, R M

    2010-04-01

    Storage of samples is often an unavoidable step in environmental data collection, since available analytical capacity seldom permits immediate processing of large sample sets needed for representative data. In microbiological soil studies, sample pretreatments may have a strong influence on measurement results, and thus careful consideration is required in the selection of storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of prolonged (up to 16 weeks) frozen or air-dried storage for divergent soil materials. The samples selected to this study were mineral soil (clay loam) from an agricultural field, humus from a pine forest and compost from a municipal sewage sludge composting field. The measured microbiological parameters included functional profiling with ten different hydrolysing enzyme activities determined by artificial fluorogenic substrates, and structural profiling with bacterial 16S rDNA community fingerprints by amplicon length heterogeneity analysis (LH-PCR). Storage of samples affected the observed fluorescence intensity of the enzyme assay's fluorophor standards dissolved in soil suspension. The impact was highly dependent on the soil matrix and storage method, making it important to use separate standardisation for each combination of matrix type, storage method and time. Freezing proved to be a better storage method than air-drying for all the matrices and enzyme activities studied. The effect of freezing on the enzyme activities was small (<20%) in clay loam and forest humus and moderate (generally 20-30%) in compost. The most dramatic decreases (>50%) in activity were observed in compost after air-drying. The bacterial LH-PCR community fingerprints were unaffected by frozen storage in all matrices. The effect of storage treatments was tested using a new statistical method based on showing similarity rather than difference of results.

  8. Increasing healthy behaviors in adolescents of Mexican heritage in rural emerging Latino communities: results from a school-based health intervention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Villalba, José A; Amirehsani, Karen; Lewis, Todd F

    2011-06-01

    The rapid Latino population growth in emerging Latino communities (EmLCs) presents a challenge to health care providers as most current health interventions and health promotion programs intended for Latinas/os are based on characteristics of established Latino communities (EsLCs). This study addresses the gap in the literature by modifying and testing the beginning efficacy of a school-based health intervention for adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC. Seventy adolescents of Mexican heritage attending a rural middle school participated in the intervention. Paired samples t-tests were performed to determine differences between healthy behaviors at post-intervention compared to pre-intervention. Significant improvements in participants' physical activity and healthy eating were observed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. A school-based health intervention designed to increase healthy behaviors of adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC was successful. PMID:20803071

  9. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  10. Social capital and adolescent smoking in schools and communities: a cross-classified multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.

  11. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  12. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  13. Chronic disease-related lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Karunamuni, Nandini; Spence, John C; Storey, Kate; Forbes, Laura; Raine, Kim; Cameron Wild, T; McCargar, Linda

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence, clustering, age trends, and gender differences of chronic-disease related risk factors among a large sample of adolescents (N = 4932) in Alberta, Canada. Approximately 43% of boys and 53% of girls displayed two or more risk factors. Age trends and gender differences were also observed.

  14. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  15. Multidimensional Perfectionism within Gifted Suburban Adolescents: An Exploration of Typology and Comparison of Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofield, Emily L.; Parker Peters, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Researchers explored the typology of perfectionism among 153 (46% male, 54% female; 88% White, 8% African American, 5% Asian American, 4% Hispanic, 1% Other) suburban gifted adolescents and compared perfectionism scores (using the Goals and Work Habits Survey, a modification of Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [F-MPS]) to samples of…

  16. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  17. Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in the School Environment among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…

  18. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  20. Three-Step Validation of Exercise Behavior Processes of Change in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Berry, Tanya; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, S. Joan Wharf

    2004-01-01

    Though the processes of change are conceived as the core constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM), few researchers have examined their construct validity in the physical activity domain. Further, only 1 study was designed to investigate the processes of change in an adolescent sample. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise…

  1. Depression and Delinquency Covariation in an Accelerated Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study tested opposing predictions stemming from the failure and acting out theories of depression-delinquency covariation. Method: Participants included a nationwide longitudinal sample of adolescents (N = 3,604) ages 12 to 17. Competing models were tested with cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling to determine…

  2. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  3. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived. PMID:18165423

  4. Diagnostic assessment in a sample of autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1992-12-01

    A sample of 43 autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), DSM-III-R criteria, and the clinician's diagnosis. DSM-III-R criteria for autism have low specificity and agree poorly with the other two definitions. Detailed results of the ADI are provided that confirm the usefulness and discriminant validity of this semi-structured diagnostic interview in a sample of very retarded autistic subjects.

  5. The adolescent boy and girl: first and other early experiences with intercourse from a representative sample of Swedish school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lewin, B

    1982-10-01

    Attitudes and sexual experiences among adolescents have been studied using data from a representative sample of pupils in tenth grade in Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden. Sex differences in coital experience, coital frequency, and evaluation of coital frequency are analyzed. The importance of traditional sex roles is discussed, and the differential sexual socialization of boys and girls is commented on. The data help convey a picture of an adolescent boy who feels deprived of heterosexual outlets and whose sexual relations with girls are sudden, unplanned, and characterized by limited emotional involvement; the adolescent boy is also quite discontent. This picture is contrasted with that of the girls, about whom it is found that, compared with the boys, a greater proportion have coital experience, the average age at first intercourse is lower, and the average number of experiences with intercourse during the last month is higher; to a greater extent than the boys, the girls are satisfied with how often they have intercourse.

  6. Accelerometer data reduction in adolescents: effects on sample retention and bias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accelerometry is increasingly being recognized as an accurate and reliable method to assess free-living physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents. However, accelerometer data reduction criteria remain inconsistent, and the consequences of excluding participants in for example intervention studies are not well described. In this study, we investigated how different data reduction criteria changed the composition of the adolescent population retained in accelerometer data analysis. Methods Accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X), anthropometric measures and survey data were obtained from 1348 adolescents aged 11–14 years enrolled in the Danish SPACE for physical activity study. Accelerometer data were analysed using different settings for each of the three key data reduction criteria: (1) number of valid days; (2) daily wear time; and (3) non-wear time. The effects of the selected setting on sample retention and PA counts were investigated and compared. Ordinal logistic regression and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression models were used to analyse the impact of differing non-wear time definitions in different subgroups defined by body mass index, age, sex, and self-reported PA and sedentary levels. Results Increasing the minimum requirements for daily wear time and the number of valid days and applying shorter non-wear definitions, resulted in fewer adolescents retained in the dataset. Moreover, the different settings for non-wear time significantly influenced which participants would be retained in the accelerometer data analyses. Adolescents with a higher BMI (OR:0.93, CI:0.87-0.98, p=0.015) and older adolescents (OR:0.68, CI:0.49-0.95, p=0.025) were more likely to be excluded from analysis using 10 minutes of non-wear compared to longer non-wear time periods. Overweight and older adolescents accumulated more daily non-wear time if the non-wear time setting was short, and the relative difference between groups changed depending on the non

  7. Identifying the factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J

    2014-03-01

    The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) is a frequently used measure to assess client motivation to change an alcohol use problem. The factor structure of this measure has most extensively been studied in samples of adult clients with alcohol use disorders with very little research conducted with adolescents or ethnic minority participants. The purpose of the current study is to determine if the factor structure of the SOCRATES (Version 8A-Alcohol) found in prior research can be generalized to a sample of Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. Latino adolescents (N = 106) were administered the SOCRATES and assessed for alcohol use at a pretreatment baseline assessment as part of a larger study. Competing factor models were tested and results via confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 14-item two factor model best fit the data for the Latino adolescents in this sample. In addition, scores on the Taking Steps factor predicted alcohol use variables. Implications for these results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a mixed-gender young-adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2012-06-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated.

  9. An Examination of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in a Non-referred sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily R.; Jordan, Judith A.; Smith, Ashley J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically-validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in relation to other well-established measures of social phobia and depression in a non-referred sample of adolescents. Results support the convergent validity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale and provide some support for its discriminant validity, suggesting its utility in the initial assessment of social phobia. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Binary logistic regression analyses determined the predictive utility of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Implications for assessment are discussed. PMID:19643571

  10. Testing For Measurement Invariance of Attachment Across Chinese and American Adolescent Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong Solomon; He, Ni Phil; Marshall, Ineke Haen; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Ruohui; Jin, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent attachment to formal and informal institutions has emerged as a major focus of criminological theories since the publication of Hirschi's work in 1969. This study attempts to examine the psychometric equivalence of the factorial structure of attachment measures across nations reflecting Western and Eastern cultures. Twelve manifest variables are used tapping the concepts of adolescent attachment to parents, school, and neighborhood. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to conduct invariance test across approximately 3,000 Chinese and U.S. adolescents. Results provide strong support for a three-factor model; the multigroup invariance tests reveal mixed results. While the family attachment measure appears invariant between the two samples, significant differences in the coefficients of the factor loadings are detected in the school attachment and neighborhood attachment measures. The results of regression analyses lend support to the predictive validity of three types of attachment. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  12. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  13. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  14. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  15. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II for Hong Kong Community Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lee, Peter W. H.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test for the validity of a Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (C-BDI-II) for use with Hong Kong community (i.e., nonclinical) adolescents. Based on a randomized triadic split of the data (N = 1460), we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group1 (n = 486) and confirmatory factor…

  16. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  17. Exposure to Community Violence and Political Socialization among Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of adolescent exposure to cross-community violence, intense paramilitary operations, aggression, and intimidation in Northern Ireland. Using publicly available survey data gathered by agencies in Northern Ireland, the research examines the effects of exposure to political violence with focus upon the manner by…

  18. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  19. Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how social support may protect Israeli early adolescents who have witnessed community violence from engaging in violent behavior when they have also witnessed terror violence. The study examines how support from parents, school, and friends could serve as protective, despite the interactive risk effects of witnessing…

  20. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  1. Promoting Academic Engagement among Immigrant Adolescents through School-Family-Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Onaga, Marie; de Lardemelle, Cecile

    2010-01-01

    Schools are receiving students of immigrant origin in unprecedented numbers. Using an ecological framework, the authors reviewed the community, school, familial, and individual challenges that immigrant adolescent students encounter. They examined cognitive, relational, and behavioral dimensions of student engagement as well as culturally…

  2. Imaginary Community of the Mainstream Classroom: Adolescent Immigrants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the perspectives of three adolescent Mexican English language Learners regarding their high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom experiences within an urban city in the southwestern part of the U.S. An additional purpose is to demonstrate how the three student participants did or did not invest their…

  3. Adolescent Fertility: Selected, Annotated Resources for the International Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Celia

    This bibliography on adolescent fertility contains over 300 annotations of articles, audiovisual materials, books, charts, comic books, games, journals, papers, pamphlets, and packets. With a few exceptions entries were published from 1974 through 1978; they are categorized according to geographic section: World, Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin…

  4. New Roles for Early Adolescents in Schools and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schine, Joan; And Others

    This booklet is intended to stimulate new interest in the need of young adolescents to take on meaningful roles and to help planners and practitioneers to translate that interest into youth participation programs. There are three major sections. Section I examines the special needs and characteristics of youth in the 10 to 14 age group. Discussed…

  5. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4%. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression.

  6. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  7. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  8. Up- and down-regulation of daily emotion: an experience sampling study of Chinese adolescents' regulatory tendency and effects.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Sang, Biao; Luan, Ziyan

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese adolescents' emotion regulatory tendency and its effect, using an Experience Sampling Method. Participants comprised 72 Chinese adolescents (M age = 15.2 yr., SD = 1.7; 36 girls). Momentary emotional experience and regulation was assessed up to 5 or 6 times each day for two weeks. Results showed that participants tended to use up-regulation when they experienced positive emotion and habitually regulated their negative emotion by down-regulation. Also, adolescents who utilized down-regulation in a certain sampling moment reported higher positive emotion at the subsequent sampling moment. Moreover, adolescents who utilized down-regulation more frequently reported higher positive emotion at the subsequent sampling moment. Overall, down-regulation seemed to be a more adaptive regulatory strategy than up-regulation in Chinese adolescents' emotional lives.

  9. Measurement of community reintegration in sample of severely wounded servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Gray, Melissa; Borgia, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Community Reintegration of Servicemembers (CRIS) is a new measure of community reintegration. The purpose of this study was to test the CRIS with seriously injured combat veterans. Subjects were 68 patients at the Center for the Intrepid. Each patient completed three CRIS subscales, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey for Veterans (SF-36V), the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS), and two Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique subscales at visit 1 and the 3-month follow-up. Of the patients, 11 also completed the measures within 2 weeks of visit 1. We abstracted diagnoses and activities of daily living from the medical record. We evaluated test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We evaluated concurrent validity with Pearson product moment correlations. We used multivariate analyses of variance to compare scores for subjects with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and depression. Responsiveness analyses evaluated floor and ceiling effects, percent achieving minimal detectable change (MDC), effect size (ES), and the standardized response mean (SRM). CRIS subscale ICCs were 0.90 to 0.91. All subscales were moderately or strongly correlated with QOLS and SF-36V subscales. CRIS subscale scores were lower in PTSD and TBI groups (p < 0.05). CRIS Extent of Participation and Satisfaction with Participation subscales were lower for subjects with depression (p < 0.05). Of the sample, 17.4% to 23.2% had change greater than MDC. The ES ranged from 0.227 to 0.273 (SRM = 0.277-0.370), showing a small effect between visit 1 and the 3-month follow-up. Results suggest that the CRIS is a psychometrically sound choice for community reintegration measurement in severely wounded servicemembers.

  10. Cardiovascular and Diabetes Risk Perception in a Hispanic Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Vanessa A.; Mainous, Arch G.; Williamson, Deborah; Johnson, Sharleen P.; Knoll, Michele E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined perceptions of 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk or likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with actual risk in a community sample of Hispanic adults. Methods We conducted a survey of 183 Hispanic adults (≥18 years) recruited at community events around Charleston, SC. Likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes/IFG as well as 10-year CHD risk were calculated. Perceived risk was assessed with questions based on the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. Results Over half of respondents (54.8%) underestimated their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG and 14.8% underestimated their 10-year CHD risk. Older and overweight respondents were more likely to underestimate their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with family history of diabetes were the least likely to underestimate their likelihood of current undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol or a family history of heart attack were more likely to underestimate their 10-year CHD risk. Men were more likely to underestimate their risk for diabetes/IFG and CHD risk. Conclusions Health education to improve accurate risk perception could improve health promotion for this population. PMID:22774302

  11. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in nonclinical adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Barrios, Francisco X; Gutierrez, Peter M; Williams, John E; Bailey, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) in samples of high-school adolescents (N=414; 210 boys and 204 girls, ages 14-18 years). Confirmatory factor analyses provided satisfactory fit estimates for the two- and three-factor oblique solutions reported frequently in the extant literature. The solution to a general factor with domain-specific somatic and cognitive-affective factors was examined as an alternative model to previously established models for the current high-school sample data. Results provided stronger support for the general factor model. Estimates of internal consistency for scores on this instrument were high (coefficient alpha=.92, average interitem correlation=.35). The mean BDI-II total score for the nonclinical samples (M=12.50, SD=10.50) was compared with the mean scores reported for various adolescent normative samples in the extant literature. The BDI-II total score correlated moderately and significantly with scores on self-report measures of hopelessness (r=.63), anxiety (r=.53), and suicide-related behaviors (r=.57), providing support of adequate correlates for the BDI-II. Estimates of known-groups validity were evaluated using data from a small sample of 167 clinical adolescent inpatients. Specific study findings, limitations, and recommendations are discussed. PMID:18161034

  12. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L.; El Gammal, Hanan A.; Hagras, Abeer M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11–17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11–1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12–2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21–1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62–0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56–0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their

  13. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Celedonia, Karen L; Wilson, Michael L; El Gammal, Hanan A; Hagras, Abeer M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11-17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11-1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12-2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21-1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62-0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56-0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their positive

  14. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  15. Community Factors Shaping Early Age at First Sex among Adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents’ sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents’ sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions. PMID:25076654

  16. The Role of Community Resource Assessments in the Development of 15 Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Straub, Diane M.; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Ellen, Jonathan; Peralta, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Background Connect to Protect (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions is an initiative that alters the community’s structural elements to reduce youth HIV rates. Objectives This study details a community resource assessment and describes how resources were evaluated in the context of local needs. Methods Fifteen sites developed a community resource list, conducted a brief survey, created a youth service directory, and mapped where disease prevalence and community resources intersected. Sites also completed a survey to review and verify local site findings. Results On average, sites identified 267 potential community resources. Sites narrowed their resource list to conduct a brief survey with 1,162 agencies; the site average was 78. Final products of this process included maps comparing resources with risk data. Conclusions The evaluation of local resources is an important initial step in partnership development and is essential for the success of health promotion and disease prevention interventions that target adolescents. PMID:20208189

  17. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  18. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  19. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  20. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  1. Adolescent Adjustment in a Nationally Collected Sample: Identifying Group Differences by Adoption Status, Adoption Subtype, Developmental Stage and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…

  2. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  3. The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

  4. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  5. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  6. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-06-30

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'.

  7. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  8. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts.

  9. Suicide Ideation and Life Events in a Sample of Rural Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Brown, Adama; Rancour, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents experience both developmental and situational periods of transition along with myriad stressful life events when they enter and exit high school. These life events may be associated with thinking of, planning, and attempting suicide. Yet despite the development of prevention programs to treat at-risk individuals, suicide rates among adolescents have remained relatively high. Recent research suggests that suicidal ideation is associated with stressful life events and the use of maladaptive coping mechanisms, but studies have been limited to cross-sectional designs and clinical samples. We conducted a longitudinal study of 1345 rural adolescents (50.7% Hispanic) attending public schools in central Texas. The purpose of this analysis was to determine changes in suicide ideation rates over time and to test hypotheses about the life events and coping mechanisms associated with suicide ideation. Gender and race/ethnic differences in suicide were also explored. Rates of reported suicide ideation declined significantly from the first to the last year of high school (p=.015). Statistically significant relationships were found between suicide ideation, several types of life events, and maladaptive coping strategies. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also found. Taken together, these findings suggest new approaches to developing and testing interventions that can assist specific populations of adolescents to learn how to cope with their life events in productive and health-promoting ways. PMID:26992871

  10. Sampling strategy in molecular microbial ecology: influence of soil sample size on DNA fingerprinting analysis of fungal and bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Lionel; Lejon, David P H; Mougel, Christophe; Schehrer, Lucie; Merdinoglu, Didier; Chaussod, Rémi

    2003-11-01

    Assessing soil microbial community structure by the use of molecular techniques requires a satisfactory sampling strategy that takes into account the high microbial diversity and the heterogeneous distribution of microorganisms in the soil matrix. The influence of the sample size of three different soil types (sand, silt and clay soils) on the DNA yield and analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure were investigated. Six sample sizes from 0.125 g to 4 g were evaluated. The genetic community structure was assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA fingerprint). Variations between bacterial (B-ARISA) and fungal (F-ARISA) community structure were quantified by using principal component analysis (PCA). DNA yields were positively correlated with the sample size for the sandy and silty soils, suggesting an influence of the sample size on DNA recovery, whereas no correlation was observed in the clay soil. B-ARISA was shown to be consistent between the different sample sizes for each soil type indicating that the sampling procedure has no influence on the assessment of bacterial community structure. On the contrary for F-ARISA profiles, strong variations were observed between replicates of the smaller samples (<1 g). Principal component analysis analysis revealed that sampling aliquots of soil > or =1 g are required to obtain robust and reproducible fingerprinting analysis of the genetic structure of fungal communities. However, the smallest samples could be adequate for the detection of minor populations masked by dominant ones in larger samples. The sampling strategy should therefore be different according to the objectives: rather large soil samples (> or =1 g) for a global description of the genetic community structure, or a large number of small soil samples for a more complete inventory of microbial diversity.

  11. Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: prevalence, outcomes, and welfare policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C

    2006-01-01

    The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.

  12. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  13. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    In the Greek society, there is a strong cultural tendency to overestimate the value of University studies. So students are under high emotional pressure during the long lasting period of the preparation for the university entrance exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of anxiety in a general adolescent population of senior high school students in Athens, Greece. Also to examine the association between the anxiety's severity with various demographic and socio-cultural factors, as well as with academic performance, extracurricular activities, sleep duration and presence of somatic problems. The sample consisted of 696 adolescent students of three Senior High Schools (SHS) (391 girls and 305 boys). Two of the schools were general education institutions (GE1 and GE2, N=450), while the third was a technical one (TE, N=246). The school sample was selected to reflect the proportion between the two different types of SHSs in Athens as well as other major urban areas in Greece. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered and personal data were also collected. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 and analyses were conducted using STATA 7.0. 567 adolescents lived with both parents and 121 with one or none of them. Father's educational level was low for 138, middle for 154, high for 195 and mother's was low for 135, middle for 417, high for 140. The average sleep duration was 7.5 hours per day (SD=1.3). The average time per week spent in school related activities was 7.94 hours (SD=7.56) and in extracurricular activities was 9.02 hours (SD=12.44). 107 adolescents reported somatic complaints in the last year The academic achievement was poor for 233, good for 264, excellent for 196 students. Adolescents with extracurricular activities for more than 11 hours per week had lower scores, both on State and Trait scales. More hours in school-related activities were associated with greater levels of Trait anxiety. Adolescents whose father had a

  14. Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high-STI prevalence communities

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Teresa; Auerswald, Colette L.; Ott, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Abstinence is a core pregnancy and STI prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys. Methods Adolescent boys ages 14–17 were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex, relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. Results We enrolled 667 participants, age 15.7 years, of diverse ethnicity. 252 (38%) were abstinent. Abstinent participants were younger, less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values. Among abstinent participants, 62% planned to delay sex, while 38% anticipated sex in the next year. Participants with lower conventional masculine values, and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Discussion Abstinence among boys is common, even in high STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision, influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors and masculine values. Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex, can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. PMID:24355627

  15. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue

    2014-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p values<0.05). Significant positive correlations existed between CTQ-SF subscale scores for EA, SA, CTQ-SF total scores, and EPQ-N, EPQ-P scores (all p values<0.05). Significant number of subjects in this adolescent sample reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents.

  16. [Family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with disabilities].

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Bastos, Olga Maria

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with different categories of disabilities in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study based on application of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale in a sample of 270 parents or guardians. Prevalence was 83.7% for psychological aggression and 84.4% for physical maltreatment, while 96.5% of the children and adolescents with disabilities that suffered physical punishment were also victims of psychological aggression (p < 0.01) and 100% of those who suffered severe physical maltreatment also suffered psychological aggression (p = 0.01). Children and adolescents with disabilities showed increased risk of suffering family violence compared to those without disabilities. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness-raising and training of health teams for detection and notification of child abuse, and efforts should be made to support these families. PMID:27333141

  17. Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be highly co-occurring, most research examines their associations with mental disorders one at a time. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests, though, that the associations of multiple CAs with mental disorders are non-additive, arguing for the importance of multivariate analysis of multiple CAs. No attempt has yet been made to carry out a similar kind of analysis among children or adolescents. Objective To examine the multivariate associations of 12 CAs with first onset of mental disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Design US national survey of adolescents (ages 13–17) assessing DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and CAs. The CAs include parental loss (death, divorce, other separations), maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, neglect), parental maladjustment (psychopathology, substance abuse, criminality, violence) and economic adversity. Setting Dual-frame household-school samples. Participants 6,483 adolescents-parent pairs. Main outcome measure Lifetime DSM-IV disorders assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results 58.3% of adolescents reported at least one CA, among whom 59.7% reported multiple CAs. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF) were more strongly associated than other CAs with disorder onsets. The best-fitting model included terms for type and number of CAs and distinguished between MFF and Other CAs. CAs predicted behavior disorders most strongly and fear disorders least strongly. The joint associations of multiple CAs were sub-additive. The population-attributable risk proportions for disorder classes ranged from 15.7% for fear disorders to 40.7% for behavior disorders. CAs were associated with 28.2% of all onsets. Conclusions CAs are common, highly co-occurring, and strongly associated with onset of mental disorders among US adolescents. The sub-additive multivariate associations of CAs with

  18. Factor structure of the SOCRATES in a clinical sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Stephen A; Chung, Tammy A; Cornelius, Jack R; Martin, Christopher S

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; W. R. Miller & J. S. Tonigan, 1996) in adolescents presenting for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The participants were 80 males and 43 females (mean age = 16.8 years) who presented for AUD treatment (95.1% outpatient, 4.9% inpatient). Participants completed assessments at baseline and 1 year and provided information on alcohol use and related variables monthly between these 2 assessments. Principal-components and confirmatory factor analyses of the baseline SOCRATES identified 2 factors, Taking Steps and Recognition, which showed good internal consistency and concurrent and predictive evidence of validity. The results were interpreted as supporting the use of the SOCRATES with clinical samples of adolescents.

  19. Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: data from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Saunders, B; Resnick, H S; Best, C L; Schnurr, P P

    2000-02-01

    A national household probability sample of 4,023 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years was interviewed by telephone about substance use, victimization experiences, familial substance use, and posttraumatic reactions to identify risk factors for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--(4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) defined substance abuse/dependence. Age and ethnicity data were available for 3,907 participants. Major findings were (a) adolescents who had been physically assaulted, who had been sexually assaulted, who had witnessed violence, or who had family members with alcohol or drug use problems had increased risk for current substance abuse/dependence; (b) posttraumatic stress disorder independently increased risk of marijuana and hard drug abuse/dependence; and (c) when effects of other variables were controlled, African Americans, but not Hispanics or Native Americans, were at approximately 1/3 the risk of substance abuse/dependence as Caucasians.

  20. Physical Activity Among Adolescents in an East Malaysian Rural Indigenous Community: Exploring the Influence of Neighborhood Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chang, Kam Hock; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the rural environmental factors that influence adolescents' participation in physical activities (PA). Thirty-six indigenous adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years from rural communities of East Malaysia were involved in the photovoice procedures: photo-taking, selecting, contextualizing, and codifying themes. Despite being endowed with natural resources such as river, forest, hills, and so on, the adolescents and the community did not capitalize on these rich resources to promote and engage in PA. Poor maintenance of natural resources, the lack of pedestrian infrastructures and road safety, the lack of PA facilities, and negative perception of ancestors' agricultural activities were among factors that constrained adolescents' PA. Although basic amenities such as play spaces and pedestrian infrastructures are necessary to increase adolescents' PA, any intervention should make the most of the natural resources, which are cheaper, environment friendly, and sustainable.

  1. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  2. Association of Aggression and Non-Suicidal Self Injury: A School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Ma, Ying; Guo, Yong; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Yu, Yizhen; Wang, Jiaji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. Methods This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants’ emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. Results The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in ‘minor NSSI’, 11.9% in ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’ in those who had poor emotional management ability. Conclusion These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24205132

  3. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  4. Family, Community, and School Influences on Resilience among American Indian Adolescents in the Upper Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Oliver, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines resilience among a sample of American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations in the upper Midwest. Data are from a baseline survey of 212 youth (115 boys and 97 girls) who were enrolled in the fifth through eighth grades. Based upon the definition of resilience, latent class analyses were conducted to identify youth…

  5. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  6. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent’s treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however, there are no controlled trials for parents with a substance-abusing child. We examined the behavioral parent training literature to guide us in tailoring CRAFT for parents of adolescents. We discuss adaptations to CRAFT, outcomes and experiences gained from a brief pilot of the revised CRAFT program, and the future directions of this work. PMID:25883523

  7. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  8. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  9. Teacher Efficacy and Rural Community Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Veronica

    In the past decade, disappointing national outcomes have been reported regarding the transition of youth with disabilities to community and work environments. The transition outlook is even more dismal for rural youth with disabilities, in light of geographic barriers to special education service delivery, lack of jobs in rural areas, and rural…

  10. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches.

  11. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  12. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  13. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6 450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceeding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593

  14. Clinical Correlates of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in an Outpatient Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Rebeca; Carballo, Juan J; Díaz de Neira Hernando, Mónica; de León-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents is a major public health concern. The first goal of our study was to describe the characteristics and functions of NSSI and NSSI thoughts in an adolescent outpatient sample. The second goal was to examine which clinical factors discriminate between these two groups of patients. A group of 267 subjects was recruited from the Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatric Services, Jiménez Díaz Foundation (Madrid, Spain) from November 2011 to October 2012. All participants were administered the Spanish version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI). A total of 21.7% of patients reported having engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. The most strongly endorsed function for NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement. In comparison with patients in the NSSI Thoughts group and the control group, patients in the NSSI group scored higher in Internalization of Anger and in all the scales comprising the Children's Depression Inventory. Our findings on the prevalence and functions of NSSI are consistent with the literature. NSSI was mainly performed for emotion regulation purposes; specifically, NSSI seems to be used to cope with anger and depression. In addition, internalization of anger might play a significant role in the maintenance of this behavior.

  15. Psychosocial Correlates of Marijuana Use and Problem Drinking in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

  16. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6,450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment, and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context.

  17. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  18. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  19. "Gateway hypothesis" and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors. PMID:27413674

  20. Community variation in adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ardis L; Carlos, Heather A; Sarnoff, Rachel A

    2013-04-01

    Melanoma rates among younger women in New Hampshire (NH) are rising. In urban studies, youth proximity to tanning facilities has been linked to indoor tanning, a proven cause of melanoma. Youth access has not been examined in rural settings. To determine on a statewide basis the influence of rurality and community income level on female students' ease of access to tanning facilities, all NH tanning facilities (N = 261) and high schools (N = 77) in 2011 were spatially and statistically analyzed to determine schools with more facilities within 2 miles of the school and greater capacity (fewer female students per facility), for indoor tanning. Schools above the state-wide average for both measures were classified as "Easy Access" to indoor tanning. Among NH high schools, 74 % have 1 or more tanning facility within two miles and 22 % have "Easy Access" to tanning facilities. Ease of access did not differ by rurality. Lower-income school status was an independent predictor of both greater capacity and "Easy Access". While urban and rural teens have similar access to indoor tanning, female students in lower-income communities have easier access. Variations in access by community size and income must be considered in planning interventions to address youth indoor tanning.

  1. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  2. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  3. Non-fatal gunshot trauma among a sample of adolescents in Djibouti: prevalence and sociodemographic associations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Lewis, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Firearm trauma is the second most common cause of serious injury among adolescents in the Republic of Djibouti. The aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic correlates of serious injury and non-fatal gunshot trauma among adolescents in Djibouti. Using multinomial logistic regression, we compared a sample of adolescents (N = 1,711) who self-reported a non-firearm-related serious injury (n = 587) and those who reported a firearm-related injury (n = 101) with non-injured participants (n = 1,023) during a 12-month recall period. Analyses targeted demographic, behavioral, social, mental health, and family factors. After adjusting for covariates, participants reporting a non-firearm-related serious injury were more likely to report having been involved in physical fights (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 145; confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 2.02), being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [2.24, 3.56]), feeling lonely (RRR = 1.48; CI = [1.11, 1.96]), having signs of depression (RRR = 1.27; CI = [1.02, 1.58]), and be truant from school (RRR = 1.68; CI = [1.25, 2.28]). Those who reported a gunshot injury recorded being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [1.77, 4.53]) and physically attacked at higher rates (RRR = 1.78; CI = [1.09, 2.89]). Serious injuries, whether firearm related or not, are important threats to adolescent health in Djibouti with potentially serious health-related correlates. More research, particularly multilevel designs, are needed to explain context-relevant factors associated with serious trauma in Djibouti. PMID:24097908

  4. The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in a sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs.

  5. Relationships of the WISC-R and K-BIT for an adolescent clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Slate, J R; Graham, L S; Bower, J

    1996-01-01

    Correlations between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised IQs and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test were determined for a clinical sample of 44 adolescents (35 with learning disabilities, 9 with mental retardation) who underwent routine three-year reevaluations. Even though three years had elapsed between the WISC-R and K-BIT scores, the correlations among the total and subscale scores of these measures were high and were all statistically significant. A significant mean difference was found between the WISC-R Verbal IQ and its K-Bit counterpart, the Vocabulary subscales. Implications of findings for assessment specialists are discussed. PMID:8970652

  6. Disordered eating and substance use among a female sample of Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unikel, Claudia; Root, Tammy; Vonholle, Ann; Ocampo, René; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between disordered eating and substance use was examined among Mexican female adolescents in a probabilistic sample of 2537 high school students in central Mexico, stratified by marginalization status and migratory intensity, obtained during 2006 ?2007 school year. The Brief Disordered Eating Questionnaire and the World Health Organization and United Nations Division of Narcotic Drugs recommendations for substance use assessments were used. Prevalence and odds ratios for disordered eating and substance use items were calculated separately across low and high marginalization groups. Study's implications and limitations are noted, as well as future research and prevention strategies are suggested.

  7. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth. PMID:24907892

  8. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  9. Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David M.; Metha, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between self-esteem and adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors using nonclinical (n=119) and clinical (n=30) adolescents. Nonclinical adolescents scored higher than clinical adolescents on all self-esteem dimensions. Males scored higher than females only on dimension of Self-Esteem Competence. Perceptions of…

  10. All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.

    This book challenges American communities to reclaim their responsibility for raising healthy, successful, and caring children and adolescents. The book also offers a critique of American culture along with practical strategies for uniting and mobilizing communities around a shared vision of healthy development. The book argues that three…

  11. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  12. Predictive Value of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Large Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Paul; Rowe, Richard; Flach, Clare; Briskman, Jacqueline; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen; Goodman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents are increasingly recognized as a distinctive dimension of prognostic importance in clinical samples. Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the longitudinal effects of these personality traits on the mental health of young people from the general population. Using a…

  13. Intergenerational concepts of adolescent sexuality: implications for community-based reproductive health care with Haitian immigrants.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T; Sinnett, K

    1999-04-01

    Intergenerational conflict occurs when immigrant parents hold different values from those of their more rapidly acculturating offspring. These conflicts frequently involve disparate views related to sex roles and reproduction. A community-based study of 19 immigrant Haitian parent-adolescent pairs in South Florida compared their attitudes and values about sexuality and reproduction. Data were obtained through focused, open-ended interviews. Content analysis procedures at the level of words and phrases facilitated the categorization of responses. Data revealed considerable differences between parents and adolescents about the sources and types of information learned about reproduction and contraception, when such information is learned, and expectations regarding premarital sexual intercourse. Both parents and adolescents lacked accurate biomedical information about contraception, placed responsibility for contraceptive use primarily on the female partner, considered reproduction a natural rather than a medical event, and believed parents have the major responsibility for educating children about reproduction and contraception. Implications for culturally-appropriate health care center on increasing the role of the public health nurse in health education, minimizing intergenerational and intercultural conflict, and engaging the Haitian immigrant community in the promotion of reproductive health. PMID:10319660

  14. Flow cytometric quantification of bacteria in vaginal swab samples self-collected by adolescents attending a gynecology clinic.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, John; Blake Ball, T; Lane, Margo; Cheang, Mary; Plummer, Frank

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an important risk factor in reproductive health outcomes, such as pre-term birth and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, its etiology, diagnosis and treatment remain poorly defined. We evaluated flow cytometry as a tool to quantify total bacterial cells in vaginal specimens self-collected longitudinally by adolescents. BV was diagnosed by Gram-stain (criteria of Hay and Ison). Average flow cytometric counts of bacterial cell-units (BCU) was log(10) 8.04 per gram sample and was found to correlate with sample weight (p<0.0001). BV was frequently observed in this group, with 22 of 32 participants (69%) diagnosed with BV for at least one timepoint. Surprisingly, increased BCU was associated with normal Hay-Ison score (p=0.0003), even when adjusting for sample weight (p=0.02). Since presence and quantity of Lactobacillus defines normal vaginal microbiology (ie. absence of BV), this result indicates a possible bias towards dominance of Lactobacillus cells in measurements of "total" BCU. Increased BCU per gram was associated in multivariate analysis with longer self-reported time since last menstruation (p=0.004) and last sexual intercourse (p=0.007). Sperm was detected in 3 samples provided by those reporting sexual intercourse in the previous 24 h. Light-scattering profiles of bacteria and vaginal cells in samples collected over time from an individual were often identical and distinct from other individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first description of flow cytometry for analysis of commensal bacteria in vaginal specimens. Further development may help to illuminate the complex dynamics of vaginal microbial communities underlying BV. PMID:18423913

  15. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence in a Nonrisk Sample: Associations with Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Neena M.

    2008-01-01

    Limited data exist on the unique, additive, and interactive effects of exposure to domestic and community violence on children's functioning, particularly in community samples. This study examined relations between children's violence exposure, at home and in the community, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems. Parents reported…

  16. Adolescent girls' infant and young child nutrition knowledge levels and sources differ among rural and urban samples in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Karachiwalla, Naureen I; Ledlie, Natasha A; Roy, Shalini

    2016-10-01

    In many low-income countries, girls marry early and have children very soon after marriage. Although conveying infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) knowledge to adolescent girls in time is important to ensure the well-being of their children, little is known about the best ways to convey these messages. This study examines the extent of, and sources from which adolescent girls derive IYCN knowledge in order to inform the design of programmes that convey such information. Data on adolescent girls aged 12-18 was collected in 2013 in 140 clusters of villages in rural areas (n = 436), and 70 clusters of slums in urban areas (n = 345) in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models. In both the urban and rural samples, girls' schooling is positively and significantly associated with IYCN knowledge (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). IYCN knowledge of adolescent girls' mothers is also associated with adolescents' IYCN knowledge in both urban and rural samples, but the magnitude of association in the urban sample is only half that of the rural sample (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). In Bangladesh, efforts to improve knowledge regarding IYCN are typically focused on mothers of young children. Only some of this knowledge is passed onto adolescent girls living in the same household. As other messaging efforts directed towards mothers have only small, or no association with adolescent girls' knowledge of IYCN, improving adolescent girls' IYCN knowledge may require information and messaging specifically directed towards them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Adolescent girls' infant and young child nutrition knowledge levels and sources differ among rural and urban samples in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Karachiwalla, Naureen I; Ledlie, Natasha A; Roy, Shalini

    2016-10-01

    In many low-income countries, girls marry early and have children very soon after marriage. Although conveying infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) knowledge to adolescent girls in time is important to ensure the well-being of their children, little is known about the best ways to convey these messages. This study examines the extent of, and sources from which adolescent girls derive IYCN knowledge in order to inform the design of programmes that convey such information. Data on adolescent girls aged 12-18 was collected in 2013 in 140 clusters of villages in rural areas (n = 436), and 70 clusters of slums in urban areas (n = 345) in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models. In both the urban and rural samples, girls' schooling is positively and significantly associated with IYCN knowledge (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). IYCN knowledge of adolescent girls' mothers is also associated with adolescents' IYCN knowledge in both urban and rural samples, but the magnitude of association in the urban sample is only half that of the rural sample (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). In Bangladesh, efforts to improve knowledge regarding IYCN are typically focused on mothers of young children. Only some of this knowledge is passed onto adolescent girls living in the same household. As other messaging efforts directed towards mothers have only small, or no association with adolescent girls' knowledge of IYCN, improving adolescent girls' IYCN knowledge may require information and messaging specifically directed towards them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27515279

  18. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be

  19. Childhood Exposure to Violence and Chronic Physical Conditions in a National Sample of US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Basu, Archana; Walsh, Kate; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in adults. Although violence exposure is common among youths, it is unknown whether violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in childhood and adolescence. We examined the associations of violence exposure with chronic physical conditions in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and determined whether associations were explained by co-occurring mental disorders. Methods Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national cross-sectional survey of 6,483 adolescents (ages 13–17). Lifetime exposure to violence; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mood, anxiety, and substance disorders; and self-reported arthritis, frequent headaches, back or neck problems, other chronic pain, asthma, and allergies were assessed. Results One in 4 (24.99%) adolescents reported exposure to violence. Violence exposure was associated with elevated odds of back/neck pain, headaches, chronic pain, allergies, and asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.5–2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.5) after adjustment for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, and lifetime mental disorders. Regarding new onsets, violence exposure was associated with greater hazard for subsequent first-onset only of back/neck pain (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–3.0) and headaches (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.8), and these associations were explained by early-onset mental disorders. Conclusions Childhood violence exposure is associated with chronic physical conditions that emerge early in the life course, although associations are stronger for prevalent than incident conditions. Violence exposure predicts incident pain conditions only, and these associations are explained by mental disorders that begin after violence exposure. Interventions and policies aimed at preventing violence and detecting and treating early

  20. The experience of adolescent inpatient care and the anticipated transition to the community: Young people's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gill, Freya; Butler, Stephen; Pistrang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored adolescents' perspectives of inpatient mental health care, focussing on aspects of the inpatient environment they anticipated would help or hinder their transition back home. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 adolescent inpatients; transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants experienced inpatient treatment as offering a mix of benefits (e.g., supportive relationships) and drawbacks (e.g., living in a "fake world"). They anticipated the transition home as providing opportunities for personal growth and consolidation of new coping skills, but also posing challenges concerning re-entering the "real world" after the experience of being "wrapped in cotton wool". Self-determination theory and attachment theory offer two potential frameworks for understanding these opportunities and challenges. Inpatient care has the potential to foster key mechanisms for adaptive development, creating a platform for developing positive future behaviours. Community teams should work closely with inpatient units to support the generalisation of the young person's newly acquired coping skills. PMID:26599528

  1. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  2. 3:00 TO 6:00 P.M.: Young Adolescents at Home and in the Community. [With] an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Leah M.; And Others

    This collection of four articles focuses on the needs of and services for young adolescents in the after-school hours. In "Young Adolescents and Their Communities: A Shared Responsibility," William Kerewsky and Leah M. Lefstein discuss the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of young adolescents. Elliot A. Medrich, in "Time…

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population.

  5. A Comparison of Men Who Committed Different Types of Sexual Assault in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…

  6. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  7. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  8. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  9. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model.

  10. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  11. The metacognitions questionnaire for children: development and validation in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Bacow, Terri Landon; Pincus, Donna B; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Brody, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    A self-report measure of metacognition for both children and adolescents (ages 7-17) (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children; MCQ-C) was adapted from a previous measure, the MCQ-A (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Adolescents) and was administered to a sample of 78 children and adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders and 20 non-clinical youth. The metacognitive processes included were (1) positive beliefs about worry (positive meta-worry); (2) negative beliefs about worry (negative meta-worry); (3) superstitious, punishment and responsibility beliefs (SPR beliefs) and (4) cognitive monitoring (awareness of one's own thoughts). The MCQ-C demonstrated good internal-consistency reliability, as well as concurrent and criterion validity, and four valid factors. In line with predictions, negative meta-worry was significantly associated with self-reports of internalizing symptoms (excessive worry and depression). Age-based differences on the MCQ-C were found for only one subscale, with adolescents reporting greater awareness of their thoughts than children. Adolescent girls scored higher on the total index of metacognitive processes than adolescent boys. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the use of the MCQ-C with a broader age range as well as an association between metacognitive processes and anxiety symptomatology in both children and adolescents, with implications for cognitive behavioral interventions with anxious youth.

  12. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. Results Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. Conclusions The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay

  13. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  14. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  15. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.

  16. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, M = 13.6 years, SD = 2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Controlling for religious community, age, and gender, youths' lower academic achievement was associated with family environments characterized by high conflict and low cohesion. School ehaviour problems were related to greater exposure to community violence, or sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviour. Youths' expectations about educational attainment were undermined by conflict in the family environment and antisocial behaviour in the community, as well as parenting low in warmth and behavioural control. Findings underscore the importance of considering family and community contributions to youths' educational outcomes. Suggestions regarding targeted interventions toward promoting resilience are discussed, such as assessing both child and family functioning, developing multidimensional interventions for parents, and building community partnerships, among others. PMID:26834298

  17. Preventing adolescent tobacco use and assisting young people to quit: population-, community-, and individually focused evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, Diana P

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco use among adolescents is declining in the United States but remains a major public health problem in the United States and globally. The Healthy People 2020 model of determinants of health is useful in understanding the complex interaction of factors that help explain adolescent smoking-related behaviors. Nurses are well positioned to take leadership roles in health care settings, schools, and their own communities as well as at the state, national, and global levels in advocating for policies that prevent and treat adolescent tobacco use and the subsequent burden of disease in future populations.

  18. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  19. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.

  20. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and less prone to externalizing problems than their peers,whereas those who describe their parents as neglectful are less mature, less competent, and more troubled. Juvenile offenders who characterize their parents as either authoritarian or indulgent typically score somewhere between the two extremes, although those from authoritarian homes are consistently better functioning than those from indulgent homes. These patterns did not vary as a function of adolescents' ethnicity or gender. PMID:20016759

  1. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  2. Descriptive and Psychometric Properties of the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA) in an Inpatient Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    May, Alexis M.; O'Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Liu, Richard T.; Klonsky, E. David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about why adolescents attempt suicide. The current study examined the endorsement, structure, and clinical correlates of adolescents' suicide attempt motivations as measured by the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA). Methods Suicidal adolescents (n = 52) in a psychiatric unit were administered the IMSA and interviewed about their suicide attempts. Results Psychache, Hopelessness, and Escape were the most strongly endorsed motivations, and Interpersonal Influence the least endorsed. IMSA scales exhibited a two-factor solution: 1) Internal and 2) Communication. Suicide intent was strongly correlated with Internal motivations and moderately inversely correlated with Communication motivations. Factor structure and mean endorsements were similar to adult samples. Conclusions The IMSA is a useful measure to assess attempt motivations in adolescents. PMID:27046630

  3. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  4. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  5. Sampling approach for characterization of the Scarboro Community, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Scarboro Community is a small urban community in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is located approximately 457 m northwest of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant along the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary. The purpose of this investigation is to validate measurements taken at the perimeter air monitor 46 (located in the Scarboro Community) and external gamma data collected during past flyover surveys. Five sampling tasks will be performed to validate these measurements. These tasks include biased sampling of residential properties, random sampling of residential properties, ORR boundary sampling, focused soil sampling in the Scarboro saddle, and surface water and sediment sampling in the Scarboro tributaries. Additionally, a radiological walkover of representative areas of the Scarboro Community will be performed. The two contaminants of concern are mercury and radionuclides.

  6. Disordered Eating, Compulsive Exercise, and Sport Participation in a UK Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The sport literature has produced equivocal results as to whether sport participation is a protective or risk factor for disordered eating. One mechanism by which it could be a risk factor is the increased drive or compulsion to exercise. This study compared the levels of disordered eating and compulsive exercise between adolescent sport and non-sport participants. A sample of 417 male and female adolescents, aged 14-16 years old, was recruited from UK secondary schools. Participants completed questionnaire packs that included: the Eating Disorder Inventory; a measure of exercise behaviour; and the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET). Non-sport participants reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than sport participants, and this was true for boys and girls. Significant group differences were also reported for many of the CET scales, with sport participants generally reporting greater levels of compulsive exercise than non-sport participants. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26892196

  7. Exploration of the psychometric characteristics of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Spanish adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Zubeidat, Ihab; Salinas, José María; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Social phobia is an excessive concern about scrutiny by other people in situations the person considers embarrassing or humiliating. The purpose of this study is to explore the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the social fear and social avoidance subscales of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and to analyze the score distribution of both subscales. To this end, we assessed a sample of 1,012 Spanish adolescents attending school. The results of a first-order factor analysis indicate the existence of a dominant factor in both subscales of the LSAS--as well as three other less relevant factors--and explain most of the variance of the subscales. The internal consistency of the first factor was quite high in both subscales. The LSAS and its two subscales showed adequate theoretical validity with different variables related to social interaction. Finally, the different scores obtained in both subscales make it possible to group adolescents into three clusters with different characteristics. A study of the sociodemographic variables of the components of the clusters showed a significant relation only with sex.

  8. Sociocultural experiences of bulimic and non-bulimic adolescents in a school-based Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those in the BN group reported higher levels of appearance pressure from their network of close relationships and mass media, appearance comparisons and conversations, and fear of negative appearance evaluation. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis based seven predictors resulted in the correct identification of 82.7% of respondents, including 83.7% of the BN group and 81.7% of controls. Responses on sociocultural measures, especially those reflecting appearance pressure, added to the classification rate, after controlling for body mass index and household socioeconomic status. When repeated within each sex, classification accuracy was 90.3% for girls and 86.1% for boys. This study establishes clear links between sociocultural influences and BN among urban adolescent girls and boys living in the People's Republic of China. PMID:19707866

  9. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  10. Sociocultural experiences of bulimic and non-bulimic adolescents in a school-based Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those in the BN group reported higher levels of appearance pressure from their network of close relationships and mass media, appearance comparisons and conversations, and fear of negative appearance evaluation. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis based seven predictors resulted in the correct identification of 82.7% of respondents, including 83.7% of the BN group and 81.7% of controls. Responses on sociocultural measures, especially those reflecting appearance pressure, added to the classification rate, after controlling for body mass index and household socioeconomic status. When repeated within each sex, classification accuracy was 90.3% for girls and 86.1% for boys. This study establishes clear links between sociocultural influences and BN among urban adolescent girls and boys living in the People's Republic of China.

  11. Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: findings of a community-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J G; Smailes, E M; Cohen, P; Brown, J; Bernstein, D P

    2000-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the association between childhood neglect and personality disorder (PD) symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychosocial and psychiatric interviews were administered to a representative sample of 738 youths and their mothers from upstate New York in 1975, 1983, 1985-1986, and 1991-1993. Evidence of childhood cognitive, emotional, physical, and supervision neglect was obtained from the maternal interviews that were conducted in 1975, 1983, and 1985-1986, and from New York State records. PDs were assessed among the youths in 1985-1986, when they were adolescents, and in 1991-1993, when they were young adults. Findings indicated that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect were associated with increased risk for PDs and with elevated PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood, after age, sex, childhood physical or sexual abuse, other types of childhood neglect, and cooccurring PD symptoms were controlled statistically. Childhood emotional neglect was associated with increased risk for avoidant PD and with paranoid and Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood physical neglect was associated with increased risk for schizotypal PD and with Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood supervision neglect was associated with increased risk for passive-aggressive and Cluster B PDs and with borderline, paranoid, and passive-aggressive PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. The present findings suggest that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect may play a role in the etiology of some PDs.

  12. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  13. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns. PMID:27138817

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  15. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

  16. Expanding the vision: the strengths-based, community-oriented child and adolescent psychiatrist working in schools.

    PubMed

    Kriechman, Avron; Salvador, Melina; Adelsheim, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Because the majority of children with mental health needs are most likely to receive treatment in a school setting, there is a long history of linking child and adolescent psychiatrists to schools. Psychiatrists traditionally have been involved in assessing, diagnosing, and treating the severely mentally ill or consulting with school-based providers. With no end in sight to the dearth of child and adolescent psychiatrists, not to mention child and adolescent behavioral health providers in other disciplines, this role has been broadened in recent years by several programs in which the child and adolescent psychiatrist provides flexible, population-based, systemic, and context-specific approaches to working in schools. In this article, the authors first review some of the traditional roles for child and adolescent psychiatrists working in school mental health settings. Then 2 national programs are highlighted, which successfully integrate psychiatrist trainees into comprehensive school mental health programs. The theoretical approach to a specific community-oriented, strengths-based model for school mental health support used in New Mexico by the University of New Mexico (UNM) Psychiatry Department's Center for Rural and Community Behavioral Health school telepsychiatry program, which supports rural and frontier school mental health programs and school-based health centers, is discussed in detail. The UNM model involves a strength-and resiliency-based collaboration between the child and adolescent psychiatrist, students, families, educators, and those who support them. The psychiatrist co-creates a "community of concern" and support for students, including not only customary participants such as parents, educators, and health care providers but also peers, families of choice, lay professionals, community gatekeepers, and others identified by the student as critical to his or her well-being. The advantages for child and adolescent psychiatry trainees being exposed to

  17. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  18. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed.

  19. Latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an adolescent sample one month after an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richu; Wang, Li; Li, Zhongquan; Cao, Chengqi; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Jianxin

    2013-08-01

    Increasing empirical studies suggest that the tripartite posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) model described in the DSM-IV does not accurately account for the underlying PTSD factor structure, and several alternative models have been proposed. The present study investigated a newly refined, five-factor model of PTSD symptoms in a sample of Chinese adolescent survivors of an earthquake. A total of 1198 middle school students (653 females, 526 males) with a mean age of 14.4 years (SD = 1.1, range: 11-18) participated in this study one month after an earthquake. The novel five-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal demonstrated significantly better fit than two alternative four-factor models. Further analyses revealed differentiable relations between the PTSD factors and external measures of anxiety and depression. These findings provide empirical support for the robustness of five-factor model, and carry implications for further reorganization of PTSD criteria.

  20. Validation of the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25) in adolescent psychiatric inpatient samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Peter M; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wong, Jane L; Osman, Augustine; Norizuki, Tamami

    2012-01-01

    Resilience has been associated with a markedly decreased chance for risky behaviors following a trauma or other negative life event. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of resilience, the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25; Osman et al., 2004 ), among psychiatric inpatient adolescents. In Study 1, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis to provide additional empirical support for the structure and invariance of the 3-factor model of the SRI-25 in youth samples, ages 14 to 17 years (N = 152 boys, 220 girls). Scale reliability analyses provided good evidence for internal consistency reliability of scores on the SRI-25 total and scales. In Study 2 (N = 30 boys, 40 girls), we presented data in support for the concurrent validity (i.e., known groups) of scores on the SRI-25. Additionally, we identified potential correlates for the SRI-25 total scale scores. PMID:22176266

  1. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Santiago-Fernández, María José; Garrido-Casals, Olivia; Sánchez, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain. Methods: The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years) with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question “How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?”. Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Results: Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5–85), there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight); 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ2 = 3.957, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among older ones. Misperception of being overweight is associated with a less positive body image, and the perception of being very underweight is associated with higher scores for general psychopathology. PMID:21792323

  2. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    PubMed Central

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Results Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. Conclusions It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation. PMID:26813354

  3. A collaborative model for community-based health care screening of homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Beech, B

    1997-01-01

    Because of their survival life-style, homeless youth are at extremely high risk for contracting life-threatening and debilitating diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hepatitis B, and for engaging in chronic substance abuse; yet health services are often limited and not easily accessed. This article describes an innovative health-screening project for 150 homeless youth between the ages of 11 and 23 years in an urban metroplex. The Homeless Youth Services Project was the initial phase of a multiphase project to investigate the social and health services available to homeless youth. The study project was a collaborative effort between several community agencies that shared the multiple goals of identifying the homeless adolescent population, documenting the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and level of risk, and identifying community services and resources. Results of the screening project included the psychosocial and physical risks associated with homeless adolescents as well as the laboratory results of blood and urine screens. Consistent with the literature, the study population had a history of runaway behavior; physical, sexual, and substance abuse; and high rates of HIV seroprevalence and hepatitis B. Implications for advanced practice nurses working with homeless youth are also addressed.

  4. Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

  5. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization. PMID:25465317

  6. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  7. From the macro to the micro: a geographic examination of the community context and early adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proximal alcohol and tobacco retailers, and youth-serving organizations with an early-adolescent problem behavior index were tested in Nonlinear Mixed Models that controlled for multiple district-level and individual characteristics. Multi-level model results demonstrated that the number of alcohol and tobacco retail locations within a one-mile radius of each adolescent's home positively associated with student-reported problem behaviors above and beyond the influence of school district and individual characteristics. Results suggest that the proximal community context added significantly to the district context when understanding the occurrence of early adolescent problem behaviors. Recognizing this variability in geographically determined risk within a community will likely enhance the effectiveness of community prevention activities.

  8. The impact of protective factors in desistance from violent reoffending: a study in three samples of adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Lodewijks, Henny P B; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A H

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after release from a juvenile justice facility ( n = 47). The results lend support to the hypothesis that protective factors buffer or mitigate the risk of violent reoffending. Using regression analyses, in all samples, the addition of protective factors yielded a significant increment in the amount of variance explained by dynamic risk factors alone. Furthermore, in medium to high risk subgroups, the violent reoffending rate was significantly higher when protective factors were absent, compared to when protective factors were present. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for risk assessment and risk management practice with adolescent offenders.

  9. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  10. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  11. The influence of nondisclosure on the mental health of urban African-American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.

  12. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p < 0.05). In hierarchical regression analyses, total cumulative stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  13. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    PubMed Central

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  14. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  15. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  16. Sampling for evaluation. Issues and strategies for community-based HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A A

    2000-06-01

    Sampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and non-probability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.

  17. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  18. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  19. Exposures of lead to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops and surrounding communities.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure of lead (Pb) has been assessed by analyzing the whole-blood samples of early adolescents (boys) aged 12-15 years working for the past 1-3 years in battery recycling workshops (BRW). For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group residing in the vicinity of BRW (exposed non-workers) and who lived in domestic areas devoid of any industrial activity (referents boys) were selected. The blood samples were analyzed for Pb, along with biochemical parameters of blood. Both biological samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven before determination of Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean value of Pb concentration in blood samples of working boys was threefold higher as compared with referent boys. The significant negative correlations of blood Pb level with % Hb (r=-0.862) were observed in working boys.

  20. Women in addictions treatment: comparing VA and community samples.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tania M; Carpenter, Kelly M; Malte, Carol A; Carney, Molly; Chambers, Sharon; Saxon, Andrew J

    2002-07-01

    Despite increasing awareness of gender issues in substance use treatment, women with substance use disorders (SUD) and gender-specific treatment remain understudied. This study examines differences, including identification of comorbid issues and patients' perceived treatment needs, between women in different SUD treatment settings: an intensive VA outpatient program (VA; N = 76) and a private residential/outpatient program (Residence XII; N = 308). In both settings the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was administered at intake; ASI data were collected from retrospective chart review. Results support previous findings that women entering SUD treatment endorse high rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and past abuse. Women in VA SUD treatment experienced more impairment on indices of medical, psychiatric, and employment issues whereas the private agency sample had higher alcohol and family/social composite scores. The differences between and similarities among the two treatment groups have implications for design of women-specific SUD treatment programs.

  1. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  2. Mentally Retarded Adolescents' Breadth of Attention and Short-Term Memory Processes during Matching-to-Sample Discriminations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Processes contributing to matching-to-sample deficits were investigated with 22 moderately and severely mentally retarded adolescents. Although nonretarded subjects performed better on immediate and delayed retention tests, there was no difference in rate of forgetting, and rehearsal improved delayed test performance equally for both groups.…

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug/Alcohol-Facilitated and Incapacitated Sexual Assault in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…

  4. In-School versus Out-of-School Friendships and Academic Achievement among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Much of the research on adolescent friendships and school achievement has focused on in-school friends, ignoring the potential effects of having out-of-school friendships. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between having relatively more in-school friends and school achievement among a sample of over 600 12th grade students from…

  5. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  6. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  7. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette. PMID:24106145

  8. Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

  9. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  10. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  11. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a Mixed-Gender Young-Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural…

  12. The Impact of Correcting Cognitive Distortions in Reducing Depression and the Sense of Insecurity among a Sample of Female Refugee Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…

  13. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The objective of the National Water-Quality Assessment characterization of fish community structure is to relate fish community characteristics to physical, chemical, and other biological factors to assess water-quality conditions. To accomplish this, fish community structure is described at sites representing selected environmental settings. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure are examined at local, regional, and national levels. A representative sample of the fish community is collected by sampling a stream reach using two complementary methods. The primary collection method is electrofishing using backpack, towed, or boat-operated electrofishing gear; seining is a secondary technique. Other secondary techniques may be substituted after careful consideration of sampling efficiency and consultation with local fish ecologists. Before fish sampling is conducted, careful consideration must be given to collecting permits; protecting endangered, threatened, and special-concern species; and coordinating sampling efforts with other fish ecologists. After the sample is collected, individual fish are identified to species by ichthyologists. Length and weight measurements are taken, and the presence of external anomalies are recorded.

  14. Hostility and Cigarette Use: A Comparison Between Smokers and Nonsmokers in a Matched Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Kahler, Christopher W.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association between hostility—a personality trait reflective of negativity and cynicism toward others—and smoking in adolescents by measuring (a) several subcomponents of hostility, and (b) facial emotion processing ability, which has been previously linked to hostility. Methods: Participants (N = 241 aged 14–19) were 95 smokers and 95 demographically matched nonsmokers as well as 51 nonmatched smokers. All participants completed the Cook–Medley (C-M) hostility scale, which provides a general hostility score and 3 component scores (cynicism, hypersensitivity, and aggressive responding), and a facial emotion processing task. This task, designed to assess emotion recognition, requires quickly identifying the emotion of faces that gradually morph from neutral to high-intensity happy, angry, or fearful. Results: Independent sample t tests indicated that matched smokers scored significantly higher in cynicism and aggressive responding than nonsmokers. Among smokers, age of smoking onset was negatively correlated with general hostility and aggressive responding. All hostility scales were positively correlated with the intensity needed to recognize happy faces. Counterintuitively, smokers required a greater intensity to recognize angry faces than nonsmokers. No other relations between hostility/smoking status and facial emotion processing were observed. Conclusions: Aspects of hostility, particularly aggressive responding, may be a risk factor for early onset smoking. Although hostile participants exhibited a deficiency in their ability to recognize happiness in facial pictures, these results did not translate to differences in smoking status. This study elucidates some of the complex interrelations between hostility, emotion processing, and adolescent smoking, which may have implications for teen smoking prevention. PMID:24692670

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. PMID:24850143

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern.

  17. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups. PMID:24469301

  18. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  19. Evaluation of water sampling methodologies for amplicon-based characterization of bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Reduction in costs of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed unprecedented characterization of bacterial communities from environmental samples including aquatic ecosystems. However, the extent to which extrinsic factors including sampling volume, sample replication, DNA extraction kits, and sequencing target affect the community structure inferred are poorly explored. Here, triplicate 1, 2, and 6L volume water samples from the Upper Mississippi River were processed to determine variation among replicates and sample volumes. Replicate variability significantly influenced differences in the community α-diversity (P=0.046), while volume significantly changed β-diversity (P=0.037). Differences in phylogenetic and taxonomic community structure differed both among triplicate samples and among the volumes filtered. Communities from 2L and 6L water samples showed similar clustering via discriminant analysis. To assess variation due to DNA extraction method, DNA was extracted from triplicate cell pellets from four sites along the Upper Mississippi River using the Epicentre Metagenomic DNA Isolation Kit for Water and MoBio PowerSoil kit. Operational taxonomic units representing ≤14% of sequence reads differed significantly among all sites and extraction kits used, although differences in diversity and community coverage were not significant (P≥0.057). Samples characterized using only the V6 region had significantly higher coverage and lower richness and α-diversity than those characterized using V4-V6 regions (P<0.001). Triplicate sampling of at least 2L of water provides robust representation of community variability, and these results indicate that DNA extraction kit and sequencing target displayed taxonomic biases that did not affect the overall biological conclusions drawn. PMID:25956022

  20. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them. PMID:23684196

  1. Adolescents' Psychological Response to the Experience of Community Interpersonal Violence: A Cross-National and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2006-01-01

    A comparative cross-national study investigating the level of experience with community interpersonal violence, level of psychological distress, and the relationship between exposure and distress among adolescents is presented. Participants were 617 first-year college students comprising African Americans and Jamaican Americans living in New York…

  2. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  3. "Passing It On" during a "Day in the Life" of Resilient Adolescents in Diverse Communities around the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lau, Cindy; Tapanya, Sombat

    2009-01-01

    This social-ecological inquiry explores youth resiliency in diverse communities using innovative qualitative visual methodologies. It engages adolescents in a process of sharing their daily experiences and reflecting on the resources they bring to bear to thrive in the face of geographic and social relocations. The four youth participants were…

  4. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  5. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  6. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  7. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  8. Structural determinants of adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV: views from community members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Skinner, Joanna; Osman, Nadia; Schwandt, Hilary

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three to four times more likely than adolescent boys to be living with HIV/AIDS. A literature review revealed only four studies that had examined HIV vulnerability from the perspective of community members. None of the studies focused specifically on adolescent girls. To fill this gap, in 2008 12 focus group discussions were held in selected peri-urban and rural sites in Botswana, 12 in Malawi, and 11 in Mozambique to identify factors that render girls vulnerable to HIV infection from the community members' perspective. The preponderance of comments identified structural factors--insufficient economic, educational, socio-cultural, and legal support for adolescent girls--as the root causes of girls' vulnerability to HIV through exposure to unprotected sexual relationships, primarily relationships that are transactional and age-disparate. Community members explicitly called for policies and interventions to strengthen cultural, economic, educational, and legal structures to protect girls, recognized community members' responsibility to take action, and requested programs to enhance adult-child communication, thus revealing an understanding that girls' vulnerability is multi-level and multi-faceted, so must be addressed through a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  9. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  10. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  11. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  12. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  13. Abuse, depressive symptoms, executive functioning, and overgeneral memory among a psychiatric sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.

  14. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  15. Is accuracy of weight perception associated with health risk behaviors in a diverse sample of obese adolescents?

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Clare M; Daly, Brian P; Eichen, Dawn M

    2011-12-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180 participants in the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Health behaviors of obese students self-identifying as very or slightly overweight were compared to obese students who underestimated their weight status. Accurate self-identifiers of weight status were significantly more likely to report trying to lose weight, bullying victimization, and suicide attempts as compared to obese students underestimating their weight status. Findings suggest that it is important for school nurses to understand that perceived weight status confers distinct risk profiles and differing needs for health-related services related to the physical, mental, and social health of adolescents. PMID:21976189

  16. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  17. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo E; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries ("LMICs"). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program ("TEP"), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP's implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP's social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program's goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program's cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  18. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  19. Background for Community Level Work on Educational Adjustment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.

    Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…

  20. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28). PMID:27474526

  1. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28).

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  3. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  4. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  5. Features of Online Health Communities for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O’Connor, Brendan H.; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  6. Features of online health communities for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O'Connor, Brendan H; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  7. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  8. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  9. Association of Educational Attainment and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde; James, Philip D.; Smyth, Bobby P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores substance use, psychosocial problems, and the relationships to educational status in 193 adolescents (school dropouts, 63; alternative education, 46; mainstream students, 84) who attended a substance abuse treatment facility in Dublin, Ireland, within a 42-month period. For each adolescent, data on demographics, family…

  10. Mental Health Needs in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Cross-Sectional Survey of a Service Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Turk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the mental health needs of adolescents with intellectual disability, despite the severity and rates of such needs being high throughout childhood and in adulthood. We have investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health needs and service use in adolescents with intellectual…

  11. The ADHD Spectrum and Everyday Life: Experience Sampling of Adolescent Moods, Activities, Smoking, and Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Jamner, Larry D.; Henker, Barbara; Delfino, Ralph J.; Lozano, Jorie M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the everyday lives of adolescents with low, middle, or high levels of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as assessed by either parent or teen. Found that adolescents with high ADHD levels recorded more negative moods, lower alertness, more entertaining activities relative to achievement-oriented pursuits, more time with…

  12. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  13. Community-level successes and challenges to implementing adolescent sex education programs.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Rouse, Maura; Resseguie, Jamie; Smith, Hannah; Woodcox, Stephanie

    2011-02-01

    Best practices for adolescent sex education recommend science-based approaches. However, little is known about the capacity and needs of organizations who implement sex education programs on the local level. The purpose of this research was to describe successes and challenges of community organizations in implementing science-based sex education. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed program directors and educators in 17 state-funded adolescent pregnancy prevention/sex education programs as part of a larger mixed methods evaluation. Semi-structured interviews focused on success and challenges faced in implementing science-based approaches to program design, implementation and evaluation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. Grantees included a range of programs, from short programs on puberty and HIV for late elementary students, to skills-based curricular sex education programs for high schools, to year-long youth development programs. Key aspects of curricular choice included meeting the needs of the population, and working within time constraints of schools and other community partners. Populations presenting specific challenges included rural youth, youth in juvenile justice facilities, and working with Indiana's growing Latino population. Programs self-developing curricula described challenges related to assessment and evaluation of impact. Programs using commercial curricula described challenges related to curricular selection and adaptation, in particularly shortening curricula, and adapting to different cultural or social groups. A remarkable degree of innovation was observed. The use of qualitative methods permitted the identification of key challenges and successes in a state-sponsored small grants program. Information can be used to enhance program capacity and quality.

  14. Using social marketing to create communities for our children and adolescents that do not model and encourage drinking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C

    2014-11-01

    Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding 'community-based' interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which 'community' interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few interventions that sought to comprehensively address social norms at a community level. We need to move (research and interventions) beyond narrowly-focused efforts targeting teens and their parents; it is only when we address alcohol consumption at a population level that we will be able to provide an environment for children and adolescents which does not model (excessive) drinking as a normative social behavior.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  16. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ida; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-10-30

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology.

  17. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  18. Clinical correlates of the weight bias internalization scale in a sample of obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Sysko, Robyn; Bush, Jennifer; Pearl, Rebecca; Puhl, Rebecca M; Schvey, Natasha A; Dovidio, John F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties and clinical correlates of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) in a sample of obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Sixty five adolescents enrolled in a bariatric surgery program at a large, urban medical center completed psychiatric evaluations, self-report questionnaires including the WBIS and other measures of psychopathology and physical assessments. The WBIS had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92). As in previous research with adults, the one underlying factor structure was replicated and 10 of the original 11 items were retained. The scale had significant partial correlations with depression (r = 0.19), anxiety (r = 0.465), social, and behavioral problems (r = 0.364), quality of life (r = -0.480), and eating (r = 0.579), shape (r = 0.815), and weight concerns (r = 0.545), controlling for BMI. However, WBIS scores did not predict current or past psychiatric diagnosis or treatment or past suicidal ideation. Overall, the WBIS had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of obese treatment-seeking adolescents and correlated significantly with levels of psychopathology. These findings suggest that the WBIS could be a useful tool for healthcare providers to assess internalized weight bias among treatment-seeking obese youth. Assessment of internalized weight bias among this clinical population has the potential to identify adolescents who might benefit from information on coping with weight stigma, which in turn may augment weight loss efforts. PMID:21593805

  19. Reliability and validity of rorschach aggression variables with a sample of adjudicated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Samuel J; Porcerelli, John; Abell, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the reliability and validity of 5 Rorschach aggression variables (AG, A1, A2, AgC, and AgPast) in a sample of adjudicated, mostly conduct-disordered adolescents (N = 150). More specifically, we assessed the interrelationships of Rorschach aggression variables using correlational analyses and factor analysis and assessed the relationships between Rorschach variables and a measure of aggressive potential (the Manifest Aggression scale from the Jesness Inventory; Jesness, 1996) as well as a measure of real-world aggression/violence (the Violence Rating Scale-Revised [VRS-R]; Young, Justice, & Erdberg, 1997). Two of Gacono and Meloy's (1994) Rorschach aggression variables were dropped from the study (AgPot and SM) due to a low frequency of occurrence. All 5 of the remaining Rorschach aggression variables and the VRS-R were rated reliably, and factor analysis of the Rorschach variables revealed 2 distinct factors accounting for 71% of the total variance. Only the AgC variable concurrently predicted aggressive potential and aggressive/violent behavior. Results lend further support for the inclusion of AgC in the Comprehensive System's (Exner, 1993) list of Special Scores. PMID:16083382

  20. Depression and Delinquency Covariation in an Accelerated Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study tested opposing predictions stemming from the failure and acting out theories of depression-delinquency covariation. Methods Participants included a nationwide longitudinal sample of adolescents (N = 3,604) ages 12 to 17. Competing models were tested using cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling to determine whether depressive symptoms at age 12 (baseline) predicted concurrent and age-related changes in delinquent behavior, whether the opposite pattern was apparent (delinquency predicting depression), and whether initial levels of depression predict changes in delinquency significantly better than vice versa. Results Early depressive symptoms predicted age-related changes in delinquent behavior significantly better than early delinquency predicted changes in depressive symptoms. In addition, the impact of gender on age-related changes in delinquent symptoms was mediated by gender differences in depressive symptom changes, indicating that depressive symptoms are a particularly salient risk factor for delinquent behavior in girls. Conclusion Early depressive symptoms represent a significant risk factor for later delinquent behavior – especially for girls – and appear to be a better predictor of later delinquency than early delinquency is of later depression. These findings provide support for the acting out theory and contradict failure theory predictions. PMID:21787049

  1. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups.

  2. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91) or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90) in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity) and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond. PMID:22314050

  3. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups. PMID:25411234

  4. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  5. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J.; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R.; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J.; Wallace, R. John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  6. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  7. Estimates of food and macronutrient intake in a random sample of Northern Ireland adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Robson, P J; Livingstone, M B; Primrose, E D; Savage, J M; Cran, G W; Boreham, C A

    1994-09-01

    Estimates of food consumption and macronutrient intake were obtained from a randomly selected population sample (2%) of 1015 adolescents aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1991 school year. Dietary intake was assessed by diet history with photographic album to estimate portion size. Reported median energy intakes were 11.0 and 13.1 MJ/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 9.2 and 9.1 MJ/d for girls of these ages. Protein, carbohydrate and total sugars intakes as a percentage of total energy varied little between the age and sex groups and were approximately 11, 49 and 20% respectively of daily total energy intakes. Median dietary fibre intakes were approximately 20 and 24 g/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 18 and 19 g/d for girls of these ages. Major food sources of energy (as a percentage of total energy intakes) were bread and cereals (15-18%), cakes and biscuits (12-14%), chips and crisps (13-14%), dairy products (9-11%), meat and meat products (9-11%) and confectionery (9%). Fruit and vegetable intakes were low at about 2.5% and 1.5% respectively of total energy intakes. Median fat intakes were high at 39% of total daily energy intakes. Major food sources of fat as a percentage of total fat intakes were from the food groupings: chips and crisps (16-19%), meat and meat products (14-17%), fats and oils (14-16%), cakes and biscuits (13-16%) and dairy products (12-15%). Median intakes of saturated fatty acids were also high at approximately 15% of daily total energy intake while intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids averaged 12% of daily total energy intake. Median polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes were low, comprising 5.2 and 5.5% of daily total energy intake for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and were lower than the PUFA intakes (5.9 and 6.3% of daily total energy intake) for girls of these ages. About 1.3% for boys and 1.4% for girls of daily total energy intake was in the form of n-3 PUFA. Ca and

  8. Relationships between community social capital and injury in Canadian adolescents: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Pickett, William; Alvarado, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    Background Characteristics of social environments are potential risk factors for adolescent injury. Impacts of social capital on the occurrence of such injuries have rarely been explored. Methods General health questionnaires were completed by 8910 youth aged 14 years and older as part of the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. These were supplemented with community-level data from the 2006 Canada Census of Population. Multilevel logistic regression models with random intercepts were fit to examine associations of interest. The reliability and validity of variables used in this analysis had been established in past studies, or in new analyses that employed factor analysis. Results Between school differences explained 2% of the variance in the occurrence of injuries. After adjustment for all confounders, community social capital did not have any impact on the occurrence of injuries in boys: OR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.29. However, living in areas with low social capital was associated with lower occurrence of injuries in girls (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.96). Other factors that were significantly related to injuries in both genders were younger age, engagement in more risky behaviours, and negative behavioural influences from peers. Conclusions After simultaneously taking into account the influence of community-level and individual-level factors, community levels of social capital remained a relatively strong predictor of injury among girls but not boys. Such gender effects provide important clues into the social aetiology of youth injury. PMID:26294708

  9. Longitudinal family effects on substance use among an at-risk adolescent sample

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Brett A; Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Hunter, Sarah B; Miles, Jeremy NV; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adult and peer factors may influence whether adolescents use alcohol and other drugs (AOD). This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of adult monitoring, perceived adult AOD use, and cultural values on adolescent AOD use. Methods Participants were 193 at-risk adolescents referred to a California diversion program called Teen Court for a first-time AOD offense. We assessed youth reports of past 30 day AOD use (any alcohol use, heavy drinking, marijuana use), demographics, changes in parental monitoring and family values (from baseline to follow-up 180 days later), as well as family structure and perceived adult substance use at follow-up. Results Adolescents who reported that a significant adult in their life used marijuana were more likely to have increased days of drinking, heavy drinking, and marijuana use at follow-up. Higher levels of familism (importance the teen places on their family’s needs over their own needs) and being in a nuclear family served as protective factors for future alcohol use. Additionally, poor family management was associated with increased alcohol use and heavy drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight how family management and perceptions of adult marijuana use influence subsequent adolescent AOD use, and how an increase in familism over time is associated with a decrease in adolescent drinking. Tailoring interventions, by including the teen’s family and/or providing support to adults who use AOD may be crucial for improving interventions for adolescent AOD use. PMID:25452064

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11-17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11–17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  12. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  13. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zheng; Lu, Huijie; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  15. Community mapping and respondent-driven sampling of gay and bisexual men’s communities in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Jamie I; Stevenson, Benjamin; Rich, Ashleigh; Michelow, Warren; Pai, Jayaram; Jollimore, Jody; Raymond, H. Fisher; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests formative research is vital for those using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to study hidden populations of interest. However, few authors have described in detail how different qualitative methodologies can address the objectives of formative research for understanding the social network properties of the study population, selecting seeds, and adapting survey logistics to best fit the population. In this paper we describe the use of community mapping exercises as a tool within focus groups to collect data on social and sexual network characteristics of gay and bisexual men in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Three key themes emerged from analyzing community maps along with other formative research data: (a) connections between physical spaces and social networks of gay and bisexual men, (b) diversity in communities, and (c) substance use connected with formation of sub-communities. We discuss how these themes informed the planning and operations of a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study recruited by RDS. We argue that using community mapping within formative research is a valuable qualitative tool for characterizing network structures of a diverse and differentiated population of gay and bisexual men in a highly developed urban setting. PMID:24512070

  16. A Comparison of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Measures of Readiness to Change Alcohol Use in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Krenek, Marketa; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Clark, Duncan; Cornelius, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared 3 measures of readiness to change alcohol use commonly used in clinical research and practice with adolescents: the Readiness Ruler, the SOCRATES (subscales of Recognition and Taking Steps), and a Staging Algorithm. The analysis sample consisted of 161 male and female adolescents presenting for intensive outpatient…

  17. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Its Relation to Substance Use and Interpersonal Style in a Dutch Sample of Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillege, Sanne; Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine

    2010-01-01

    This study presents evidence on the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument for psychopathic traits in adolescent boys and girls. In a sample of 776 Dutch non-referred adolescents, the YPI was found to have good internal consistency. Furthermore, exploratory…

  18. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  19. The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…

  20. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  1. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077

  2. Predictors of suicidal ideation in a community sample: roles of anger, self-esteem, and depression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin-Mahn; Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Lee, Keon-Hak; Kim, Myung Sig; Yoon, Myeong-Sook; Ko, Sung-Hee; Cho, Hye-Chung; Chung, Young-Chul

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationships of anger, self-esteem, and depression with suicidal ideation. A survey was conducted in a wide range of community areas across Jeollabuk-do Province, Korea. A total of 2964 subjects (mean age=44.4yr) participated in this study. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate predictors of suicidal ideation in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, depression, self-esteem, and anger. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that anger and self-esteem were significantly associated with suicidal ideation regardless of age and after controlling for depression. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of anger on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among females than males in adolescents, but not in other age groups. Additionally, there were some differences in sociodemographic predictors of suicidal ideation among age groups. Predictors included gender and family harmony in adolescents, marital status and family harmony in middle-aged individuals, and economic status and family harmony in elderly individuals. Our results revealed that anger and self-esteem play important roles in suicidal ideation beyond the effect of depression. Development and implementation of preventive strategies, including management of anger and self-esteem, could possibly reduce suicidal ideation and subsequent suicide attempts.

  3. Random Sampling Process Leads to Overestimation of β-Diversity of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Deng, Ye; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Benjamin Yamin; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The site-to-site variability in species composition, known as β-diversity, is crucial to understanding spatiotemporal patterns of species diversity and the mechanisms controlling community composition and structure. However, quantifying β-diversity in microbial ecology using sequencing-based technologies is a great challenge because of a high number of sequencing errors, bias, and poor reproducibility and quantification. Herein, based on general sampling theory, a mathematical framework is first developed for simulating the effects of random sampling processes on quantifying β-diversity when the community size is known or unknown. Also, using an analogous ball example under Poisson sampling with limited sampling efforts, the developed mathematical framework can exactly predict the low reproducibility among technically replicate samples from the same community of a certain species abundance distribution, which provides explicit evidences of random sampling processes as the main factor causing high percentages of technical variations. In addition, the predicted values under Poisson random sampling were highly consistent with the observed low percentages of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) overlap (<30% and <20% for two and three tags, respectively, based on both Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indexes), further supporting the hypothesis that the poor reproducibility among technical replicates is due to the artifacts associated with random sampling processes. Finally, a mathematical framework was developed for predicting sampling efforts to achieve a desired overlap among replicate samples. Our modeling simulations predict that several orders of magnitude more sequencing efforts are needed to achieve desired high technical reproducibility. These results suggest that great caution needs to be taken in quantifying and interpreting β-diversity for microbial community analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:23760464

  4. Educational-entertainment as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Valerie Dorsey; Solomon, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing violence is one adverse childhood experience (ACE) associated with living in impoverished Black urban communities. Youth with higher violence avoidance self-efficacy and positive coping are more likely to avoid violence. This study evaluates educational entertainment (edutainment) as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence. Edutainment has shown success in increasing self-efficacy and positive coping skills in other domains. Self-administered scales were used to measure stress, anxiety, violence avoidance self-efficacy, and coping strategies. Data were collected pre- and nine days post-interventions/no intervention from 20 subjects receiving the edutainment intervention, 19 subjects participating in a group discussion about violence, and 21 subjects receiving no intervention (N = 60). Edutainment and no intervention were more effective than group discussion alone in increasing violence avoidance self-efficacy. Violence avoidance self-efficacy was found to have an intervening relationship between edutainment and the outcome of stress. This study indicates limited but positive effects for edutainment.

  5. The association between problematic parental substance use and adolescent substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Elkins, Sara R; Frissell, Kevin C; Tortolero, Susan R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2013-12-01

    Adolescents of parents who use substances are at an increased risk for substance use themselves. Both parental monitoring and closeness have been shown to mediate the relationship between parents' and their adolescents' substance use. However, we know little about whether these relationships vary across different substances used by adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, we examined these associations within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders (N = 927). Path analyses indicated that maternal closeness partially mediated the association between maternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol use. Parental monitoring partially mediated the relationship between paternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, inhalant, and illicit prescription drug use. These results were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that parental interventions designed to increase closeness and monitoring may help to reduce adolescent substance use.

  6. Microbiota from the distal guts of lean and obese adolescents exhibit partial functional redundancy besides clear differences in community structure.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Manuel; Ruiz, Alicia; Lanza, Francesca; Haange, Sven-Bastiaan; Oberbach, Andreas; Till, Holger; Bargiela, Rafael; Campoy, Cristina; Segura, Maria Teresa; Richter, Michael; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana; Suarez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has disclosed a tight connection between obesity, metabolic gut microbial activities and host health. Obtaining a complete understanding of this relationship remains a major goal. Here, we conducted a comparative metagenomic and metaproteomic investigation of gut microbial communities in faecal samples taken from an obese and a lean adolescent. By analysing the diversity of 16S rDNA amplicons (10% operational phylogenetic units being common), 22 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences (~70% common) and the expression profiles of 613 distinct proteins (82% common), we found that in the obese gut, the total microbiota was more abundant on the phylum Firmicutes (94.6%) as compared with Bacteroidetes (3.2%), although the metabolically active microbiota clearly behaves in a more homogeneous manner with both contributing equally. The lean gut showed a remarkable shift towards Bacteroidetes (18.9% total 16S rDNA), which become the most active fraction (81% proteins). Although the two gut communities maintained largely similar gene repertoires and functional profiles, improved pili- and flagella-mediated host colonization and improved capacity for both complementary aerobic and anaerobic de novo B(12) synthesis, 1,2-propanediol catabolism (most likely participating in de novo B(12) synthesis) and butyrate production were observed in the obese gut, whereas bacteria from lean gut seem to be more engaged in vitamin B(6) synthesis. Furthermore, this study provides functional evidence that variable combinations of species from different phyla could 'presumptively' fulfil overlapping and/or complementary functional roles required by the host, a scenario where minor bacterial taxa seem to be significant active contributors.

  7. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  8. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.

  9. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  10. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  11. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  12. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  13. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  14. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  15. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  16. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional…

  17. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.

  18. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  19. Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters

    SciTech Connect

    Voordouw, G.; Shen, Y.; Harrington, C.S.; Teland, A.J. ); Jack, T.R. ); Westlake, W.S. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters.

  20. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  1. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  2. Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

  3. Use and Perception of Technology: Sex and Generational Differences in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele; Stapley, Janice C.; Malter, Johnna

    2013-01-01

    A community sample of 431 adults (175 men and 256 women) ages 18 to 91 across three generations (young adults, adults, and older adults) were recruited for the current study. Participants completed a demographic and technology use questionnaire that ascertained their attitudes toward, and use of, various types of technology--such as cellular…

  4. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  5. The Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzieblo, Katarzyna; Verschuere, Bruno; Van den Bussche, Eva; Crombez, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) has revealed two factors: Fearless Dominance, and Self-Centered Impulsivity. This study examined the validity of these PPI-R factors in a community sample (N = 675). First, confirmatory factor analyses did not support the two-factor structure. Second, the PPI-R factors showed good…

  6. Characteristics and Hypothesized Functions of Challenging Behavior in a Community-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Esch, John W.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Stewart, Kelise K.

    2010-01-01

    An archival study was conducted to document (a) types of challenging behavior, and (b) functional assessment outcomes, for a sample of persons with developmental disabilities who were referred to community-practicing behavior analysts for assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Functional assessment reports, prepared by 17 behavior…

  7. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  8. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  9. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P < 0.0001), there were no differences in outcomes for any anthropometric variables between groups and behavioural changes did not follow a clear positive pattern. In conclusion, the Ma'alahi Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight.

  10. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  11. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Ravolainen, Virve T.; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  12. Psychometric properties and Confirmatory structure of the Strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja M.; Afolabi, Rotimi F.; Fowobaje, Kayode R.

    2016-01-01

    Though the SDQ has been used in selected studies in Nigeria, its theoretical structure has not been fully and appropriately investigated in the setting. The present study employs Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the theoretical structure of the self-reported version of the SDQ in a sample of adolescents in Benue state, Nigeria. A total of 1,244 adolescents from different categories of secondary schools in Makurdi and Vandekya Local government areas of Benue state participated in the study. Preliminary data analyses were performed using descriptive statistics while the theoretical structure of the SDQ was assessed using EFA and CFA. Model fits were assessed using Chi-square test and other fit indices at 5% significance level. Participants were 14.19±2.45 (Vandekya) and 14.19±2.45 (Makurdi) years old. Results of the EFA and CFA revealed a 3-factor oblique model as the best model for the sample of adolescents studied (χ2/df =2.20, p<0.001) with all fit indices yielding better results. A correlated 3-factor model fits the present data better than the 5-factor theoretical model of the SDQ. The use of the original 5-factor model of the SDQ in the present setting should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27478714

  13. Unique Aspects of Adolescent Sexual Victimization Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-01-01

    This study explored females’ adolescent experiences with sexual aggression, using event-level data. A community sample of women, ages 18–30 years (N = 319), were interviewed regarding their most recent unwanted sexual experience. Incidents were categorized as occurring during adolescence (ages 14–17) or adulthood (after age 18). Preliminary statistical comparison of adolescent and adult incidents revealed differences in perpetrators, type of aggression, preceding activities, and location of assault. Qualitative analytic techniques were then used to identify the contexts in which adolescent victimization occurred, as well as the factors contributing to adolescent vulnerability. Four contexts in which adolescents were sexually victimized emerged: Within Intimate Relationships, At Parties/Social Gatherings, Abuse by Authority Figures, and While Alone with a Friend. Thematic analysis revealed that inexperience with sex and dating, lack of guardianship, substance use, social and relationship concerns, and powerlessness contributed to adolescent vulnerability within these contexts. PMID:18516221

  14. Correlates of bullying behaviors among a sample of North American Indigenous adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Lisa A.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between familial, educational, and psychosocial factors and bullying among 702 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11–14 years. The study used multinomial logistic regression models to differentiate correlates of bully perpetration and victimization versus being neither and between being a perpetrator versus being a victim. Analyses reveal that being a bully victim had different correlates than being a perpetrator. Perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of being either a victim or a perpetrator, relative to being neither. Several factors differentiated being a bully perpetrator from being a bully victim: adolescent age, parental warmth and support, depressive symptoms, anger, and school adjustment. These findings expand upon the limited understanding of the factors associated with bullying among North American Indigenous youth. Bullying intervention and prevention programs that target Indigenous adolescents should be culturally grounded and begin early within the family. PMID:23849662

  15. Correlates of bullying behaviors among a sample of North American Indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Melander, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between familial, educational, and psychosocial factors and bullying among 702 North American Indigenous adolescents aged 11-14 years. The study used multinomial logistic regression models to differentiate correlates of bully perpetration and victimization versus being neither and between being a perpetrator versus being a victim. Analyses reveal that being a bully victim had different correlates than being a perpetrator. Perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of being either a victim or a perpetrator, relative to being neither. Several factors differentiated being a bully perpetrator from being a bully victim: adolescent age, parental warmth and support, depressive symptoms, anger, and school adjustment. These findings expand upon the limited understanding of the factors associated with bullying among North American Indigenous youth. Bullying intervention and prevention programs that target Indigenous adolescents should be culturally grounded and begin early within the family. PMID:23849662

  16. What do temporal profiles tell us about adolescent alcohol use? Results from a large sample in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Magee, Jennifer; Worrell, Frank C

    2014-12-01

    The psychological construct broadly known as time perspective is potentially useful in understanding a range of adolescent behaviours, including alcohol use. However, the utility of the construct has been hindered by measurement and conceptual problems. To date the vast majority of studies have assessed the relationship between time perspective and other measures in a variable-focussed (correlational) rather than a person-centred way. The present series of studies used a person-centred approach to assess the relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1620) of adolescents from High Schools in Northern Ireland. Although a 'Balanced' time perspective has been suggested as optimal, the present study suggests that having a 'Future' temporal profile is associated with less problematic use of alcohol, while having a 'Past Negative' or 'Hedonist' profile is associated with more problematic consumption. Results are discussed in the context of the time perspective and alcohol use literatures.

  17. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Edward F; Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Raviv, Tali

    2011-10-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9-11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:21966081

  18. A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: evidence from a community sample of 16-20 year olds.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eun-Young; Shrestha, Anshu; Lohman, Kurt K; Wolfson, Mark

    2006-07-27

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of underage problem drinking by using an empirically based method to characterize the variation in patterns of drinking in a community sample of underage drinkers. A total of 4056 16-20-year-old current drinkers from 212 communities in the US were surveyed by telephone as part of the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) Program. Latent class models were used to create homogenous groups of drinkers with similar drinking patterns defined by multiple indicators of drinking behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Two types of underage problem drinkers were identified; risky drinkers (30%) and regular drinkers (27%). The most prominent behaviors among both types of underage problem drinkers were binge drinking and getting drunk. Being male, other drug use, early onset drinking and beliefs about friends drinking and getting drunk were all associated with an increased risk of being a problem drinker after adjustment for other factors. Beliefs that most friends drink and current marijuana use were the strongest predictors of both risky problem drinking (OR=4.0; 95% CI=3.1, 5.1 and OR=4.0; 95% CI=2.8, 5.6, respectively) and regular problem drinking (OR=10.8; 95% CI=7.0, 16.7 and OR=10.2; 95% CI=6.9, 15.2). Young adulthood (ages 18-20) was significantly associated with regular problem drinking but not risky problem drinking. The belief that most friends get drunk weekly was the strongest discriminator of risky and regular problem drinking patterns (OR=5.3; 95% CI=3.9, 7.1). These findings suggest that underage problem drinking is most strongly characterized by heavy drinking behaviors which can emerge in late adolescence and underscores its association with perceptions regarding friends drinking behaviors and illicit drug use.

  19. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method successfully used to research hard-to-access populations. Few studies have explored the use of the Internet and social media with RDS, known as Web-based RDS (WebRDS). This study explored the use of combining both “traditional” RDS and WebRDS to examine the influences on adolescent alcohol use. Objective This paper reports on the recruitment processes and the challenges and enablers of both RDS and WebRDS. It details comparative recruitment data and provides a summary of the utility of both methods for recruiting adolescents to participate in an online survey investigating youth alcohol norms. Methods Process evaluation data collected from research staff throughout the study were used to assess the challenges and solutions of RDS and WebRDS. Pearson chi-square test (Fisher’s exact test if applicable) was used to compare the differences in sociodemographics and drinking behavior between data collected by RDS and WebRDS. Results Of the total sample (N=1012), 232 adolescents were recruited by RDS and 780 by WebRDS. A significantly larger proportion of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (P<.001) participants who spoke English as their main language at home (P=.03), and of middle and lower socioeconomic status (P<.001) was found in the RDS sample. The RDS sample was also found to have a higher occurrence of past 7-day drinking (P<.001) and past 7-day risky drinking (P=.004). No significant differences in gender, age, past month alcohol use, and lifetime alcohol use were observed between the RDS and WebRDS samples. This study revealed RDS and WebRDS used similar lengths of chains for recruiting participants; however, WebRDS conducted a faster rate of recruitment at a lower average cost per participant compared to RDS. Conclusions Using WebRDS resulted in significant improvements in the recruitment rate and was a more effective and efficient use of resources than the traditional RDS method. However, Web

  20. Feasibility of Implementing the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach in School Settings for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Brooke D.; Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, approximately 10% of adolescents in need of treatment for a substance use (SU) disorder receive treatment. School-based treatment may provide an important opportunity to reduce the treatment gap by facilitating access to services. While some school-based SU treatment exists, little is known about whether newer, evidence-based…