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Sample records for adolescent community sample

  1. Psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kashani, J H; Beck, N C; Hoeper, E W; Fallahi, C; Corcoran, C M; McAllister, J A; Rosenberg, T K; Reid, J C

    1987-05-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed according to DSM-III in adolescents in the general population is not known. The authors address this issue in a community sample of 150 adolescents 14-16 years of age. Structured interviews as well as other instruments were used to collect data. Twenty-eight (18.7%) of the 150 adolescents were identified as having a psychiatric disorder. These 28 adolescents viewed their parents as less caring, had lower self-esteem, and resolved their conflicts through verbal aggression and physical violence more often than did the adolescents who did not have a psychiatric disorder. The authors make recommendations regarding the use of structured interviews in future research. PMID:3495187

  2. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  5. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  6. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  7. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  8. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  9. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  10. Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Sasagawa, Satoko; Frick, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure, distribution, and correlates of a new measure of self-reported callous-unemotional (CU) traits in 1,443 adolescents (774 boys, 669 girls) between the ages of 13 to 18 years. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory…

  11. Stages of Change for Physical Activity in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Philippaerts, Renaat; Crombez, Geert; Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Balduck, Anne-Line; Lefevre, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the proportion of adolescents in each of the stages of change, (2) the differences in psychosocial factors and in physical activity between the stages, and (3) the classification accuracy using several reference criteria. A random sample of 38 schools from the Flemish community in Belgium…

  12. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  13. Fatherhood in adolescence: prevalence and associated factors in a community sample of youngsters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Milene Maria Saalfeld de; Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Mota, Denise Marques; Jansen, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to assess the prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence (FA) and associated factors in a community sample of 14 to 35 year-old men. Cross-sectional population-based study realized in the urban area of the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The sample was selected by clusters, according to the city census. This sub-study only comprised sexually active men. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the participants' homes. The sample was composed for 934 men. The prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence was 8% (n = 75). We verified higher prevalence of FA among those that reported paternal absence (p < 0.001), those that had lived with stepfather (p = 0.044), and among those that had sexual debut before the age of 14 (p = 0.011). Paternal absence, have lived with a stepfather, and early sexual experience are associated factors to fatherhood in adolescence. PMID:26602726

  14. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  15. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  16. Dimensional psychotic experiences in adolescence: Evidence from a taxometric study of a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-07-30

    Psychotic experiences of varying severity levels are common in adolescence. It is not known whether beyond a certain severity in the general population, psychotic experiences represent a categorically distinct phenomena to milder psychotic experiences. We employed taxometric analytic procedures to determine whether psychotic experiences in adolescence are taxonic (i.e. categorical) or dimensional. Six different psychotic experiences were assessed in a community sample of approximately 5000 adolescents. Three taxometric procedures were conducted. Across all procedures, there was no evidence of a taxon (i.e. a separate latent population) underlying psychotic experiences in adolescence. Rather, a dimensional structure was supported. The results support the notion that psychotic experiences are continuously distributed throughout the general population, and there is no clear discontinuity between milder and more severe psychotic experiences. Thus, these findings support the use of dimensional approaches to understanding psychotic experiences in etiological studies. In clinical practice, categorical cut-offs are needed: the present findings show that a 'natural' break point is not present for identifying severe psychotic experiences, and it is likely therefore that other criteria (such as general functioning) might better aid decision-making with regards to identifying individuals with severe psychotic experiences in need of care during adolescence. PMID:27155285

  17. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  18. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence. PMID:26849005

  19. Evaluation of the Environmental Supports Scale with a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Risco, Cristina M; Collado, Anahi D; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Environmental sources of psychosocial support have been found to modulate or protect against the development of psychopathology and risk behavior among adolescents. Capturing sources of environmental support across multiple developmental contexts requires the availability of well-validated, concise assessments-of which there are few in the existing literature. In order to address this need, the current study explored the factor structure, concurrent and convergent validity of the Environmental Supports Scale (ESS; Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117; 395-417, 1991) with a community sample of adolescents. An unconstrained exploratory factor analysis revealed a separate factor for home, school, and neighborhood settings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated for each factor. Concurrent and predictive validity analyses revealed that the ESS was associated in the expected directions across a range of constructs relevant to adolescent development including internalizing symptoms, well-being, external influences, and engagement in risk behavior. Convergent validity for the neighborhood context was established with an assessment of neighborhood environmental adversity. A brief assessment of perceived environmental support across key developmental contexts provides an important tool for research on resilience processes during adolescence and may help illuminate key protective factors and inform intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:26872478

  20. Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention deficit-/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students ages 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High risk youths meeting full (n=94) and subthreshold (n=75) DSM-IV ADHD criteria were matched with demographically similar low risk peers (n=163). Outcomes domains included symptoms; functional impairment; quality of life; substance use; educational outcomes; and juvenile justice involvement. Results 44% of youths with childhood ADHD had not experienced remission. Compared to unaffected peers, adolescents with childhood ADHD were more likely to display oppositional defiant disorder (OR=12.9; 95% CI 5.6-30.0), anxiety/depression (OR=10.3; 95% CI 2.7-39.3), significant functional impairment (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.7-6.9), reduced quality of life (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7), and to have been involved with juvenile justice (OR=3.1; 95% CI 1.0-9.1). Subthreshold ADHD, but not full ADHD, increased the risk of grade retention, whereas both conditions increased the risk of graduation failure. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but not childhood ADHD, increased the risk of cannabis and alcohol use. None of the adolescent outcomes of childhood ADHD were moderated by gender, race or poverty. Conclusions ADHD heralds persistence of ADHD and comorbid symptoms into adolescence, as well as significant risks for functional impairment and juvenile justice involvement. Subthreshold ADHD symptoms typically do not qualify affected students for special educational interventions, yet increase the risk for adverse educational outcomes. Findings stress the importance of early ADHD recognition, especially its comorbid presentation with ODD, for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:20494269

  1. Patterns and predictors of health service utilization in adolescents with pain: comparison between a community and a clinical pain sample

    PubMed Central

    Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B.; Wilson, Anna C.; Lewandowski, Amy; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research describing the patterns of healthcare utilization in adolescents with chronic pain. This study describes healthcare utilization in a clinical chronic pain sample, and compares the patterns of service use of this group to a community sample with intermittent pain complaints. We also investigated demographic and clinical factors that predicted healthcare visits and medication use in the clinical sample. Data on 117 adolescents (aged 12-18; n=59 clinical pain sample, n=58 community) were collected. Caregivers and adolescents reported on sociodemographics, medical visits, current medications, pain, activity limitations, and depression. As hypothesized, the clinical pain sample had higher rates of healthcare consultation on all types of medical visits (general, specialty care, complementary medicine, mental health, OT/PT), and higher medication use compared to the community sample. Regression analyses revealed that higher annual income, greater pain frequency, and higher levels of caregiver reported activity limitations were associated with a greater number of healthcare visits for the total sample. Within the clinical pain sample, higher pain frequency and greater activity limitations (caregiver-report) predicted more specialty care visits. Additionally, higher income and greater levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher number of prescribed medications. Perspective This study contributes to the limited available data on health service and medication use in a clinical chronic pain sample versus a community sample of adolescents. We also identify clinical factors (pain frequency, parent-reported activity limitations, depressive symptoms) and demographic factors (gender, income) associated with healthcare utilization. PMID:21481647

  2. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Deliberate Self-Harm among a Community Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…

  3. Witnessed Community and Parental Violence in Relation to Substance Use and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether witnessed community and parental violence represented risk factors for substance use and delinquency among adolescents, beyond the contribution of direct violence and other risk factors. We also examined the role of violence characteristics. Participants were a national sample of 3,614 adolescents. Structured telephone interviews assessed demographics, trauma history, witnessed violence, delinquency, and substance use. While accounting for trauma history and other risk factors, witnessed community and parental violence were associated with delinquency. Community violence was associated with substance use. Chronic violence, knowing the perpetrator, and violence outside of school were correlated with substance use and delinquency among adolescents who witnessed community violence. These findings highlight the importance of targeting witnessed violence in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:19885872

  4. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents…

  5. Associations between Community Attachments and Adolescent Substance Use in Nationally Representative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Social capital and social attachment theories of substance use argue that positive bonds to society and the conventional values they promote deter adolescents from substance use. Using nationally representative samples of U.S. high school seniors, we hypothesized that adolescents’ community attachments, measured by social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity, would be negatively associated with lifetime and 30-day substance use. Method We used repeated cross-sectional nationally representative high school senior data from 1976–2008 Monitoring the Future Study cohorts (weighted N = 64,246; 51.6% female). Participation rate ranged from 77% to 86% across years. A series of multiple linear and logistic regressions examined unique associations of adolescents’ social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity with lifetime and 30-day use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and narcotics. Models controlled for gender, race, college aspirations, high school grades, parents’ education, and survey year. Results Social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity showed independent negative associations with use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and six other types of drugs. After accounting for controls, community attachments related to lower lifetime and past 30-day use. Associations were consistent across measures, except social responsibility was not associated with binge drinking or lifetime illicit drugs besides marijuana. Conclusions Study strengths included the nationally representative sample, diverse substance use measures, and inclusion of controls. We extend theory by suggesting that distinct aspects of adolescents’ community attachments uniquely relate to lower substance use. Results suggest potential public health benefits of integrating promotion of community attachments with substance use prevention. PMID:22999832

  6. Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Demetriou, Chara A; Kimonis, Eva R

    2013-07-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research suggests that lower anxious primary and high-anxious secondary variants exist. Using a community sample of 2,306 Greek-Cypriot adolescents (M age = 16 years; 49.7 % female), the first aim of the study was to examine whether variants of callous-unemotional traits could be identified using latent profile analysis of scores on measures of callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety. Additional aims of the study were to compare the identified clusters on external measures theorized to distinguish them (i.e., self-esteem, narcissism, impulsivity, sensation seeking and proactive/reactive aggression) and social factors relevant to adolescent development. Results indicated that, in addition to low risk (i.e., low scores on callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety) and anxious (i.e., high scores on anxiety, low scores on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems) subgroups, two groups of youth scoring high on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems were identified. High-anxious secondary callous-unemotional variants were distinguished by lower self-esteem in combination with greater narcissism, aggression, and markedly higher conduct problems, whereas lower anxious primary variants showed higher self-esteem. Secondary callous-unemotional variants also reported greater susceptibility to peer pressure and popularity striving than primary variants. Both variants exhibited poorer outcomes relative to low risk and anxious youth, although anxious youth reported lower self-esteem and higher impulsivity and reactive aggression scores in comparison with low risk youth. Findings integrate two

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a Community Sample of Adolescents: Subgroups, Stability, and Associations with Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and their association with other psychological difficulties were studied in a community sample of young Swedish adolescents, by a two-wave longitudinal design with a 1-year interval. Hierarchical cluster analysis at T1 identified eight NSSI subgroups in each gender, of which five were clearly replicated…

  8. Prevalence of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence among a Community Sample of Latinas: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Deliberate Self-Harm in a Community Sample of Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Paaske, My; Ingesson, Stina; Bjärehed, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The associations between depressive symptoms and deliberate self-harm were studied by means of a 2-wave longitudinal design in a community sample of 1052 young adolescents, with longitudinal data for 83.6% of the sample. Evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship in girls, with depressive symptoms being a risk factor for increased self-harm one year later and self-harm a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms. Cluster analysis of profiles of depressive symptoms led to the identification of two clusters with clear depressive profiles (one severe, the other mild/moderate) which were both characterized by an overrepresentation of girls and elevated levels of self-harm. Clusters with more circumscribed problems were also identified; of these, significantly increased levels of self-harm were found in a cluster characterized by negative self-image and in a cluster characterized by dysphoric relations to parents. It is suggested that self-harm serves more to regulate negative self-related feelings than sadness. PMID:21234107

  10. Exploring risk and protective factors with a community sample of American Indian adolescents who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T

    2015-01-01

    American Indian adolescents are at disproportionate risk for suicide, and community-based studies of this population, which allow a deeper understanding of risks and resilience to inform interventions, are rare. This is a cross-sectional study of N = 71 Apache adolescents. Strengths include the role of the community and American Indian paraprofessionals in the design, implementation, and interpretation of findings. Participants were M = 16.0 years old, 65% female, and 69% multiple attempters. Risks included suicidal behavior among peers and family (68%), caregivers with substance problems (62%), and participant substance use history, namely alcohol (91%) and marijuana (88%). Areas of resiliency included lower depression scores (M = 23.1) and cultural activity participation. A multi-tiered intervention at individual, family, and community levels is needed. PMID:25909321

  11. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  12. Brief report: The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on academic performance in an adolescent community sample.

    PubMed

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four participants, aged 15 and 16, in their final year of compulsory education, completed measures of ADHD, anxiety, depression, and motivation, and a test of general cognitive ability. Participants were also asked for permission for their academic grades to be viewed on a later occasion (approximately 6 months later). In regression analyses, ADHD symptoms were the most significant independent psychopathological predictor of academic performance, and were almost as significant as motivation and cognitive ability. The results suggest that adolescents with more ADHD symptoms are likely to encounter greater academic difficulties. PMID:20880572

  13. Specificity in the Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Atopic Disorders in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The specificity of relationships between anxiety and depressive symptoms, with each of the major atopic disorders of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) was systematically investigated within a single study sample. Participants included 367 adolescents who participated in a community, longitudinal study investigating risk factors for the development of psychiatric and physical health problems. Mental health symptoms were assessed at 7, 9, 11, and 13 years of age. Lifetime history of atopic disorders was assessed by parent report at age 13. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the specificity of the associations between anxiety and depression, and each of the atopic disorders. Results indicated that anxiety was associated with a lifetime history of atopic disorders as a group. The association was significantly strengthened when controlling for depression and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Among atopic disorders, “pure” anxiety was associated with asthma and AR, and having both asthma and AR strengthened the association compared to having either disorder alone. The association of “pure” anxiety with asthma and AR is consistent with existing data suggesting a relationship between anxiety and respiratory disorders. Having both asthma and AR appeared to confer an additive “dose effect” on the strength of the association. The lack of an association with depression suggests that other factors may contribute to the differential expression of anxiety and depression with atopic disorders. Findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the impact of co-morbid psychiatric symptoms and atopic disorders within individual studies to determine the specificity of underlying relationships between these conditions. PMID:21111430

  14. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  15. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  16. Assessing the triarchic model of psychopathy in adolescence: Reliability and validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in three samples of Italian community-dwelling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Drislane, Laura E; Fossati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    To assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Italian translation of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in adolescents, we administered the inventory to 3 independent samples of Italian high school students (Ns = 609, 618, and 1,142). Cronbach's alpha values greater than .80 were observed for the TriPM scale scores in all samples. In Sample 1, overall scores on the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory correlated substantially with TriPM total scores, r = .77, p < .001. Data from Study 1 also demonstrated adequate 3-month test-retest reliabilities for the 3 TriPM subscales. In Study 2, TriPM scores significantly predicted scores on a self-report measure of delinquent behaviors, Radjusted2 = .25, p < .001. In Study 3, five-factor domain scores showed significant relations with TriPM scale scores consistent with results reported for adults. Consistent with a hypothesized role of fearlessness in psychopathy, adolescents at high psychopathy risk (i.e., >97th percentile on the TriPM) reported lower fear in response to emotion-eliciting movie clips than low-psychopathy participants. In addition, scores on a measure of hedonistic moral tendencies discriminated between adolescents at high as opposed to low psychopathy. Similarly, scores on the Reflective Function Questionnaire for Youths were negatively correlated with TriPM scores. As a whole, our findings provide further support for the reliability and validity of the TriPM and its cross-cultural utility, and provide initial evidence of its effectiveness with community-dwelling adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237210

  17. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  18. Walkable Communities and Adolescent Weight

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Barker, Dianne; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood design features have been associated with health outcomes, including the prevalence of obesity. Purpose This study examined the association between walkability and adolescent weight in a national sample of public secondary school students and the communities in which they live. Methods Data were collected through student surveys and community observations between February and August 2010, and analyses were conducted in Spring 2012. The sample size was 154 communities and 11,041 students. A community walkability index and measures of the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity were constructed. Multivariable analyses from a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade public school students in the U.S. were run. Results The odds of students being overweight (OR 0.975; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) or obese (OR 0.971; 95% CI=0.94, 0.99) decreased if they lived in communities with higher walkability index scores. Conclusions Results suggest that living in more-walkable communities is associated with reduced prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity. PMID:23332334

  19. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  20. Fledgling Psychopathy in the Classroom: ADHD Subtypes Psychopathy, and Reading Comprehension in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores characteristics that are associated with fledgling psychopathy and educational outcomes relating to reading comprehension performance in a community sample of 432 middle school students. Latent class analysis (LCA) produced a four-class solution. Class 1 was a large (71.5% of sample) ‘‘control’’ group of youths with no attention/hyperactivity deficits and the highest reading comprehension scores. Class 2 was 11.6% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type. Class 3 was 7.4% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with ADHD predominantly hyperactive–impulsive type. Class 4 was 9.5% of the sample and was consistent with traits associated with ADHD combined type. Classes 2 and 4 were characterized by elevated levels of psychopathic and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and lower educational performance. This study extends the utility of fledgling psychopathy to educational outcomes, which has broad implications for adolescent development, delinquency, and youth violence. PMID:21318082

  1. A longitudinal investigation of childhood communication ability and adolescent psychotic experiences in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah A.; Hollen, Linda; Wren, Yvonne; Thompson, Andrew D.; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background Some childhood speech and language impairments precede psychosis but it is not clear whether they also precede adolescent psychotic experiences and whether this association is specific to psychotic experiences. Methods Pragmatic language and expressive speech and language (parent-assessed using the Children's Communication Checklist) at age 9 and psychotic experiences and depression at ages 12 and 18 were investigated in 7659 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Associations were investigated using multivariate modelling. Results Poorer pragmatic language at 9 years was associated with psychotic experiences at both ages (12 years OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34; 18 years OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.41) but only with depression at 18 years (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Poorer expressive speech and language ability was not associated with psychotic experiences or depression at either age. There was evidence that pragmatic language was specifically associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 but no evidence that the strength of any of the associations changed over time. Conclusions Deficits in pragmatic language precede early and late adolescent psychotic experiences and early adolescent depression. Interventions aimed at helping children improve pragmatic language skills may reduce the incidence of adolescent psychopathology and associated psychological disorder and dysfunction later in life. PMID:26972475

  2. Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

    2005-01-01

    A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…

  3. A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Studied the frequency of self-mutilation among adolescents through a literature review, epidemiological data, and screening measure results for 440 students from an urban and a suburban high school. Interviews suggest that 13.9% of students had hurt themselves on purpose at some time, with girls more likely to hurt themselves and cutting the most…

  4. Prevalence and correlates of psychotic like experiences in a nationally representative community sample of adolescents in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Louise; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent psychotic like experiences (PLEs) are an important area of research, yet only a small number of community surveys have investigated their psychosocial correlates. This study presents the prevalence and correlates of three types of PLEs in a nationally representative community sample of 12-19 year olds in Ireland (N=5910). Correlates are considered across five domains: demographic, stressful life experiences, emotional/behavioral problems, substance use, and personal resources. Auditory hallucinations were reported by 13.7% of participants, 10.4% reported visual hallucinations and 13.1% reported paranoid thoughts. Participants who had experienced two of the three PLEs were assigned "risk" status (10.4%; n=616). Using binary logistic regression, PLEs were associated with a range of correlates across the five domains. Key correlates of risk status include depression (OR 4.07; 95% CI 3.39-4.88), low self-esteem (OR 4.03 95% CI 3.34-4.86), low optimism (OR 3.56; 95% CI 2.96-4.28), school misconduct (OR 3.10 95%; CI 2.56-3.75), and high avoidance coping (OR 2.86 95% CI 2.34-3.49). These associations remained significant in a multivariate analysis. While correlates for each of the three PLEs were similar, there were some nuances in these patterns. Notably, demographic and substance use variables were the weakest groups of correlates. Personal resources (e.g. self-esteem, optimism and coping) have been poorly studied in the adolescent PLE literature and these findings provide important insights for future research and intervention design. PMID:26416443

  5. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as a Time-Invariant Predictor of Adolescent Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Karen; Fox, Kathryn R.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Longitudinal data on adolescent self-injury are rare. Little is known regarding the associations between various forms of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over time, particularly within community samples that are most relevant for prevention efforts. This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a time-invariant,…

  6. Polyvictimization and risk for suicidal phenomena in a community sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Segura, Anna; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide data regarding the association between reported degree of victimization and suicidal phenomena, with special emphasis on gender differences. There were 923 adolescents recruited from eight secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) were used to assess suicidal phenomena and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (nonvictim, victim, and polyvictim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization reported. Results showed that the polyvictim group reported significantly more suicidal phenomena than did the victim and nonvictim groups in both boys and girls. Furthermore, although no gender differences in reported suicidal phenomena were found in the nonvictim group, girls reported significantly more suicidal phenomena in both the victim and the polyvictim groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that victimization may play an important role in generating gender differences with respect to reported suicidal phenomena. In addition, this study highlights the importance of taking into account the whole range of victimizations suffered by adolescents when seeking to design suicide prevention and intervention policies. PMID:24364131

  7. Body Ideals and Body Dissatisfaction Among a Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents on Kauai, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Niide, Tiffany K.; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M.; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Yates, Alayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. Objective To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7th through 12th grade students. Results Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. Conclusions BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Implications Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes.

  8. Examination of the Response Styles Theory in a Community Sample of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Response Styles Theory in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 722) of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. We examined the role of response styles (rumination, distraction, and problem-solving) as predictors of changes in depressive symptoms over a seven-month period. Higher levels of rumination and lower levels of…

  9. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  10. “ADHD Knowledge, Perceptions and Information Sources: Perspectives from a Community Sample of Adolescents and their Parents”

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Meyer, Johanna.M.; White, Kimberly; Garvan, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The chronic illness model advocates for psychoeducation within a collaborative care model to enhance outcomes. To inform psychoeducational approaches for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study describes parent and adolescent knowledge, perceptions and information sources and explores how these vary by sociodemographic characteristics, ADHD risk, and past child mental health service use. METHODS Parents and adolescents were assessed 7.7 years after initial school district screening for ADHD risk. The study sample included 374 adolescents (56% high and 44% low ADHD risk), on average 15.4 (SD 1.8) years old, and 36% were African American. Survey questions assessed ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and cues to action, and elicited utilized and preferred information sources. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine potential independent predictors of ADHD knowledge. McNemar's tests compared information source utilization against preference. RESULTS Despite relatively high self-rated ADHD familiarity, misperceptions among parents and adolescents were common, including a sugar etiology (25% and 27%, respectively) and medication overuse (85% and 67%). African American respondents expressed lower ADHD awareness and greater belief in sugar etiology than Caucasians. Parents used a wide range of ADHD information sources while adolescents relied on social network members and teachers/school. However, parents and adolescents expressed similar strong preferences for the Internet (49% and 51%) and doctor (40% and 27%) as ADHD information sources. CONCLUSION Culturally appropriate psychoeducational strategies are needed that combine doctor-provided ADHD information with reputable Internet sources. Despite time limitations during patient visits, both parents and teens place high priority on receiving information from their doctor. PMID:23174470

  11. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  12. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  13. Designing Deeply Engaging Online Communities for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzick, David

    2009-01-01

    American adolescents have experienced growth in their use of online communities; yet, it was unknown whether the current understanding of online-community design applied to the design of communities specific to adolescents. This study bridged this gap, examining (a) How adolescents interact in an online community designed in accordance with…

  14. Neurocognition in the Extended Psychosis Phenotype: Performance of a Community Sample of Adolescents With Psychotic Symptoms on the MATRICS Neurocognitive Battery

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is well established in psychosis, but recent work suggests that processing speed deficits might represent a particularly important cognitive deficit. A number of significant confounds, however, such as disease chronicity and antipsychotic medication use, have been shown to affect processing speed, causing debate as to the core cognitive features of psychosis. We adopted a novel strategy of testing neurocognitive performance in the “extended psychosis phenotype,” involving community-based adolescents who are not clinically psychotic but who report psychotic symptoms and who are at increased risk of psychosis in adulthood. This allows investigation of the earliest cognitive factors associated with psychosis risk, while excluding potential confounds such as disease chronicity and antipsychotic use. A population sample of 212 school-going adolescents aged 11–13 years took part in this study. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the psychosis section of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Neurocognition was assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus neurocognitive battery. Adolescents with psychotic symptoms performed significantly more poorly on 3 processing speed tasks: Trail Making Test-A (F = 3.3, P < .05), Trail Making Test-B (F = 3.1, P < .05), and digit symbol coding task (F = 7.0, P < .001)—as well as on a nonverbal working memory (spatial span) task (F = 3.2, P < .05). Our findings support the idea that neurocognitive impairment, and processing speed impairment in particular, is a core feature of psychosis risk. This group likely demonstrates some of the earliest cognitive impairments associated with psychosis vulnerability.Key words: epidemiology/adolescents/cognition PMID:22927672

  15. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  16. Racial Differences in Adolescent Distress: Differential Effects of the Family and Community for Blacks and Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Noh, Samuel; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a sample of 15,885 adolescents derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined (1) unique additive influences of race, family, and community and (2) various multiplicative influences among race, family, and community factors on adolescent distress. Community characteristics such as community poverty and…

  17. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally…

  18. Adolescents in Therapeutic Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann-Feder, Varda R.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the course of change of two groups of conduct-disoriented adolescents in two theoretically distinct residential treatment programs. Despite an overall trend toward improvement in both groups, there was little significant difference between the rates of progress over time. Supports the need for qualitative research focusing on the…

  19. Self-Reported Emotion Reactivity Among Early-Adolescent Girls: Evidence for Convergent and Discriminant Validity in an Urban Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025

  20. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  1. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  2. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  3. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  4. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  5. Evidence for two different ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorders in a community sample of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Perkonigg, Axel; Höfler, Michael; Cloitre, Marylène; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    For the 11th revision of the International classification of diseases, a general category of posttraumatic stress disorders has been proposed with two distinct sibling disorders: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). General population data are examined on evidence for these two disorders. Data were drawn from a 10-year prospective longitudinal, epidemiological study with a representative community sample (N = 3021, 14-24 years at baseline) in Germany. Mixture modelling on latent classes was conducted in a subset of all reported episodes with exposure to interpersonal traumas. Associations between class membership, symptom criteria, and other mental disorders were investigated. Four distinctly interpretable latent classes were found. Class 1 episodes (N = 181) typically included core PTSD symptoms associated with strong impairment (OR 11.68; 95 % CI 4.54-30.05). 18.3 % of these episodes matched the criteria of ICD-11 PTSD. Class 2 episodes (N = 78) had a high probability of PTSD core symptoms and disturbances in self-organization and were associated with strong impairment (OR 38.47; 95 % CI 15.77-93.86). Half of them (49.4 %) matched the proposed ICD-11 criteria of CPTSD. Class 3 (N = 79) was typically characterized by episodes with disturbances in self-organization but a low probability of PTSD core symptoms and impairment. Class 4 (N = 633) was related to a relatively low probability of symptom reports. Membership in class 2 was associated with lower educational attainment, a lower social class, and more other mental disorders. Findings support the ICD-11 proposal to differentiate between PTSD and CPTSD. Further studies should extend exploration to other types of traumatic events in samples covering the full age range. PMID:26320578

  6. Deficient Behavioral Inhibition and Anomalous Selective Attention in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits and Low-Anxiety Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist and the Welsh (1956) anxiety scale, researchers have identified a relatively specific form of a response modulation deficit in lowanxious, Caucasian psychopaths. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001) may be used to identify children with a similar vulnerability. Using a representative community sample of 308 16-year-olds from the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), we tested and corroborated the hypotheses that participants with relatively low anxiety and high APSD scores would display poorer passive avoidance learning and less interference on a spatially separated, picture-word Stroop task than controls. Consistent with hypotheses, the expected group differences in picture-word Stroop interference were found with male and female participants, whereas predicted differences in passive avoidance were specific to male participants. To the extent that response modulation deficits contributing to poor socialization among psychopathic adult offenders also characterize a subgroup of adolescents with mild conduct problems, clarification of the developmental processes that moderate the expression of this vulnerability could inform early interventions. PMID:16118992

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Child PTSD Checklist in a Community Sample of South African Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, Mark E.; Cluver, Lucie D.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large sample of South African youth. Methodology The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female) South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years). The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. Results Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales) were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues’ Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms) which provided a better fit to the observed data. Conclusion Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made. PMID:23056523

  8. Factor Structure of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Community Sample of Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siu Mui; Leung, Chi Hung

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested the factor structure of the 41-item SCARED in assessing anxiety in a sample of Hong Kong adolescents. Data were collected from 5,226 youths (54.5 % boys) aged 12-18. Results showed that the scale and the five subscales had high internal consistency. However, confirmatory factor analyses showed that the original five-factor model did not fit the data collected in this sample. Instead, the results revealed a seven-factor model consisting of one second-order factor of anxiety and seven first-order factors: the four original factors of General Anxiety, Panic/Somatic Syndromes, Social Anxiety, and School Phobia and three new factors representing different aspects of Separation Anxiety. Group invariance in the Boys and Girls models was found. It is recommended that the three new factors (Fear of Loneliness, Separation Fear, Worry about Harm) be further developed by adding new items so as to enhance the content and construct validities of the SCARED when used with Hong Kong adolescents. PMID:25288523

  9. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  10. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  11. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  12. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger. PMID:26201172

  13. Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2015-04-01

    The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. PMID:25747527

  14. Community Experiences: Contributions to Adolescent Learning and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    Unpaid community activities have been widely recommended as learning experiences for adolescents. An evaluation was conducted of two community action learning programs, one which placed adolescents one-to-one in adult-dominated settings and the other which gave adolescents a group project to plan and carry out with adult assistance. Both programs…

  15. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  16. How Nonclinical Are Community Samples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Idia B.; Curley, Jessica; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rojas, Ariz; Phares, Vicky

    2008-01-01

    Mental health services are underutilized in our society by both adults and children. This finding presents a potential problem for researchers conducting community-based research. Previous studies have demonstrated that community-based researchers frequently do not screen participants for the presence of psychopathology nor do they ascertain…

  17. The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates hypothesis used to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent drug use, using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS). Reports that adolescents who resided in single-parent or stepparent families had heightened drug use. Higher adolescent drug use was found in communities with a large…

  18. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  19. Community violence exposure of Southeast Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events. Additionally, the overrepresentation of Southeast Asian youth in the mental health and juvenile justice systems also necessitates a deeper understanding of the adjustment of this group of adolescents. Data from a sample of 80 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents who were between 13 and 18 years old revealed high rates of community violence witnessing and victimization, and a moderate level of negative life events. All of these stressors were related to higher externalizing and trauma-related symptoms, but only violence victimization and negative life events were related to higher internalizing symptoms. There was an additive effect of higher bicultural orientation related to lower externalizing and traumatic-stress symptoms in the face of stress and violence exposure, but no moderation effects were found. PMID:18087036

  20. Assessing Community Effects on Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates community-level prediction of adolescent substance use and problem behaviors using ratings by community leaders to assess the effects of four risk factors on levels of drug use and problem behaviors. Three questions are examined: (a) Can psychometrically sound measures of community leader perceptions of risk factors in…

  1. Childhood ADHD and Addictive Behaviours in Adolescence: A Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Dragana; Charach, Alice; Henderson, Joanna; McAuley, Tara; Crosbie, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare rates of early addictive behaviours in a clinic sample of youth with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with those in community populations. Method: We surveyed 142 adolescents (14.1 ± 1.14 years), diagnosed with ADHD before age 12, about early substance use and problem gambling using questions from two cross-sectional population studies: the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, Ontario subsample, (N=1,317; 10–15 years) and the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (N=9,288; 12–18 years). Results: The ADHD sample reported using cigarettes, 17.8% (95% CI 12.1–25.5), alcohol, 27.1% (20.1–35.5), cannabis, 14.2% (8.9–21.7), at a similar or lower rate than the NLSCY (cigarettes, 28.3% (25.8–30.9), alcohol, 28.6% (26.0–31.3), cannabis, 16.5% (14.0–19.4), and OSDUHS samples (cigarettes, 21.9% (20.2–23.7), alcohol, 58.6% (56.0–61.2), cannabis, 26.0% (23.9–28.2). With regards to gambling, there is a non-significant trend for ADHD youth to report gambling more frequently than the provincial average, 7.9% (3.3–17.9) vs. 4.3% (2.9–6.3). Conclusions: Our findings support the emerging literature that youth diagnosed with ADHD in childhood may not be at greater risk for onset of substance use in early adolescence. The study identified two areas that warrant further investigation in this population; the possible increased risk for substance use among females and a trend toward early onset of gambling behaviours. PMID:24872828

  2. A community-based comprehensive approach to serving adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Palmer, E

    1981-03-01

    A community-based social service center, working together with existing educational, medical, and social institutions, can offer a continuity of service to adolescent parents who cannot yet function independently and were not previously reached. PMID:16295132

  3. Has Adolescent Suicidality Decreased in the United States? Data from Two National Samples of Adolescents Interviewed in 1995 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…

  4. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  5. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  6. The Adolescent Community of Engagement: A Framework for Research on Adolescent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.; Davies, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) framework as a lens to guide research and design in adolescent online learning environments. Several online learning frameworks have emerged from higher education contexts, but these frameworks do not explicitly address the unique student and environmental characteristics of the…

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  8. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  9. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  10. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  11. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  12. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  13. The Longitudinal Relation Between Peer Violent Victimization and Delinquency: Results From a National Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Corrie L.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  14. The longitudinal relation between peer violent victimization and delinquency: results from a national representative sample of u.s. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Corrie L; Hanson, Rochelle F; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-05-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of adolescents reported lifetime exposure to PVV, and many of these adolescents with a previous history of PVV also reported exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence, with witnessing community/school violence being the most commonly endorsed exposure category. Males, older adolescents, African American adolescents, and adolescents from low-income households were significantly more likely to endorse PVV. Regardless of the victim's gender, the majority of the perpetrators were male. After controlling for exposure to other forms of interpersonal violence and a history of delinquency, PVV was related to subsequent delinquency. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23266995

  15. Assessing Sense of Community on Adolescents: Validating the Brief Scale of Sense of Community in Adolescents (SOC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiessi, Monica; Cicognani, Elvira; Sonn, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Sense of Community (SoC) is a key theoretical construct in community psychology. This study validated a SoC scale for adolescents (SoC-A) in Italy. The scale comprises 20 items and five components: satisfaction of needs and opportunities for involvement; support and emotional connection with peers; support and emotional connection in the…

  16. Help-Seeking and Internal Obstacles to Receiving Support in the Wake of Community Violence Exposure: The Case of Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Vorhies, Vanessa; Ismayilova, Leyla; Leshem, Becky

    2010-01-01

    We examined help-seeking and internal obstacles to receiving psychosocial support in the wake of community violence exposure in a sample of 1,835 Arab and Jewish adolescents living in Israel. Paper and pencil surveys conducted in schools examined adolescents' personal victimization and witnessing of community violence in the past year, and then…

  17. Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

  18. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  19. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han Byul; Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13–16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate “rules” to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association

  20. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  1. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N=358; 45% male; 91% African American, M=12.10 years, SD=1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural equation modeling revealed that a six-factor correlated model best fit the data, indicating that the six subscales of the threat appraisal measure represent distinct but related constructs. The factor structure was invariant across age and gender. Exposure to violence was associated prospectively with caregiver- and adolescent-rated adjustment problems. Each of the six threat appraisals mediated links between exposure to violence at Wave 1 and adolescent-rated internalizing adjustment problems 1 year later. PMID:18991135

  2. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  3. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  4. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O.; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Method Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Results Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Discussion Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed. PMID:26046352

  5. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  6. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N = 52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  8. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in an African American Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…

  9. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  10. Alcohol Use among Rural Middle School Students: Adolescents, Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although rural adolescents use of alcohol is at some of the highest rates nationally, rural adolescent alcohol use has not been studied extensively. This study examines how community attitudes and behaviors are related to adolescent drinking in rural environments. Methods: Data were gathered in 22 rural communities in the Upper Midwest…

  11. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  12. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  13. Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St. Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. Methods In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. Results There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. Conclusions These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents. PMID:22926269

  14. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  15. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  16. Design and analysis of the Community Youth Development Study longitudinal cohort sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Graham, John W; Hawkins, J David; Arthur, Michael W; Baldwin, Megan M; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F; Abbott, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 communities across the United States. This article describes the rationale, multilevel analyses, and baseline comparability for the study's longitudinal cohort design. The cohort sample consists of 4,407 fifth- and sixth-grade students recruited in 2004 and 2005 and surveyed annually through ninth grade. Results of mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that students in CTC and control communities exhibited no significant differences (ps > .05) in baseline levels of student outcomes. PMID:19509119

  17. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year DSM-IV mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national survey of adolescents 13 to 17 years old. Frequency and severity of food insecurity were assessed with questions based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Security Scale (standardized to a mean of 0, variance of 1). DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations of food insecurity with DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview diagnoses were estimated with logistic regression models controlling for family SES (parental education, household income, relative deprivation, community-level inequality, and subjective social status). Results Food insecurity was highest in adolescents with the lowest SES. Controlling simultaneously for other aspects of SES, standardized food insecurity was associated with an increased odds of past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance disorders. A 1 standard deviation increase in food insecurity was associated with a 14%increase in the odds of past-year mental disorder, even after controlling for extreme poverty. The association between food insecurity and mood disorders was strongest in adolescents living in families with a low household income and high relative deprivation. Conclusions Food insecurity is associated with a wide range of adolescent mental disorders independently of other aspects of SES. Expansion of social programs aimed at decreasing family economic strain might be one useful policy approach for improving youth mental health. PMID:23200286

  18. Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish children and youth: results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit

    2014-04-01

    Most research into adolescent victimization and polyvictimization has been carried out in the United States and in northern European countries. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of victimization and polyvictimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The sample consisted of 1,107 youth (M=14.52, SD=1.76), 590 males and 517 females, randomly recruited from 7 secondary schools in a north-eastern region in Spain. The Spanish version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was applied, assessing 6 aggregate categories of childhood victimization (conventional crimes, caregiver, peer and sibling, witnessed and indirect, sexual, and electronic victimization). A total of 83% of adolescents reported at least 1 type of victimization during their lives, and 68.6% during the last year. Boys were generally more exposed to conventional crimes (68.0%), and girls to emotional abuse by caregivers (23.0%) and to sexual (13.9%) and electronic (17.6%) victimization during their lifetime. Age differences obtained in victimization rates for the past year confirmed that peer and sibling victimization peak in early adolescence (33.9%). Witnessing community violence was more frequent in older adolescents (34.7%). Almost 20% of the sample was considered as polyvictims (i.e., experienced 4 [corrected] or more forms of victimization). Adolescent polyvictims experienced victimization in 4 or more domains during their lifetime. This study adds new information on the epidemiology of victimization in the international context and is the first to do so from the perspective of a country in south-western Europe. It illustrates that Spanish youth experience a higher level of victimization than official records suggest, and that gender and age should be taken into account when analyzing this complex area of study. PMID:24589384

  19. Rural Community Characteristics, Economic Hardship, and Peer and Parental Influences in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina; Schaefer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community…

  20. Correlates of Suicidality: Investigation of a Representative Sample of Manitoba First Nations Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natalie; Elias, Brenda; Tefft, Bruce; Medved, Maria; Munro, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual, friend or family, and community or tribe correlates of suicidality in a representative on-reserve sample of First Nations adolescents. Methods. Data came from the 2002–2003 Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey of Youth. Interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 1125) from 23 First Nations communities in Manitoba. We used bivariate logistic regression analyses to examine the relationships between a range of factors and lifetime suicidality. We conducted sex-by-correlate interactions for each significant correlate at the bivariate level. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified those correlates most strongly related to suicidality. Results. We found several variables to be associated with an increased likelihood of suicidality in the multivariate model, including being female, depressed mood, abuse or fear of abuse, a hospital stay, and substance use (adjusted odds ratio range = 2.43–11.73). Perceived community caring was protective against suicidality (adjusted odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 0.97) in the same model. Conclusions. Results of this study may be important in informing First Nations and government policy related to the implementation of suicide prevention strategies in First Nations communities. PMID:22676500

  1. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Ghassemi, Gholam Reza; Nouri, Fatemeh; Pashmi, Rezvan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA) and Arak district was reference area (RA). The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01). However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002) and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSION The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal. PMID:23696765

  2. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. PMID:25178955

  3. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  4. The Impact of a Community Based Exercise Program in Children and Adolescents with Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; George, Cheryl L.; Blatt, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study sought to determine if participation in an after school community-based exercise program would result in improved fitness, self-concept, and social skills in a heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with disabilities. Eighteen participants with physical and/or cognitive disabilities were recruited for an 8-week exercise…

  5. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  6. Design and Analysis of the Community Youth Development Study Longitudinal Cohort Sample

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric C.; Graham, John W.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Baldwin, Megan M.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community’s specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 communities across the United States. This paper describes the rationale, multilevel analyses, and baseline comparability for the study’s longitudinal cohort design. The cohort sample consists of 4,407 fifth- and sixth-grade students recruited in 2004 and 2005, and surveyed annually through ninth grade. Results of mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that students in CTC and control communities exhibited no significant differences (ps > .05) in baseline levels of student outcomes. PMID:19509119

  7. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed. PMID:25465319

  8. Perspectives of Adolescents with Disabilities on Summer Employment and Community Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura; Cole, Odessa; Smith, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Although summer represents an opportune time for adolescents to garner employment and community experiences that may further long-term transition goals, little is known about the expectations and needs of adolescents with disabilities during this break in the academic school year. In this article, the authors explore adolescents' perceptions about…

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  10. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  11. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  12. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  13. Multilevel Predictors of Smoking Initiation among Adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Bernat, Debra H.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how factors at multiple levels of influence impact adolescent smoking initiation. Method Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort, a population-based cohort, were analyzed. Adolescents were recruited from randomly selected geopolitical units (GPUs) in Minnesota at ages 12 to 13 (n=1,953), and were surveyed every six months (2000–2006) until 18. The association between baseline social factors and smoking initiation was analyzed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to analyze predictors and age of initiation among smokers (n=603). Results Higher proportion of 15–16 year-olds who smoke at the area-level (GPU) was associated with younger initiation (15.47 vs 15.87, p<.05). Higher proportion of the population employed and higher median household income were associated with older initiation (15.90 vs. 15.56 p<.05). Parent education, living with parents or siblings who smoke, living in homes that allow smoking, and having friends who smoke at baseline were associated with smoking initiation or younger initiation (p<.05). Participants whose parents had less than a high school education were 1.6 times more likely than those with college educated parents to have smoked more than a whole cigarette (CI=1.06, 2.26). Conclusion Factors at multiple levels of influence affect adolescent smoking initiation. Smoking by older age peers and lower SES predicts earlier smoking. PMID:22245269

  14. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  15. Service use after court involvement in a sample of serious adolescent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Chung, He Len

    2009-01-01

    The juvenile justice system faces a difficult challenge when providing services to serious adolescent offenders, having to balance community safety concerns with hopes for successful intervention. Increasing the effectiveness of this system rests partially on having a clearer picture of the regularities of current service provision to these adolescents. This study describes the types of services received by a large (N=868) sample of adjudicated serious offenders from two metropolitan areas over a two-year follow-up period after adjudication in court, and examines whether indicators of need for services determine the types of services received in the juvenile justice system. Findings indicate that: 1) the level of specialized services received is rather low, 2) there is considerable site variability, 3) the service needs of adolescents sent to different types of settings appear to be generally equivalent, 4) state training schools appear to provide about the same level of services found in contracted provider settings, and 5) need is an inconsistent determinant of service provision. PMID:19907667

  16. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Lifetime Substance Use among a Rural and Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael J.; Drescher, Christopher F.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Tull, Matthew T.; Heiden, Laurie; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data are limited regarding the prevalence of substance use among adolescents in rural and ethnically diverse communities. This study examined rates and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime substance use among adolescents in Mississippi, a rural state that is the poorest in the country (21.3% poverty rate) and has the largest…

  17. Factorial Structure and Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory across Hispanic and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.; Braman, O. Randall

    2007-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analysis, the current study provided further evidence for the two-factor structure of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory [AESI; Ang RP, Huan VS (2006) Educ Psych Meas 66:522-539] using a sample of 191 US Hispanic adolescents and a sample of 211 Singapore Chinese adolescents. This study also examined the…

  18. Protective and Risk Influences of Drug Use among a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaif, E. R.; Newcomb, M. D.; Vega, W. A.; Krell, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement model was analyzed to demonstrate a differential distribution and cumulative exposure to psychosocial risk and protective influences of adolescent drug use among ethnically-diverse adolescent samples. The sample included U.S.-born (US) Latino (N = 837), foreign-born (FB) Latino (N = 447), White (N = 632), and African American (N =…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Mothering of Adolescents: A Comparison of Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Hansson, Kjell; Cederblad, Marianne; Ellhammer,Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 2 samples of adolescents and mothers using a child-based design (Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development [NEAD] project, N = 395 families) and a parent-based design (Twin Moms [TM] project, N = 236 twin family pairs) to compare genetic and environmental influences on mothering. For both samples, the same measures of…

  20. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  1. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  2. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  3. Design and Analysis of the Community Youth Development Study Longitudinal Cohort Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Graham, John W.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Baldwin, Megan M.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24…

  4. [The experience of paternity during adolescence in a low-income Brazilian community].

    PubMed

    Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Reberte, Luciana Magnoni

    2009-03-01

    There are gaps in the knowledge related to paternity during adolescence. This investigation had the purpose to explore the experiences of paternity during adolescence. The investigation method was the thematic oral history, with 19 members of a low-income Brazilian community being interviewed. The categories describing the experience were: a) Gaps in sexual education, lack of attention to contraceptive methods and the desire for fatherhood contributed for the occurrence of paternity during adolescence; b) The adolescents were surprised by pregnancy and assumed the paternal responsibilities as best as they could; c) Paternity during adolescence meant a faster process of maturation and having their lives transformed; d) Regret or happiness: distinct results of paternity in adolescence. Interventions focused on adolescents must be performed in safe, ethical and contextualized ways. PMID:19437861

  5. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in an Australian School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Short, Michelle; Dohnt, Hayley; Micic, Gorica

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish the extent to which the developmental changes in sleep timing experienced by Australian adolescents meet the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) diagnostic criteria for delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), and whether adolescents with DSPD engage in poorer lifestyle choices, and are more impaired compared to good sleeping adolescents. Methods: Three-hundred seventy-four Australian adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, SD 1.0) participants completed a 7-day sleep diary, wore wrist actigraphy, and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess DSPD criteria. Results: The ICSD-2 criteria for DSPD were met by 1.1% (N = 4) of the adolescents sampled. The majority of adolescents (51.9%, N = 194) met one criterion, 14% (N = 52) of the adolescents met 2 criteria, while 33.2% (N = 124) did not fulfill any DSPD criteria. Despite having significantly delayed sleep timing, adolescents who met all criteria for DSPD reported similar lifestyle habits and daytime functioning. However, there were trends for greater alcohol and caffeine consumption, less sport participation, yet more time spent on extracurricular activities (i.e., learning to play a musical instruments for adolescents with DSPD. Conclusions: Despite the majority of adolescents reporting DSPD symptoms, only a small minority met full diagnostic criteria. Adolescents with DSPD reported similar lifestyle habits and daytime functioning to those with some or no symptoms. Future investigations of non-school-attending DSPD adolescents are needed to confirm the trends for lifestyle behaviors found in the present study. Citation: Lovato N; Gradisar M; Short M; Dohnt H; Micic G. Delayed sleep phase disorder in an australian school-based sample of adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):939-944. PMID:23997706

  6. Beyond the "Village" Rhetoric: Creating Healthy Communities for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.; Leffert, Nancy; Scales, Peter C.; Blyth, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of community in child and adolescent development is emerging as a significant area of theoretical inquiry, research, and application. This article describes the development and utilization of a comprehensive community change effort designed to increase the attention of all community members toward strengthening core developmental…

  7. Urban, Suburban, and Rural: Adolescents' Use and Preferences for Fitness Promotion Technologies across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mikulec, Erika; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An understanding of adolescents' use of technology across ages and communities could allow for future targeted obesity intervention strategies. Methods. Focus groups of adolescents from rural, suburban, and urban cities in three states were conducted. Focus groups were led by a trained facilitator to explore how participants used technologies and whether they applied them for fitness purposes. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Analysis was conducted by three investigators using an iterative process. Results. Five focus groups included adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years (20 females and 8 males.) Three themes were derived from our data. First, we found age differences regarding technology applied to fitness. Younger participants described technology as a complement to fitness; older participants viewed technology as a motivator for fitness. Second, differences in fitness approaches existed between rural and urban adolescents. Adolescents in rural communities reported focusing on the outdoors for fitness, while urban adolescents relied on fitness-oriented video games. Both rural and urban teens related having a lack of fitness-focused resources in their communities. Conclusions. Our findings indicate differences in adolescents' application of technology for fitness. Despite adolescents' differing uses of technology across communities, a common need exists to expand their resources. PMID:24533221

  8. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  9. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  10. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  11. Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Adolescents and Their Families in a Community Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…

  12. School-Based Required Community Service and Civic Development in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Heinz; Youniss, James

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the role of school-based required community service in promoting adolescents' prosocial behavior and intended future civic involvement when service is differentiated by types and by adolescents' perceived experience. A longitudinal data set of high school students (N = 603) was analyzed to investigate the developmental steps…

  13. Gendered Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents in an Emerging Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…

  14. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  15. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  16. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  17. Validation of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a Nonclinical Sample of German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Portner, Franca; Duketis, Eftichia; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Angst, Jules; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a sample of nonclinical adolescents, examined the association with current psychopathology, and tested if "hypomanic" adolescents differ from other participants regarding HCL-scores and psychopathology. A total of 294 students completed the HCL-32 and the SDQ, a screening…

  18. Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Adolescent Samples from Canada and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable…

  19. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  20. Self-Regulated Learning and Executive Function: Exploring the Relationships in a Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…

  1. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  2. SAMPLING EFFORT AFFECTS MULTIVARIATE COMPARISONS OF STREAM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estimation of ecological trends and patterns is often dependent on the size of individual samples from each site (sample size) or spatial scale in general. Multivariate analysis is widely used for determining patterns of community structure, inferring species-environment rela...

  3. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  4. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt. PMID:17919796

  5. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  6. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Zytynska, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  7. Health-related quality of life in a clinical sample of obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity affects ethnic minority groups disproportionately, especially in the pediatric population. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents from mixed-ethnic samples. The purpose of this study was to: 1) measure HRQoL in a mixed-ethnic clinical sample of obese children and adolescents, 2) compare HRQoL assessments in obese participants and healthy controls, and 3) compare HRQoL in obese children and adolescents according to their pubertal status. Methods A clinical sample of children and adolescents with obesity (n = 96) and healthy children and adolescents attending local schools (n = 444) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL; UK version 4). Age-appropriate versions were self-administered by children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, and interview administered to children aged 5-7 years. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, gender, pubertal status, and ethnicity were used to compare the PedsQL scores of the two samples. Results The clinical sample of obese children and adolescents had poorer HRQoL scores on all dimensions of the PedsQL compared to the healthy controls (p < 0.005). Subsequent analyses also demonstrated that in this sample of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents, prepubescent obese children achieved the poorest scores in the emotional functioning dimension. Conclusions Obesity significantly impacts on physical, emotional, social and school functioning of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents. Clinicians need to be aware of the significant impact of obesity on all aspects of functioning. More effort is required to target interventions to improve the quality of life of children with obesity. PMID:21078146

  8. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  9. Childhood, Adolescent, and Teenage Obesity: Recommendations for Community Initiatives in Central Harlem.

    PubMed

    Maidenberg, Michelle P

    2016-05-01

    Because ofpoverty, the high prevalence of obesity, and the lack of adequate supports, Central Harlem's children, adolescents, and teenagers are at risk for major physiological, psychological, and social issues. This article discusses the public health concerns related to this population, especially the prevalence of obesity. This article identifies the prevalence of illness and obesity in the inner city and stipulates the causes and consequences of obesity among children, adolescents, and teenagers. In addition, it reports on the appropriate community intervention, using a coalition and a community collaborative organization that serve as models to build support for Central Harlem. A proposal is offered for reducing obesity among youths in the community. The intervention outlines a logic model that identifies a multisystemic approach at the micro and macro level for community intervention and policy initiatives to advocate for fundamental change. Further research recommendations are described to reduce the prevalence of childhood, adolescent, and teenage obesity in urban communities. PMID:27263198

  10. Factorial Invariance of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents across Spanish and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…

  11. Resilience in a Sample of Mexican American Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J.; Corrales, Carolina; Jensen, Cynthia Ortiz; Meyers, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the many tasks of adolescent development, in part, requires resilience. However, understanding the role that resilience plays in adolescent development involves adequate measurement of the construct. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is a widely used measure of resilience but a stable latent factor structure has not been identified across studies. The measure has typically been examined in adult samples while little attention has been given to its use with adolescents in general and ethnic minority adolescents in particular. The primary purpose of the current study is to identify a latent factor structure of the CD-RISC in a sample of primarily Mexican American adolescents (N = 106). Two competing model structures were tested via confirmatory factor analysis and results supported a 7-item unidimensional factor model. Support was also found for the construct validity of the measure in relation to ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for adolescents in this sample. Implications of the study findings for adolescents and avenues of future research are discussed. PMID:24932645

  12. Perceived Therapist Effectiveness: An Examination of Orthodox Jewish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindiger, Alissa

    2013-01-01

    The following study empirically tested whether Modem Orthodox Jewish adolescents prefer therapists with similar religious affiliations to themselves as assessed by their ratings of importance of having a therapist of that religious affiliation, their perceived comfort level, and perceived effectiveness of therapists of different religious…

  13. Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy among African-American Adolescent Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mignon R.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This study used data from a random sample of African American families living in poor urban communities to examine: how well socialization, supervision, and marital transition hypotheses explained the relationship between family structure and the probability of sexual debut and pregnancy for African American adolescents in disadvantaged…

  14. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  15. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  16. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  17. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  18. Community Conversations: An Approach for Expanding and Connecting Opportunities for Employment for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Pickett, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Although early work experiences can impart a number of benefits to adolescents with disabilities, few students have meaningful access to these opportunities. The authors examined "community conversations" to build capacity and interest in expanding employment opportunities. Events were held in seven different communities and used the World Cafe…

  19. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6%) whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%). Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour. PMID:18625042

  20. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. PMID:27203825

  1. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ). Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD is the strongest predictor of experiences of stigma. More severely personality disordered adolescents tend to experience the highest level of stigma. PMID:25999774

  2. Social Self-control, Sensation Seeking and Substance Use in Samples of US and Russian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Kniazer, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the relations of social self-control and sensation seeking with substance use across samples of US and Russian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from 362 tenth-graders from Ufa, Russia, and 965 tenth-graders from California. Results Lack of social self-control was significantly related with higher alcohol and hard drug use in the Russian sample and higher cigarette use in the US sample. Higher sensation-seeking showed significant associations with higher cigarette and alcohol use in the Russian sample and higher alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use in the US sample. Conclusion As with US adolescents, prevention programs for Russian adolescents may also benefit from being tailored to higher sensation-seekers and including self-control skills training. PMID:20001194

  3. Adolescent Depression and School Social Support: A Multilevel Analysis of a Finnish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellonen, Noora; Kaariainen, Juha; Autio, Ville

    2008-01-01

    This study invokes the ecological approach to social support by examining how school social support relates to moderate or severe adolescent depression. School is seen as not only a place for supportive individual-level relationships, but also as a source of community support created by teachers and other students. The main purpose of the study is…

  4. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  5. Childhood Somatic Complaints Predict Generalized Anxiety and Depressive Disorders During Adulthood in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E.; Bondy, Carmen; Egger, Helen L.; Costello, E. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with somatic complaints are at increased risk for emotional disorders during childhood. Whether this elevated risk extends into young adulthood—and to which specific disorders—has rarely been tested with long-term prospective-longitudinal community samples. Here we test whether frequent and recurring stomach aches, headaches, and muscle aches during childhood predict emotional disorders in adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric and physical health status and psychosocial adversity. Methods The Great Smoky Mountains Study is a community-representative sample with 1,420 participants. Children/adolescents were assessed 4–7 times between ages 9 to 16. They were assessed again up to three times between ages 19 to 26. Childhood somatic complaints were coded when subjects or their parents reported frequent and recurrent headaches, stomach aches, or muscular/joint aches at some point when children were ages 9 to 16 years old. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment. Results Frequent and recurrent somatic complaints in childhood predicted adulthood emotional disorders. After controlling for potential confounders, predictions from childhood somatic complaints were specific to later depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Long-term predictions did not differ by sex. Somatic complaints that persisted across developmental periods were associated with the highest risk for young adult emotional distress disorders. Conclusions Children from the community with frequent and recurrent physical distress are at substantially increased risk for emotional distress disorders during young adulthood. Preventions and interventions for somatic complaints could help alleviate this risk. PMID:25518872

  6. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized. PMID:26563413

  7. Pace: A Residential Community Oriented Behavior Modification Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Bernard R.; Breitmeyer, Rudolf G.

    1975-01-01

    After briefly citing the wide scope and diversity of token programs, and reviewing some of these programs for adolescents in greater detail, the authors describe the structure and operation of a residential behavior modification program for emotionally disturbed, pre-delinquent, and mentally retarded adolescents. (Author)

  8. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  9. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293

  10. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  11. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  12. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted. PMID:22287568

  13. Suicidal Ideation in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Family Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, Gail P.; Granger, Stephen J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between suicidal ideation and demographic characteristics, health conditions, depression, and health care utilization patterns among adolescents. Methods. Secondary analysis of the regionally representative Canadian Community Health Survey conducted in 2000/2001 (response rate 85%). Adolescents aged 15 to 19 who reported suicidal ideation in the previous year (n = 260) were compared with their peers who did not (n = 5528). The association between suicidal ideation and socio-demographic and health characteristics were investigated. Findings. Almost three-quarters (73%) of suicidal adolescents had not spoken with any health professional about mental health issues in the preceding year. Despite the fact that 80% of suicidal adolescents had regular contact with their family doctor, only 5% had consulted with them about mental health issues. In addition to the well-known risk factors of depression and stress, suicidal ideation was highly elevated in adolescents with two or more chronic health conditions, self-reported poor health, migraines, and back pain and those whose activities were prevented by pain (P < .05). Other characteristics significantly correlated with suicidal ideation included smoking, living in single parent families, and having lower levels of social support. Conclusions. Family physicians should regularly screen for suicidal thoughts in their adolescent patients with these characteristics. PMID:24967322

  14. Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Reif, Lindsey K; Rivera, Vanessa; Louis, Bianca; Bertrand, Rachel; Peck, Mireille; Anglade, Benedict; Seo, Grace; Abrams, Elaine J; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care. Among 3425 individuals eligible for testing, 3348 (98%) accepted an HIV test. HIV prevalence was 2.65% (n = 89). Median age was 19 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-20]; 73% were female. HIV prevalence was 0.6-7.4% across slum neighborhoods. All HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care the same day as testing; median CD4 was 529 cells/μL [IQR 363-761]. Syphilis prevalence was 2.60% (65/2536) and gonorrhea/chlamydia prevalence was 6.25% (96/1536). Among 168 (5%) individuals who reported TB symptoms, 7.7% (13/168) had microbiologically confirmed disease. One hundred twenty-nine females (5% of all females) were pregnant. This community-based testing campaign identified an adolescent and youth population with an HIV prevalence six times higher than the estimated national adolescent HIV prevalence (0.4%) in Haiti, including perinatally infected adolescents. This type of community-based campaign for HIV testing within a package of services can serve as a model for other resource-poor settings to identify high-risk adolescents and youth, and curb the global HIV epidemic among adolescents. PMID:27509237

  15. Eating Attitudes in a Diverse Sample of Israeli Adolescent Females: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…

  16. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  17. Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents: Factorial Validity in a Canadian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2009-01-01

    The core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) was examined with a sample of 375 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. The 6 ASCA core syndrome raw scores produced an identical two-factor solution as observed in samples of American youths. Principal axis exploratory factor…

  18. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in Community-Based Participatory Research: Structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Marni LoIacono; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs in order to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development (YD) framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly CBPR environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  19. Sampling microbial communities in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. E.; Parnell, J.; Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform to enable the community to assess impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at regional and continental scales. The NEON Observatory will collect data on aquatic organisms over 30 years in 36 sites across the United States, including Alaska and Puerto Rico as well as terrestrial organisms at 60 sites including Hawaii. Included in the biological measurements are microbial measurements in terrestrial and aquatic environments, including small, wadeable streams and shallow lakes. Microbial sampling in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats is being planned to coincide with biogeochemical sampling due to similarity of time scale and influence of external drivers. Aquatic sampling is geared toward species diversity and function. Terrestrial sampling aims to collect data on diversity, function, and spatial distribution dynamics. We are in the process of prioritizing data products, so that the most dynamic processes such as enzymatic activity will be measured more frequently and more intensive measures such as metagenome sequence data will be measured on a periodic basis. Here we present our initial microbial sampling strategy and invite the community to provide comment on the design and learn about microbial data products from the Observatory.

  20. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  1. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  2. Individual and social risk factors related to overt victimization in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cava, Maria Jesus; Musitu, Gonzalo; Murgui, Sergio

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzes the role of adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, sociometric status, and perceptions of family and classroom environment on overt vicitimization by peers in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M=13.7, SD=1.5). The findings from structural equation modeling suggest that adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on overt victimization by peers, and adolescents' perceptions of family and classroom environment had a significant indirect effect on peer overt victimization mediated by self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status. The findings are discussed with the consideration of these variables as individual and social risk factors for overt victimization by peers. PMID:17958136

  3. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  4. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  5. The cognitive profile of anorexia nervosa: a comparative study including a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I C; Gillberg, C; Råstam, M; Johansson, M

    1996-01-01

    A community-based sample of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa (AN) cases (n = 51) was contrasted with an age-, sex-, and school-matched comparison group [comp] (n = 51) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) at a mean age of 21 years. There were no study dropouts. Fewer than 10% of AN cases were underweight at the time of testing. Overall, there were few differences across the two groups, even though the COMP group performed significantly better on the object assembly subtest. A small subgroup of AN cases showed autism-spectrum disorders. This subgroup tended toward test profiles similar to those observed in autism and Asperger syndrome. These findings are discussed in relation to the clinical need for subgrouping of AN cases with a view to improving treatment programs/interviews. PMID:8770522

  6. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  7. A Prospective Examination of the Association of Stimulant Medication History and Drug Use Outcomes among Community Samples of ADHD Youths

    PubMed Central

    WINTERS, KEN C.; LEE, SUSANNE; BOTZET, ANDRIA; FAHNHORST, TAMARA; REALMUTO, GEORGE M.; AUGUST, GERALD J.

    2012-01-01

    A continuing debate in the child psychopathology literature is the extent to which pharmacotherapy for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in particular stimulant treatment, confers a risk of subsequent drug abuse. If stimulant treatment for ADHD contributes to drug abuse, then the risk versus therapeutic benefits of such treatment is greatly affected. We have prospectively followed an ADHD sample (N = 149; 81% males) for approximately 15 years, beginning at childhood (ages 8 to 10 years) and continuing until the sample has reached young adulthood (ages 22 to 24 years). The sample was originally recruited via an epidemiologically derived community procedure, and all youths were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood. We report on the association of childhood psychostimulant medication and subsequent substance use disorders and tobacco use. The substance use outcomes were based on data collected at three time points when the sample was in late adolescence and young adulthood (age range approximately 18 to 22 years old). We did not find evidence to support that childhood treatment with stimulant medication, including the course of stimulant medication, was associated with any change in risk for adolescent or young adulthood substance use disorders and tobacco use. These results from a community-based sample extend the growing body of literature based on clinically derived samples indicating that stimulant treatment does not create a significant risk for subsequent substance use disorders. PMID:22582022

  8. Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Khor, G L; Merlin, A; Bahaman, A S; Norimah, K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents. PMID:16708734

  9. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks. PMID:24846701

  10. Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: building community relationships to improve prosecution rates.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles. PMID:22124620

  11. Sampling and Recruiting Community-Based Programs Using Community-Partnered Participation Research.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Susan E; Tang, Lingqi; Pudilo, Esmeralda; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Chung, Bowen; Horta, Mariana; Masongsong, Zoe; Jones, Felica; Belin, Thomas R; Sherbourne, Cathy; Wells, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    The inclusion of community partners in participatory leadership roles around statistical design issues like sampling and randomization has raised concerns about scientific integrity. This article presents a case study of a community-partnered, participatory research (CPPR) cluster-randomized, comparative effectiveness trial to examine implications for study validity and community relevance. Using study administrative data, we describe a CPPR-based design and implementation process for agency/program sampling, recruitment, and randomization for depression interventions. We calculated participation rates and used cross-tabulation to examine balance by intervention status on service sector, location, and program size and assessed differences in potential populations served. We achieved 51.5% agency and 89.6% program participation rates. Programs in different intervention arms were not significantly different on service sector, location, or program size. Participating programs were not significantly different from eligible, nonparticipating programs on community characteristics. We reject claims that including community members in research design decisions compromises scientific integrity. This case study suggests that a CPPR process can improve implementation of a community-grounded, rigorous randomized comparative effectiveness trial. PMID:26384926

  12. Long-term course of ADHD symptoms from childhood to early adulthood in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Döpfner, Manfred; Hautmann, Christopher; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Comparatively little information is available from population-based studies on subgroup trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (particularly as defined by DSM-IV and ICD-10). Recent report of a subgroup with high and increasing inattention symptoms across development requires replication. To identify the different trajectory subgroups for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and total symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents aged 7-19 years. Eleven birth cohorts from 2,593 families with children and adolescents who had parent ratings for the outcome measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity or total symptoms were considered. Data were analysed using an accelerated longitudinal design and growth mixture modelling was applied to detect subgroups. For all three outcome measures, three trajectories with low (78.3-83.3 %), moderate (13.4-18.8 %) and high (2.8-3.2 %) symptom levels were detected. Course within these subgroups was largely comparable across outcome domains. In general, a decrease in symptoms with age was observed in all severity subgroups, although the developmental course was stable for the high subgroups of inattention and total symptoms. About 3 % of children in a community-based sample follow a course with a high level of ADHD symptoms. In this high trajectory group, hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms decrease with age from 7 to 19 years, whilst inattention and total symptoms are stable. There was no evidence for an increase in symptoms across childhood/adolescence in any of the severity groups. PMID:25395380

  13. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness. PMID:26861709

  14. Cognitive Styles and Psychotic Experiences in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah; Bentall, Richard P.; Fernyhough, Charles; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Zammit, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In clinical populations paranoid delusions are associated with making global, stable and external attributions for negative events. Paranoia is common in community samples but it is not known whether it is associated with a similar cognitive style. This study investigates the association between cognitive style and paranoia in a large community sample of young adults. Methods 2694 young adults (mean age 17.8, SD 4.6) from the ALSPAC cohort provided data on psychotic experiences and cognitive style. Psychotic experiences were assessed using a semi-structured interview and cognitive style was assessed using the Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) on the same occasion. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between paranoia and CSQ-SF scores, both total and domain-related (global, stable, self, external). The role of concurrent self-reported depressive symptoms in the association was explored. Results Paranoia was associated with Total CSQ-SF scores (adjusted OR 1.69 95% CI 1.29, 2.22), as well as global (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.17, 2.08), stable (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.17, 2.08) and self (OR 1.37 95% CI 1.05, 1.79) domains, only Total score and global domain associations remained after additional adjustment for self-reported depression. There was no association between paranoia and external cognitive style (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.83, 1.47). Conclusion Paranoid ideation in a community sample is associated with a global rather than an external cognitive style. An external cognitive style may be a characteristic of more severe paranoid beliefs. Further work is required to determine the role of depression in the association between cognitive style and paranoia. PMID:24244608

  15. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  16. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  17. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  18. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  19. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…

  20. Adolescent Borderline Symptoms in the Community: Prognosis for Functioning over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Greta; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2008-01-01

    Background: The long-term prognosis associated with adolescent symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the general population is virtually unknown. In this study, the relationship of early borderline symptoms to subsequent psychosocial functioning and attainment was investigated based on data from the Children in the Community cohort.…

  1. Development of Community-Based Health Services for Adolescents at Risk for Sociomedical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Julia Graham; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In 1981 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided funds to 20 teaching hospitals to support health services to high-risk adolescents (young people living in communities with high rates of pregnancy, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, accidents, homicide, suicide, and depression). The experiences of these institutions are described. (Author/MLW)

  2. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  3. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  4. Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how social support may protect Israeli early adolescents who have witnessed community violence from engaging in violent behavior when they have also witnessed terror violence. The study examines how support from parents, school, and friends could serve as protective, despite the interactive risk effects of witnessing…

  5. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  6. Caring and Fun: Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community within an Interdisciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study analyzed how one interdisciplinary team within a large middle school fostered a responsive adolescent-centered community for eighth-grade team students. Data were collected during the spring semester of the 2009 school year via observations, individual interviews, and focus group interviews with nine participants,…

  7. Effects of a replication of a multicomponent model for preventing adolescent pregnancy in three Kansas communities.

    PubMed

    Paine-Andrews, A; Harris, K J; Fisher, J L; Lewis, R K; Williams, E L; Fawcett, S B; Vincent, M L

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates a multi-component program for reducing pregnancy among adolescents in the US. The study employed a pretest-posttest comparison group design to analyze the effects of a comprehensive multi-component school and community intervention on estimated pregnancy rates and birthrates among young people in three Kansas communities: Geary County, Franklin County and selected neighborhoods of Wichita. Results revealed high levels of program activity in all three communities during the intervention period, including teacher training and sexuality education for students. From 1994-97, the proportion of adolescents who reported that they had experienced sex decreased significantly among all 9th and 10th graders in Geary County. Condom use among males in grades 11 and 12 in Franklin County increased from 39% in 1994 to 55% in 1996. In Franklin County and its comparison areas, the estimated pregnancy rates decreased among adolescents aged 14-17 years. The birthrate declined both in one target area of Wichita and in its comparison area from 1991-93 and 1994-96. In general, this research contributed to an understanding on the impact of multi-component school- and community-based interventions on adolescent pregnancy rates. PMID:10435217

  8. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  9. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  10. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Multiple Victimization in a Nation-Wide Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Bell, Tessa; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Adolescents often experience different types of victimization across a specified period of time in different situations. These multiple victimization experiences can have a number of deleterious effects on psychosocial well-being. To expand on research gathered primarily from US samples, the current study estimated the prevalence of…

  12. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  13. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  14. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2004-01-01

    Relations between adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships (consulting, mediating, and autonomy granting in regard to peer relationships) and positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, delinquent activity, and drug use were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 322 7th and 8th graders. Regression analyses…

  16. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  17. Multidimensional Perfectionism within Gifted Suburban Adolescents: An Exploration of Typology and Comparison of Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofield, Emily L.; Parker Peters, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Researchers explored the typology of perfectionism among 153 (46% male, 54% female; 88% White, 8% African American, 5% Asian American, 4% Hispanic, 1% Other) suburban gifted adolescents and compared perfectionism scores (using the Goals and Work Habits Survey, a modification of Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [F-MPS]) to samples of…

  18. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  19. Three-Step Validation of Exercise Behavior Processes of Change in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Berry, Tanya; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, S. Joan Wharf

    2004-01-01

    Though the processes of change are conceived as the core constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM), few researchers have examined their construct validity in the physical activity domain. Further, only 1 study was designed to investigate the processes of change in an adolescent sample. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise…

  20. Repeat Victimization in a High-Risk Neighborhood Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    2001-01-01

    Used longitudinal Denver Youth Survey data to examine repeat victimization and concentration of victimization among a relatively few high-frequency victims and intermittency of victimization in a sample of adolescents in a high-risk neighborhood. Chronic, multiple, intermittent victimization was the usual pattern among respondents. Men had higher…

  1. Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in the School Environment among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…

  2. Imaginary Community of the Mainstream Classroom: Adolescent Immigrants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the perspectives of three adolescent Mexican English language Learners regarding their high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom experiences within an urban city in the southwestern part of the U.S. An additional purpose is to demonstrate how the three student participants did or did not invest their…

  3. [The psychopathology of bilingual children in a sample of a Community Mental Health Center].

    PubMed

    Papadakis, J; Christodoulou, A; Paleologou, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, Dc; Ploumpidis, D N

    2009-07-01

    economic immigrants, including thus a random number of children speaking different languages. Without doubt, immigration affects the immigrating person as much as it affects the new group. Also, immigration adjustment and formation depends on the pre-existing characteristics of the immigrants as much as it does on the characteristics of the welcoming society. Research dealing with the issues of economic immigrants in Greece are limited and mainly come from schools. The focus of interest is aimed firstly on the psychopathology that can be linked to the phenomenon of immigration and secondly on the social consequences of the phenomenon. The formation of psychopathology is associated with immigration and the importance of psychological trauma and its consequences. However, the association between the creation of psychopathology, which is formulated in childhood/adolescence, and the bilingual environment together with identity formation, is not yet clear. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of the dual language environment on psychopathology formation among children and adolescents as it appears in everyday clinical practice and as it has been recorded at the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit of the Community Mental Health Centre of Byron and Kaissariani, Psychiatric Hospital, Athens University. Data deriving from the database of the Community Mental Health Centre were extracted from the files of 62 bilingual children, aged 0 to 18 years, who had visited the CMHC of Byron and Kaissariani in the period 2000 to 2005. The data selected concerned the sex, age, maternal language, diagnosis and the existence of economic immigration. Means deriving from the sample of bilingual children were compared to the means of the rest of the sample. (Pearson chi,2 Fishers exact test) Based on the results, four fifths of the sample was composed of children belonging to families of economic immigrants. The occurrence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders was triple among the sample

  4. The relationship between weight and smoking in a national sample of adolescents: Role of gender.

    PubMed

    Lange, Krista; Thamotharan, Sneha; Racine, Madeline; Hirko, Caroline; Fields, Sherecce

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of weight status and body mass index percentile in risky smoking behaviors in male and female adolescents. Analyses of the data obtained in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were conducted. The national sample size included 15,425 adolescents. Questions addressing weight status and smoking behaviors were used in analyses. Significant effects of perceived weight status, weight change status, and body mass index percentile on smoking behaviors were found for both genders. The current findings indicate the importance of accounting for both gender and weight status when developing prevention and cessation programs targeting smoking behaviors. PMID:24423576

  5. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived. PMID:18165423

  6. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a mixed-gender young-adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2012-06-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated. PMID:21928909

  7. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  8. Identifying the factor structure of the SOCRATES in a sample of Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J

    2014-03-01

    The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) is a frequently used measure to assess client motivation to change an alcohol use problem. The factor structure of this measure has most extensively been studied in samples of adult clients with alcohol use disorders with very little research conducted with adolescents or ethnic minority participants. The purpose of the current study is to determine if the factor structure of the SOCRATES (Version 8A-Alcohol) found in prior research can be generalized to a sample of Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. Latino adolescents (N = 106) were administered the SOCRATES and assessed for alcohol use at a pretreatment baseline assessment as part of a larger study. Competing factor models were tested and results via confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 14-item two factor model best fit the data for the Latino adolescents in this sample. In addition, scores on the Taking Steps factor predicted alcohol use variables. Implications for these results and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:24079649

  9. Identifying the Factor Structure of the SOCRATES in a Sample of Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    The SOCRATES is a frequently used measure to assess client motivation to change an alcohol use problem. The factor structure of this measure has most extensively been studied in samples of adult clients with alcohol use disorders with very little research conducted with adolescents or ethnic minority participants. The purpose of the current study is to determine if the factor structure of the SOCRATES (Version 8A – Alcohol) found in prior research can be generalized to a sample of Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. Latino adolescents (N = 106) were administered the SOCRATES and assessed for alcohol use at a pretreatment baseline assessment as part of a larger study. Competing factor models were tested and results via confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 14-item two factor model best fit the data for the Latino adolescents in this sample. In addition, scores on the Taking Steps factor predicted alcohol use variables. Implications for these results and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:24079649

  10. Testing For Measurement Invariance of Attachment Across Chinese and American Adolescent Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong Solomon; He, Ni Phil; Marshall, Ineke Haen; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Ruohui; Jin, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent attachment to formal and informal institutions has emerged as a major focus of criminological theories since the publication of Hirschi's work in 1969. This study attempts to examine the psychometric equivalence of the factorial structure of attachment measures across nations reflecting Western and Eastern cultures. Twelve manifest variables are used tapping the concepts of adolescent attachment to parents, school, and neighborhood. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to conduct invariance test across approximately 3,000 Chinese and U.S. adolescents. Results provide strong support for a three-factor model; the multigroup invariance tests reveal mixed results. While the family attachment measure appears invariant between the two samples, significant differences in the coefficients of the factor loadings are detected in the school attachment and neighborhood attachment measures. The results of regression analyses lend support to the predictive validity of three types of attachment. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25586150

  11. Community-Based Participatory Clinical Research in Obesity by Adolescents: Pipeline for Researchers of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can efficiently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n = 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  12. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  13. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4%. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression. PMID:25112217

  14. The behavioral medicine unit: a community hospital model for inpatient treatment of adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Porter, J; Rypma, C B; Heuer, T; Granberg, A; Ruch, R

    1986-12-01

    This article describes one community hospital's response to the overwhelming needs of adolescents in central Iowa. It is based on the premise that many youths who have severe depression do not effectively respond to various outpatient counseling measures, and are in need of some type of inpatient treatment. Most such programs are locked psychiatric units run by child or adolescent psychiatrists. In our case, those wards already in existence are filled to capacity and cannot respond to outside needs. Placing these youth on traditional medical adolescent wards does not work, since medical staff are usually not geared to deal with the many, ever-changing mental health needs of these patients. Thus, we developed an unlocked adolescent inpatient unit with a pediatrician experienced in adolescent medicine as medical director; moreover, the program extensively utilizes psychologists, nurse-counselors, social worker-family therapists, recreation therapists, and other specialists. This program is a way for physicians trained in adolescent medicine and other appropriate persons to contribute to the complex health needs of youth; it is preferable to do this rather than send all depressed teenagers away by referrals, as seems to happen in some cases. It is also an important way for physicians and other specialists to demonstrate their expertise--both the Society for Adolescent Medicine and American Academy of Pediatrics have advocated such a demonstration--and to give physicians important training in the medical and mental health care needs of youth. Finally, the Spectrum Unit program provides a meaningful way for the primary care physician to be involved in the inpatient treatment of depressed adolescent patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3602650

  15. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L.; El Gammal, Hanan A.; Hagras, Abeer M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11–17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11–1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12–2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21–1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62–0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56–0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their

  16. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Celedonia, Karen L; Wilson, Michael L; El Gammal, Hanan A; Hagras, Abeer M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11-17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11-1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12-2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21-1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62-0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56-0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their positive

  17. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  18. Community Risk and Protective Factors and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Scott P.; Hays, Carol E.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Study researched the impact of the contextual characteristics of the community on self-reported 8th grade alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Results indicate that community disorganization is an important risk factor for ATOD use while family supports is an important protective factor. Greater economic constraints decreases, rather than…

  19. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  20. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior Problems: An Examination of Mediation among Immigrant Latino Mothers and Their Adolescent Children Exposed to Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Trickett, Penelope K.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Saltzman, William; Zayas, Luis H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the psychological and behavioral effects of exposure to community violence of 47 Latino mothers and their young adolescent children. Using data gathered from multiple sources, this study tests the associations between lifetime exposure to community violence, maternal depression, and child behavior problems. More than 80% of the…

  1. A Pilot Study of Coping Processes Utilized by African-American Male Adolescents Living in Violent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Elizabeth

    This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…

  2. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  3. Multilevel Modeling of Direct Effects and Interactions of Peers, Parents, School, and Community Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…

  4. Exposure to Violence in the Community Predicts Friendships with Academically Disengaged Peers During Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction. PMID:27138174

  5. The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

  6. Hopelessness and Loneliness among Suicide Attempters in School-Based Samples of Taiwanese, Philippine and Thai Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Yanagishita, Jun; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Zarco, Emilia Patricia; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of suicide attempts in three school-based samples of Southeast Asian adolescents (Taipei, Taiwan; the Philippines; Chiang Mai, Thailand) and determine whether adolescent suicide attempters score higher on measures of hopelessness and loneliness relative to nonattempters. It was hypothesized that…

  7. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  8. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  9. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  10. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  11. Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender: Results from Adolescent and Emerging Adult Samples

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2011-01-01

    Although parents are assumed to be children’s primary models of socialization when it comes to gender, little is known about direct communication of gendered values in the family. Accordingly, this study assessed the amount and content of recalled parental gender socialization messages using data from 291 U.S. college undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university and 259 U.S. adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the Midwest. The study examined the amount and content of parental communications of five gendered discourses and then tested for connections to current gender beliefs. Findings indicate that gender socialization may be quite similar for sons and daughters, with some evidence of gender typing in patterns of communication. No significant age differences emerged in the patterns of socialization, although high school students reported receiving greater amounts of communication than college students on two of the five discourses. In general, receiving messages promoting traditional gender roles was associated with more traditional gender beliefs (and vice versa), although interpretation of some messages appeared to vary by gender. PMID:21712963

  12. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  13. Food habits of Canadians: food sources of nutrients for the adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sandy; Jacobs Starkey, Linda; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents need good nutrition, both to grow to their full potential and to decrease their risk of obesity and chronic diseases in adolescence and later life. The Food Habits of Canadians study provides data on the important food sources of energy and nutrients in a sample of Canadian teenagers. One 24-hour recall was obtained for 178 teenagers living in households participating in a national survey of 1,543 adults. Foods were categorized into 51 groups, and ranked according to contribution of key nutrients, energy, and fibre. Top contributors to energy and other nutrients included foods of low nutrient density (cakes/cookies/pastries, carbonated beverages, sugars/jams/syrups, and salty snacks). A high intake of nutrient-poor foods, particularly high-sugar beverages, is a concern for this sample of Canadian teenagers. PMID:15217526

  14. Weight perceptions in a population sample of English adolescents: cause for celebration or concern?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Johnson, F; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the proportion of normal-weight adolescents who consider themselves to be too heavy (size overestimation), and the proportion of overweight or obese adolescents who consider themselves to be about the right weight or too light (size underestimation), in large population-based samples collected over 8 years in England. Methods: Data were from the Health Survey for England between 2005 and 2012: an annual survey of households representative of the English population. We analysed data from 4979 adolescents (2668 boys, 2311 girls) aged 13 to 15 years old whose weight status was defined as normal weight or overweight/obese based on body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) derived from objective measurements of height and weight and using International Obesity Task Force standards. Weight perception was based on the adolescent's choice from the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight', ‘too heavy' or ‘too light'. Results: The majority of normal-weight adolescents (83% of boys, 84% of girls) correctly identified themselves as ‘about the right weight'. Overestimation was uncommon, with only 7% of normal-weight teens (4% of boys, 11% of girls) identifying themselves as ‘too heavy'. In contrast, only 60% of overweight/obese adolescents (53% of boys, 68% of girls) correctly identified themselves as ‘too heavy', whereas 39% (47% of boys, 32% of girls) underestimated, identifying themselves as ‘about the right weight' or ‘too light'. There were no significant changes in BMI-SDS or body size estimation over time (2005–2012). Conclusions: Overestimation of body weight among normal-weight adolescents is relatively uncommon; potentially a cause for celebration. However, almost half of boys and a third of girls with a BMI placing them in the overweight or obese BMI range perceived themselves to be about the right weight. Lack of awareness of excess weight among overweight and obese adolescents could be a cause for concern

  15. Geospatial Ecology of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Contributions of Community Factors and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gartstein, Maria; Seamon, Erich; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Addressed the ecology of deviant peer involvement, antisocial behavior and alcohol use, utilizing publically available information for indices of community risk/protective factors. A geospatial model was developed, combining geographic data (census, crime proximity, race/ethnicity, transportation accessibility) with information gathered for individual adolescents/household, geo-coded by home address. Adolescent-report of delinquency, association with deviant peers, substance use, and parental monitoring was obtained, along with parent-report of demographic characteristics. Deviant peer involvement was predicted by the Crime Proximity Index, with closeness of crime being associated with more deviant peer affiliation, as well as the Transportation Index, with greater accessibility leading to more involvement with troubled peers. Antisocial behaviors also increased with greater access to transportation. Adolescent alcohol use was lower in communities with a higher proportion of a non-Caucasian population, and increased with greater transportation access. Adolescent outcomes were associated with different prediction models, yet parental monitoring emerged as a consistent contributing factor. PMID:25825548

  16. [The role of community-based public health services in child and adolescent health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wegner, R E

    2005-10-01

    Children and adolescents increasingly show health-related problems which may not be considered as diseases to be treated but nevertheless severely affect academic performance and social behaviour. Regarding the consequences, e.g. from the PISA study, the significance of health problems and their negative impact on academic success are still not sufficiently taken into account. The tasks of paediatric public health services include: (1) health promotion in schools and kindergartens, (2) preventive and other medical checkups in kindergartens and schools to detect the individual needs of children and adolescents for support, (3) reducing the risk of long-term damage in handicapped or retarded children and adolescents by seeking out these children where necessary, and (4) advising the political decision makers by reporting on the population's health and social situation. The main aim is to provide children with special needs with what they need in order to prevent them, especially those whose parents cannot ensure this support themselves, developing a deeper disturbance, or to make sure that these young people are able to participate in social life and to integrate into society in spite of health problems or handicaps. To achieve these goals and to improve the health of children and adolescents, a community-based paediatric public health service has to cooperate with other institutions such as youth authorities, social welfare, education authorities, schools and other local institutions with an input into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:16179986

  17. Community-based adolescent health services in Israel: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Sikron, Fabienne; Glasser, Saralee; Barell, Vita

    2002-01-01

    Despite their engagement in health-risk behaviors and their health-related concerns, adolescents have the lowest rate of health service utilization of any age group. Time constraints during routine medical encounters generally leave little opportunity for professional screening for health-risk behaviors or for discussing psychosocial problems. In addition, providers express low levels of perceived competency in areas such as sexuality, eating disorders or drug abuse. To address these needs, a walk-in Adolescent Health Service was established by the Sheba Medical Center to provide diagnosis and short-term treatment for individual adolescents, as well as counseling and support for local care providers. A three-way model of cooperation and partnership was developed and implemented. A professional and financial partnership with local authorities were established to help define the particular needs of the community's youth and to improve the ability to reach youth with special health needs. The partnership along with the main medical provider (Kupat Holim Clalit) helped define local health needs, served as a referral source of patients with unmet health needs, and improved the continuity of care. The regional medical center (Sheba Medical Center) provided supervision and consultation for the medical staff of the service, as well as a referral center for patients. It was emphasized that the service staff was intended as a professional source for the primary physician and should not be considered a rival. The core staff included a specialist in adolescent medicine, gynecologist, mental health specialist and social worker. A structured intake procedure was developed for assessing health concerns and problems of adolescents in the context of a community clinic. Findings from the first years of services showed that the first 547 female adolescents demonstrated that a majority of adolescents presented with primary complaints of a somatic nature, while one third were diagnosed

  18. Suicide Ideation and Life Events in a Sample of Rural Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Brown, Adama; Rancour, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents experience both developmental and situational periods of transition along with myriad stressful life events when they enter and exit high school. These life events may be associated with thinking of, planning, and attempting suicide. Yet despite the development of prevention programs to treat at-risk individuals, suicide rates among adolescents have remained relatively high. Recent research suggests that suicidal ideation is associated with stressful life events and the use of maladaptive coping mechanisms, but studies have been limited to cross-sectional designs and clinical samples. We conducted a longitudinal study of 1345 rural adolescents (50.7% Hispanic) attending public schools in central Texas. The purpose of this analysis was to determine changes in suicide ideation rates over time and to test hypotheses about the life events and coping mechanisms associated with suicide ideation. Gender and race/ethnic differences in suicide were also explored. Rates of reported suicide ideation declined significantly from the first to the last year of high school (p=.015). Statistically significant relationships were found between suicide ideation, several types of life events, and maladaptive coping strategies. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also found. Taken together, these findings suggest new approaches to developing and testing interventions that can assist specific populations of adolescents to learn how to cope with their life events in productive and health-promoting ways. PMID:26992871

  19. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:27299764

  20. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity between self-report measures of adolescent psychopathy and an interviewer rating scale, but not between the caregiver-report measures and their corresponding self-report measures nor between the caregiver-report measures and the interviewer rating scale. Analyses of group assignment were also poorer than expected among all the measures with none evidencing significant agreement with the expert-rated device (Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version; PCL-YV), the most common forensic instrument used in clinical practice. Part of the poor agreement may be related to the poor psychometric performance of the callous-unemotional subscale of most of these measures and the low response rates from caregivers (N=35). These findings suggest that the measures do not provide an interchangeable assessment of callous-unemotional traits and suggest that further refinement of the measurement of callous-unemotional traits in youth may be warranted. PMID:22450599

  1. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  2. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  3. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  4. Teacher Efficacy and Rural Community Transition for Adolescents with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Veronica

    In the past decade, disappointing national outcomes have been reported regarding the transition of youth with disabilities to community and work environments. The transition outlook is even more dismal for rural youth with disabilities, in light of geographic barriers to special education service delivery, lack of jobs in rural areas, and rural…

  5. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  6. Increasing Community Independence for Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined whether a community-based habilitation program focusing on normalization and individual goal setting was effective in enhancing levels of independence in teenagers with spina bifida. Subjects (N=14) participated in an eight-week summer program. Results suggested the program was effective with the greatest strength being support and…

  7. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  8. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches. PMID:23159996

  9. Project Northland high school interventions: community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Williams, C L; Komro, K A; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Forster, J L; Bernstein-Lachter, R; Pratt, L K; Dudovitz, B; Munson, K A; Farbakhsh, K; Finnegan, J; McGovern, P

    2000-02-01

    Project Northland is a randomized community trial initially implemented in 24 school districts and communities in northeastern Minnesota, with goals of delaying onset and reducing adolescent alcohol use using community-wide, multiyear, multiple interventions. The study targets the Class of 1998 from the 6th to 12th grades (1991-1998). The early adolescent phase of Project Northland has been completed, and reductions in the prevalence of alcohol use at the end of 8th grade were achieved. Phase II of Project Northland, targeting 11th- and 12th-grade students, uses five major strategies: (1) direct action community organizing methods to encourage citizens to reduce underage access to alcohol, (2) youth development involving high school students in youth action teams, (3) print media to support community organizing and youth action initiatives and communicate healthy norms about underage drinking (e.g., providing alcohol to minors is unacceptable), (4) parent education and involvement, and (5) a classroom-based curriculum for 11th-grade students. This article describes the background, design, implementation, and process measures of the intervention strategies for Phase II of Project Northland. PMID:10709791

  10. Maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems: an examination of mediation among immigrant Latino mothers and their adolescent children exposed to community violence.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Trickett, Penelope K; Mennen, Ferol E; Saltzman, William; Zayas, Luis H

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the psychological and behavioral effects of exposure to community violence of 47 Latino mothers and their young adolescent children. Using data gathered from multiple sources, this study tests the associations between lifetime exposure to community violence, maternal depression, and child behavior problems. More than 80% of the youngsters ranging from age 11 to 14 years and 68% of the mothers reported being exposed to at least one act of community violence either as a victim or as a witness. Analyses reveal that maternal depression is a mediator of child behavior problems, reducing the direct effect of community violence exposure by more than 50%. Findings suggest that maternal depression is a factor more important than child's community violence exposure in contributing to young adolescents' behavioral problems. PMID:17766724

  11. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue

    2014-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p values<0.05). Significant positive correlations existed between CTQ-SF subscale scores for EA, SA, CTQ-SF total scores, and EPQ-N, EPQ-P scores (all p values<0.05). Significant number of subjects in this adolescent sample reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24161247

  12. Association between parenthood and problem behavior in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elster, A B; Ketterlinus, R; Lamb, M E

    1990-06-01

    The association between problem behaviors and parental status was studied in a national sample of urban (n = 1263) and rural (n = 388) young women 15 to 17 years of age. When assessed according to age at childbearing, there was a clear association between problem behavior and the birth of a first child prior to age 19 years. The three parental status groups studied appeared ordered in risk, with school-aged mothers having engaged in the most problem behaviors, and followed, in turn, by young adult mothers (ie, those who had a child between 19 and 21 years of age), and then by women who had not had a child by age 21 years. Young urban women who engaged in three or more problem behaviors were more likely than women who claimed no involvement in problem behaviors to subsequently have a child prior to age 19 years. In addition, black adolescents reported fewer problem behaviors than did white adolescents. When individual behaviors were analyzed, school-aged mothers were more likely than either young adult mothers or nonmothers to have reported school suspension, truancy, runaway, smoking marijuana, and fighting. Although similar results were found in both samples, the effects appeared more consistent for young urban women. In future studies, researchers must determine whether adolescent mothers are at risk for parenting difficulties because of their previous involvement in problem behaviors. PMID:2339028

  13. [Family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with disabilities].

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Bastos, Olga Maria

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with different categories of disabilities in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study based on application of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale in a sample of 270 parents or guardians. Prevalence was 83.7% for psychological aggression and 84.4% for physical maltreatment, while 96.5% of the children and adolescents with disabilities that suffered physical punishment were also victims of psychological aggression (p < 0.01) and 100% of those who suffered severe physical maltreatment also suffered psychological aggression (p = 0.01). Children and adolescents with disabilities showed increased risk of suffering family violence compared to those without disabilities. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness-raising and training of health teams for detection and notification of child abuse, and efforts should be made to support these families. PMID:27333141

  14. The Parent-Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) in Chinese and Italian Community Samples: Validation and Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Nie, Yan-Gang; Lis, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to validate the parent-version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) among Chinese and Italian community adolescents and to compare adolescents' anxiety symptoms in these two countries. Chinese (N = 456) and Italian (N = 452) adolescents and their parents participated in the study. Results showed that: (1) the six correlated-factor structure was demonstrated and invariant across countries. (2) The reliability of the total scale was good in both samples, whereas reliabilities of subscales were acceptable and moderate in Chinese and Italian samples, respectively. (3) The SCAS-P showed good convergent and divergent validity. (4) Adolescent-parent agreement was from low to medium while mother-father agreement ranged from medium to high. (5) There were cultural and gender differences in levels of parent-report anxiety symptoms. In conclusion, SCAS-P seems to be a promising parent-report instrument to assess Chinese and Italian adolescents' anxiety symptoms. PMID:26289082

  15. Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be highly co-occurring, most research examines their associations with mental disorders one at a time. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests, though, that the associations of multiple CAs with mental disorders are non-additive, arguing for the importance of multivariate analysis of multiple CAs. No attempt has yet been made to carry out a similar kind of analysis among children or adolescents. Objective To examine the multivariate associations of 12 CAs with first onset of mental disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Design US national survey of adolescents (ages 13–17) assessing DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and CAs. The CAs include parental loss (death, divorce, other separations), maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, neglect), parental maladjustment (psychopathology, substance abuse, criminality, violence) and economic adversity. Setting Dual-frame household-school samples. Participants 6,483 adolescents-parent pairs. Main outcome measure Lifetime DSM-IV disorders assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results 58.3% of adolescents reported at least one CA, among whom 59.7% reported multiple CAs. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF) were more strongly associated than other CAs with disorder onsets. The best-fitting model included terms for type and number of CAs and distinguished between MFF and Other CAs. CAs predicted behavior disorders most strongly and fear disorders least strongly. The joint associations of multiple CAs were sub-additive. The population-attributable risk proportions for disorder classes ranged from 15.7% for fear disorders to 40.7% for behavior disorders. CAs were associated with 28.2% of all onsets. Conclusions CAs are common, highly co-occurring, and strongly associated with onset of mental disorders among US adolescents. The sub-additive multivariate associations of CAs with

  16. Community variation in adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ardis L; Carlos, Heather A; Sarnoff, Rachel A

    2013-04-01

    Melanoma rates among younger women in New Hampshire (NH) are rising. In urban studies, youth proximity to tanning facilities has been linked to indoor tanning, a proven cause of melanoma. Youth access has not been examined in rural settings. To determine on a statewide basis the influence of rurality and community income level on female students' ease of access to tanning facilities, all NH tanning facilities (N = 261) and high schools (N = 77) in 2011 were spatially and statistically analyzed to determine schools with more facilities within 2 miles of the school and greater capacity (fewer female students per facility), for indoor tanning. Schools above the state-wide average for both measures were classified as "Easy Access" to indoor tanning. Among NH high schools, 74 % have 1 or more tanning facility within two miles and 22 % have "Easy Access" to tanning facilities. Ease of access did not differ by rurality. Lower-income school status was an independent predictor of both greater capacity and "Easy Access". While urban and rural teens have similar access to indoor tanning, female students in lower-income communities have easier access. Variations in access by community size and income must be considered in planning interventions to address youth indoor tanning. PMID:23011517

  17. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  18. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  19. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth. PMID:24907892

  20. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs <12th grade = 43.3, p = 0.001), gender (male = 27.3 vs female = 19.6, p = 0.04), age (≤15 years = 27.1 vs <15 years = 18.5, p = 0.02), presence of fissure sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001) and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02). When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents´educational level (<9th grade, OR = 1.56 CI95% = 1.05–2.54), gender (female, OR = 1.86 CI95% = 1.19–2.98), experience of dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39–0.97) and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19–0.65). Conclusions The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among

  1. All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.

    This book challenges American communities to reclaim their responsibility for raising healthy, successful, and caring children and adolescents. The book also offers a critique of American culture along with practical strategies for uniting and mobilizing communities around a shared vision of healthy development. The book argues that three…

  2. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  3. "Gateway hypothesis" and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors. PMID:27413674

  4. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6,450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment, and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593

  5. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  6. The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in a sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs. PMID:24811571

  7. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  8. Parental coping with developmental disorders in adolescents within the ultraorthodox Jewish community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-05-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a higher sense of growth and a higher sense of coherence than the secular parents. In addition, there were associations found between demographic characteristics. Gender differences between mothers and fathers in the sense of growth and community differences between ultraorthodox fathers and secular fathers in the sense of coherence are discussed. The study highlights the uniqueness of the religious point of view in dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. PMID:21695559

  9. The experience of adolescent inpatient care and the anticipated transition to the community: Young people's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gill, Freya; Butler, Stephen; Pistrang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored adolescents' perspectives of inpatient mental health care, focussing on aspects of the inpatient environment they anticipated would help or hinder their transition back home. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 adolescent inpatients; transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants experienced inpatient treatment as offering a mix of benefits (e.g., supportive relationships) and drawbacks (e.g., living in a "fake world"). They anticipated the transition home as providing opportunities for personal growth and consolidation of new coping skills, but also posing challenges concerning re-entering the "real world" after the experience of being "wrapped in cotton wool". Self-determination theory and attachment theory offer two potential frameworks for understanding these opportunities and challenges. Inpatient care has the potential to foster key mechanisms for adaptive development, creating a platform for developing positive future behaviours. Community teams should work closely with inpatient units to support the generalisation of the young person's newly acquired coping skills. PMID:26599528

  10. Utilization of mental health services among adolescents in community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Godley, Mark D; Godley, Susan H; Dennis, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the rates and correlates of self-reported receipt for mental health services among 1,190 adolescents, aged 12-19, who were admitted to community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics and had a co-occurring mental health problem. Utilization of mental health service was ascertained 3 months post-intake. About one third (35%) of adolescents with a co-occurring mental health problem identified at intake received mental health service in the 3 months after treatment entry. After holding other correlates constant, history of mental health treatment, suicidal behavior, family history of mental disorder and insurance coverage at intake were associated with mental health service utilization at the 3-month follow up. Predictors of service utilization varied by gender and racial/ethnic status. Implications for integrated substance use and mental health services are discussed. PMID:18157641

  11. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  12. The Relationship Between Developmental Assets and Food Security In Adolescents From A Low-Income Community

    PubMed Central

    Shtasel-Gottlieb, Zoë; Palakshappa, Deepak; Yang, Fanyu; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the association between developmental assets (characteristics, experiences, and relationships that shape healthy development) and food insecurity among adolescents from a low-income, urban community. Methods This mixed methods study occurred in two phases. In Phase 1, using a census approach, 2350 6-12th graders from the public school district completed an anonymous survey that included the Development Assets Profile (DAP), youth self-report form of the Core Food Security Module, and demographic questions. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses determined independent associations between developmental assets and food security adjusting for demographics. In Phase 2, 20 adult key informant interviews and four semi-structured student focus groups were performed to explain findings from Phase 1. Results On average, DAP scores were consistent with national norms. Food insecurity was prevalent; 14.9% reported low food security and 8.6% very low food security (VLFS). Logistic regression revealed that higher DAP was associated with lower odds of food insecurity (OR=.96, 95% CI=.95-.97); family assets drove this association(OR=.93, 95% CI=.91-.95). In multinomial regression modeling, these associations persisted and, paradoxically, higher community assets were also associated with VLFS (ORVLFS=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.13). Qualitative analyses suggested that greater need among VLFS youth led to increased connections to community resources despite barriers to access such as stigma, home instability, and cultural differences. Conclusion Food insecurity is a pervasive problem among adolescents from low-income communities and is associated with lower developmental assets, particularly family assets. That community assets were higher among VLFS youth underscores the importance of community-level resources in struggling areas. PMID:25620305

  13. Relationships of the WISC-R and K-BIT for an adolescent clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Slate, J R; Graham, L S; Bower, J

    1996-01-01

    Correlations between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised IQs and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test were determined for a clinical sample of 44 adolescents (35 with learning disabilities, 9 with mental retardation) who underwent routine three-year reevaluations. Even though three years had elapsed between the WISC-R and K-BIT scores, the correlations among the total and subscale scores of these measures were high and were all statistically significant. A significant mean difference was found between the WISC-R Verbal IQ and its K-Bit counterpart, the Vocabulary subscales. Implications of findings for assessment specialists are discussed. PMID:8970652

  14. Social change in adolescent sexual behavior, mate selection, and premarital pregnancy rates in a Kikuyu community.

    PubMed

    Worthman, C M; Whiting, J W

    1987-06-01

    This report documents an example of interactions of cultural change with adolescent fertility and marriage patterns in an East African community. Between 1950 and 1980 the rate of unwed motherhood in Ngeca, Kenya, showed a marked increase from 0% in the 1940s to 11.4% in the 1960s. The authors present evidence of recent changes in Kikuyu culture that may account for this change. Traditional Kikuyu culture structured adolescence through status and role changes bounded and reinforced by ritual and instruction. Abandonment of traditional initiation rites and attenuation of the age-set system have most markedly altered the structure of adolescent experience by shifting the content and context of socialization. Major agents for change in this process have been the school, church, and modern economy. Responsibility for mate selection has remained with young people, but the determinants of partner desirability and gender ratios in partner availability have shifted considerably. Traditional criteria of male desirability included ability to pay bridewealth and to provide the wife with land; diligence and demeanor measured female attractiveness. At present, education and wage earning capacity affect partner attractiveness of each sex. The decline of polygyny has both shifted the balance of competition for spouses toward females, and has had significant repercussions in the marital and reproductive histories of males. Decreases in brideprice and reversals in direction of transfers of wealth at marriage are tangible signs of change in the marriage market. Deritualization of genital operations and attendant weakening of the age-set system have interrupted the flow of information on sex behavior and reproduction, controlled physical intimacy, and partner selection reinforced by peer pressure. Denial of contraception, the continued importance of marriage and fertility, and ambivalence toward sexual activity in adolescence all support adolescent sexual experimentation and

  15. The association between cortisol and neighborhood disadvantage in a U.S. population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Wand, Gary S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Glass, Thomas A; Marques, Andrea H; Duncko, Roman; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood conditions and cortisol is rarely studied in children or adolescents and has been hampered by small sample size and racial/ethnic and geographic homogeneity. Our objective was to estimate the association between neighborhood disadvantage and salivary cortisol levels in a large, geographically and racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Salivary cortisol was collected before and after an interview administered in the adolescent's home. We used a propensity score approach to match adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods with those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods to create two similar groups based on the time and day of cortisol collection as well as demographic characteristics. Adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods had higher pre-interview cortisol levels and steeper rates of decline in cortisol levels over the course of the interview than similar adolescents in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. This bolsters the evidence base suggesting that place may influence the stress response system. PMID:24367996

  16. Recruiting a community sample in collaboration with farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kamel, F; Moreno, T; Rowland, A S; Stallone, L; Ramírez-Garnica, G; Sandler, D P

    2001-06-01

    Few studies have examined health effects of pesticides in farmworkers, possibly because researchers perceive this population to be relatively inaccessible. We conducted an epidemiologic study of health effects among farmworkers in two towns in central Florida--Apopka and Pierson. Apopka is a suburb of Orlando with a diffuse farmworker community working in many crops, whereas Pierson is a small rural town with a tightly knit farmworker community working mainly in ferns. We collaborated with the Farmworker Association of Florida, a grassroots organization representing 6,700 farmworker families. We identified potential participants using membership lists of the Community Trust Federal Credit Union. Members of the Farmworker Association served as recruiters for the study, locating randomly selected Credit Union members and administering a screening interview to determine eligibility. In Apopka 90% of contacted workers were screened, and 79% of eligible workers participated in the study; corresponding proportions in Pierson were 94 and 85%. Farmworkers who had worked for 6-15 years and those who worked in a defined type of agriculture (nursery, citrus, or ferns) were more likely to enroll than others. Thus, while the response rate was good for a multistage recruiting process, study participants had a slightly different work history from those who chose not to enroll. We conclude that it is possible to conduct a study of health outcomes in farmworkers with a defined population and good response rates. Collaboration with the community is essential to the success of such a project, and community characteristics can affect response rates. PMID:11427396

  17. A Validation of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Young Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to delineate a subgroup of individuals at high risk for exhibiting severe and persistent criminal behavior. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick 2004) was recently developed as a comprehensive rating scale designed to measure multiple facets of CU traits. However, validation of this measure has been limited to youth in adolescence and emerging adulthood (age range=12–20), leaving questions about the utility of this measure in early adulthood unanswered. The current study evaluated the factor structure of the ICU within a racially diverse and well characterized community sample of adult males (n=425) using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). While results found the best fitting model to be the three-bifactor structure that has been previously reported in adolescent samples, the fit indices were only marginally acceptable and suggest the need for scale refinement. Total and subscales scores demonstrated significant and distinct associations with relevant external criteria (e.g., delinquency, psychopathy, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning). Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24357894

  18. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence in a Nonrisk Sample: Associations with Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Neena M.

    2008-01-01

    Limited data exist on the unique, additive, and interactive effects of exposure to domestic and community violence on children's functioning, particularly in community samples. This study examined relations between children's violence exposure, at home and in the community, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems. Parents reported…

  19. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  20. Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Osborne, J G

    1982-01-01

    In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions were symmetrical (B-A matching). During A-B or B-A matching test trials in which familiar samples and correct comparisons were presented along with novel comparisons, the subjects selected the correct comparisons. In tests with familiar samples and both incorrect and novel comparisons, subjects selected the novel comparisons, demonstrating control by both positive ("matching") and negative ("nonmatching") stimulus relations in A-B and B-A arrays. In Experiment 2, 12 developmentally delayed subjects were taught a two-stage arbitrary-matching task (e.g., A-B, C-B matching). Test sessions showed sample-comparison symmetry (e.g., B-A, B-C matching) and derived sample-comparison relations (e.g., A-C, C-A matching) for 11 subjects. These subjects also demonstrated control by positive and negative stimulus relations in the derived relations. PMID:6178786

  1. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates in Japanese pediatric patients has increased rapidly, there have been no reports concerning macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection in adolescents aged 16 to 19 years old. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in adolescent patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A total of 99 cases with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture were analyzed. Forty-five cases were pediatric patients less than 16 years old, 26 cases were 16 to 19-year-old adolescent patients and 28 cases were adult patients. Primers for domain V of 23S rRNA were used and DNA sequences of the PCR products were compared with the sequence of an M. pneumoniae reference strain. Results Thirty of 45 pediatric patients (66%), 12 of 26 adolescent patients (46%) and seven of 28 adult patients (25%) with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were found to be infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MR patients). Although the prevalence of resistant strains was similar in pediatric patients between 2008 and 2011, an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains was observed in adolescent patients. Among 30 pediatric MR patients, 26 had an A-to-G transition at position 2063 (A2063G) and four had an A-to-G transition at position 2064 (A2064G). In 12 adolescent MR patients, 10 showed an A2063G transition and two showed an A2064G transition, and in seven adult MR patients, six showed an A2063G transition and one showed an A2064G transition. Conclusions The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is high among adolescent patients as well as pediatric patients less than 16-years old. To prevent outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, especially macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, in closed populations including among families, in schools and in university students, physicians should pay

  2. Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program.

    PubMed

    Lott, David C; Jencius, Simon

    2009-06-01

    Controlled studies have shown that motivational incentives reduce drug use, but community implementation has been limited. This observational study examines the effect of a contingency management (CM) program on urine, attendance, and cost measures in a community substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. Treatment included elements of 12-step facilitation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement. All urine tests included cannabinoids, opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and amphetamines. Patients with negative urines or perfect attendance earned chances to draw weekly from a bag for prizes of varying value, and the number of draws increased with each consecutive negative urine test. Data were collected for those patients (age 12-18) treated immediately before (n=83) and after (n=264) the CM program was introduced to the treatment center, and positive urine rates were compared using chi-square tests. Patients treated with the CM program had lower rates of urines positive for opioids (p<0.005) and cocaine (p<0.05), and non-significantly but consistently lower rates of urines positive for all other drug classes. Altogether, the proportion of urines positive for any drug decreased from 33.3% to 23.4% (p<0.01). Pre- and post-CM comparisons of attendance reveal lower daily attendance rates but longer retention in treatment. Expenses were minimal at $0.39 per patient per day. These data yield additional evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of CM methods in community adolescent treatment programs. PMID:19250774

  3. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  4. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  5. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, M = 13.6 years, SD = 2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Controlling for religious community, age, and gender, youths' lower academic achievement was associated with family environments characterized by high conflict and low cohesion. School ehaviour problems were related to greater exposure to community violence, or sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviour. Youths' expectations about educational attainment were undermined by conflict in the family environment and antisocial behaviour in the community, as well as parenting low in warmth and behavioural control. Findings underscore the importance of considering family and community contributions to youths' educational outcomes. Suggestions regarding targeted interventions toward promoting resilience are discussed, such as assessing both child and family functioning, developing multidimensional interventions for parents, and building community partnerships, among others. PMID:26834298

  6. Behavioral and Community Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Chlamydia Rates in Rural Counties in Minnesota1

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Methods Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15–19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota’s 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n=66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Findings Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. Conclusions This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  7. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  8. Perceptions of parents on how religion influences adolescents' sexual behaviours in two Ghanaian communities: implications for HIV and AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2014-08-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents' sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents' sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures-communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  9. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be

  10. A Comparison of Men Who Committed Different Types of Sexual Assault in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  12. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  13. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  14. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  15. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  16. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  17. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and less prone to externalizing problems than their peers,whereas those who describe their parents as neglectful are less mature, less competent, and more troubled. Juvenile offenders who characterize their parents as either authoritarian or indulgent typically score somewhere between the two extremes, although those from authoritarian homes are consistently better functioning than those from indulgent homes. These patterns did not vary as a function of adolescents' ethnicity or gender. PMID:20016759

  18. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Association Between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in a Community Sample of Youth

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, emotion regulation (ER) ability, and depressive symptoms within a diverse community sample of 277 youth, ages 9–12 (56 % male). Participants were drawn from a larger study examining adolescent risk behaviors, and completed annual assessments over 3 years. Youth ADHD symptoms were assessed at Time 1 (T1) using the parent-reported Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale, ER was assessed with the parent-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist at Time 2 (T2), and youth depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales at Time 3 (T3). Analyses examined T2 ER as a mediator between T1 ADHD symptoms (including the unique contributions of inattentive [IA] versus hyperactive/impulsive [HI] symptoms) and T3 depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated the path model specified provided an excellent fit to the data. Tests of indirect effects suggested that T2 ER appears to be a significant mechanism that underlies the relationship between T1 ADHD and T3 depression, even when accounting for T1 oppositional defiant and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, while both T1 IA and HI symptoms had significant indirect effects on T3 depression through the mechanism T2 ER, HI proved a more robust predictor of T2 ER than IA. Results of this prospective study support cross-sectional findings pointing to ER as a potential mechanism linking ADHD and depressive symptoms in youth. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24221724

  19. Emotion regulation mediates the association between ADHD and depressive symptoms in a community sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Iwamoto, Derek K; Kurdziel, Gretchen; Macpherson, Laura

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, emotion regulation (ER) ability, and depressive symptoms within a diverse community sample of 277 youth, ages 9-12 (56 % male). Participants were drawn from a larger study examining adolescent risk behaviors, and completed annual assessments over 3 years. Youth ADHD symptoms were assessed at Time 1 (T1) using the parent-reported Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale, ER was assessed with the parent-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist at Time 2 (T2), and youth depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales at Time 3 (T3). Analyses examined T2 ER as a mediator between T1 ADHD symptoms (including the unique contributions of inattentive [IA] versus hyperactive/impulsive [HI] symptoms) and T3 depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated the path model specified provided an excellent fit to the data. Tests of indirect effects suggested that T2 ER appears to be a significant mechanism that underlies the relationship between T1 ADHD and T3 depression, even when accounting for T1 oppositional defiant and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, while both T1 IA and HI symptoms had significant indirect effects on T3 depression through the mechanism T2 ER, HI proved a more robust predictor of T2 ER than IA. Results of this prospective study support cross-sectional findings pointing to ER as a potential mechanism linking ADHD and depressive symptoms in youth. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24221724

  20. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. PMID:23647329

  1. Sampling approach for characterization of the Scarboro Community, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Scarboro Community is a small urban community in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is located approximately 457 m northwest of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant along the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary. The purpose of this investigation is to validate measurements taken at the perimeter air monitor 46 (located in the Scarboro Community) and external gamma data collected during past flyover surveys. Five sampling tasks will be performed to validate these measurements. These tasks include biased sampling of residential properties, random sampling of residential properties, ORR boundary sampling, focused soil sampling in the Scarboro saddle, and surface water and sediment sampling in the Scarboro tributaries. Additionally, a radiological walkover of representative areas of the Scarboro Community will be performed. The two contaminants of concern are mercury and radionuclides.

  2. Descriptive and Psychometric Properties of the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA) in an Inpatient Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Liu, Richard T; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about why adolescents attempt suicide. The current study examined the endorsement, structure, and clinical correlates of adolescents' suicide attempt motivations as measured by the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA). Suicidal adolescents (n = 52) in a psychiatric unit were administered the IMSA and interviewed about their suicide attempts. Psychache, Hopelessness, and Escape were the most strongly endorsed motivations, and Interpersonal Influence the least endorsed. IMSA scales exhibited a 2-factor solution: 1) Internal and 2) Communication. Suicide intent was strongly correlated with Internal motivations and moderately inversely correlated with Communication motivations. Factor structure and mean endorsements were similar to adult samples. The IMSA is a useful measure to assess attempt motivations in adolescents. PMID:27046630

  3. Descriptive and Psychometric Properties of the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA) in an Inpatient Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    May, Alexis M.; O'Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Liu, Richard T.; Klonsky, E. David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about why adolescents attempt suicide. The current study examined the endorsement, structure, and clinical correlates of adolescents' suicide attempt motivations as measured by the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA). Methods Suicidal adolescents (n = 52) in a psychiatric unit were administered the IMSA and interviewed about their suicide attempts. Results Psychache, Hopelessness, and Escape were the most strongly endorsed motivations, and Interpersonal Influence the least endorsed. IMSA scales exhibited a two-factor solution: 1) Internal and 2) Communication. Suicide intent was strongly correlated with Internal motivations and moderately inversely correlated with Communication motivations. Factor structure and mean endorsements were similar to adult samples. Conclusions The IMSA is a useful measure to assess attempt motivations in adolescents. PMID:27046630

  4. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razzak, Rima; Elmteri, Asma; Elkanderi, Taiba; Ishaq, Fareedah; Eljasem, Munera; AlDuraie, Saja; Al-Boloushi, Jenan; Elbanay, Fatma; Eldabos, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between blood pressure (BP) and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years) participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3%) with mean age of 15.61 ± 2.40 years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75%) with mean age of 15.02 ± 2.82 years. The mean BMI was 21.7 ± 2.23 kg/m2 for the nonobese group and 34.47 ± 4.70 kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; P < 0.0001). In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; P = 0.66). For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5%) and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%). Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman r = 0.18; P < 0.05), with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman r = 0.22; P < 0.05) and mean BP (Spearman r = 0.21; P < 0.05) in females. PMID:24349766

  5. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  6. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  7. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G

    2015-06-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  9. Disordered Eating, Compulsive Exercise, and Sport Participation in a UK Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The sport literature has produced equivocal results as to whether sport participation is a protective or risk factor for disordered eating. One mechanism by which it could be a risk factor is the increased drive or compulsion to exercise. This study compared the levels of disordered eating and compulsive exercise between adolescent sport and non-sport participants. A sample of 417 male and female adolescents, aged 14-16 years old, was recruited from UK secondary schools. Participants completed questionnaire packs that included: the Eating Disorder Inventory; a measure of exercise behaviour; and the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET). Non-sport participants reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than sport participants, and this was true for boys and girls. Significant group differences were also reported for many of the CET scales, with sport participants generally reporting greater levels of compulsive exercise than non-sport participants. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26892196

  10. Sociocultural experiences of bulimic and non-bulimic adolescents in a school-based Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those in the BN group reported higher levels of appearance pressure from their network of close relationships and mass media, appearance comparisons and conversations, and fear of negative appearance evaluation. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis based seven predictors resulted in the correct identification of 82.7% of respondents, including 83.7% of the BN group and 81.7% of controls. Responses on sociocultural measures, especially those reflecting appearance pressure, added to the classification rate, after controlling for body mass index and household socioeconomic status. When repeated within each sex, classification accuracy was 90.3% for girls and 86.1% for boys. This study establishes clear links between sociocultural influences and BN among urban adolescent girls and boys living in the People's Republic of China. PMID:19707866

  11. Polyvictimization and its relationship to symptoms of psychopathology in a southern European sample of adolescent outpatients.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lister, M Soledad; Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between accumulated experiences of victimization and symptoms of psychopathology in 132 adolescent outpatients aged 12-17 years (M=14.27; SD=1.42). The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report were used to analyze polyvictimization and symptoms of psychopathology, respectively. The interviews were conducted between December 2009 and May 2012. Cluster analysis identified a subgroup of polyvictimized patients (n=17) whose general psychological impairment was significantly worse and who presented significantly more externalizing and internalizing symptoms in comparison to the rest of the sample. This difference remained significant when taking into account the clinical severity of these symptoms. These results should be taken into account when assessing and treating adolescent outpatients, for whom an adequate prognosis must be made in line with their experiences and distress. Both the self-report technique and the statistical procedure used have been shown to be suitable for identifying victimization experiences in outpatients, although this new evidence requires confirmation in future research. PMID:24112849

  12. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  14. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  15. A target sample of adolescents and reward processing: same neural and behavioral correlates engaged in common paradigms?

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Mann, Karl; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2012-11-01

    Adolescence is a transition period that is assumed to be characterized by increased sensitivity to reward. While there is growing research on reward processing in adolescents, investigations into the engagement of brain regions under different reward-related conditions in one sample of healthy adolescents, especially in a target age group, are missing. We aimed to identify brain regions preferentially activated in a reaction time task (monetary incentive delay (MID) task) and a simple guessing task (SGT) in a sample of 14-year-old adolescents (N = 54) using two commonly used reward paradigms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during the MID with big versus small versus no win conditions and the SGT with big versus small win and big versus small loss conditions. Analyses focused on changes in blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts during reward and punishment processing in anticipation and feedback phases. We found clear magnitude-sensitive response in reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum during anticipation in the MID task, but not in the SGT. This was also true for reaction times. The feedback phase showed clear reward-related, but magnitude-independent, response patterns, for example in the anterior cingulate cortex, in both tasks. Our findings highlight neural and behavioral response patterns engaged in two different reward paradigms in one sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents and might be important for reference in future studies investigating reward and punishment processing in a target age group. PMID:23108370

  16. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns. PMID:27138817

  17. Differentiation between Bulimia and Food Addiction in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webbe, Frank M.; Clontz, Joanne

    Most studies of bulimics have used an identified, clinical sample of individuals who have been evaluated and diagnosed by professional mental health workers. In this study, self-reported food addicts completed a questionnaire that assessed demographic as well as behavioral and cognitive factors related to their eating. The intent was to describe…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Teacher SKAMP Ratings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Desiree W.; Bussing, Regina; Fernandez, Melanie; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Swanson, James M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the basic psychometric properties of the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Scale (SKAMP), a measure intended to assess functional impairment related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a sample of 1,205 elementary students. Reliability, factor structure, and convergent, discriminant and predictive validity…

  19. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services. PMID:25533404

  20. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  1. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed. PMID:25929139

  2. Validation of the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25) in adolescent psychiatric inpatient samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Peter M; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wong, Jane L; Osman, Augustine; Norizuki, Tamami

    2012-01-01

    Resilience has been associated with a markedly decreased chance for risky behaviors following a trauma or other negative life event. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of resilience, the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25; Osman et al., 2004 ), among psychiatric inpatient adolescents. In Study 1, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis to provide additional empirical support for the structure and invariance of the 3-factor model of the SRI-25 in youth samples, ages 14 to 17 years (N = 152 boys, 220 girls). Scale reliability analyses provided good evidence for internal consistency reliability of scores on the SRI-25 total and scales. In Study 2 (N = 30 boys, 40 girls), we presented data in support for the concurrent validity (i.e., known groups) of scores on the SRI-25. Additionally, we identified potential correlates for the SRI-25 total scale scores. PMID:22176266

  3. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Tettey, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents who took part in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We used the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to assess these relationships. Results Exposure to elevated depressive symptoms in late adolescence, but not in adulthood, was associated with increased odds of LBW by more than 2-fold in early and young adulthoods (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.56, 3.08). Depressive symptoms in early adulthood were independently associated with increased odds of PTB and were higher for black mothers. Maternal race modified the relationship between consistent reporting of depressive symptoms in adolescence and LBW or PTB in adulthood. Conclusion This study provides compelling evidence that effects of elevated depressive symptomatology on LBW or PTB appear to be linked to a specific development period in adolescence. National policies to address social inequalities and stratification particularly in health at all stages of human development, will provide an important step in reducing depressive symptoms prior to early adulthood and in pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:26844093

  4. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  5. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization. PMID:25465317

  6. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2014-12-15

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  7. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Santiago-Fernández, María José; Garrido-Casals, Olivia; Sánchez, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain. Methods: The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years) with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question “How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?”. Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Results: Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5–85), there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight); 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ2 = 3.957, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among older ones. Misperception of being overweight is associated with a less positive body image, and the perception of being very underweight is associated with higher scores for general psychopathology. PMID:21792323

  8. Ethnic Variation in Body Composition Assessment in a Sample of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid measure of body composition in a multiethnic sample of adolescent girls, as compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Method Data were from a physical activity intervention study among 276 14–20 year-old sedentary American girls, including 74 whites, 85 blacks, 46 Hispanics, and 71 Asians. Height and weight were objectively measured. Body composition was assessed using a foot-to-foot BIA and a fan-beam DXA. Linear regression models quantified baseline cross-sectional estimates of percent body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index and their BIA-DXA differences, which we considered an estimate of bias. Variation in BIA-DXA by ethnicity and DXA-assessed adiposity was examined with tests of statistical interaction. Results Compared to DXA measurement, BIA significantly underestimated percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass index, and overestimated fat-free mass and fat-free mass index in each ethnic group. There was significant ethnic variation in BIA-DXA bias: percent body fat was underestimated by between 4.8% in blacks and 8.6% in Asians (p-value, interaction<0.001), as were fat mass (p-value=0.012) and fat mass index (p-value<0.001); fat-free mass index was overestimated (p-value=0.002). The degree of ethnic-specific bias varied according to DXA-assessed body composition values. For example, there was relatively greater ethnic variation in bias estimating percent body fat at lower DXA-assessed percent body fat values. Conclusion Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated measures of adiposity in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Further, BIA-DXA bias varied by ethnicity and across measures of adiposity. PMID:21749194

  9. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    PubMed Central

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Results Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. Conclusions It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation. PMID:26813354

  10. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. PMID:26456085

  11. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: factor validity and reliability in a French sample of adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were involved in two studies. In study 1, the content, phrasing and answering format of the CES-D were adapted for adolescents with ID. This instrument was renamed CES-D for ID (CES-D-ID) and two different versions based on two alternative answer scales (Likert and Likert-graphical) were developed and their psychometric properties were verified in study 2. The results provided support for the factor validity, reliability and invariance across gender and age of a 14-item version of the CES-D-ID based on a Likert-graphical answer scale. PMID:21530161

  12. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups. PMID:24469301

  13. Validation of the NIMH-ChEFS adolescent face stimulus set in an adolescent, parent, and health professional sample.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Marika C; Trubanova, Andrea; Richey, J Anthony; White, Susan W; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H; Pine, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    Attention to faces is a fundamental psychological process in humans, with atypical attention to faces noted across several clinical disorders. Although many clinical disorders onset in adolescence, there is a lack of well-validated stimulus sets containing adolescent faces available for experimental use. Further, the images comprising most available sets are not controlled for high- and low-level visual properties. Here, we present a cross-site validation of the National Institute of Mental Health Child Emotional Faces Picture Set (NIMH-ChEFS), comprised of 257 photographs of adolescent faces displaying angry, fearful, happy, sad, and neutral expressions. All of the direct facial images from the NIMH-ChEFS set were adjusted in terms of location of facial features and standardized for luminance, size, and smoothness. Although overall agreement between raters in this study and the original development-site raters was high (89.52%), this differed by group such that agreement was lower for adolescents relative to mental health professionals in the current study. These results suggest that future research using this face set or others of adolescent/child faces should base comparisons on similarly-aged validation data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26359940

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Acne Vulgaris: A Community-based Study with Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong Eun; Cho, Sun-Mi; In, Sung-Il; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Sungnack

    2009-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects the majority of adolescents, but the impact of acne vulgaris on the psychological aspects in this age group is poorly understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acne, and the level of emotional, social, and functional impairments among Korean adolescents with acne. Methods Five hundred four middle school students (13~16 years) participated. The severity of acne was graded by visual examination using the Korean Acne Grading System. Self-reported questionnaires, including subjective acne severity rating, the Self Image Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Index of Peer Relations, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess psychologic status. Results There was a prevalence of acne in 78.9% of the study samples, with 10.2% of students having moderate-to-severe acne. Acne was more prevalent and severe in boys than girls. Participants with severe acne and girls had higher levels of emotional and social impairments. The longer the acne persisted, the more stress the students felt. The degree of stress and extent of self-image impairment were related to subjective severity more than objective grading. Conclusion Acne is a common disorder among Korean adolescents and appears to have a considerable impact on mental health. Dermatologists should be aware of the importance of basic psychosomatic treatment in conjunction with early medical, educational intervention in the management of acne. PMID:20523769

  15. Adolescents' Psychological Response to the Experience of Community Interpersonal Violence: A Cross-National and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2006-01-01

    A comparative cross-national study investigating the level of experience with community interpersonal violence, level of psychological distress, and the relationship between exposure and distress among adolescents is presented. Participants were 617 first-year college students comprising African Americans and Jamaican Americans living in New York…

  16. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B.; David, Susan L.; Rao, Suman A.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) published the first edition of "Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide" to share the latest NIDA-funded prevention research findings with parents, educators, and community leaders. The guide introduced the concept of "research-based prevention" with questions…

  17. The Role of Stressful Life Events in the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence--A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaktaar, Trine; Borge, Anne Inger Helmen; Fundingsrud, Hans Petter; Christie, Helen Johnsen; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Depressive symptoms were measured in a cohort of community-based adolescents (n=163) at two time-points, with 1 year intervening. At Time 2, participants also answered a scale about past-year stressful life events. Depressive symptoms increased from Time 1 to Time 2, the effect being stronger for girls than for boys. Depressive symptoms were…

  18. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  19. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  20. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  1. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  2. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  3. Effects of the Communities That Care Model in Pennsylvania on Change in Adolescent Risk and Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Damon; Greenberg, Mark T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Bontempo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the public health burden of adolescent substance use, delinquency, and other problem behavior, few comprehensive models of disseminating evidence-based prevention programs to communities have demonstrated positive youth outcomes at a population level, capacity to maintain program fidelity, and sustainability. We examined whether the Communities That Care (CTC; Hawkins and Catalano 1992) model had a positive impact on risk/protective factors and academic and behavioral outcomes among adolescents in a quasi-experimental effectiveness study. We conducted a longitudinal study of CTC in Pennsylvania utilizing biannual surveillance data collected through anonymous in-school student surveys. We utilized multilevel models to examine CTC impact on change in risk/protective factors, grades, delinquency, and substance use over time. Youth in CTC communities demonstrated less growth in delinquency, but not substance use, than youth in non-CTC communities. Levels of risk factors increased more slowly, and protective factors and academic performance decreased more slowly, among CTC community grade-cohorts that were exposed to evidence-based, universal prevention programs than comparison grade cohorts. Community coalitions can affect adolescent risk and protective behaviors at a population level when evidence-based programs are utilized. CTC represents an effective model for disseminating such programs. PMID:20020209

  4. Prolonged grief disorder and depression in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Richter, Anne; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine rates and risk factors for prolonged grief and to investigate the association between prolonged grief and depression. The authors interviewed a heterogeneous bereaved sample of 61 Germans, 6 of whom had prolonged grief and depression, respectively. The 2 syndromes were strongly linked to one another. Risk factors for prolonged grief were being a woman and having high levels of religious beliefs and low levels of satisfaction with one's religious beliefs, emotional closeness to the deceased, and unanticipated loss. Symptoms of prolonged grief may endure years post-loss and often overlap with depression. PMID:24758218

  5. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  6. Psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Inventory in community and clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Figueras Masip, Anna; Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Benito, Juana; del Barrio Gándara, Victoria

    2010-11-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the Children's Depression Inventory, CDI (Kovacs, 1992) in a sample of 1705 participants (792 boys and 913 girls) and a clinical sample of 102 participants (42 boys and 60 girls) between 10 and 18 years old are presented. Reliability coefficients range, for both samples, from .82 (test) to .84 (retest) in the community sample, and .85 (test, clinical sample); test-retest reliability is .81 in the community sample. The mean scores are similar to other Spanish and English ones. Girls score higher than boys. The cut-off point that best differentiates between depressive and community participants is 19, with a sensitivity of 94.7%, a specificity of 95.6%, a positive predictive value of .90, and a negative predictive value of .98. PMID:20977046

  7. How does emotional wellbeing relate to underachievement in a general population sample of young adolescents: a neurocognitive perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    Underachievement in school during early adolescence predicts future economic and personal difficulties. Particular neurocognitive skills on the domain of executive functions start to mature during adolescence. This fact and the physical and psychological changes typical for the transition from childhood to adulthood make adolescents vulnerable to emotional problems. The current study investigated the relationship between mild emotional problems which are highly prevalent among adolescents and underachievement in school, and the role of neurocognitive functioning in this relation. This study was conducted in a substantial sample of typical developing young adolescents who just made the transition to secondary education. Pupils were on average 12.5 years old (standard deviation 0.5), and 45% of the included sample were girls. Emotional wellbeing was associated with underachievement [Odds ratio (OR) 5.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06–8.68] after adjusting for background variables. Self-reported neurocognitive functioning partly explained the relation between emotional wellbeing and underachievement (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.23–3.99), yet, emotional wellbeing remained statistically associated with underachievement after correcting for additional confounders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.08–3.66). The observed findings suggest that emotional wellbeing plays an essential role in underachievement during the first year of secondary education. PMID:24098291

  8. Social Network Status and Depression among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C. Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10th graders to incorporate social network data into a multilevel regression model of depressive symptoms. We found that, in this sample, being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Social network centrality was significantly associated with depression; those adolescents who were less connected were more likely to suffer from depression. The risk of depression for those who were marginal members of classroom social networks was substantial. These findings suggest that a social network perspective could help to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at preventing adolescent depression. PMID:23226988

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Behavioral Disinhibition in a Selected Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P; Haberstick, Brett C; Young, Susan E; Demmitt, Brittany A; Howrigan, Daniel P; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew C; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J; Stallings, Michael C; Crowley, Thomas J; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K; McQueen, Matthew B

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3 % of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p = 0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p ≤ 2.0 × 10(-6)). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  10. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but

  11. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  12. Mentally Retarded Adolescents' Breadth of Attention and Short-Term Memory Processes during Matching-to-Sample Discriminations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Processes contributing to matching-to-sample deficits were investigated with 22 moderately and severely mentally retarded adolescents. Although nonretarded subjects performed better on immediate and delayed retention tests, there was no difference in rate of forgetting, and rehearsal improved delayed test performance equally for both groups.…

  13. Examination of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in a Mixed-Gender Young-Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural…

  14. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  15. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  16. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette. PMID:24106145

  17. In-School versus Out-of-School Friendships and Academic Achievement among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Much of the research on adolescent friendships and school achievement has focused on in-school friends, ignoring the potential effects of having out-of-school friendships. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between having relatively more in-school friends and school achievement among a sample of over 600 12th grade students from…

  18. Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug/Alcohol-Facilitated and Incapacitated Sexual Assault in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…

  20. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  1. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo E; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries ("LMICs"). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program ("TEP"), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP's implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP's social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program's goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program's cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID:26283972

  2. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  3. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The objective of the National Water-Quality Assessment characterization of fish community structure is to relate fish community characteristics to physical, chemical, and other biological factors to assess water-quality conditions. To accomplish this, fish community structure is described at sites representing selected environmental settings. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure are examined at local, regional, and national levels. A representative sample of the fish community is collected by sampling a stream reach using two complementary methods. The primary collection method is electrofishing using backpack, towed, or boat-operated electrofishing gear; seining is a secondary technique. Other secondary techniques may be substituted after careful consideration of sampling efficiency and consultation with local fish ecologists. Before fish sampling is conducted, careful consideration must be given to collecting permits; protecting endangered, threatened, and special-concern species; and coordinating sampling efforts with other fish ecologists. After the sample is collected, individual fish are identified to species by ichthyologists. Length and weight measurements are taken, and the presence of external anomalies are recorded.

  4. Effects of the Communities That Care System on Cross-Sectional Profiles of Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Fagan, Abigail A.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent substance use and delinquency are major public health problems. Although community–based prevention strategies have been recommended to produce population-level reductions in rates of substance use and delinquency, few models show evidence of effectiveness. Purpose To test the efficacy of a community–based prevention system, Communities That Care (CTC), in reducing community rates of problem behaviors, particularly effects on specific profiles of adolescent substance use and delinquency in eighth and tenth graders. Methods Twenty-four communities were randomized to CTC intervention or control groups. Data were collected from 14,099 eighth and tenth grade students in these communities using anonymous cross-sectional surveys in 2004 and 2010 and analyzed in 2012. Outcomes were four different profiles of self–reported substance use and delinquency in eighth grade and five profiles in tenth grade. Results In the cross-sectional 2010 data, there was no intervention effect on the probability of experimenting with substances or of substance use coupled with delinquent activities for either grade. However, tenth graders in intervention communities were significantly less likely to be alcohol users than those in control communities (OR=0.69, CI=0.48, 1.00). Conclusions Cross–sectional population surveys showed evidence of CTC effects in reducing tenth grade alcohol users but not experimenters. A community-wide reduction in adolescent alcohol use is important because alcohol is the most commonly used illicit substance during adolescence, and early initiation of alcohol use has been associated with alcohol-related disorders in adulthood. Failure to find hypothesized effects on experimenters qualifies these results. PMID:24986217

  5. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  6. Background for Community Level Work on Educational Adjustment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.

    Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…

  7. Evaluation of water sampling methodologies for amplicon-based characterization of bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Reduction in costs of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed unprecedented characterization of bacterial communities from environmental samples including aquatic ecosystems. However, the extent to which extrinsic factors including sampling volume, sample replication, DNA extraction kits, and sequencing target affect the community structure inferred are poorly explored. Here, triplicate 1, 2, and 6L volume water samples from the Upper Mississippi River were processed to determine variation among replicates and sample volumes. Replicate variability significantly influenced differences in the community α-diversity (P=0.046), while volume significantly changed β-diversity (P=0.037). Differences in phylogenetic and taxonomic community structure differed both among triplicate samples and among the volumes filtered. Communities from 2L and 6L water samples showed similar clustering via discriminant analysis. To assess variation due to DNA extraction method, DNA was extracted from triplicate cell pellets from four sites along the Upper Mississippi River using the Epicentre Metagenomic DNA Isolation Kit for Water and MoBio PowerSoil kit. Operational taxonomic units representing ≤14% of sequence reads differed significantly among all sites and extraction kits used, although differences in diversity and community coverage were not significant (P≥0.057). Samples characterized using only the V6 region had significantly higher coverage and lower richness and α-diversity than those characterized using V4-V6 regions (P<0.001). Triplicate sampling of at least 2L of water provides robust representation of community variability, and these results indicate that DNA extraction kit and sequencing target displayed taxonomic biases that did not affect the overall biological conclusions drawn. PMID:25956022

  8. The Long Arm of Community: The Influence of Childhood Community Contexts across the Early Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Noh, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal effects of childhood community contexts on young adult outcomes. The study uses a sample of 14,000 adolescents (52% female) derived from the 1990 US Census and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Addhealth). The study examines whether community and family environments exert separate and/or…

  9. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old. Results Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled. Unexpectedly, early childhood eating problems were not associated with later eating problems. Conclusions The possible role of sleep in the development of eating problems needs further investigation. In particular, mediating mechanisms should be studied more closely. PMID:24999414

  10. An Independent Replication of the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach With Justice-Involved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Wevodau, Amy L.; Henderson, Susan E.; Colbourn, Scholar L.; Gharagozloo, Laadan; North, Lindsey W.; Lotts, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Substance use disorders among youth remain a serious public health problem. Although research has overwhelmingly supported the use of evidenced-based interventions, one of the primary limitations of the current evidence base is that for the vast majority of treatments, the developers of the treatments are also the ones conducting research on them, raising the possibility of allegiance bias. Methods The present study was an independently conducted randomized controlled trial (n =126) comparing an evidenced-based treatment for adolescent substance use, Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), and assertive continuing care (ACC), to services as usual (SAU) provided by a juvenile probation department. Latent growth curve modeling was used to compare the treatments on change in substance use assessed by the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months following treatment entry. Results All youth evidenced a substantial reduction in substance use frequency and substance-related problems following treatment; however, youth treated with A-CRA/ACC evidenced a substantially greater decrease in substance-related problems. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Results are consistent with studies conducted by A-CRA/ACC model developers supporting the effectiveness of the clinical approach and, because the outcomes resulted from an independent replication, are encouraging for the transportation potential of A-CRA/ACC. PMID:26992083

  11. [Exposure to violence among adolescents in a low-income community in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Deborah Pedrosa; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Luna, Geisy Lanne Muniz; e Silva, Juliana Guimarães; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa

    2013-05-01

    This a cross-sectional study made in Fortaleza, Ceará, 2009, which included 458 teenagers and analyzed their exposure to violence, describing their access to weapons, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use and their self-esteem by investigating their socio-economic, school and family characteristics and exposure to the phenomenon. A questionnaire and/or structured interviews were used for data collection, and analysis involved Pearson's chi-square test, with 95% reliability. Of the 458 participants, 17.7% were considered to be exposed to criminal violence. Significant variables for exposure to violence included: place of birth (p = 0.020), years of schooling (p = 0,009), school absenteeism (p < 0.001), the father as the head of the family (p = 0.026), alcohol-addicted parents (p < 0.001), good/very good family relationships (p = 0.009), and parents' dissatisfaction with their children's friends (p < 0.001). Thus, it is necessary that public policies focus on a support network for care of adolescents and that urban centers organize themselves socially and politically in the quest for understanding the effects of exposure to violence among adolescents in low-income communities. PMID:23670455

  12. SLEEP AND GAMBLING SEVERITY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF GAMBLERS

    PubMed Central

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Lin, Stephanie; Collard, Michael; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep has been extensively studied in substance related disorders, it has yet to be examined as thoroughly in gambling-related disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gambling severity and sleep disturbances in a sample of non-treatment seeking gamblers (N = 96) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Mean ESS scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 4.13, 5.81, and 8.69, respectively, with a significant difference between pathological gamblers and both problem (P = .007) and recreational gamblers (P < .001). Mean PSQI scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 3.35, 5.30, and 5.44, respectively, with a significant difference in sleep quality between recreational and problem gamblers (P = .018), as well as recreational and pathological gamblers (P = .008). As the first study to use objective sleep measures, these findings will not only increase awareness of this relationship, but also provide a foundation on which others can investigate the benefits of screening and adjunct treatment for sleep disorders in the gambling population. PMID:22356670

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. PMID:24850143

  14. Features of Online Health Communities for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yun-Xian; O’Connor, Brendan H.; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine diabetes online health communities (OHCs) available to adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We sought to identify and classify site features and relate them to evidence-based processes for improving self-management. We reviewed 18 OHCs and identified the following five feature categories: social learning and networking, information, guidance, engagement, and personal health data sharing. While features that have been associated with improved self-management were present, such as social learning, results suggest that more guidance or structure would be helpful to ensure that those processes were focused on promoting positive beliefs and behaviors. Enhancing guidance-related features and structure to existing OHCs could provide greater opportunity for effective diabetes self-management support. To support clinical recommendations, more research is needed to quantitatively relate features and participation in OHCs to patient outcomes. PMID:24473058

  15. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  16. Using social marketing to create communities for our children and adolescents that do not model and encourage drinking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C

    2014-11-01

    Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding 'community-based' interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which 'community' interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few interventions that sought to comprehensively address social norms at a community level. We need to move (research and interventions) beyond narrowly-focused efforts targeting teens and their parents; it is only when we address alcohol consumption at a population level that we will be able to provide an environment for children and adolescents which does not model (excessive) drinking as a normative social behavior. PMID:25460909

  17. Community-Level Successes and Challenges to Implementing Adolescent Sex Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Maura; Resseguie, Jamie; Smith, Hannah; Woodcox, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Best practices for adolescent sex education recommend science-based approaches. However, little is known about the capacity and needs of organizations who implement sex education programs on the local level. The purpose of this research was to describe successes and challenges of community organizations in implementing science-based sex education. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed program directors and educators in 17 state-funded adolescent pregnancy prevention/sex education programs as part of a larger mixed methods evaluation. Semi-structured interviews focused on success and challenges faced in implementing science-based approaches to program design, implementation and evaluation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. Grantees included a range of programs, from short programs on puberty and HIV for late elementary students, to skills-based curricular sex education programs for high schools, to year-long youth development programs. Key aspects of curricular choice included meeting the needs of the population, and working within time constraints of schools and other community partners. Populations presenting specific challenges included rural youth, youth in juvenile justice facilities, and working with Indiana's growing Latino population. Programs self-developing curricula described challenges related to assessment and evaluation of impact. Programs using commercial curricula described challenges related to curricular selection and adaptation, in particularly shortening curricula, and adapting to different cultural or social groups. A remarkable degree of innovation was observed. The use of qualitative methods permitted the identification of key challenges and successes in a state-sponsored small grants program. Information can be used to enhance program capacity and quality. PMID:20180004

  18. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse and a Bulimic Behavior: Findings from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom

    Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…

  19. Sample Preparation for Fungal Community Analysis by High-Throughput Sequencing of Barcode Amplicons.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Ihrmark, Katarina; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Lindahl, Björn D

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species participate in vast numbers of processes in the landscape around us. However, their often cryptic growth, inside various substrates and in highly diverse species assemblages, has been a major obstacle to thorough analysis of fungal communities, hampering exhaustive description of the fungal kingdom. Recent technological developments allowing rapid, high-throughput sequencing of mixed communities from many samples at once are currently having a tremendous impact in fungal community ecology. Universal DNA extraction followed by amplification and sequencing of fungal species-level barcodes such as the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region now enable identification and relative quantification of fungal community members across well-replicated experimental settings. Here, we present the sample preparation procedure presently used in our laboratory for fungal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplified ITS2 markers. We focus on the procedure optimized for studies of total fungal communities in humus-rich soils, wood, and litter. However, this procedure can be applied to other sample types and markers. We focus on the laboratory-based part of sample preparation, that is, the procedure from the point where samples enter the laboratory until amplicons are submitted for sequencing. Our procedure comprises four main parts: (1) universal DNA extraction, (2) optimization of PCR conditions, (3) production of tagged ITS amplicons, and (4) preparation of the multiplexed amplicon mix to be sequenced. The presented procedure is independent of the specific high-throughput sequencing technology used, which makes it highly versatile. PMID:26791497

  20. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model. PMID:26356806

  1. Abuse, depressive symptoms, executive functioning, and overgeneral memory among a psychiatric sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized. PMID:22432507

  2. Is accuracy of weight perception associated with health risk behaviors in a diverse sample of obese adolescents?

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Clare M; Daly, Brian P; Eichen, Dawn M

    2011-12-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180 participants in the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Health behaviors of obese students self-identifying as very or slightly overweight were compared to obese students who underestimated their weight status. Accurate self-identifiers of weight status were significantly more likely to report trying to lose weight, bullying victimization, and suicide attempts as compared to obese students underestimating their weight status. Findings suggest that it is important for school nurses to understand that perceived weight status confers distinct risk profiles and differing needs for health-related services related to the physical, mental, and social health of adolescents. PMID:21976189

  3. A review of generalist and specialist community health workers for delivering adolescent health services in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health of adolescents is increasingly seen as an important international priority because the world’s one point eight billion young people (aged 10 to 24 years) accounts for 15.5% of the global burden of disease and are disproportionately located in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, an estimated 70% of premature adult deaths are attributable to unhealthy behaviors often initiated in adolescence (such as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity). In order for health services to reach adolescents in LMICs, innovative service delivery models need to be explored and tested. This paper reviews the literature on generalist and specialist community health workers (CHWs) to assess their potential for strengthening the delivery of adolescent health services. Methods We reviewed the literature on CHWs using Medline (PubMed), EBSCO Global Health, and Global Health Archive. Search terms (n = 19) were sourced from various review articles and combined with subject heading ‘sub-Saharan Africa’ to identify English language abstracts of original research articles on generalist and specialist CHWs. Results A total of 106 articles, from 1985 to 2012, and representing 24 African countries, matched our search criteria. A single study in sub-Saharan Africa used CHWs to deliver adolescent health services with promising results. Though few comprehensive evaluations of large-scale CHW programs exist, we found mixed evidence to support the use of either generalist or specialist CHW models for delivering adolescent health services. Conclusions This review found that innovative service delivery approaches, such as those potentially offered by CHWs, for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking, CHW programs have proliferated despite the absence of high quality evaluations, rigorous studies to establish the comparative effectiveness of generalist versus specialist CHW programs are needed, and further investigation of the role of CHWs in

  4. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  5. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  6. Relationships between community social capital and injury in Canadian adolescents: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Pickett, William; Alvarado, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    Background Characteristics of social environments are potential risk factors for adolescent injury. Impacts of social capital on the occurrence of such injuries have rarely been explored. Methods General health questionnaires were completed by 8910 youth aged 14 years and older as part of the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. These were supplemented with community-level data from the 2006 Canada Census of Population. Multilevel logistic regression models with random intercepts were fit to examine associations of interest. The reliability and validity of variables used in this analysis had been established in past studies, or in new analyses that employed factor analysis. Results Between school differences explained 2% of the variance in the occurrence of injuries. After adjustment for all confounders, community social capital did not have any impact on the occurrence of injuries in boys: OR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.29. However, living in areas with low social capital was associated with lower occurrence of injuries in girls (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.96). Other factors that were significantly related to injuries in both genders were younger age, engagement in more risky behaviours, and negative behavioural influences from peers. Conclusions After simultaneously taking into account the influence of community-level and individual-level factors, community levels of social capital remained a relatively strong predictor of injury among girls but not boys. Such gender effects provide important clues into the social aetiology of youth injury. PMID:26294708

  7. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed. PMID:25564037

  8. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  9. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  10. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner. PMID:24344782

  11. The Association Between Smoking and Unhealthy Behaviors Among a National Sample of Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between smoking and participation in unhealthy behaviors among Mexican-American adolescents. Analysis of data from the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey indicated that Mexican-American adolescents who smoke may be at higher risk for engaging in behaviors that could compromise their health and safety and for not…

  12. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  13. Mental Health Needs in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Cross-Sectional Survey of a Service Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Turk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the mental health needs of adolescents with intellectual disability, despite the severity and rates of such needs being high throughout childhood and in adulthood. We have investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health needs and service use in adolescents with intellectual…

  14. Association of Educational Attainment and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde; James, Philip D.; Smyth, Bobby P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores substance use, psychosocial problems, and the relationships to educational status in 193 adolescents (school dropouts, 63; alternative education, 46; mainstream students, 84) who attended a substance abuse treatment facility in Dublin, Ireland, within a 42-month period. For each adolescent, data on demographics, family…

  15. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  17. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents. PMID:16696546

  18. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Initiation into New-Type Drug Use among a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; He, Na; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between adolescent sexual debut and age at new-type drug initiation among a sample of young adult new-type drug users. A total of 276 participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Shanghai, China. The analyses were restricted to a total of 201 participants aged between 18 and 30 years. The average age at sexual debut and age at first new-type drug use were 18.8 and 20.9 years, respectively. About 94% of participants reported having sexual experience (n=188); of those, 137 (72.9%) had sexual debut before they first used new-type drugs, while 32 (17.0%) initiated both events at the same age. After adjustment for age, income, education, and sexual orientation, adolescent sexual debut was independently associated with younger age at new-type drug initiation. Adolescent sexual debut is associated with early onset of new-type drug use. Our findings underscore the importance of implementing sex-education programs for adolescents in schools in China. PMID:26098832

  19. Clinical Correlates of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale in a Sample of Obese Adolescents Seeking Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Christina A.; Sysko, Robyn; Bush, Jennifer; Pearl, Rebecca; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Dovidio, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties and clinical correlates of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) in a sample of obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Sixty five adolescents enrolled in a bariatric surgery program at a large, urban medical center completed psychiatric evaluations, self-report questionnaires including the WBIS and other measures of psychopathology and physical assessments. The WBIS had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .92). As in previous research with adults, the one underlying factor structure was replicated and 10 of the original 11 items were retained. The scale had significant partial correlations with depression (r = .519), anxiety (r = .465), social and behavioral problems (r = .364), quality of life (r = −.480), and eating (r = .579), shape (r = .815), and weight concerns (r = .545), controlling for body mass index. However, WBIS scores did not predict current or past psychiatric diagnosis or treatment or past suicidal ideation. Overall, the WBIS had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of obese treatment-seeking adolescents and correlated significantly with levels of psychopathology. These findings suggest that the WBIS could be a useful tool for healthcare providers to assess internalized weight bias among treatment-seeking obese youth. Assessment of internalized weight bias among this clinical population has the potential to identify adolescents who may benefit from information on coping with weight stigma which in turn can augment weight loss efforts. PMID:21593805

  20. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  1. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J.; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R.; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J.; Wallace, R. John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  2. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  3. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  4. Reliability and validity of rorschach aggression variables with a sample of adjudicated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Samuel J; Porcerelli, John; Abell, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the reliability and validity of 5 Rorschach aggression variables (AG, A1, A2, AgC, and AgPast) in a sample of adjudicated, mostly conduct-disordered adolescents (N = 150). More specifically, we assessed the interrelationships of Rorschach aggression variables using correlational analyses and factor analysis and assessed the relationships between Rorschach variables and a measure of aggressive potential (the Manifest Aggression scale from the Jesness Inventory; Jesness, 1996) as well as a measure of real-world aggression/violence (the Violence Rating Scale-Revised [VRS-R]; Young, Justice, & Erdberg, 1997). Two of Gacono and Meloy's (1994) Rorschach aggression variables were dropped from the study (AgPot and SM) due to a low frequency of occurrence. All 5 of the remaining Rorschach aggression variables and the VRS-R were rated reliably, and factor analysis of the Rorschach variables revealed 2 distinct factors accounting for 71% of the total variance. Only the AgC variable concurrently predicted aggressive potential and aggressive/violent behavior. Results lend further support for the inclusion of AgC in the Comprehensive System's (Exner, 1993) list of Special Scores. PMID:16083382

  5. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups. PMID:25411234

  6. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. METHODS: In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. RESULTS: Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors. PMID:8916523

  7. Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated with Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L.; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ >= 70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition, were associated with greater self-perceived autism-related impairments (n=48), greater rumination (n=21), and lower perceived social support (n=37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n=21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related Insistence on Sameness behaviors (n=18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  8. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exists to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the current study aimed to fill this gap. Methods A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data from 180 transgender patients age 12–29 years seen between 2002–2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM to MTF youth on mental health outcomes. Results The sample (n=360) had a mean age of 19.6 (SD=3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared to cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a two- to three-fold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Conclusions Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared to cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. PMID:25577670

  9. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  10. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  11. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  12. Community mapping and respondent-driven sampling of gay and bisexual men’s communities in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Jamie I; Stevenson, Benjamin; Rich, Ashleigh; Michelow, Warren; Pai, Jayaram; Jollimore, Jody; Raymond, H. Fisher; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests formative research is vital for those using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to study hidden populations of interest. However, few authors have described in detail how different qualitative methodologies can address the objectives of formative research for understanding the social network properties of the study population, selecting seeds, and adapting survey logistics to best fit the population. In this paper we describe the use of community mapping exercises as a tool within focus groups to collect data on social and sexual network characteristics of gay and bisexual men in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Three key themes emerged from analyzing community maps along with other formative research data: (a) connections between physical spaces and social networks of gay and bisexual men, (b) diversity in communities, and (c) substance use connected with formation of sub-communities. We discuss how these themes informed the planning and operations of a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study recruited by RDS. We argue that using community mapping within formative research is a valuable qualitative tool for characterizing network structures of a diverse and differentiated population of gay and bisexual men in a highly developed urban setting. PMID:24512070

  13. Longitudinal family effects on substance use among an at-risk adolescent sample

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Brett A; Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Hunter, Sarah B; Miles, Jeremy NV; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adult and peer factors may influence whether adolescents use alcohol and other drugs (AOD). This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of adult monitoring, perceived adult AOD use, and cultural values on adolescent AOD use. Methods Participants were 193 at-risk adolescents referred to a California diversion program called Teen Court for a first-time AOD offense. We assessed youth reports of past 30 day AOD use (any alcohol use, heavy drinking, marijuana use), demographics, changes in parental monitoring and family values (from baseline to follow-up 180 days later), as well as family structure and perceived adult substance use at follow-up. Results Adolescents who reported that a significant adult in their life used marijuana were more likely to have increased days of drinking, heavy drinking, and marijuana use at follow-up. Higher levels of familism (importance the teen places on their family’s needs over their own needs) and being in a nuclear family served as protective factors for future alcohol use. Additionally, poor family management was associated with increased alcohol use and heavy drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight how family management and perceptions of adult marijuana use influence subsequent adolescent AOD use, and how an increase in familism over time is associated with a decrease in adolescent drinking. Tailoring interventions, by including the teen’s family and/or providing support to adults who use AOD may be crucial for improving interventions for adolescent AOD use. PMID:25452064

  14. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zheng; Lu, Huijie; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community. PMID:25115516

  15. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  16. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11-17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11–17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  19. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  20. Estimating parameters of neutral communities: from one single large to several small samples.

    PubMed

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Ramesh, B R; Etienne, Rampal S

    2007-10-01

    The neutral theory of S. P. Hubbell postulates a two-scale hierarchical framework consisting of a metacommunity following the speciation-drift equilibrium characterized by the "biodiversity number" theta, and local communities following the migration-drift equilibrium characterized by the "migration rate" m (or the "fundamental dispersal number" I). While Etienne's sampling formula allows simultaneous estimation of theta and m from a single sample of a local community, its applicability to a network of (rather small) samples is questionable. We define here an alternative two-stage approach estimating theta from an adequate subset of the individuals sampled in the field (using Ewens' sampling formula) and m from community samples (using Etienne's sampling formula). We compare its results with the simultaneous estimation of theta and m (one-stage estimation), for simulated neutral samples and for 50 1-ha plots of evergreen forest in South India. The one-stage approach exhibits problems of bias and of poor differentiability between high-theta, low-m and low-theta, high-m solution domains. Conversely, the two-stage approach yielded reasonable estimates and is to be preferred when several small, scattered plots are available instead of a single large one. PMID:18027751

  1. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional…

  2. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  3. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Its Relation to Substance Use and Interpersonal Style in a Dutch Sample of Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillege, Sanne; Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine

    2010-01-01

    This study presents evidence on the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument for psychopathic traits in adolescent boys and girls. In a sample of 776 Dutch non-referred adolescents, the YPI was found to have good internal consistency. Furthermore, exploratory…

  4. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  5. The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…

  6. A Comparison of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Measures of Readiness to Change Alcohol Use in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Krenek, Marketa; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Clark, Duncan; Cornelius, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared 3 measures of readiness to change alcohol use commonly used in clinical research and practice with adolescents: the Readiness Ruler, the SOCRATES (subscales of Recognition and Taking Steps), and a Staging Algorithm. The analysis sample consisted of 161 male and female adolescents presenting for intensive outpatient…

  7. Random Sampling Process Leads to Overestimation of β-Diversity of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Deng, Ye; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Benjamin Yamin; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The site-to-site variability in species composition, known as β-diversity, is crucial to understanding spatiotemporal patterns of species diversity and the mechanisms controlling community composition and structure. However, quantifying β-diversity in microbial ecology using sequencing-based technologies is a great challenge because of a high number of sequencing errors, bias, and poor reproducibility and quantification. Herein, based on general sampling theory, a mathematical framework is first developed for simulating the effects of random sampling processes on quantifying β-diversity when the community size is known or unknown. Also, using an analogous ball example under Poisson sampling with limited sampling efforts, the developed mathematical framework can exactly predict the low reproducibility among technically replicate samples from the same community of a certain species abundance distribution, which provides explicit evidences of random sampling processes as the main factor causing high percentages of technical variations. In addition, the predicted values under Poisson random sampling were highly consistent with the observed low percentages of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) overlap (<30% and <20% for two and three tags, respectively, based on both Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indexes), further supporting the hypothesis that the poor reproducibility among technical replicates is due to the artifacts associated with random sampling processes. Finally, a mathematical framework was developed for predicting sampling efforts to achieve a desired overlap among replicate samples. Our modeling simulations predict that several orders of magnitude more sequencing efforts are needed to achieve desired high technical reproducibility. These results suggest that great caution needs to be taken in quantifying and interpreting β-diversity for microbial community analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:23760464

  8. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  9. Psychometric properties of the Reynolds Child Depression Scale in community and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Figueras Masip, Anna; Amador Campos, Juan Antonio; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2008-11-01

    The factor structure of the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989), analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis and the scale's psychometric characteristics in a sample of 315 participants (140 boys and 175 girls) and a clinical sample of 62 participants (37 boys and 25 girls) between 10 and 12 years old, are presented. Two models are tested with confirmatory factor analysis: a one-factor model and a five-factor model. Both models show a good fit, but the one-factor model was chosen because it is the most parsimonious. The reliability coefficient ranged from .87 (at test) to .89 (at retest) in the community sample, and was .90 in the clinical sample (at test). Test-retest reliability was .66 in the community sample. Concurrent validity with other self-reports that measure depressive symptomatology was high, both in the community sample (.76) and the clinical sample (.71). There were no significant sex differences but there were differences due to age (school grade). PMID:18988449

  10. Gay and bisexual adolescent boys' sexual experiences with men: an empirical examination of psychological correlates in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Rind, B

    2001-08-01

    Over the last quarter century the incest model, with its image of helpless victims exploited and traumatized by powerful perpetrators, has come to dominate perceptions of virtually all forms of adult-minor sex. Thus, even willing sexual relations between gay or bisexual adolescent boys and adult men, which differ from father-daughter incest in many important ways, are generally seen by the lay public and professionals as traumatizing and psychologically injurious. This study assessed this common perception by examining a nonclinical, mostly college sample of gay and bisexual men. Of the 129 men in the study, 26 were identified as having had age-discrepant sexual relations (ADSRs) as adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age with adult males. Men with ADSR experiences were as well adjusted as controls in terms of self-esteem and having achieved a positive sexual identity. Reactions to the ADSRs were predominantly positive, and most ADSRs were willingly engaged in. Younger adolescents were just as willing and reacted at least as positively as older adolescents. Data on sexual identity development indicated that ADSRs played no role in creating same-sex sexual interests, contrary to the "seduction" hypothesis. Findings were inconsistent with the incest model. The incest model has come to act as a procrustean bed, narrowly dictating how adult-minor sexual relations quite different from incest are perceived. PMID:11446197

  11. The reliability of psychological instruments in community samples: A cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Shepperd, James A; Emanuel, Amber S; Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta L

    2016-09-01

    Although researchers norm and validate measures of psychological constructs largely on educated samples, they often use these instruments more broadly, assuming generalizability. We examined whether the assumption of generalizability is warranted. We administered three commonly used psychological measures-the Behavioral Activation/Behavioral Inhibition Scale, the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire, and the Need for Cognition Scale-to a community sample (N = 332) with limited education. For the three instruments, five of seven scales/subscales had unsatisfactory reliabilities. Internal consistency was lowest among participants with less education. The results suggest that instruments normed on educated samples may not generalize to uneducated samples. PMID:27535831

  12. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Results Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Conclusion Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that

  13. Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters

    SciTech Connect

    Voordouw, G.; Shen, Y.; Harrington, C.S.; Teland, A.J. ); Jack, T.R. ); Westlake, W.S. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters.

  14. Feasibility of Implementing the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach in School Settings for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Brooke D.; Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, approximately 10% of adolescents in need of treatment for a substance use (SU) disorder receive treatment. School-based treatment may provide an important opportunity to reduce the treatment gap by facilitating access to services. While some school-based SU treatment exists, little is known about whether newer, evidence-based…

  15. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  16. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. PMID:20427154

  17. Progressive Elaboration and Cross-Validation of a Latent Class Typology of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Chung, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most studies of adolescent drinking focus on single alcohol use behaviors (e.g., high-volume drinking, drunkenness) and ignore the patterning of adolescents’ involvement across multiple alcohol behaviors. The present latent class analyses (LCAs) examined a procedure for empirically determining multiple cut points on the alcohol use behaviors in order to establish a typology of adolescent alcohol involvement. Method: LCA was carried out on six alcohol use behavior indicators collected from 6,504 7th through 12th graders who participated in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth). To move beyond dichotomous indicators, a “progressive elaboration” strategy was used, starting with six dichotomous indicators and then evaluating a series of models testing additional cut points on the ordinal indicators at progressively higher points for one indicator at a time. Analyses were performed on one random half-sample, and confirmatory LCAs were performed on the second random half-sample and in the Wave II data. Results: The final model consisted of four latent classes (never or non–current drinkers, low-intake drinkers, non–problem drinkers, and problem drinkers). Confirmatory LCAs in the second random half-sample from Wave I and in Wave II support this four-class solution. The means on the four latent classes were also generally ordered on an array of measures reflecting psychosocial risk for problem behavior. Conclusions: These analyses suggest that there may be four different classes or types of alcohol involvement among adolescents, and, more importantly, they illustrate the utility of the progressive elaboration strategy for moving beyond dichotomous indicators in latent class models. PMID:25978828

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Depression: Test of an Interpersonal Stress Model in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Shih, Josephine H.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    An interpersonal stress model of depression transmission was tested in a community sample of nearly 800 depressed and never-depressed women and their 15-year-old children. It was hypothesized that maternal depression (and depression in the maternal grandmother) contributed to chronic interpersonal stress in the mothers, affecting quality of…

  19. Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

  20. A Typology of Maritally Violent Men and Correlates of Violence in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gyala; John, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tests A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart's (1994) typology of male batterers in a community sample. Analyses based on severity of physical aggression, generality of violence, and psychopathology partially replicated the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart typology by identifying 3 types of violent men: family-only, medium-violence, and generally…

  1. Characteristics and Hypothesized Functions of Challenging Behavior in a Community-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Esch, John W.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Stewart, Kelise K.

    2010-01-01

    An archival study was conducted to document (a) types of challenging behavior, and (b) functional assessment outcomes, for a sample of persons with developmental disabilities who were referred to community-practicing behavior analysts for assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Functional assessment reports, prepared by 17 behavior…

  2. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  3. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  4. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  5. "I Was More Her Mom than She Was Mine": Role Reversal in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayseless, Ofra; Bartholomew, Kim; Henderson, Antonia; Trinke, Shanna

    2004-01-01

    Family processes associated with childhood role reversal and related adult outcomes were examined in a community sample 128 adults using a semistructured interview exploring family, friend, and romantic relationships. Women showed stronger role reversal than men, and role reversal was stronger with mothers than with fathers. Role reversal of women…

  6. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  7. The Columbia Impairment Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Community Mental Health Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the parent version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) in a sample of mothers who brought their children for community mental health (CMH) services (n = 280). Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure…

  8. The Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzieblo, Katarzyna; Verschuere, Bruno; Van den Bussche, Eva; Crombez, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) has revealed two factors: Fearless Dominance, and Self-Centered Impulsivity. This study examined the validity of these PPI-R factors in a community sample (N = 675). First, confirmatory factor analyses did not support the two-factor structure. Second, the PPI-R factors showed good…

  9. Use and Perception of Technology: Sex and Generational Differences in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele; Stapley, Janice C.; Malter, Johnna

    2013-01-01

    A community sample of 431 adults (175 men and 256 women) ages 18 to 91 across three generations (young adults, adults, and older adults) were recruited for the current study. Participants completed a demographic and technology use questionnaire that ascertained their attitudes toward, and use of, various types of technology--such as cellular…

  10. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Hill, Eric D.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although exposure to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) is common among US youths, information on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk associated with PTEs is limited. We estimate lifetime prevalence of exposure to PTEs and PTSD, PTE-specific risk of PTSD, and associations of sociodemographics and temporally-prior DSM-IV disorders with PTE exposure, PTSD given exposure, and PTSD recovery among US adolescents. Method Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescents aged 13–17. Lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence, accidents/injuries, network/witnessing, and other PTEs was assessed along with DSM-IV PTSD and other distress, fear, behavior, and substance disorders. Results A majority (61.8%) of adolescents experienced a lifetime PTE. Lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV PTSD was 4.7% and was significantly higher among females (7.3%) than males (2.2%). Exposure to PTEs, particularly interpersonal violence, was highest among adolescents not living with both biological parents and with pre-existing behavior disorders. Conditional probability of PTSD was highest for PTEs involving interpersonal violence. Predictors of PTSD among PTE-exposed adolescents included female gender, prior PTE exposure, and pre-existing fear and distress disorders. One-third (33.0%) of adolescents with lifetime PTSD continued to meet criteria within 30 days of interview. Poverty, U.S. nativity, bipolar disorder, and PTE exposure occurring after the focal trauma predicted nonrecovery. Conclusions Interventions designed to prevent PTSD in PTE-exposed youths should be targeted at victims of interpersonal violence with pre-existing fear and distress disorders, whereas interventions designed to reduce PTSD chronicity should attempt to prevent secondary PTE exposure. PMID:23880492

  11. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  12. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  13. Bacterial Communities of the Coronal Sulcus and Distal Urethra of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; Fan, Baochang; Katz, Barry P.; Mi, Deming; Rong, Ruichen; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium, Megasphaera, Mobiluncus, Prevotella and Gemella, were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity. PMID:22606251

  14. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire which examined their level of participation in physical activity and sedentary behavior along with a number of potential correlates. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the relationship between hypothesised factors and physical activity. Results: The boys unlike the girls showed significantly higher levels of physical activity (P=0.001). Respondents of both genders who perceive greater benefits from the physical activity (P=0.010). They have more confidence in their abilities (P=0.001), enjoy more in the physical activities (P=0.016), perceive greater social support from friends (P=0.008) and parents (P=0.001) and have higher levels of physical activity. Conclusions: The results indicate the importance of developing a national plan and program to promote physical activity in order to help young people to change unhealthy lifestyle habits and increase the physical activity, thus improving their health. PMID:27252917

  15. Bacterial communities of the coronal sulcus and distal urethra of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Dong, Qunfeng; Van der Pol, Barbara; Toh, Evelyn; Fan, Baochang; Katz, Barry P; Mi, Deming; Rong, Ruichen; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium, Megasphaera, Mobiluncus, Prevotella and Gemella, were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity. PMID:22606251

  16. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Ravolainen, Virve T.; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  17. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  18. Multiple components of fitness improved among overweight and obese adolescents following a community-based lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Abbott, Rebecca A; Olds, Tim S; Straker, Leon M

    2016-08-01

    Fitness is an important component of health, and obese adolescents regularly have poor fitness. Unfortunately, few have assessed the impact of community-based lifestyle interventions on multiple components of fitness. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in a community-based intervention involving adolescents and parents on multiple components of fitness of obese adolescents. In a within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months follow-up in Western Australia, participants (n = 56) completed multiple fitness measures at baseline, immediately prior to beginning an 8-week intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months during a maintenance period. Performance on the shuttle walk was improved immediately post-intervention (increase of 42.8 m, 95% CI: 7.5, 78.2) and at 12 months post-intervention (increase of 44.6 m, 95% CI: 1.3, 87.8) compared with pre-intervention. Muscle performance of quadriceps and deltoids were improved post-intervention (increase of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.1) kg · F and 1.0 (0.02, 2.1) kg · F, respectively) and all muscle performance measures were improved at 12 months following the intervention. There were no changes in waist circumference. A community-based lifestyle programme such as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP) may be a viable strategy for improving fitness in overweight adolescents. PMID:26654751

  19. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  20. Psychometric properties and Confirmatory structure of the Strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja M.; Afolabi, Rotimi F.; Fowobaje, Kayode R.

    2016-01-01

    Though the SDQ has been used in selected studies in Nigeria, its theoretical structure has not been fully and appropriately investigated in the setting. The present study employs Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the theoretical structure of the self-reported version of the SDQ in a sample of adolescents in Benue state, Nigeria. A total of 1,244 adolescents from different categories of secondary schools in Makurdi and Vandekya Local government areas of Benue state participated in the study. Preliminary data analyses were performed using descriptive statistics while the theoretical structure of the SDQ was assessed using EFA and CFA. Model fits were assessed using Chi-square test and other fit indices at 5% significance level. Participants were 14.19±2.45 (Vandekya) and 14.19±2.45 (Makurdi) years old. Results of the EFA and CFA revealed a 3-factor oblique model as the best model for the sample of adolescents studied (χ2/df =2.20, p<0.001) with all fit indices yielding better results. A correlated 3-factor model fits the present data better than the 5-factor theoretical model of the SDQ. The use of the original 5-factor model of the SDQ in the present setting should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27478714