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Sample records for adolescent conduct problems

  1. Infant malnutrition predicts conduct problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Waber, Deborah P.; Hock, Rebecca S.; Harrison, Robert; Eaglesfield, G. David; Fitzmaurice, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of conduct problems in a well-documented sample of Barbadian adolescents malnourished as infants and a demographic comparison group and to determine the extent to which cognitive impairment and environmental factors account for this association. Methods Behavioral symptoms were assessed using a 76-item self-report scale in 56 Barbadian youth (11–17 years of age) with histories of protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) limited to the first year of life and 60 healthy classmates. Group comparisons were carried out by longitudinal and cross-sectional multiple regression analyses at 3 time points in childhood and adolescence. Results Self-reported conduct problems were more prevalent among previously malnourished youth (P < 0.01). Childhood IQ and home environmental circumstances partially mediated the association with malnutrition. Teacher-reported classroom behaviors at earlier ages were significantly correlated with youth conduct problems, confirming the continuity of conduct problems through childhood and adolescence. Discussion Self-reported conduct problems are elevated in children and adolescents with histories of early childhood malnutrition. Later vulnerability to increased conduct problems appears to be mediated by the more proximal neurobehavioral effects of the malnutrition on cognitive function and by adverse conditions in the early home environment. PMID:22584048

  2. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  3. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  4. Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.

  5. Introduction to Special Issue on Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of Behavior Modification is designed to add to the literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of CP displayed by adolescents. Contained in this issue are six empirical articles dealing with important issues on the topic. They provide examples of the richness of clinical problems classified as "conduct problems"…

  6. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452

  7. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  8. Measuring Impulsivity in Adolescents with Serious Substance and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laetitia L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth A.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use and conduct disorders have high rates of aggression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), all of which have been characterized in part by impulsivity. Developing measures that capture impulsivity behaviorally and correlate with self-reported impulsivity has been difficult. One promising behavioral…

  9. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  10. Effects of parenting and deviant peers on early to mid-adolescent conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers' effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters' conduct problems, whereas both fathers' and mothers' influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children's conduct problems during early to mid adolescence.

  11. Longitudinal links between fathers' and mothers' harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

  12. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  13. Intervention Groups for Adolescents with Conduct Problems: Is Aggregation Harmful or Helpful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…

  14. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  15. Evaluation of a Voluntary, Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents With Academic and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Wilson, Nicole L.; Whitemarsh, Savannah M.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a military-style residential treatment program for adolescents with academic and conduct problems. Two hundred twelve referred adolescents were separated into 3 groups for analyses: (a) adolescents who completed the 22-week program, (b) adolescents who prematurely withdrew, and (c) wait-list controls.…

  16. Conduct problems in Russian adolescents: the role of personality and parental rearing.

    PubMed

    Ruchkin, V V; Koposov, R A; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to assess the predictive value of conduct problems prior to the age of 12 for the severity of antisocial behaviour during adolescence, and 2) to investigate the relationships between personality traits/parental rearing and childhood conduct problems/teenage antisocial behaviour. A group of 193 delinquents was assessed by means of the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Retrospective Childhood Problems (RETROPROB), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing. The extreme groups of delinquents as defined by childhood conduct problems, differed significantly on the experience of a rejecting father and a self-directed character. Furthermore, some specific predictive patterns for current antisocial behaviour by childhood conduct disorder and both personality dimensions and parental rearing factors emerged. The findings are discussed in the light of the interactive nature of relations between personality and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behaviour among adolescents.

  17. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  18. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  19. Evaluating the Individual Counseling of Conduct Problem Adolescents: The Goal Attainment Scaling Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Charles A.; Barbrack, Christopher R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) as a potentially useful way of evaluating goal attainment of individual counseling provided to public school adolescents with conduct problems. Presents an application of the GAS method and reports formative evaluation data pertaining to practical and technical properties of the approach. (LLL)

  20. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  1. Relation of Adolescent Mothers' History of Antisocial Behavior to Child Conduct Problems and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the extent to which maternal antisocial behavior (ASB) is directly related to child conduct problems and social competence and assessed the potential mediating role of negative parenting. The sample included 93 adolescent mothers and their children (44 boys, 49 girls). Mothers retrospectively reported about their ASB since the child's…

  2. Consumption of Soft Drinks and Hyperactivity, Mental Distress, and Conduct Problems Among Adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578

  3. The role of strengths in anger and conduct problems in maltreated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Go, Monica; Chu, Chi Meng; Barlas, Joanna; Chng, Grace S

    2017-02-24

    Despite multi-type maltreatment, some individuals demonstrate positive adaptation and continue to develop in a healthy way. A multitude of strength factors have been linked to adaptive functioning and resilience, but this has not been adequately examined in maltreated adolescent's psychosocial functioning. This study sought to examine the role of strengths such as having talents/interests, family relationships, educational support, the role of the recognition and application of these strengths, and the role of multi-type maltreatment on anger control and conduct problems. One hundred and thirty participants (61 males; 69 females) aged 13-19 years old were rated using the Singapore version of Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) tool. The results revealed that certain strengths were associated with anger and conduct problems, but the recognition and application of strengths emerged as a consistently significant predictor for both outcomes. Hence, to understand and apply one's strengths may be equally as important as merely possessing those strengths. This study extends current understanding of the importance of strengths with a group of maltreated adolescents in an Asian context. Adopting a person-centered and strength-based approach will further enhance the effectiveness of interventions and improve outcomes for maltreated adolescents living in residential care.

  4. Short-Term Effects on Family Communication and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Familias Unidas in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Molleda, Lourdes; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Poma, Sofia; Terán, Ana M Quevedo; Tamayo, Cecilia Condo; Bahamon, Monica; Tapia, Maria I; Velázquez, Maria R; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-12-16

    Familias Unidas, a Hispanic/Latino-specific, parent-centered intervention, found to be efficacious in improving family functioning and reducing externalizing behaviors among youth in the USA, was recently adapted and tested for use in Ecuador. This study examined the short-term efficacy of Familias Unidas in Ecuador on parent-adolescent communication, parental monitoring of peers, and youth conduct problems. Two hundred thirty-nine youths (ages 12-14 years) and their primary care givers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed pre- and post-intervention. There was a significant difference between Familias Unidas and Community Practice in conduct problems at 3 months (standardized β = -.101, p = .001, effect size = .262). A significant indirect intervention effect was also detected, indicating that Familias Unidas predicted conduct problems at 3 months through parent-adolescent communication at 3 months (standardized β = -.036, p = .016, CI 95% [-.066, -.007], effect size = .265). Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing conduct problems through improved parent-adolescent communication, relative to Community Practice. Future assessments will determine whether Familias Unidas also has an impact on substance use and sexual risk behaviors at later time points, as demonstrated in past Familias Unidas trials. The short-term effects of the intervention, family engagement, and facilitator skill in the Ecuadorian adaptation of Familias Unidas are promising. This study implies that an intervention developed for Hispanics/Latinos in the USA and culturally adapted and implemented for use by Hispanics/Latinos in a Latin American country can be efficacious in improving family functioning and reducing youth conduct problems.

  5. Salivary oxytocin in adolescents with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Levy, Tomer; Bloch, Yuval; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Djalovski, Amir; Borodkin, Katy; Apter, Alan

    2015-12-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits correlate with the severity and prognosis of conduct disorder in youth. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to prosocial behaviors, including empathy and collaboration with others. This study discusses a possible role for OT in the biology of delinquent behavior. We hypothesized that in delinquent youth OT secretion will correlate with the severity of conduct problems and specifically with the level of CU traits. The study group included 67 male adolescents (mean age 16.2 years) undergoing residential treatment, previously assessed by an open clinical interview and history for the psychiatric diagnosis. Staff based Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits for psychopathy and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered, and patients' medical and social personal files were systematically coded for previous history of antisocial acts using the Brown-Goodwin Questionnaire. Salivary OT was assayed by ELISA. Salivary OT levels were inversely correlated with conduct problems severity on Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (r = -0.27; p ≤ 0.01). Recorded history of antisocial acts did not correlate with current OT levels. Odds ratio (OR) for significant CU traits among subjects with conduct problems was increased in low-OT (OR = 14, p ≤ 0.05) but not in high-OT subjects (OR = 6, p ≥ 0.05). Children with conduct problems and low levels of salivary OT are at risk for significant CU traits. These results suggest a possible role for salivary OT as a biomarker for CU traits and conduct problems severity.

  6. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12–19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a ‘desisting' CP group, an ‘intermediate' CP group and a ‘stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis—comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)—showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  7. A Biopsychosocial Model of the Development of Chronic Conduct Problems in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. This model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment and mediate this risk. A transactional developmental model is best equipped to describe the emergence of chronic antisocial behavior across time. Reciprocal influences among dispositions, contexts, and life experiences lead to recursive iterations across time that exacerbate or diminish antisocial development. Cognitive and emotional processes within the child, including the acquisition of knowledge and social-information-processing patterns, mediate the relation between life experiences and conduct problem outcomes. Implications for prevention research and public policy are noted. PMID:12661890

  8. Relation of adolescent mothers' history of antisocial behavior to child conduct problems and social competence.

    PubMed

    Rhule, Dana M; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    We examined the extent to which maternal antisocial behavior (ASB) is directly related to child conduct problems and social competence and assessed the potential mediating role of negative parenting. The sample included 93 adolescent mothers and their children (44 boys, 49 girls). Mothers retrospectively reported about their ASB since the child's birth, through Grade 2. Negative parenting was coded during a parent-child interaction task (PCIT) at Grade 2. Teachers assessed child outcomes at Grade 3. Maternal ASB during the child's life was directly related to parenting and both child outcomes. In the overall sample, negative parenting partially mediated the relation between maternal ASB and child conduct problems. However, the pattern of relations differed by sex. For boys, maternal ASB was directly related to conduct problems, independent of parenting. For girls, maternal ASB was strongly related to parenting but not conduct problems. Negative parenting did not mediate the relation between maternal ASB and child social competence. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  9. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-Occurring Depression and Conduct Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; Mc Cauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were…

  10. The Association between Conduct Problems and the Initiation and Progression of Marijuana Use during Adolescence: A Genetic Analysis across Time

    PubMed Central

    Lifford, Kate; Fowler, Tom; Rice, Frances; Neale, Mike; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The present study used a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic and environmental influences on the association between earlier conduct problems and the initiation and progression of marijuana use during adolescence. Parent- and teacher-reported conduct problems assessed at Time 1 (1996) and self-reported marijuana use assessed at Time 2 (2004) were available for 1088 adolescent twin pairs participating in the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins (CaStANET). Using a novel approach to the modeling of initiation and progression dimensions in substance use, findings suggested that the initiation of marijuana use in adolescence was influenced by genetic, common and unique environmental factors. The progression (or frequency) of marijuana use was influenced by genetic and unique environmental factors. Findings for conduct problems indicated that while the presence or absence of conduct problems was largely heritable, the relative severity of conduct problems appeared to be more strongly environmentally influenced. Multivariate model fitting indicated that conduct problems in childhood and early adolescence made a small but significant contribution to the risk for marijuana use 8 years later. PMID:17131199

  11. All Might Have Won, But Not All Have the Prize: Optimal Treatment for Substance Abuse Among Adolescents with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066

  12. The Association between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Conduct Problems over Time: Results from a Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A handful of prior adoption studies have confirmed that the cross-sectional relationship between child conduct problems and parent/child conflict is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, as the direction of causation between parenting and delinquency remains unclear, this relationship could be better explained by the adolescent's propensity to elicit conflictive parenting, a phenomenon referred to as an evocative gene-environment correlation. The current study thus examined the prospective relationship between conduct problems and parent-child conflict in a sample of adoptive families. Participants included 672 adolescents in 405 adoptive families assessed at two time points roughly 4 years apart. Results indicated that parent-child conflict predicts the development of conduct problems, whereas conduct problems do not predict increases in parent-child conflict. Such findings suggest that evocative gene-environment correlations are highly unlikely as an explanation of prior shared environmental effects during adolescence. Moreover, because the adolescents in this study do not share genes with their adoptive parents, the association between conduct problems and parent-child conflict is indicative of shared environmental mediation in particular. Implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:21038930

  13. The association between parent-child conflict and adolescent conduct problems over time: results from a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Burt, S Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    A handful of prior adoption studies have confirmed that the cross-sectional relationship between child conduct problems and parent-child conflict at least partially originates in the shared environment. However, as the direction of causation between parenting and delinquency remains unclear, this relationship could be better explained by the adolescent's propensity to elicit conflictive parenting, a phenomenon referred to as an evocative gene-environment correlation. In the current study, the authors thus examined the prospective relationship between conduct problems and parent-child conflict in a sample of adoptive families. Participants included 672 adolescents in 405 adoptive families assessed at 2 time points roughly 4 years apart. Results indicated that parent-child conflict predicts the development of conduct problems, whereas conduct problems do not predict increases in parent-child conflict. Such findings suggest that evocative gene-environment correlations are highly unlikely to be an explanation of prior shared environmental effects during adolescence. Moreover, because the adolescents in this study do not share genes with their adoptive parents, the association between conduct problems and parent-child conflict is indicative of shared environmental mediation in particular. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. The Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Monitoring and Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of…

  15. The relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems: a 10-year update.

    PubMed

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of Stattin and Kerr (Child Dev 71:1072-1085, 2000; Kerr and Stattin in Dev Psychol 36:366-380, 2000) has challenged the field to reinterpret the construct of parental monitoring, focusing on the active components of this parenting behavior. As a result, this area of research has witnessed a resurgence of activity. The goal of the current paper is to review the evidence regarding the relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems that has accumulated during the past decade. Forty-seven studies published between 2000 and 2010 were identified by searching major databases and bibliographies and were included in this review. This paper will examine the following areas: (a) "parental monitoring" as "parental knowledge"; (b) parental knowledge as driven by child disclosure; (c) the relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems; (d) bidirectional associations between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems; (e) contextual influences on parental knowledge and monitoring; (f) antecedents of parental knowledge and monitoring; (g) clinical implications of research on parental knowledge and monitoring; and (h) limitations of existing research and future directions.

  16. Serious Conduct Problems in the Children of Adolescent Mothers: Disentangling Confounded Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Mary Anne G; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated early motherhood and child conduct problems in 253 boys referred to psychology/psychiatry clinics. Found early motherhood significantly correlated with number of conduct disorder symptoms in boys. Of three models compared, one positing that teenage motherhood is spuriously related with child conduct problems because of common…

  17. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-05-06

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems' developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact.

  18. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  19. Restrictive Educational Placements Increase Adolescent Risks for Students with Early-Starting Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coffman, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students with early-starting conduct problems often do poorly in school; they are disproportionately placed in restrictive educational placements outside of mainstream classrooms. Although intended to benefit students, research suggests that restrictive placements may exacerbate the maladjustment of youth with conduct problems. Mixed…

  20. Iatrogenic Effects of Group Treatment on Adolescents with Conduct and Substance Use Problems: A Review of the Literature and a Presentation of a Model

    PubMed Central

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Group therapy is the most popular approach in the treatment of adolescent substance use problems. Recently, concerns have mounted about possible iatrogenic effects of group therapy based on studies on adolescents with conduct disorder. This paper reviews three possible contributors to response to group treatment among adolescents, and proposes a model of the relations among these variables, specifically in regard to how they independently and interactively contribute to outcomes among youth with conduct and substance use problems. PMID:20396587

  1. Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…

  2. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  3. Using MMPI-A Profiles to Predict Success in a Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents with Academic and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha

    2004-01-01

    Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who…

  4. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  5. A Risk-Taking "Set" in a Novel Task among Adolescents with Serious Conduct and Substance Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. Method: Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program…

  6. Imaging decision about whether to benefit self by harming others: Adolescents with conduct and substance problems, with or without callous-unemotionality, or developing typically.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Raymond, Kristen; McWilliams, Shannon; Tanabe, Jody; Rojas, Don; Regner, Michael; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J

    2017-03-11

    We sought to identify brain activation differences in conduct-problem youth with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) compared to conduct-problem youth without LPE and community adolescents, and to test associations between brain activation and severity of callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a novel task, which asks subjects to repeatedly decide whether to accept offers where they will benefit but a beneficent other will be harmed. Behavior on this task has been previously associated with levels of prosocial emotions and severity of callous-unemotional traits, and is related to empathic concern. During fMRI acquisition, 66 male adolescents (21 conduct-problem patients with LPE, 21 without, and 24 typically-developing controls) played this novel game. Within typically-developing controls, we identified a network engaged during decision involving bilateral insula, and inferior parietal and medial frontal cortices, among other regions. Group comparisons using non-parametric (distribution-free) permutation tests demonstrated LPE patients had lower activation estimates than typically-developing adolescents in right anterior insula. Additional significant group differences emerged with our a priori parametric cluster-wise inference threshold. These results suggest measurable functional brain activation differences in conduct-problem adolescents with LPE compared to typically-developing adolescents. Such differences may underscore differential treatment needs for conduct-problem males with and without LPE.

  7. Gender Differences in the Developmental Links Between Conduct Problems and Depression Across Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Susan; Connell, Arin; Stormshak, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Various developmental models have attempted to explain the relationship between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms in youth, often proposing intermediary processes such as social and academic functioning. However, few studies have tested these developmental models fully, particularly in mixed gender samples. The current study strives to fill this gap in the literature, examining these processes in an early adolescent sample. Results indicated both direct and indirect paths between antisocial behavior and depression. In addition, potentially important gender differences were found. These results underscore the importance of examining direct and indirect links between symptoms of depression and anti-social behavior, and suggest that there may be important developmental differences between girls and boys in the relationship between these symptoms.

  8. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time.

  9. Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ingoldsby, Erin M.; Kohl, Gwynne O.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender, yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender- and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  10. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  11. PROSPER Partnership Delivery System: Effects on Adolescent Conduct Problem Behavior Outcomes Through 6.5 Years Past Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard L.; Trudeau, Linda S.; Redmond, Cleve R.; Shin, Chungyeol; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Hyun, Gee-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report long-term effects of the PROSPER delivery system for universal evidence-based preventive interventions on adolescent conduct problem behaviors (CPBs). A cluster randomized trial included 28 school districts assigned to PROSPER or a control condition. Community-based teams in PROSPER condition school districts selected evidence-based interventions—a family-focused intervention in sixth grade and a school-based intervention the next year; follow-up assessments were conducted through 12th grade. CPBs were measured with 12 self-report items derived from the National Youth Survey. Intervention-control differences were tested via a multi-level Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. Differences were significant from 9th through 12th grades; Relative Reduction Rates were between 10.1% and 14.5%. The intervention group was delayed in reaching a 10th grade reference level of CPBs by 10.7 months. Moderation analyses indicated stronger effects for early substance initiators. Findings suggest that the PROSPER delivery system has the potential to reduce CPBs in general populations. PMID:26356808

  12. PROSPER partnership delivery system: Effects on adolescent conduct problem behavior outcomes through 6.5 years past baseline.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard L; Trudeau, Linda S; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Hyun, Gee-Hong

    2015-12-01

    We report long-term effects of the PROSPER delivery system for universal evidence-based preventive interventions on adolescent conduct problem behaviors (CPBs). A cluster randomized trial included 28 school districts assigned to PROSPER or a control condition. Community-based teams in PROSPER condition school districts selected evidence-based interventions-a family-focused intervention in sixth grade and a school-based intervention the next year; follow-up assessments were conducted through 12th grade. CPBs were measured with 12 self-report items derived from the National Youth Survey. Intervention-control differences were tested via a multi-level Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. Differences were significant from 9th through 12th grades; Relative Reduction Rates were between 10.1% and 14.5%. The intervention group was delayed in reaching a 10th grade reference level of CPBs by 10.7 months. Moderation analyses indicated stronger effects for early substance initiators. Findings suggest that the PROSPER delivery system has the potential to reduce CPBs in general populations.

  13. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  14. Irritable and defiant sub-dimensions of ODD: their stability and prediction of internalizing symptoms and conduct problems from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Homel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder - irritability and defiance - that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant.

  15. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers'…

  16. Disentangling the Role of Psychopathic Traits and Externalizing Behaviour in Predicting Conduct Problems from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, M. Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Child and youth conduct problems are known to be a heterogeneous category that implies different factors and processes. The current study aims to analyze whether the early manifestation of psychopathic traits designates a group of children with severe, pervasive and persistent conduct problems. To this end, cluster analysis was conducted in a…

  17. Interparental Boundary Problems, Parent-Adolescent Hostility, and Adolescent-Parent Hostility: A Family Process Model for Adolescent Aggression Problems

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Lippold, Melissa; Feinberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study tests interparental boundary problems (IBPs), parent hostility with adolescents, and adolescent hostility with parents within a reciprocal influence model and tests each as risk factors for adolescent aggression problems. Prospective, longitudinal analyses were conducted with multi-informant data from 768 adolescents and their families, from 6th to 9th grade. Guided by spillover and social learning perspectives, our findings suggest that IBPs have a robust, negative influence on both parent and adolescent hostility. In turn, adolescent hostility was the best predictor of global adolescent aggression problems. Two indirect effects were found that link IBPs and adolescent aggression problems; however, findings indicate that adolescent hostile behavior in the family is the key risk indicator for adolescents' later aggression problems. Model invariance tests revealed that this model was not different for boys and girls, or for adolescents in families with two biological parents and youth in families with two caregivers (e.g. stepparent families). PMID:25844271

  18. Inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto

    We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we

  19. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  20. A quasi-experimental analysis of the influence of neighborhood disadvantage on child and adolescent conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Jackson A; Lahey, Benjamin B; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rodgers, Joseph L; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2012-02-01

    A quasi-experimental comparison of cousins differentially exposed to levels of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) was used with extensive measured covariates to test the hypothesis that neighborhood risk has independent effects on youth conduct problems (CPs). Multilevel analyses were based on mother-rated ND and both mother-reported CPs across 4-13 years (n = 7,077) and youth-reported CPs across 10-13 years (n = 4,524) from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. ND was robustly related to CPs reported by both informants when controlling for both measured risk factors that are correlated with ND and unmeasured confounds. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ND has influence on conduct problems.

  1. Being "SMART" About Adolescent Conduct Problems Prevention: Executing a SMART Pilot Study in a Juvenile Diversion Agency.

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Piehler, Timothy F; Bloomquist, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The development of adaptive treatment strategies (ATS) represents the next step in innovating conduct problems prevention programs within a juvenile diversion context. Toward this goal, we present the theoretical rationale, associated methods, and anticipated challenges for a feasibility pilot study in preparation for implementing a full-scale SMART (i.e., sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial) for conduct problems prevention. The role of a SMART design in constructing ATS is presented. The SMART feasibility pilot study includes a sample of 100 youth (13-17 years of age) identified by law enforcement as early stage offenders and referred for precourt juvenile diversion programming. Prior data on the sample population detail a high level of ethnic diversity and approximately equal representations of both genders. Within the SMART, youth and their families are first randomly assigned to one of two different brief-type evidence-based prevention programs, featuring parent-focused behavioral management or youth-focused strengths-building components. Youth who do not respond sufficiently to brief first-stage programming will be randomly assigned a second time to either an extended parent- or youth-focused second-stage programming. Measures of proximal intervention response and measures of potential candidate tailoring variables for developing ATS within this sample are detailed. Results of the described pilot study will include information regarding feasibility and acceptability of the SMART design. This information will be used to refine a subsequent full-scale SMART. The use of a SMART to develop ATS for prevention will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of prevention programing for youth with developing conduct problems.

  2. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  3. Predictors of adolescent functioning in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of childhood ADHD, conduct problems, and peer status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve S; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions and expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, NC, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference.

  4. Annual research review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V; Thornton, Laura C; Kahn, Rachel E

    2014-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that the presence of significant levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a clinically important and etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Based on this research, CU traits have been included in the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)--as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. In this review, we attempt to understand CU traits within a developmental psychopathological framework. Specifically, we summarize research on the normal development of the prosocial emotions of empathy and guilt (i.e., conscience) and we illustrate how the development of CU traits can be viewed as the normal development of conscience gone awry. Furthermore, we review research on the stability of CU traits across different developmental periods and highlight factors that can influence this stability. Finally, we highlight the implications of this developmental psychopathological framework for future etiological research, for assessment and diagnostic classification, and for treatment of children with serious conduct problems.

  5. The Adolescent Suicide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues: epidemic versus artifact; stress in adolescence; and the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides. (Author/BL)

  6. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  7. Impact of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions on the Temporal Ordering of Conduct Problems and Depression across Childhood and Adolescence in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…

  8. An examination of the developmental propensity model of conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Hink, Laura K; Johnson, Daniel P; Smith Watts, Ashley K; Young, Susan E; Robinson, JoAnn; Waldman, Irwin D; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2016-05-01

    The present study tested specific hypotheses advanced by the developmental propensity model of the etiology of conduct problems in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a prospective, longitudinal, genetically informative sample. High negative emotionality, low behavioral inhibition, low concern and high disregard for others, and low cognitive ability assessed during toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) were examined as predictors of conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence (age 4 to 17 years). Each hypothesized antisocial propensity dimension predicted conduct problems, but some predictions may be context specific or due to method covariance. The most robust predictors were observed disregard for others (i.e., responding to others' distress with active, negative responses such as anger and hostility), general cognitive ability, and language ability, which were associated with conduct problems reported by parents, teachers, and adolescents, and change in observed negative emotionality (i.e., frustration tolerance), which was associated with conduct problems reported by teachers and adolescents. Furthermore, associations between the most robust early predictors and later conduct problems were influenced by the shared environment rather than genes. We conclude that shared environmental influences that promote disregard for others and detract from cognitive and language development during toddlerhood also predispose individuals to conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence. The identification of those shared environmental influences common to early antisocial propensity and later conduct problems is an important future direction, and additional developmental behavior genetic studies examining the interaction between children's characteristics and socializing influences on conduct problems are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  10. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  11. Cross-sectional examination of the association of co-occurring alcohol misuse and traumatic brain injury on mental health and conduct problems in adolescents in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hazardous drinking on mental health and behavioural issues among Ontario adolescents. In particular, we assessed the incremental co-occurrence of hazardous drinking with a history of TBI, in comparison to experiencing just one of these conditions. Methods A cross-sectional subsample of 3130 Ontario adolescents attending grades 9–12, and aged 10–21 were surveyed in 2013 as a part of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Recent (past year) and former (lifetime and excluding the last year) TBI were defined as trauma to the head that resulted in loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or overnight hospitalisation. Current hazardous drinking was derived using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results An estimated 11.8% of Ontario adolescents (95% CI 10.1% to 13.8%) reported a history of former TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 4.0% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.5%) reported recent TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 13.7% (95% CI 12.3% to 15.3%) were hazardous drinkers who never had a TBI; 4.1% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.8%) had former TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking; and 2.2% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.0%) had recent TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking. Most odds increased significantly and were two to three times higher for reporting compromised mental health, violent and non-violent conduct behaviours, and reported victimisation for classifying as a hazardous drinker at the time of testing with co-occurring either former or recent TBI compared to classifying as not having either of these conditions. Adolescents classified as hazardous drinkers with former TBI had numerous and higher ORs for conduct behaviours than those with recent TBI. Conclusions Results emphasise the strong interplay between TBI and hazardous drinking and point to the need for integrating prevention efforts to reduce these conditions and their co

  12. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  13. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied…

  14. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  15. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  16. Adolescent sexuality and its problems.

    PubMed

    Yang, M

    1995-09-01

    Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.

  17. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  18. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  19. Lead and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded…

  20. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  1. A parallel process growth mixture model of conduct problems and substance use with risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-10-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model.

  2. A Rorschach comparison of psychopathic and nonpsychopathic conduct disordered adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Gacono, C B; Kaufman, L

    1997-06-01

    Forty-eight male subjects who met the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for conduct disorder (CD) were assessed for psychopathy level using a modified version of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R, Forth, Hart, & Hare, 1990). Rorschach variables associated with self-perception, affects, and object relations, early behavioral problems and history of violence were compared between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic CD adolescents. Psychopathic CD subjects were significantly more self-centered and violent than nonpsychopathic CD subjects. Decreased attachment and anxiety were found in both CD groups. Our study adds empirical support to the heterogeneity noted among CD adolescents (PCL-R), supports the utility of the Rorschach for detecting individual differences among CD subjects, and extends the empirical work of Gacono and Meloy (1994) to adolescent psychopathy.

  3. Childhood Conduct Problems and Young Adult Outcomes Among Women with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, in the context of three potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data emanated from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood (F1,118 change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069) and adolescent (F1,109 change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083) conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young-adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young-adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. PMID:26854507

  4. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  5. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  6. Social Issues as Social Problems: Adolescents' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…

  7. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  8. Bullying and Victimization: The Role of Conduct Problems and Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and victimization occurring in adolescence can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. This study investigates whether conduct problems (CP) and dimensions of psychopathy predict the developmental course of bullying and victimization from ages 12 to 14 among 1,416 Greek-Cypriot adolescents. Results indicate that initial levels…

  9. Common sexual problems of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, S

    1975-08-01

    The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional.

  10. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention in adolescents. PMID:24954969

  11. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  12. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  13. Delinquent Histories of Adolescents Adjudicated for Criminal Sexual Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…

  14. Childhood peer relationship problems and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M

    1999-02-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this paper examined the relationship between teacher reported peer relationship problems at age 9 and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence. Results showed that, by age 18, children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of externalizing behavior problems such as criminal offending and substance abuse, but were not at increased risk of anxiety disorder or major depression. Subsequent analyses revealed that these associations were largely explained by the effects of child and family factors associated with both early peer relationship problems and later adjustment. The most influential variable in explaining associations between peer relationship problems and later adjustment was the extent of children's early conduct problems. These results suggest that reported associations between early peer problems and later adjustment are noncausal, and appear to reflect underlying continuities in behavioral adjustment.

  15. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  16. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  17. Common Problems of Adolescents Encountered in Schools

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, Betty D.

    1986-01-01

    Some adolescents present in school with problems of poor academic performance and unacceptable behaviour. A physician's evaluation of such a problem requires a careful history and consideration of emotional factors. A neuro-developmental assessment should reveal a pattern of strengths as well as any areas of delay. Management includes demystifying the problem to the student and counselling parents, as well as providing an explanation to the school staff. Stimulant medication, when the primary problem is one of attention-deficit disorder, can be a useful part of the therapeutic program. Long-term follow up, counselling and support are essential. Working within the school gives the counsellor access to teachers and other staff to ensure that understanding of, and help with, the problem continues. PMID:21267219

  18. Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent externalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frances L.; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Conduct problems, alcohol problems and hyperactive–inattentive symptoms co-occur at a high rate and are heritable in adolescence. The γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, α2 gene (GABRA2) is associated with a broad spectrum of externalizing problems and disinhibitory-related traits. The current study tested whether two important forms of disinhibition in adolescence, impulsivity and sensation seeking, mediated the effects of GABRA2 on hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems, and alcohol problems. Participants were assessed at two waves (11–17 and 12–18 years old; N = 292). Analyses used the GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, which tags the two complementary (yin–yang) GABRA2 haplotypes. Multiple informants reported on adolescents’ impulsivity and sensation seeking and adolescents self-reported their hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems and lifetime alcohol problems. Impulsivity mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems, hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, and conduct problems, whereas sensation seeking mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems (AA/AG geno-types conferred risk). GABRA2 directly predicted adolescent alcohol problems, but the GG genotype conferred risk. Results suggest that there may be multiple pathways of risk from GABRA2 to adolescent externalizing problems, and suggest important avenues for future research. PMID:25804982

  19. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A G; Burgers, Darcy E

    2015-12-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  20. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Burgers, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25410430

  1. [Academic problems and school failure in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Catheline, Nicole

    2005-05-31

    Success at school increases self-esteem. Any difficulty will have consequential effects on the psychological health of the subject. The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions (mass schooling without any individual orientation before the end of college) oblige the teenager to submit to teaching methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems (anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create pathology by not recognising the heterogeneity of individual development and differences in cognitive functioning. In adolescence, the ego is particularly vulnerable. Anything that may induce its instability can create behavioural problems (instability, aggressiveness, inhibition) or problems of thought (anxiety links, difficulties in abstraction). In order to cope with such a haemorrhage of the ego, the adolescent may have recourse to certain behaviours (e.g. use of drugs leading to dependence). So it is important the know well the links between school failure and behavioural problems or drug consumption because, in one way or another, by their sanction or by lack of motivation, these situations will lead very quickly to school disengagement, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the ego.

  2. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  3. Sleep problems of adolescents: A detailed survey.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bulbul, Selda Fatma; Turğut, Mahmut; Ağirtaş, Gülşah

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the sleep problems and sleep habits of adolescents at three public primary schools and two high schools. Our study included 428 Turkish school children (244 girls and 184 boys). We used a questionnaire to determine the time they went to sleep at night; waking time in the morning; incidence of nightmares, snoring, daytime sleepiness, and intrafamilial physical trauma; concentration difficulty in class; and school success. The students were divided into age-related groups (group 1 = 11 to 13 years of age; group 2 = 14 to 15 years; group 3 = 16 to 18 years). The time they went to sleep was mostly between 10 and 11 p.m. in groups 1 and 2, and 11 to 12 p.m. in group 3. Difficulty in falling asleep was reported by 16.8 to 19.6% of the students in the three groups. Difficulty in waking up in the morning was reported by 12.7% of group 1, 16.0% of group 2, and 16.8% of group 3. Snoring was present in 12.1% of females and 22.0% of males. The occurrence of one nightmare in the preceding 3 months was reported by 11.3% of the students; 17.9% of the students reported having nightmares several times. Daytime sleepiness was present in 65.1%, and concentration difficulty was present in 56.8% of the students. We conclude that difficulty in falling asleep, snoring, and daytime sleepiness may be seen in adolescents who are in both primary and high schools. Watching inappropriate programs and movies on television and intrafamilial physical trauma may cause nightmares and sleeping problems in these adolescents. Students and families should be educated about the importance of sleep in academic performance. Countries' public health policies should address sleep problems and related educational activities.

  4. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  5. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.

  6. [Multisystemic therapy of adolescents with conduct disorders].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Olvera, Francisco R

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of conduct disorder (CD), as well as the principles for diagnosis and multisystemic treatment (MST). MST includes biological, psychological and social interventions, and considers the ecological environment of conduct manifestations. Some outcomes of MST delivery are discussed, along with its advantages and potential applications.

  7. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls.

  8. [GEITDAH consensus on conduct disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco

    2015-08-16

    In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  9. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.

  10. Adolescent Peer Victimization and Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245

  11. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support: developing adolescents' abilities through a life skills program.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J; Scott, David L

    2007-01-01

    The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support.

  13. Does Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Relate to Social, Emotional Problems in Adolescents with and without Criminal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…

  14. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so-called early-starters, are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an…

  15. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  16. Examining the Link between Infant Attachment and Child Conduct Problems in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vando, Jessica; Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the extent to which infant attachment status is directly related to child conduct problems 6 years later, and assessed the potential mediating roles of hostile parenting and maternal depression. The sample included 84 adolescent mothers and their children (45 girls, 39 boys). Infant attachment status was assessed using the Strange…

  17. Child Psychopathy: Theories, Measurement, and Relations with the Development and Persistence of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…

  18. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    PubMed

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression.

  19. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers.

  20. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  1. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  2. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  3. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  4. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  5. An Emerging Income Differential for Adolescent Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…

  6. Temporoparietal Junction Hypoactivity during Pain-Related Empathy Processing in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Daifeng; Ming, Qingsen; Wang, Xiang; Yu, Weixia; Jiang, Yali; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Yidian; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of empathy has been proposed to account for the characteristic behavioral problems exhibited by adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether adolescents with CD exhibit atypical affective and cognitive neural empathic responses during pain-related empathy processing. Methods: A total of 30 adolescents with a CD diagnosis and 36 without CD symptoms were recruited from out-patient clinics and local middle schools in the same region, respectively. All 66 participants were subjected to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing video clips depicting a face with a neutral expression receiving non-painful stimulation (Q-tip touch) or a face with a painful expression receiving painful stimulation (needle penetration) applied to the left or right cheek. Results: The regions associated with affective and cognitive empathy were activated in the HC group during pain-related empathy processing. Compared to HCs, adolescents with CD showed significantly reduced activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Conclusions: Adolescents with CD exhibited dampened hemodynamic responses during pain-related empathy processing in the bilateral TPJ, a region associated with cognitive empathy. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adolescents with CD may have a cognitive empathy deficiency. PMID:28123377

  7. [Endocrino-gynecologic problems of the female adolescent].

    PubMed

    Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L

    1996-01-01

    Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.

  8. The Psychological Problems of North Korean Adolescent Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja

    2012-01-01

    Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519

  9. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Problem Gambling in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Grande-Gosende, Aris; Fernández-Hermida, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old) who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A), and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling (p = 0.003). In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers (p = 0.04; 0.03; and 0.01, respectively). These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems. PMID:28008322

  10. The Association Between Conduct Problems and Maltreatment: Testing Genetic and Environmental Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents’ tendency to engage in maltreatment and children’s conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to antisocial behavior (i.e. genetic mediation). The present study estimated the contribution of these processes to the association between maltreatment and conduct problems. Bivariate behavior genetic analyses were conducted on approximately 1,650 twin and sibling pairs drawn from a large longitudinal study of adolescent health (Add Health). The correlation between maltreatment and conduct problems was small; much of the association between maltreatment and conduct problems was due to a nonpassive gene-environment correlation. Results were more consistent with the hypothesis that parents respond to children’s genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them than the hypothesis that maltreatment causes conduct problems. PMID:20024671

  11. Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent smokers and their help-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.

  12. Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: adolescents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K

    1997-01-01

    By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.

  13. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  14. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stringaris, Argyris; Lewis, Glyn; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathways from early-life conduct problems to young adult depression remain poorly understood. Aims To test developmental pathways from early-life conduct problems to depression at age 18. Method Data (n = 3542) came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Previously derived conduct problem trajectories (ages 4-13 years) were used to examine associations with depression from ages 10 to 18 years, and the role of early childhood factors as potential confounders. Results Over 43% of young adults with depression in the ALSPAC cohort had a history of child or adolescent conduct problems, yielding a population attributable fraction of 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.22). The association between conduct problems and depression at age 18 was considerable even after adjusting for prior depression (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.94). Early-onset persistent conduct problems carried the highest risk for later depression. Irritability characterised depression for those with a history of conduct problems. Conclusions Early-life conduct problems are robustly associated with later depressive disorder and may be useful targets for early intervention. PMID:24764545

  15. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  16. The difficult temperament in adolescence: associations with substance use, family support, and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Windle, M

    1991-03-01

    This study investigated interrelations between the number of difficult temperament factors (e.g., arrhythmicity, inflexibility, high distractibility) and substance use, perceived family support, and problem behaviors for a sample of 297 adolescents (M age = 15.7 years). The number of adolescent difficult temperament factors was associated significantly with more childhood behavior problems (e.g., hyperactivity, conduct disordered symptoms), which suggests some continuity of disordered behavior from childhood to adolescence. Number of adolescent difficult temperament factors also was associated with a higher percentage of substance users (for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs), lower perceived family support, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and more delinquent activity. Number of difficult temperament factors was not associated significantly with gender or age of respondents.

  17. Early-starting conduct problems: intersection of conduct problems and poverty.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Shelleby, Elizabeth C

    2014-01-01

    The current article reviews extant literature on the intersection between poverty and the development of conduct problems (CP) in early childhood. Associations between exposure to poverty and disruptive behavior are reviewed through the framework of models emphasizing how the stressors associated with poverty indirectly influence child CP by compromising parent psychological resources, investments in children's welfare, and/or caregiving quality. We expand on the best-studied model, the family stress model, by emphasizing the mediating contribution of parent psychological resources on children's risk for early CP, in addition to the mediating effects of parenting. Specifically, we focus on the contribution of maternal depression, in terms of both compromising parenting quality and exposing children to higher levels of stressful events and contexts. Implications of the adapted family stress model are then discussed in terms of its implications for the prevention and treatment of young children's emerging CP.

  18. Longitudinal associations between conduct problems and depressive symptoms among girls and boys with early conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martine; Déry, Michèle; Temcheff, Caroline E; Toupin, Jean; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Youth with conduct problems (CP) may experience high rates of depressive symptoms (DS). However, little is known about the direction of the longitudinal associations between CP and DS in this specific population. Although girls with CP appear at greater risk than boys for presenting comorbid depression, empirical research on gender differences in these associations is even sparser. The current study used autoregressive latent trajectory models to compare four perspectives with hypotheses regarding the longitudinal associations between CP and DS, while taking into account the evolution of both problems. We also examined gender differences in the longitudinal associations. A total of 345 children (40.6 % female) presenting with a high level of CP in early elementary school (mean age at study inception = 8.52; SD = .94) were evaluated annually over a four-year period (5 measurement time points). The results revealed that CP and DS were quite stable over time. Moreover, CP and DS showed strong covariation at each measurement time point, but only one significant positive cross-lagged association between the two processes, indicating that higher levels of DS at time 3 were associated with higher levels of CP 1 year later. No differences were observed in the longitudinal associations between CP and DS in boys and girls. Given the comorbidity and stability of CP and DS, these findings suggest that DS should be systematically evaluated among children with early clinically significant CP, and treatment plans should include interventions aimed at both CP and DS among children who present with both types of problems.

  19. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  20. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage=16.15; SD=.75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  1. Association Between Internet Use and Sleep Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    EKİNCİ, Özalp; ÇELİK, Tanju; SAVAŞ, Nazan; TOROS, Fevziye

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sleep problems are commonly encountered in adolescents. It has been shown that electronic media have a negative influence on the sleep quality and daytime functioning in adolescents. This study aims to investigate the association between internet use and sleep problems in adolescents. Method A total of 1212 adolescents were recruited to the study. Self-report study questionnaire included two main parts: Young’s Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) and a semi-structured inquiry on sleep habits/problems. Results Of the study sample, 16% (n=198) reported their sleep quality as bad or very bad. One-fourth of the sample reported using internet everyday and 27% of them reported spending more than one hour when online. The mean IAS total score was 35.56±13.87. Adolescents with a higher IAS score reported getting to bed later in the night, needing more time to fall asleep and having an increased number of awakenings in the night than the adolescents with lower IAS score (p=.001). They were also found to have higher frequencies of several sleep problems including difficulty in initiating and sustaining sleep, difficulty in waking up and feelings of sleepiness in day. In addition, sleep quality of them was worse when compared to the adolescents with a lower IAS score (p=.001). Conclusion Problematic sleep habits and sleep problems were found to be more frequent in adolescents with a higher IAS total score. Health care providers must be aware of the possible negative impact of excessive and uncontrolled internet use on adolescents’ sleep habits.

  2. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  3. Problems of Adolescent Crime in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savina, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…

  4. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  5. Helping Adolescents with Health Problems to Become Socially Competent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdikova-Zaripova, Albina R.; Kostyunina, Nadezhda Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to present and analyze the results of experimental work to verify the efficiency of the developed and approved program aimed at the formation of social competence in adolescents with physical problems. The leading method in the study of this problem is a consequent version of the pedagogical experiment. The results of…

  6. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…

  7. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  8. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  9. Unsupervised self-care predicts conduct problems: The moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Olivia E; Schofield, Thomas J; Sitka, Angela; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread speculation about the detrimental effect of unsupervised self-care on adolescent outcomes, little is known about which children are particularly prone to problem behaviors when left at home without adult supervision. The present research used data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin children residing in the United States to examine the prospective effect of unsupervised self-care on conduct problems, and the moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender. Results showed that unsupervised self-care was related to increases over time in conduct problems such as lying, stealing, and bullying. However, unsupervised self-care only led to conduct problems for boys and for children with an aggressive temperament. The main and interactive effects held for both mother-reported and observational-rated hostile aggression and after controlling for potential confounds.

  10. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems.

  11. Sex Differences in Autonomic Correlates of Conduct Problems and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hong, James; Marsh, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate group differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding between males and females with conduct problems and determine whether aggression accounts for variance in ANS responding over the effects of conduct problems. The results indicated marked differences in psycho-physiological responses between males and females.

  12. Maternal Attributions and Young Children's Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charlotte; Gardner, Frances; Burton, Jennifer; Leung, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The association between negative maternal attributions and child conduct problems is well established in correlational studies. However, little is known about how these variables influence each other over time. The present study examined patterns of prediction over time between maternal attributions and pre-school conduct problems. Sixty mothers…

  13. Families of Homeless and Runaway Adolescents: A Comparison of Parent/Caretaker and Adolescent Perspectives on Parenting, Family Violence, and Adolescent Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports of 120 runaway adolescents and their parents/caretakers were compared on measures of parental monitoring, parental warmth and supportiveness, parental rejection, physical and sexual abuse, and adolescent conduct. Results indicate a high level of agreement, suggesting the adolescents accurately depicted the troubled family situations that…

  14. The structure of problem behaviours among Irish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W; Morgan, M

    1990-05-01

    Problem behaviour theory proposes that adolescent substance use and other problem behaviours comprise a single dimension reflecting a general underlying tendency towards deviance. This general deviance hypothesis was tested with survey data obtained from 2731 adolescents from Dublin, Ireland. A series of hierarchical maximum likelihood factor analyses indicated that three specific factors were necessary to account for the covariation among problem behaviour measures. These factors corresponded to substance use (drinking, smoking, marijuana use, and other drug use), relatively minor problem behaviours (swearing, lying), and relatively serious problem behaviours (stealing, vandalism). Contrary to the general deviance hypothesis, a second order factor representing general deviance accounted for only 14% of the variance in substance use, on the average, as opposed to 74% of the variance in minor and serious problem behaviours. These findings thus indicate that substance use among these Irish adolescents is relatively independent of a general tendency toward deviance. They also suggest that the general deviance hypothesis, as it usually is applied, may be culturally specific and relevant only for adolescents from the United States and similar cultural contexts.

  15. Mental sets in conduct problem youth with psychopathic features: entity versus incremental theories of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features.

  16. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior.

  17. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sagari; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Blackwood, Nigel; Scott, Stephen; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM) tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe) compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear. Methods We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history. Results The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1) the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2) right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3) left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone. Conclusions Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM ‘connectivity’. PMID:27271503

  18. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability with and without Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…

  19. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.

  20. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  1. Self-consciousness, friendship quality, and adolescent internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530

  2. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  3. Precocious Initiation into Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Gambling among Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Michèle; St-Pierre, Renée A.; Laventure, Myriam; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent participation in risky and addictive behaviours, such as smoking, substance use, and gambling has the potential to lead to many serious problems. The presence of conduct problems (CPs) and early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours have been independently shown to be associated with adolescent and young adult smoking, drinking, and gambling. Nevertheless, the relation between early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours and CPs remains to be explored among pre-adolescents. Our study aims to examine the prospective relation between CPs in early primary school and pre-adolescent initiation into smoking, alcohol use, and gambling. Method: Our study used data from participants in an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study at the Université de Sherbrooke to examine cigarette, alcohol, and gambling initiation among primary school-aged boys and girls with CPs. Children were recruited between the ages of 6 and 9 years from several low socioeconomic status public schools in diverse geographical regions of Quebec. Initiation into cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling was measured 1 year later. Results: Children with CPs were found to be at greater risk for early initiation into smoking, alcohol, and gambling. These effects remained even once other known risk factors, such as poor parental supervision and child effortful control, were controlled for. Conclusions: These results suggest that CPs present in early elementary school can predict early initiation in to potentially addictive behaviours among boys and girls. Implications for targeted preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:27582453

  4. A general population twin study of conduct problems and the auditory P300 waveform.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Eleonora; Michelini, Giorgia; Moruzzi, Sara; Ferrer, Giuseppina; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Ogliari, Anna; Battaglia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Reduced amplitude of the P300 event-related potential has been consistently associated with a variety of externalising problems, including conduct disorder. The few available genetically-informative studies of these relationships, however, were conducted among adolescents/adults (i.e., at an age when conduct disorder has typically already become manifest). Among 200 general population twins with a mean age of 9 years (range 6-14 years), we studied the relationship between the P300 waveform elicited by an auditory oddball task and the DSM-oriented conduct problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18. Conduct problems scores were negatively and significantly correlated (r = -0.19, p = 0.01) with P300 amplitude; correlations between P300 amplitude and the other DSM-oriented Child Behavior Checklist scales were non-significant, except for oppositional defiant problems (p = 0.01). We found moderate heritability estimates for both P300 amplitude (0.58, CI:0.37;0.73) and conduct problems (0.52, CI:0.25;0.70). Bivariate twin analyses indicated that the covariation between these two phenotypes can be explained by additive genetic factors only, with a genetic correlation of -0.33. An association between reduced P300 amplitude and conduct problems can be substantiated already in childhood, at an age that precedes the most typical onset of conduct disorder. This relationship appears to be genetic in nature. Reduced P300 amplitude can represent a valuable marker for conduct problems, and can contribute to the early identification of children at high-risk for conduct disorder.

  5. Numerical solution of an inverse conductive boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaman, F.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we derive a numerical solution of an inverse obstacle scattering problem with conductive boundary condition. The aim of the direct problem is the computation of the scattered field for a given arbitrarily shaped cylinder with conductive boundary condition on its surface.The inverse problem considered here is the reconstruction of the conductivity function of the scatterer from meausurements of the far field. A potential approach is used to obtain boundary layer integral equations both for the solution of the direct and the inverse problem. The numerical solutions of the integral equations which contain logarithmically singular kernels are evaluated by a Nyström method and Tikhonov regularization is used to solve the first kind of integral equations occuring in the solution of the inverse problem. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to test the applicability and the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Protective factors in the development of early child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study utilized a resilience model to investigate child, family, and community protective factors in toddlerhood as they relate to low levels of conduct problems at age 5 in a sample of low income children at risk for early disruptive problem behavior. Child, family, and community factors were associated with lower levels of conduct problems at age 5. Child, family, and community protective factors also distinguished between children who remained below and above a clinical threshold for aggressive problems between age 2 and 5. Finally, each domain of protective factors made small but significant unique contributions to lower aggression at age 5. These results emphasize the importance of multivariate analysis of the ecology of development predicting child outcome, and suggest potential areas for intervention with children at high risk for conduct problems. PMID:25774071

  7. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  8. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  9. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  10. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents. [Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.

    This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…

  11. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  12. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  13. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  14. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  15. The breakdown of meaning and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown.

  16. Emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2003-12-01

    The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  17. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Verboom, Charlotte E; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Verhulst, Frank C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in adolescents while testing gender differences. Depressive problems and functioning of 2,230 children were measured with structured questionnaires. The measurements took place biennially over 3 waves, from late childhood into adolescence (age range = 10-18 years). To examine the longitudinal relation between depression and functioning, path analyses with cross-lagged effects were conducted with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were used to test for gender differences, which were only observed for academic performance. Other findings indicated substantial stability in depressive problems and functioning over time and within-wave correlations between depression and the 3 types of functioning. Poor social well-being was predicted by depressive problems but not the other way around. The relation between depressive and social problems was bidirectional, that is, they predicted each other. Finally, depressive problems and academic performance were bidirectionally related as well but only in girls.

  18. Calderón's problem for Lipschitz piecewise smooth conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun Kim, Sung

    2008-10-01

    We consider Lipschitz conductivities which are piecewise smooth across polyhedral boundaries in {\\bb R}^3 . Using complex geometrical optics solutions for Schrödinger operators with certain δ-function potentials, we obtain global uniqueness for Calderón's inverse conductivity problem.

  19. Adolescent mental health, behavior problems, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.

  20. Do historical changes in parent-child relationships explain increases in youth conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Collishaw, Stephan; Gardner, Frances; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Jacqueline; Pickles, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The coincidence of historical trends in youth antisocial behavior and change in family demographics has led to speculation of a causal link, possibly mediated by declining quality of parenting and parent-child relationships. No study to date has directly assessed whether and how parenting and parent-child relationships have changed. Two national samples of English adolescents aged 16-17 years in 1986 (N = 4,524 adolescents, 7,120 parents) and 2006 (N = 716 adolescents, 734 parents) were compared using identical questionnaire assessments. Youth-reported parental monitoring, expectations, and parent-child quality time increased between 1986 and 2006. Ratings of parental interest did not change. Parenting differences between affluent and disadvantaged families narrowed over time. There was thus little evidence of a decline in quality of parenting for the population as a whole or for disadvantaged subgroups. Parent-reported youth conduct problems showed a modest increase between 1986 and 2006. Findings suggested that the increase in youth conduct problems was largely unrelated to observed change in parent-child relationships.

  1. "Processes Linking Adolescent Problems to Substance-Use Problems in Late Young Adulthood"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven; Klein, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study explores three avenues in early young adulthood through which adolescent problems may be linked to later substance use problems: problematic substance use, failure to assume adult roles and responsibilities, and exposure to pro-drug social influences. Method: Participants (N = 1,986; 49% female) filled out surveys at…

  2. Paternal alcoholism and youth substance abuse: the indirect effects of negative affect, conduct problems, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2008-02-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk-taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  3. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.

  4. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  5. Narcissism, self-esteem, and conduct problems: evidence from a British community sample of 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Ha, Carolyn; Petersen, Nancy; Sharp, Carla

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the current report was to investigate the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and conduct problems in a British community sample of pre-adolescent and young adolescent children (n = 659; 7-11 year olds). We demonstrated that narcissism is associated with conduct problems, but no evidence for an interaction between low self-esteem and high narcissism in the prediction of conduct problems was found. Whilst low self-esteem was associated with teacher-reported (but not parent-reported) conduct problems at the bivariate level of analyses, multi-variate analyses showed that self-esteem yielded no significant effects, neither independently, nor in interaction with narcissism for either parent- or teacher reported conduct problems. However, self-esteem was predictive of self-reported conduct problems at both the bivariate and multivariate level of analysis, possibly due to shared method variance. The findings suggest an important role for narcissism for conduct problems in children as young as seven years old.

  6. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  7. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent antisocial girls. This question is important because disturbance of HPA functioning has been found in populations of violent adult males and antisocial adolescent males, suggesting that it may be a marker of a physiological disorder associated with…

  8. Deviancy training and association with deviant peers in young children: ocurrence and contribution to early-onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; Oeser, Jessica; Patterson, Gerald; Stoolmiller, Mike; Johnson, Kassy; Snyder, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction, association with deviant peers, and growth in overt and covert conduct problems during kindergarten and first grade were examined in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. At entry to kindergarten, high levels of overt and covert conduct problems predicted association with deviant peers, and deviant peer association predicted deviant talk and role taking during peer interaction during kindergarten. Association with deviant peers, and deviant talk and role taking predicted growth in overt and covert conduct problems on the playground, in the classroom, and at home during kindergarten and first grade. Peer processes associated with growth in conduct problems that escalate rapidly during late childhood and adolescence appear to occur in earlier childhood. These peer processes may play a central role in the evolution of conduct problems to include covert as well as overt forms.

  9. Family intervention for home-based problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Robin, Arthur L

    2008-08-01

    Adolescents with ADHD frequently argue with their parents about a variety of issues, especially when they also have Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder. Family interventions have proven effective for ameliorating such conflicts in two independent investigations. After a comprehensive assessment including family interviews and self-report inventories, the therapist first teaches the parents contingency management techniques and then teaches the parents and adolescent problem solving communication skills. Contingency management techniques include one-on-one time, effective commands, positive incentive systems, and punishment systems. Problem solving involves discussing a specific dispute by defining the problem, generating a list of solutions, evaluating the solutions, and reaching a compromise. Communication training involves identifying specific negative communication skills and replacing them with positive communication skills. This article reviews research and provides practitioners with specific guidelines for implementing these family interventions.

  10. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease in adolescents: What problems does it pose?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Markowitz, James

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease face daily and long-term challenges that may be difficult for teenagers to manage. The developmental and psychosocial changes unique to this age group include becoming more autonomous and being more vulnerable to peer influence. These changes may lead to problems in medical management such as poor medication adherence and risky behavior. Being aware of these issues will help the medical team provide anticipatory guidance to address these concerns. PMID:21734775

  12. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14-39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine…

  13. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  14. Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…

  15. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  16. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  17. CONDUCTING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR VIA TELEHEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, David P.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Kopelman, Todd G.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Kuhle, Jennifer; Pelzel, Kelly E.; Waldron, Debra B.

    2017-01-01

    Behavior consultants conducted functional analyses (FAs) via telehealth with 20 young children with autism spectrum disorders between the ages of 29 and 80 months who displayed problem behavior and lived an average of 222 miles from the tertiary hospital that housed the behavior consultants. Participants’ parents conducted all procedures during weekly telehealth consultations in regional clinics located an average of 15 miles from the participants’ homes. Behavior consultants briefly trained parent assistants to provide on-site support for families during consultations. FAs completed within a multielement design identified environmental variables that maintained problem behavior for 18 of the 20 cases, and interrater agreement averaged over 90%. Results suggested that behavior analysts can conduct FAs effectively and efficiently via telehealth. PMID:24114083

  18. Decision-Making, Cognitive Distortions and Alcohol Use in Adolescent Problem and Non-problem Gamblers: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2016-12-01

    In the psychological literature, many studies have investigated the neuropsychological and behavioral changes that occur developmentally during adolescence. These studies have consistently observed a deficit in the decision-making ability of children and adolescents. This deficit has been ascribed to incomplete brain development. The same deficit has also been observed in adult problem and pathological gamblers. However, to date, no study has examined decision-making in adolescents with and without gambling problems. Furthermore, no study has ever examined associations between problem gambling, decision-making, cognitive distortions and alcohol use in youth. To address these issues, 104 male adolescents participated in this study. They were equally divided in two groups, problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers, based on South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents scores. All participants performed the Iowa gambling task and completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale and the alcohol use disorders identification test. Adolescent problem gamblers displayed impaired decision-making, reported high cognitive distortions, and had more problematic alcohol use compared to non-problem gamblers. Strong correlations between problem gambling, alcohol use, and cognitive distortions were observed. Decision-making correlated with interpretative bias. This study demonstrated that adolescent problem gamblers appear to have the same psychological profile as adult problem gamblers and that gambling involvement can negatively impact on decision-making ability that, in adolescence, is still developing. The correlations between interpretative bias and decision-making suggested that the beliefs in the ability to influence gambling outcomes may facilitate decision-making impairment.

  19. Effects of Sport Participation on the Basketball Skills and Physical Self of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…

  20. Consumer satisfaction and child behaviour problems in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Barber, Andrew J; Tischler, Victoria A; Healy, Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Consumer satisfaction with health care is one of the goals of health care delivery. Information on what affects satisfaction helps health care providers to deliver patient-centred care. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between young persons' symptoms and satisfaction with Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). It also examined differences in satisfaction of the parent/carer and their child. Self-report questionnaires were used to gather information from respondents. High levels of satisfaction were reported, although children and adolescents were less satisfied than parents/carers. Young people with self-reported conduct problems were least satisfied with CAMHS, as were those who rated their problems as having a significant impact on their lives. There was no relationship between carer-reported 'caseness' and carer satisfaction with services. Further exploration of the needs and expectations of young people who have behavioural difficulties is necessary so that their needs are better understood and expectations met.

  1. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    PubMed

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT.

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Conduct Problems: Testing Later Development and Related Outcomes in a 12-Year Period.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula

    2016-10-06

    Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.

  3. Adolescent parricide as a clinical and legal problem.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists contribute to the knowledge regarding the continuing problem of parricide by way of macrostudies, utilizing large samples that reveal patterns of how such acts are carried out, gender differences, and other aspects. Clinicians have the opportunity to pursue microinvestigations into the details of how cognitive processes and emotions operate in the adolescent who engages in such behavior. Such investigations entail pursuing specifics in the psychosocial realm, such as earlier maltreatments and ongoing psychological conflicts, and also being alert to the neurobiological differences between adolescents and adults. The use of battered child syndrome as a legal defense is discussed, with contrasts made between relying on a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) approach and a duress defense, based on explanations related to shame and humiliation.

  4. The psychiatric treatment of 'behavioural problems' in adolescence: Between coercion and socialisation.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 2005 report from the French Institute for Medical Research highlighted factors likely to prompt 'behavioural problems' in children and adolescents, and recommended early identification of at-risk families. A number of mental health professionals rose up against such medicalisation of social issues. This ethnographic study was conducted in this climate, in a psychiatric unit, located in a disadvantaged area in the outskirts of Paris, that specialises in adolescents with such problems. The research emphasised how professionals resist being instrumentalised by juvenile counselling services and the justice system, the observed practices bearing traces of critiques of psychiatric institutions since the 1960s. Psychiatrists thus try to justify and legitimate their interventions, which are co-constructed by relevant counselling and mental health professionals and, as much as possible, adolescents and their parents. Consequently, full understanding of institutionalisation, beyond its aspects of constraint and subjection, also requires consideration of its potential as a step in the socialisation process, especially for adolescents from working class backgrounds bereft of social and cultural capital. Contact with professionals may confer a kind of power, 'the power to speak'. At least, that is what the professionals try to give them using the 'pedagogy of reflexivity'.

  5. Application of genetic algorithms in nonlinear heat conduction problems.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Waqar A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are employed to optimize dimensionless temperature in nonlinear heat conduction problems. Three common geometries are selected for the analysis and the concept of minimum entropy generation is used to determine the optimum temperatures under the same constraints. The thermal conductivity is assumed to vary linearly with temperature while internal heat generation is assumed to be uniform. The dimensionless governing equations are obtained for each selected geometry and the dimensionless temperature distributions are obtained using MATLAB. It is observed that GA gives the minimum dimensionless temperature in each selected geometry.

  6. Problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. Results: The study found significant differences between “problem solving level” and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers’, fathers’ siblings’ closeness level; between “loneliness level” and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers’, fathers’, siblings’ closeness level; between “depression level” and life quality, family income, fathers’ closeness level. Conclusion: Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended. PMID:27882035

  7. Inverse heat conduction problem in a phase change memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Jean-Luc; De, Indrayush; Sousa, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    An invers heat conduction problem is solved considering the thermal investigation of a phase change memory device using the scanning thermal microscopy. The heat transfer model rests on system identification for the probe thermal impedance and on a finite element method for the device thermal impedance. Unknown parameters in the model are then identified using a nonlinear least square algorithm that minimizes the quadratic gap between the measured probe temperature and the simulated one.

  8. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L; Riesch, Susan K

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem-solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem-Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem-Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed.

  9. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L.; Riesch, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed. PMID:26936844

  10. Hyperactivity/Inattention Problems Moderate Environmental but Not Genetic Mediation between Negative Parenting and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Yamagata, Shinji; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between negative parenting (NP) and conduct problems (CP) in 6-year-old twins, taking into account the severity of hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIAP). Analyses of the data from 1,677 pairs of twins and their parents revealed that the shared environmental covariance between NP and CP was moderated by…

  11. Prosocial Involvement and Antisocial Peer Affiliations as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Urban Adolescents: Main Effects and Moderating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…

  12. Using Adventure-Based Cooperation Training To Develop Job Related Social Skills for Adolescents with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol

    This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  13. Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: a longitudinal study of urban youth.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the "academic-peer risk" class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class in the first grade; the "academic-peer risk" class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes.

  14. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  15. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  16. Aggression and Rule-breaking: Heritability and stability of antisocial behavior problems in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Sharon; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This twin study examined the structure of genetic and environmental influences on aggression and rule-breaking in order to examine change and stability across the span of childhood to mid-adolescence. Methods Behavioral assessments were conducted at two time points: age 9–10 years and 14–15 years. Using behavioral genetics biometric modeling, the longitudinal structure of influences was investigated. Results Aggression and rule-breaking were found to be influenced by a latent common factor of antisocial behavior (ASB) within each wave of data collection. The childhood-age common factor of ASB was influenced by 41% genetics, 40% shared environment and 19% nonshared environment. In adolescence, 41% of influences on the common factor were novel and entirely genetic, while the remainder of influences were stable across time. Additionally, both aggression and rule-breaking within each wave were found to have unique influences not common across subscales or across waves, highlighting specificity of influences on different problem behaviors at both ages. Conclusions This research sheds light on the commonality of influences on etiology of different forms of antisocial behavior, and suggests future directions for research into intervention for antisocial behavior problems in youth, such as investigation of adolescence-specific environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior problems. PMID:24347737

  17. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  18. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  19. Siblings versus Parents and Friends: Longitudinal Linkages to Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defoe, Ivy N.; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative…

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment with smartphones for measuring mental health problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; Kirchner-Nebot, Teresa; Forns-Santacana, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Planellas, Irina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the viability of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) for measuring the mental states associated with psychopathological problems in adolescents. METHODS In a sample of 110 adolescents, a sociodemographic data survey and an EMA Smartphone application over a one-week period (five times each day), was developed to explore symptom profiles, everyday problems, coping strategies, and the contexts in which the events take place. RESULTS The positive response was 68.6%. Over 2250 prompts about mental states were recorded. In 53% of situations the smartphone was answered at home, 25.5% of cases they were with their parents or with peers (20.3%). Associations were found with attention, affective and anxiety problems (P < 0.001) in the participants who took longer to respond to the EMA app. Anxious and depressive states were highly interrelated (rho = 0.51, P < 0.001), as well as oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001). Only in 6.2% of the situations the subjects perceived they had problems, mainly associated with inter-relational aspects with family, peers, boyfriends or girlfriends (31.2%). We also found moderate-high reliability on scales of satisfaction level on the context, on positive emotionality, and on the discomfort index associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSION EMA methodology using smartphones is a useful tool for understanding adolescents’ daily dynamics. It achieved moderate-high reliability and accurately identified psychopathological manifestations experienced by community adolescents in their natural context. PMID:27679769

  1. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  2. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents.

  3. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  4. Promising Parenting Programs for Reducing Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068

  5. Social competence and social support as mediators between comorbid depressive and conduct problems and functional outcomes in middle school children.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Carol M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n=521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems, low symptoms) based on screening during early 6th grade. Functional outcomes were 6th grade point average (GPA) and parent rating of global adaptive functioning in their 7th grade student. Low levels of social competence were found to mediate the association between symptoms and both lower grades and global functioning for adolescents with depressive symptoms alone and with comorbid symptoms, but not for those with conduct problems alone. Lack of social support mediated the association between psychiatric symptoms and lower grades for adolescents with depression alone and comorbid symptoms, but not for those with conduct problems alone. These findings suggest that intervention to improve social competence and social support may enhance functional outcomes, especially for youth with depressive symptoms or comorbid depressive and conduct symptoms.

  6. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  7. [Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors.

  8. Mental health problems of Iranian female adolescents and its association with pubertal development: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  9. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  10. Associations among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents (M age = 15 years) attending a mainstream school in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that adolescents without learning difficulties were more likely to use tobacco, methamphetamine and cannabis, whereas those with learning difficulties engaged in more inhalant use. Adolescents who had more sleep problems were more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine, cannabis, inhalants, cocaine, ecstasy and any other illegal drug. Adolescents with learning difficulties had more sleep problems than those without learning difficulties. However, sleep problems remained independently associated with tobacco, cannabis and inhalant use when learning difficulties were taken into account.

  11. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  12. Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products.

  13. Internet addiction and interpersonal problems in korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mia; Kang, Hee Sun; Yom, Young-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of Internet addiction and interpersonal problems, explore the relationship between the two, and identify the relevant factors of Internet addiction in Korean middle school students. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The participants were 676 middle school students. A Korean version of the Internet addiction self-test scale and a Korean version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems were used. Among the participants, 547 (80.9%) were identified as general users, 108 (16%) were potential risk users, and 21 (3.1%) were high-risk users. There were statistically significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and interpersonal problems (r = 0.425, P = .000). There were significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and hours spent playing games. Internet-addicted adolescents also had more interpersonal problems. It is important to raise awareness about Internet addiction, and close attention must be paid not only to students at risk of Internet addiction but also to students at low risk to prevent students from becoming addicted to the Internet.

  14. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A

    2009-12-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.

  15. Gene–Environment Correlation Underlying the Association Between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Narusyte, Jurgita; Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene–environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent–adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents′ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11–22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986

  16. Behavioral Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Ego-Level Attainment in Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Ullrich, Manuela; Hofmann, Volker; Edelstein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Examined how externalizing as well as internalizing behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' personalities as represented by Loevinger's (1976) model of ego development. Demonstrated that behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' ego-level attainment in unique and meaningful ways.…

  17. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving as a Well-Being Indicator among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Colakkadiaglu, Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine subjective well-being with respect to problem solving, self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in adolescents. For this purpose, "Positive and Negative Affect Scale", "Satisfaction with Life Scale", "Adolescent Decision Making Scale" and "Problem Solving…

  18. Designing a Family Problem Solving Training Program with an Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.; And Others

    An educational program was developed to assist family groups with adolescent diabetics to improve their problem-solving skills. The program is based on theoretical assumptions and research findings from a study of family problem-solving, which involved nine intact, well-functioning families (five families with a diabetic adolescent and four…

  19. Anxiety Symptoms Account for the Link between Reactive Aggression and Sleep Problems among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Becker, Stephen P.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Cheatham-Johnson, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are common among adolescents and have a negative impact on functioning. A better understanding of factors that contribute to sleep problems in adolescence can help guide more effective, targeted interventions. Objective: The current study examined the associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression…

  20. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  1. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  2. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence.

  3. Suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder in a sample of adolescent and young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU) yielded data on symptoms of depression, conduct disorder, and adolescent and young adult suicidal ideation. Univariate analyses revealed that the familial aggregation for each trait was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects. Suicidal ideation in adolescence was explained in part by genetic influences, but predominantly accounted for by environmental factors. A mixture of genetic and shared environmental influences explained ideation occurring in young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed that there are genetic and shared environmental effects common to suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder. The association between adolescent suicidal ideation and CD was attributable to the same genetic and environmental risk factors for depression. These findings underscore that prevention and intervention strategies should reflect the different underlying mechanisms involving depression and conduct disorder to assist in identifying adolescents at suicidal risk.

  4. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct…

  5. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  6. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  7. Trajectories of Indonesian adolescents' religiosity, problem behavior, and friends' religiosity: covariation and sequences.

    PubMed

    French, Doran C; Christ, Sharon; Lu, Ting; Purwono, Urip

    2014-01-01

    Changes in religiosity, problem behavior, and their friends' religiosity over a 2-year period were assessed in a sample of five hundred and fifty-nine 15-year-old Indonesian Muslim adolescents. Adolescents self-reported their religiosity, problem behavior, and friendships; the religiosity of mutual friends came from friends' self-reports. A parallel process analysis of growth curves showed that adolescents' religiosity trajectories covaried with both problem behavior and friends' religiosity. Using a cross-lagged model in which prior levels were controlled, religiosity at 10th and 11th grades predicted friends' religiosity 1 year later, suggesting that adolescents select friends of similar religiosity. This study provides evidence that religion is intertwined with other aspects of adolescent development and illustrates the importance of contextualizing adolescent religiosity within an ecological framework.

  8. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  9. Teacher awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent risky behaviours: is adolescent gambling perceived to be a problem?

    PubMed

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L; St-Pierre, Renee A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina

    2014-06-01

    Despite legislative prohibitions, there is empirical evidence that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated activities. The current survey was designed to assess teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other high-risk behaviours. Three-hundred and ninety teachers from Ontario and Quebec, with experience teaching students aged 12-18, completed an online survey. Results suggest that teachers are aware of the fact that youth gamble. Furthermore, they recognized the addictive nature of gambling and their subsequent consequences. Despite overestimating the proportion of youth experiencing gambling problems, gambling was viewed as being the least serious of issues affecting youth, with drug use and school violence topping the list. Almost half of respondents indicated that gambling in school can constitute a good learning activity. In regards to prevention, all other risky behaviours and academic problems were perceived as issues needing greater attention than gambling. These results, which are largely consistent with findings from a previous study examining parental perceptions of adolescent risky behaviours, suggest a need for greater awareness and teacher education.

  10. Sleep problems and depression in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-08-01

    Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.

  11. Treatment-seeking for selected reproductive health problems: behaviours of unmarried female adolescents in two low-performing areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The reproductive health needs of unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh are largely unmet. This study aimed to explore treatment-seeking behaviour of unmarried female adolescents for selected reproductive health (RH) concerns in two low-performing areas of Bangladesh. Methods As part of a large community based-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007. From each of two select study areas, 800 unmarried female adolescents aged 12–19 years were selected for participation by simple random sampling through household listing and were recruited into the study. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire to participating female adolescents. Descriptive and bivariate analytic methods were used compare RH conditions and healthcare seeking behaviour of adolescents across urban and rural settings. Results Approximately 50% of the sample reported experiencing menstrual problems in the last year. The predominant problems reported by participants included: lower abdominal pain, back pain, irregular menstruation, and excessive bleeding during menstruation. Irrespective of study area, only 40% of the female adolescents with menstrual problems sought treatment from qualified physicians. Otherwise, utilization of healthcare facilities and care providers for reported problems varied significantly by rural and urban areas. Higher proportions of adolescents in the urban setting (15%) also reported recent symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), compared to those in the rural setting (9%; p < 0.001). Across sites, however, self-treatment was the most commonly reported method of care for those who experienced any symptoms of STI. Conclusions In general, treatment-seeking behaviours by unmarried female adolescents was low for menstrual problems. A vast majority of unmarried female adolescents practiced self-care for symptoms of STIs while only small proportions sought treatment from qualified physicians. These

  12. Inverse modeling for heat conduction problem in human abdominal phantom.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.

  13. Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems.

  14. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent.

  15. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  16. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  17. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  18. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  19. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  20. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  1. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  2. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.

  3. Initial Reliability and Validity of the Life Satisfaction Scale for Problem Youth in a Sample of Drug Abusing and Conduct Disordered Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Teichner, Gordon; Azrin, Nathan; Weintraub, Noah; Crum, Thomas A.; Murphy, Leah; Silver, N. Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Responses to Life Satisfaction Scale for Problem Youth (LSSPY) items were examined in a sample of 193 substance abusing and conduct disordered adolescents. In responding to the LSSPY, youth endorse their percentage of happiness (0 to 100%) in twelve domains (i.e., friendships, family, school, employment/work, fun activities, appearance, sex…

  4. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents’ Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents’ conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers’ reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents’ conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices. PMID:19636764

  5. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  6. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  7. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  8. Parent Attachment, School Commitment, and Problem Behavior Trajectories of Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavendish, Wendy; Nielsen, Amie L.; Montague, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the growth trajectories from early to late adolescence of teacher ratings of students' behavior problems from 9th through 11th grade and student self-reports of alcohol use in a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 179, 90% African-American and/or Hispanic, 43% boys, 57% girls) in a large,…

  9. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…

  10. In-Home Generalization of Social Interactions in Families of Adolescents with Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Loretta A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A communication program was implemented with the families of three adolescents with behavior problems. Skill teaching resulted in parent-adolescent dyads learning to use the skills in the teaching setting, but competent use of the skills in the home was not observed until an in-home family conference phase was implemented. (Author/JDD)

  11. Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

  12. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  13. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  14. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  15. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  16. Peer Victimization during Middle Childhood as a Lead Indicator of Internalizing Problems and Diagnostic Outcomes in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. Methods This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in nine consecutive years and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10 to 11 years after the victimization assessment). Results Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Conclusions Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression. PMID:24660666

  17. Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; De Young, Colin G; Eastman, Maria; Getchell, Marya; Haeffel, Gerald J; Klinteberg, Britt af; Koposov, Roman A; Oreland, Lars; Pakstis, Andrew J; Ponomarev, Oleg A; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Singh, Jay P; Yrigollen, Carolyn M

    2010-01-01

    A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DbetaH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.

  18. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  19. Classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder by problem checklists and standardized interviews.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael H; Duncan, Laura; Georgiades, Kathy; Bennett, Kathryn; Gonzalez, Andrea; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Szatmari, Peter; MacMillan, Harriet L; Kata, Anna; Ferro, Mark A; Lipman, Ellen L; Janus, Magdalena

    2016-11-14

    This paper discusses the need for research on the psychometric adequacy of self-completed problem checklists to classify child and adolescent psychiatric disorder based on proxy assessments by parents and self-assessments by adolescents. We put forward six theoretical arguments for expecting checklists to achieve comparable levels of reliability and validity with standardized diagnostic interviews for identifying child psychiatric disorder in epidemiological studies and clinical research. Empirically, the modest levels of test-retest reliability exhibited by standardized diagnostic interviews - 0.40 to 0.60 based on kappa - should be achievable by checklists when thresholds or cut-points are applied to scale scores to identify a child with disorder. The few studies to conduct head-to-head comparisons of checklists and interviews in the 1990s concurred that no construct validity differences existed between checklist and interview classifications of disorder, even though the classifications of youth with psychiatric disorder only partially overlapped across instruments. Demonstrating that self-completed problem checklists can classify disorder with similar reliability and validity as standardized diagnostic interviews would provide a simple, brief, flexible way to measuring psychiatric disorder as both a categorical or dimensional phenomenon as well as dramatically lowering the burden and cost of assessments in epidemiological studies and clinical research.

  20. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  1. On Certain Aspects of the Problem of Adolescent Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…

  2. Adolescent Stress: The Relationship between Stress and Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Behling, Steven; Gipson, Polly Y.; Ford, Rebecca E.

    2005-01-01

    Although low levels of stressful life experiences are considered to be a normal part of development, higher levels can constitute a threat to the well-being and healthy development of children and adolescents. Adolescents are exposed to increased rates of stressful life experiences and there is some evidence that increases in stressors account, at…

  3. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  4. Problems of Adolescents and Youths: Symposium IV C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraja, Jaya; Suppiah, Chandraseagran

    This symposium contains reports on: (1) a study of drug abuse among adolescents in India, by Jaya Nagaraja; and (2) a case study of factors contributing to drug addiction among Malaysian youth, by Chandraseagran Suppiah. Based on a sample of 1,000 adolescents attending metropolitan city colleges, findings of the Indian study concern psychological…

  5. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  6. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  7. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  8. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  9. Childhood predictors of externalizing and internalizing problems in adolescence. A prospective follow-up study from age 8 to 16.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Helstelä, Leila

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the childhood predictors of externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescence in an epidemiological sample. Behavior ratings were obtained from 609 children at two time-points, accounting for 71% of the target sample. At age 8, children were evaluated with parental and teacher Rutter scales, and with the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), and at age 16 with the Child Behavior Checklist. Evaluations by all informants had a unique contribution to later outcome. In multivariate analysis, among boys, parental reports of hyperactivity independently predicted externalizing problems and teacher reports of hyperactivity independently predicted internalizing problems. Teacher reports of conduct problems independently predicted externalizing problems among both boys and girls. Furthermore, parent reports of emotional problems independently predicted internalizing problems among both boys and girls. Children's own reports of internalized distress measured with CDI predicted a high level of internalizing problems among girls. Perceived need of treatment was the strongest predictor for outcome among girls. Change in family structure (e. g., divorce or remarriage) during follow-up independently predicted externalizing and internalizing problems among boys. The study supports the findings from earlier studies showing that the stability of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence is substantial. This implies a need for early recognition and initiation of treatment efforts.

  10. Brief report: do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.

  11. Change in psychological problems of adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2014-07-01

    The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p < 0.05). However, between-group differences of emotional and total problems declined over time. While adolescents who are blind and those who have low vision had similar levels of psychological problems, SDQ scores showed less improvement in adolescents with an earlier age at onset of vision loss. In conclusion, a minority of adolescents with visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.

  12. Sleep problems across development: a pathway to adolescent risk taking through working memory.

    PubMed

    Thomas, April Gile; Monahan, Kathryn C; Lukowski, Angela F; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Problematic sleep can be detrimental to the development of important cognitive functions, such as working memory, and may have the potential for negative behavioral consequences, such as risk-taking. In this way, sleep problems may be particularly harmful for youth-whose cognitive abilities are still developing and who are more susceptible to risky behavior. Using data from a large, national, longitudinal study, continuity and change in sleep problems were examined from 2 to 15 years of age and associated with deficits in working memory at age 15 and risk taking behaviors at age 18. Participants (N = 1,364 children; 48.3% female) were assessed for sleep problems (parent-report), working memory (behavioral task), and risk taking behavior (youth self-report). The sample was predominantly White (80.4%); additional races represented in the sample included Black/African American (12.9%), Asian/Pacific Islander (1.6%), American Indian/Eskimo/Aleut (.4%), and Other (4.7%). The findings suggest that sleep problems are likely to cascade across development, with sleep problems demonstrating continuity from infancy to early childhood, early childhood to middle childhood, and middle childhood to adolescence. Although sleep problems in infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood were not directly related to adolescent working memory, sleep problems during adolescence were associated with poorer adolescent working memory. In turn, these deficits in working memory were related to greater risk taking in late adolescence. In summary, the present results suggest that sleep problems in earlier periods are indicative of risk for sleep problems later in development, but that sleep problems in adolescence contribute uniquely to deficits in working memory that, in turn, lead to risky behavior during late adolescence.

  13. An Approach to Teaching Parents and Adolescents Problem-Solving Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Arthur L.; And Others

    Parents and adolescents were taught to resolve conflicts concerning rules, responsibilities, and values through the use of problem solving and communication skills. Problem-solving included (1) defining the problem, (2) listing alternative solutions, (3) evaluating the solutions, and (4) planning implementation. Communication skills included (1)…

  14. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  16. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  17. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  18. Monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates stability of attention problems and susceptibility to life stress during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zohsel, K; Bianchi, V; Mascheretti, S; Hohm, E; Schmidt, M H; Esser, G; Brandeis, D; Banaschewski, T; Nobile, M; Laucht, M

    2015-11-01

    Attention problems affect a substantial number of children and adolescents and are predictive of academic underachievement and lower global adaptive functioning. Considerable variability has been observed with regard to the individual development of attention problems over time. In particular, the period of adolescence is characterized by substantial maturation of executive functioning including attentional processing, with the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual trajectories not yet well understood. In the present investigation, we evaluated whether the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism, MAOA-LPR, plays a role in determining continuity of parent-rated attention problems during adolescence. At the same time, a potential effect of severe life events (SLEs) was taken into account. A multi-group path analysis was used in a sample of 234 adolescents (149 males, 85 females) who took part in an epidemiological cohort study at the ages of 11 and 15 years. Attention problems during early adolescence were found to be a strong predictor of attention problems in middle adolescence. However, in carriers of the MAOA-LPR low-activity variant (MAOA-L), stability was found to be significantly higher than in carriers of the high-activity variant (MAOA-H). Additionally, only in MAOA-L carriers did SLEs during adolescence significantly impact on attention problems at the age of 15 years, implying a possible gene × environment interaction. To conclude, we found evidence that attention problems during adolescence in carriers of the MAOA-L allele are particularly stable and malleable to life stressors. The present results underline the usefulness of applying a more dynamic GxE perspective.

  19. The clinical usefulness of the new LPE specifier for subtyping adolescents with conduct disorder in the DSM 5.

    PubMed

    Jambroes, Tijs; Jansen, Lucres M C; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Colins, Olivier F; Popma, Arne

    2016-08-01

    In DSM 5, conduct disorder (CD) has been expanded with a new specifier 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE) in addition to the age-of-onset (AoO) subtyping, and is thought to identify a severe antisocial subgroup of CD. However, research in clinical practice has been scarce. Therefore, the current study will examine differences in clinical symptoms between subtypes of CD, based on both subtyping schemes. Subsequently, it will investigate whether the LPE specifier explains unique variance in aggression, added to the AoO subtyping. A sample of 145 adolescents with CD (51 % male, mean age 15.0) from a closed treatment institution participated in this study. CD diagnoses and AoO subtype were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. The LPE specifier was assessed using the callous-unemotional dimension of the Youth Psychopathy Traits Inventory (YPI). Self-reported proactive and reactive aggression, rule-breaking behavior and internalizing problems within the subtypes were compared. Youth with childhood-onset CD and LPE showed significantly more aggression than adolescent-onset CD without LPE (proactive aggression: F = 3.1, p < 0.05, reactive aggression: F = 3.7, p < 0.05). Hierarchical regression revealed that the LPE specifier uniquely explained 7 % of the variance in reactive aggression, additionally to the AoO subtyping. For proactive aggression, the interaction between AoO and the LPE added 4.5 % to the explained variance. Although the LPE specifier may help to identify a more aggressive subtype of CD in adolescents, the incremental utility seems to be limited. Therefore, clinical relevance of the LPE specifier in high-risk adolescent samples still needs to be investigated thoroughly.

  20. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  1. The validity of the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) among adolescents referred for a substance misuse problem.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Tengström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to study the validity of 2 personality instruments, the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), among adolescents with a substance use problem. Clinical interviews were completed with 180 adolescents and followed up after 12 months. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the lack of correlation to intelligence in both instruments' scales. Two findings were in support of convergent validity: Negative affectivity (HP5i) and harm avoidance (JTCI) were correlated to internalizing symptoms, and impulsivity (HP5i) and novelty seeking (JTCI) were correlated to externalizing symptoms. The predictive validity of JTCI was partly supported. When psychiatric symptoms at baseline were controlled for, cooperativeness predicted conduct disorder after 12 months. Summarizing, both instruments can be used in adolescent clinical samples to tailor treatment efforts, although some scales need further investigation. It is important to include personality assessment when evaluating psychiatric problems in adolescents.

  2. Attachment Characteristics and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    DEMİR, Türkay; BOLAT, Nurullah; YAVUZ, Mesut; KARAÇETİN, Gül; DOĞANGÜN, Burak; KAYAALP, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the behavioral problems and the attachment characteristics of children and adolescents with congenital blindness (CB). Method Forty children and adolescents aged 11–14 years with CB were included as the case group. Forty healthy children and adolescents who were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status with the case group served as the comparison group. Behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4–18 (CBCL 4/18). Attachment characteristics were assessed via the Short Form of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA). Results The case group had lower CBCL total problems scores as well as anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, and attention problems subscales scores with respect to the comparison group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in s-IPPA scores. Conclusion Children and adolescents with CB did not differ from the comparison group in terms of attachment, whereas, they had lower scores on behavioral problems than the comparison group. Although previous studies indicate that children and adolescents with CB may be at the risk of insecure attachment, our study suggested that adaptive mechanisms of their families together with professional help from specialized teachers and services provided by schools for children and adolescents with CB may play compensatory roles.

  3. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  4. Which kindergarten children are at greatest risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity and conduct disorder symptomatology as adolescents?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-03-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade. Kindergarten children frequently engaging in ADHD-CD-type behaviors were more likely to later experience both moderate (covariate adjusted OR = 2.37) and severe (covariate adjusted OR = 3.63) ADHD-CD symptomatology. Low academic achievement uniquely increased the risk of both moderate and severe symptomatology (adjusted OR range = 1.7 to 2.24). The results should guide early screening and school-based intervention efforts for ADHD-CD. Reducing children's risk for adolescent ADHD-CD symptomatology may require remediating low behavioral and academic functioning by the end of kindergarten. When these 2 modifiable factors occur together they increase kindergarten children's odds of experiencing severe ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade by a multiplicative factor of 8.1.

  5. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  6. Mother-Adolescent Conflict as a Mediator between Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Maternal Psychological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…

  7. Effects of Familism and Family Cohesion on Problem Behaviors among Adolescents in Mexican Immigrant Families in the Southwest U.S

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Parsai, Monica; Kulis, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This study used baseline data from the Southwest sample of the Latino Acculturation and Health project to examine whether familism and cohesion are related to problem behaviors in a sample of Mexican and Mexican American adolescents in the Southwest U.S. This study is important to practitioners, and prevention and intervention researchers because it examines buffers to problem behaviors among an increasingly at-risk population. The results confirm that familism is a powerful protective factor against aggressive behavior, conduct problems and rule breaking in this sample. The results draw attention to the importance of family among Mexican and Mexican American families. Family cohesion, however, was found to be protective against conduct problems and rule breaking but not aggressive behavior. Possible explanations for this result are discussed. Additional findings suggest that adolescents who have the ability to navigate between culture of origin and mainstream culture are also protected against some problem behaviors. PMID:19865609

  8. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  9. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    PubMed

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Sleep Problems from Childhood to Adolescence Both Predict and Are Predicted by Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biyao; Isensee, Corinna; Becker, Andreas; Wong, Janice; Eastwood, Peter R; Huang, Rae-Chi; Runions, Kevin C; Stewart, Richard M; Meyer, Thomas; Brüni, L G; Zepf, Florian D; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of sleep disorders at different stages of childhood and adolescence have been well established, little is known about the developmental course of general sleep problems. This also holds true for the bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and emotional as well as behavioral difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the general pattern and the latent trajectory classes of general sleep problems from a large community sample aged 5-14 years. In addition, this study examined the predictive value of emotional/behavioral difficulties (i.e., anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) on sleep problems latent trajectory classes, and vice-versa. Participants (N = 1993) were drawn from a birth cohort of Western Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 who were followed until 14 years of age. Sleep problems were assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, and 14, respectively, whereas anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior were assessed at ages 5 and 17 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a decline in an overall pattern of sleep problems during the observed 10-year period. Anxiety/depression was the only baseline factor that predicted the longitudinal course of sleep problems from ages 5 to 14 years, with anxious and depressed participants showing faster decreasing patterns of sleep problems over time than those without anxiety or depression. Growth mixture modeling identified two classes of sleep problem trajectories: Normal Sleepers (89.4%) and Troubled Sleepers (10.6%). Gender was randomly distributed between these groups. Childhood attention problems, aggressive behavior, and the interaction between gender and anxiety/depression were significantly predictive of membership in the group of Troubled Sleepers. Group membership in Troubled Sleepers was associated with higher probability of having attention problems and aggressive behavior in mid-adolescence. Boys and girls with

  11. Item Analysis and Differential Item Functioning of a Brief Conduct Problem Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item…

  12. Unsolved Problems: Effects of E-Region Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    Ionospheric plasma enhancement and redistribution at low, mid, and auroral latitudes during major geomagnetic disturbances involves a complex interplay among magnetospheric forcing, solar production, ionospheric processes, season, local and Universal Time (UT), and characteristics of the terrestrial magnetic field. Dramatic features occur with repeatable, but not completely understood, features. These include equatorial depletions, enhancements of the equatorial anomalies, mid-latitude total electron content enhancements near sunset (the "dusk effect"), and at high latitudes sunward-streaming plumes of storm enhanced density (SED) related to plasmaspheric erosion by ring current-driven (SAPS) flow channels and electric fields. An apparent longitude or UT-dependency of some stormtime effects has been noted, and a number of processes have been proposed which might contribute to such observations. Here we examine the effects of peculiarities in the mid-latitude solar-produced E-region conductance on the M-I (magnetosphere-ionosphere) coupling processes associated with the some of the observed ionospheric features and effects. Satellite and ground-based TEC observations are combined with satellite (DMSP) and radar observations of ionospheric plasma concentration and dynamics. Offset of poles, seasonal effects, and magnetic field distortion by the south Atlantic anomaly produced a distorted solar-terminator configuration in the dusk sector during the July 15, 2000 superstorm. Contours of constant Southern Hemisphere E-region shadow height (50 km to 500 km in 50 km steps) are plotted for a uniform grid of latitude/longitude points at 200km altitude. Polarization charge buildup associated with the resultant E-region conductance gradient causes westward and poleward ionospheric plasma redistribution along the contours shown.

  13. Premature adolescent autonomy: parent disengagement and deviant peer process in the amplification of problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

    2004-10-01

    Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships were observed on videotaped interaction tasks. Latent growth curve models were used to examine longitudinal trends between deviant friendship interactions and family management. Direct observations of deviant friendship process at age 14 were associated with degradation in family management during adolescence. A comparison of antisocial and well-adjusted boys clarified that parents of antisocial boys (started early and persisted) decreased family management around puberty, in comparison to parents of well-adjusted boys who maintained high levels of family management through adolescence. In predicting late adolescent problem behaviour, there was a statistically reliable interaction between family management degradation and deviant peer involvement in adolescence in support of the premature autonomy hypothesis. Adolescent males involved in deviant friendships, and whose parents decreased their family management, were most likely to use marijuana and commit antisocial acts at age 18. The implications for interventions that target adolescents are discussed.

  14. Parent-adolescent violence and later behavioral health problems among homeless and housed youth.

    PubMed

    Haber, Mason G; Toro, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Parent-adolescent violence (i.e., violence between parents and adolescents) is an important pathway to homelessness and predicts poor behavioral health outcomes among youth. However, few studies have examined links between parent violence and outcomes among youth who are homeless. Existing research has also tended to ignore adolescent violence toward parents, despite evidence that mutual violence is common. The current study examines prospective links of parent-adolescent violence to outcomes among youth who were homeless and demographically matched youth, through two complementary substudies: (a) an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of items measuring parent and adolescent violence combined in the same analysis; and (b) an examination of predictive relationships between the factors identified in the EFA and behavioral health problems, including mental health and alcohol abuse problems. Predictive relationships were examined in the overall sample and by gender, ethnic, and housing status subgroups. Results of the EFA suggested that parent-adolescent violence includes intraindividual (i.e., separate parent and adolescent) physical components and a shared psychological component. Each of these components contributed uniquely to predicting later youth behavioral health. Implications for research and practice with youth who are homeless are discussed.

  15. Pathways of behavior problems from childhood to late adolescence leading to delinquency and academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M

    2009-09-01

    Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic functioning was rated at age 18. Age 18 status violations were linked to delinquency, and property violations to academic underachievement. Engagement in status and property violations was predicted by childhood opposition. Findings suggest that (a) disaggregated forms of externalizing behavior are needed to understand behavioral pathways to adverse outcomes and (b) prevention of adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement should target childhood opposition.

  16. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  17. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  18. Social and psychiatric functioning in adolescents with Asperger syndrome compared with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Green, J; Gilchrist, A; Burton, D; Cox, A

    2000-08-01

    Lack of standardized phenotypic definition has made outcome studies of Asperger syndrome (AS) difficult to interpret. This paper reports psychosocial functioning in 20 male adolescents with AS, defined according to current ICD-10 criteria, and a comparison group of 20 male adolescents with severe conduct disorder. Subjects were gathered from clinical referral. Evaluation used standardized interviewer rated assessments of social functioning and psychiatric morbidity. The AS group showed severe impairments in practical social functioning despite good cognitive ability and lack of significant early language delay. High levels of anxiety and obsessional disorders were found in AS; depression, suicidal ideation, tempers, and defiance in both groups. Results are compared with those from other studies. Relevance to clinical ascertainment and treatment is discussed.

  19. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  20. Internalizing and Externalizing Personality Dimensions and Clinical Problems in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Ostensible psychiatric comorbidity can sometimes be explained by shared relations between diagnostic constructs and higher order internalizing and externalizing dimensions. However, this possibility has not been explored with regard to comorbidity between personality pathology and other clinical constructs in adolescents. In this study,…

  1. The Relationship between Problem Disclosure, Coping Strategies and Placement Outcome in Foster Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Deborah C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines problem disclosure and coping strategies in 21 foster adolescents. Highly significant results indicate that teenagers who have experienced crisis foster placements were more likely to disclose concerns. These young people also seemed more likely to use nonproductive coping strategies when dealing with everyday problems. (Author/JDM)

  2. Problem Behaviors in Adolescence: The Opposite Role Played by Insecure Attachment and Commitment Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the relations between insecure attachment styles, commitment and behavioral problems, focusing on the unique and common contribution that avoidant and anxious styles and commitment made to internalizing and externalizing problems. 535 adolescents, 267 boys and 268 girls, aged from 16 to 18 years, completed self-report…

  3. Female Incarcerated Adolescents with Language Problems Talk about Their Own Communication Behaviors and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…

  4. A Study of Selected Adolescent Problems as Presented in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mary F.; Skelton, Juanita

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed 15 popular fiction books in terms of problem-concerns of young adolescents. Five were by author Judy Blume. The books reflected personal, family, and interpersonal problems and a trend toward realism. Fiction can be helpful in counseling and in developmental programs. (JAC)

  5. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  6. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  7. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Ingestive Problems of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are…

  8. Evaluation of a Multicomponent, Behaviorally Oriented, Problem-Based "Summer School" Program for Adolescents with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…

  9. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  10. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  11. Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…

  12. Health Problems in Children and Adolescents before and after a Man-Made Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…

  13. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  14. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

  15. Cardiovascular and Affective Responses to Social Stress in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…

  16. Reading Problems, Attentional Deficits, and Current Mental Health Status in Adjudicated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…

  17. Peer and School Problems in the Lives of Urban Adolescents: Frequency, Difficulty, and Relation to Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Kliewer, Wendy; Allison, Kevin W.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Meyer, Aleta L.; Esposito, Layla

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence of problem situations in the peer and school domains and their relation to adjustment among urban adolescents. Students from three urban middle schools ("N"=176) serving a predominantly African American population rated 61 problem situations identified in a previous qualitative study and completed measures of…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: A Rasch Analysis on Adolescent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagquist, Curt

    2008-01-01

    The PsychoSomatic Problems (PSP)-scale is built upon eight items intended to tap information about psychosomatic problems among schoolchildren and adolescents in general populations. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the PSP-scale by means of the Rasch model, with a focus on the operating characteristics of the…

  19. The Role of Early Language Difficulties in the Trajectories of Conduct Problems Across Childhood.

    PubMed

    Yew, Shaun Goh Kok; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-11-01

    This study uses latent growth curve modelling to contrast the developmental trajectories of conduct problems across childhood for children with early language difficulties (LD) and those with typical language (TL). It also examines whether the presence of early language difficulties moderates the influence of child, parent and peers factors known to be associated with the development of conduct problems. Unconditional and language status conditional latent growth curves of conduct problems were estimated for a nationally representative cohort of children, comprising of 1627 boys (280 LD) and 1609 girls (159 LD) measured at ages 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11. Multiple regression tested interaction between language status and predictors of the level and slope of the development of conduct symptoms. On average, children's conduct problems followed a curvilinear decrease. Compared to their TL peers, LD boys and girls had trajectories of conduct problems that had the same shape but with persistently higher levels. Among boys, LD amplified the contributions of parental hostility and SES and protected against the contributions of sociability and maternal psychological distress to a high level of conduct problems. In low SES boys, LD was a vulnerability to a slower rate of decline in conduct problems. Among girls, LD amplified the contributions of low pro-social behaviour to a higher level and sociability to a slower rate of decline of conduct problems while dampening the contribution of peer problems to a higher level of problems.

  20. Trajectories of Adolescent Mother-Grandmother Psychological Conflict during Early Parenting and Children's Problem Behaviors at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…

  1. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  2. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  3. Mental health problems in adolescents with delayed sleep phase: results from a large population-based study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare mental health problems, resilience and family characteristics in adolescents with and without delayed sleep phase (DSP) in a population-based sample. Data were taken from the youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012. In all, 9338 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls) provided self-reported data on a wide range of instruments assessing mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms, perfectionism, resilience and sleep. Measures of socioeconomic status were also included. Three hundred and six adolescents (prevalence 3.3%) were classified as having DSP [according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 (ICSD-2)] criteria. Adolescents with DSP reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and ADHD symptoms. Adolescents with DSP also exhibited significantly lower levels of resilience. The Cohen's d effect sizes ranged from small [obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): d = 0.15] to moderate (inattention: d = 0.71). In the fully adjusted model, the significant predictors of DSP included inattention [odds ratio (OR): 2.11], lack of personal structure (OR: 2.07), low (OR: 1.85) and high (OR: 1.91) paternal education, parents not living together (OR: 1.81), hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 1.71) and poorer family economy (OR: 1.59). In conclusion, the high symptom load across a range of mental health measures suggests that a broad and thorough clinical approach is warranted when adolescents present with DSP.

  4. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents.

  5. Mobile phone use, behavioural problems and concentration capacity in adolescents: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Röösli, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively investigate whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones and other wireless communication devices is related to behavioural problems or concentration capacity in adolescents. The HERMES (Health Effects Related to Mobile phonE use in adolescentS) study sample consisted of 439 Swiss adolescents aged 12-17 years. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), concentration capacity of the adolescents was measured by means of a standardized computerized cognitive test named FAKT. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (1year of follow-up) analyses were performed to investigate possible associations between behavioural problems and concentration capacity and different exposure measures: self-reported and operator-recorded wireless communication device use, cumulative RF-EMF brain and whole body dose and measured personal RF-EMF exposure. In the cross-sectional analyses behavioural problems were associated with several self-reported wireless device use measures but not operator-recorded mobile phone use measures, concentration capacity was associated with several self-reported and operator-recorded exposures. The longitudinal analyses point towards absence of associations. The lack of consistent exposure-response patterns in the longitudinal analyses suggests that behavioural problems and concentration capacity are not affected by the use of wireless communication devices or RF-EMF exposure. Information bias and reverse causality are likely explanations for the observed cross-sectional findings.

  6. Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212

  7. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  8. Morningness: protective factor for sleep-related and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence?

    PubMed

    Gelbmann, Gloria; Kuhn-Natriashvili, Sofia; Pazhedath, Thressia Joslin; Ardeljan, Marina; Wöber, Christian; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between morningness/eveningness, sleep, and psychological problems is well documented in adults as well as in adolescents. However, research on the circadian orientation and its concomitants in younger children is scarce. The authors investigated the distribution of morningness/eveningness and its connection to sleeping and psychological problems in 91 children and 151 adolescents in Austria. The authors found that morning (M) types had less sleep-related and psychological problems than intermediate (I) and evening (E) types, respectively. Among children, M-types suffered less from daytime sleepiness (females: χ(2)((2)) = 8.1, p = .017; males: χ(2)((2)) = 14.8, p = .001). Among adolescents, M-types showed fewer sleep-wake problems (females: χ(2)((2)) = 17.5, p < .001; males: χ(2)((2)) = 19.8, p < .001), and female M-types showed less externalizing (χ(2)((2)) = 8.7, p = .013) as well as internalizing problem behavior (χ(2)((2)) = 9.0, p = .011). In conclusion, these findings indicate that morningness may act as a protective factor against the development of sleep-related problems in childhood and sleep-related and psychological problems in adolescence, especially in females.

  9. Uniqueness in Calderón's Problem for Conductivities with Unbounded Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberman, Boaz

    2015-12-01

    We prove uniqueness in the inverse conductivity problem for uniformly elliptic conductivities in , where is Lipschitz, , and s and p are such that . In particular, we obtain uniqueness for conductivities in ( n = 3, 4). This improves on the result of the author and Tataru, who assumed that the conductivity is Lipschitz.

  10. La definition des besoins langagiers des adolescents: Un probleme delicat (The Definition of Adolescent Language Needs: A Delicate Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calliabetsou, Penelope

    A discussion of the language needs of adolescents as they relate to second language instruction suggests that for this large population of learners, language needs have not really been considered seriously. It is also proposed that because of the fluidity of the term "language needs," the focus should instead be on second language communication…

  11. Which Kindergarten Children are at Greatest Risk for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. Method Multinomial logistic regression analyses of multi-informant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Results Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade. Kindergarten children frequently engaging in ADHD-CD-type behaviors were more likely to later experience both moderate (covariate adjusted OR = 2.37) and severe (covariate adjusted OR = 3.63) ADHD-CD symptomatology. Low academic achievement uniquely increased the risk of both moderate and severe symptomatology (adjusted OR range = 1.7 to 2.24). Conclusions The results should guide early screening and school-based intervention efforts for ADHD-CD. Reducing children’s risk for adolescent ADHD-CD symptomatology may require remediating low behavioral and academic functioning by the end of kindergarten. When these two modifiable factors occur together they increase kindergarten children’s odds of experiencing severe ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade by a multiplicative factor of 8.1. PMID:26192391

  12. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indians.

    PubMed

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J

    2013-11-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems.

  13. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices, The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model, A longitudinal sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations was utilized, with data collected from kindergarten through high school. Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risk for a constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity. Implications are discussed for developmental models of early sexual activity and for prevention programming. PMID:18607716

  14. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  15. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents.

  16. Marital and severe parent-to-adolescent physical aggression in clinic-referred families: mother and adolescent reports on co-occurrence and links to child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Annette; Donnelly, William O; Boxer, Paul; Lewis, Terri

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the interplay of marital and severe parental physical aggression, and their links to child behavior problems, in 232 families of clinic-referred adolescents. Combined reports from mothers and adolescents indicated that two thirds of adolescents exposed to marital aggression in the past year had also experienced parental aggression. Mothers and fathers who used and/or were victims of marital aggression were both more likely to direct aggression toward their adolescent. Mother and youth reports of marital aggression were tied to each party's report of greater externalizing problems and to youth reports of greater internalizing problems. Severe parental aggression uniquely predicted maternal reports of both behavior problems, after controlling for marital aggression; the reverse was not true. Also, adolescents exposed to both types of family aggression did not display greater maladjustment than those subjected to only one type of family aggression.

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Sleep Problems from Childhood to Adolescence Both Predict and Are Predicted by Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biyao; Isensee, Corinna; Becker, Andreas; Wong, Janice; Eastwood, Peter R.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Runions, Kevin C.; Stewart, Richard M.; Meyer, Thomas; Brüni, L. G.; Zepf, Florian D.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of sleep disorders at different stages of childhood and adolescence have been well established, little is known about the developmental course of general sleep problems. This also holds true for the bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and emotional as well as behavioral difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the general pattern and the latent trajectory classes of general sleep problems from a large community sample aged 5–14 years. In addition, this study examined the predictive value of emotional/behavioral difficulties (i.e., anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) on sleep problems latent trajectory classes, and vice-versa. Participants (N = 1993) were drawn from a birth cohort of Western Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 who were followed until 14 years of age. Sleep problems were assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, and 14, respectively, whereas anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior were assessed at ages 5 and 17 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a decline in an overall pattern of sleep problems during the observed 10-year period. Anxiety/depression was the only baseline factor that predicted the longitudinal course of sleep problems from ages 5 to 14 years, with anxious and depressed participants showing faster decreasing patterns of sleep problems over time than those without anxiety or depression. Growth mixture modeling identified two classes of sleep problem trajectories: Normal Sleepers (89.4%) and Troubled Sleepers (10.6%). Gender was randomly distributed between these groups. Childhood attention problems, aggressive behavior, and the interaction between gender and anxiety/depression were significantly predictive of membership in the group of Troubled Sleepers. Group membership in Troubled Sleepers was associated with higher probability of having attention problems and aggressive behavior in mid-adolescence. Boys and girls with

  18. Electronic media use and insomnia complaints in German adolescents: gender differences in use patterns and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Lange, Karoline; Cohrs, Stefan; Skarupke, Christian; Görke, Monique; Szagun, Bertram; Schlack, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Electronic media play an important role in the everyday lives of children and adolescents and have been shown to be associated with sleep problems. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between time spent using different electronic media and insomnia complaints (IC) in German adolescents with particular respect to gender differences in use patterns and associations with IC. Cross-sectional data of a weighted total of 7533 adolescents aged 11-17 stem from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) that was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The assessment of IC and time spent using different electronic media (television, computer/internet, video games, total screen time, mobile phones, and music) was included in a self-report questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between time spent per day with each electronic media and IC. Age, SES, emotional problems (anxiety/depression) and presence of a medical condition were considered as covariates in the adjusted model. Boys and girls were considered separately. For boys: computer/internet use of ≥3 h/d (AOR = 2.56, p < 0.05) and total screen time of ≥8 h/d (AOR = 2.45, p < 0.01) were associated with IC in users. Playing video games for 0.5-2 h/d reduced the odds for IC (AOR = 0.60, p < 0.05) compared to nonusers. For girls: Listening to music for ≥3 h/d was associated with IC (AOR = 4.24, p < 0.05) compared to non-listeners. Everyday use of electronic media devices is associated with IC in adolescents. Clinicians dealing with adolescents referred for sleep problems should be aware of gender-specific patterns of media use and sleep problems.

  19. Less reduction of psychosocial problems among adolescents with unmet communication needs.

    PubMed

    Jager, Margot; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Almansa, Josue; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J; De Winter, Andrea F

    2017-04-01

    Patient-professional communication has been suggested to be a major determinant of treatment outcomes in psychosocial care for children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown and no longitudinal studies have been performed. Our aim was, therefore, to assess over the course of 1 year, the impact of patient-centered communication on psychosocial problems of adolescents in psychosocial care, including the routes mediating this impact. We obtained data on 315 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, enrolled in child and adolescent social or mental health care. We assessed patient-centered communication by comparing the needs and experiences of adolescents with regard to three aspects of communication: affective quality, information provision, and shared decision-making. Changes in psychosocial problems comprised those reported by adolescents and their parents between baseline and 1 year thereafter. Potential mediators were treatment adherence, improvement of understanding, and improvement in self-confidence. We found a relationship between unmet needs for affective quality, information provision, and shared decision-making and less reduction of psychosocial problems. The association between the unmet need to share in decision-making and less reduction of psychosocial problems were partially mediated by less improvement in self-confidence (30 %). We found no mediators regarding affective quality and information provision. Our findings confirm that patient-centered communication is a major determinant of treatment outcomes in psychosocial care for adolescents. Professionals should be aware that tailoring their communication to individual patients' needs is vital to the effectiveness of psychosocial care.

  20. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  1. Children of adolescent mothers: attachment representation, maternal depression, and later behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Hubbs-Tait, L; Hughes, K P; Culp, A M; Osofsky, J D; Hann, D M; Eberhart-Wright, A; Ware, L M

    1996-07-01

    Underlying the responses of 34 44-month-old children of adolescent mothers to five attachment narratives were two factors--departure and reunion. The departure factor included disorganized and insecure responses to parents' departure as well as disorganized responses to narratives about children's misbehavior and fear. Scores predicted children's externalizing behavior problems 10 months later and discriminated children in the clinical from those in the normal range for externalizing problems. Maternal depression explained significant additional variance in children's externalizing problems.

  2. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5–14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5–20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8–21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems. PMID:26000035

  3. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-04-03

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5-14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5-20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8-21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems.

  4. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p < 0.001 for all the correlations). Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  5. From the child to the neighbourhood: Longitudinal ecological correlates of young adolescents' emotional, social, conduct, and academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Susan L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Hood, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological framework, we investigated the correlates of changes in early adolescents' emotional, conduct, social and academic difficulties over a 2-year period of time. A representative sample of Australian early adolescents (N = 3797, 51% boys) completed questionnaires and interviews when they were age 10 (T1) and two years later at age 12 (T2). Parents also participated. Adolescents' difficulties increased over time, but there was no difference in academic difficulties between T1 and T2. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that temperamental factors of persistence and reactivity accounted for the most unique variance in adolescents' difficulties. Factors at each ecological level, including neighbourhood advantage, school connection, and family factors, were also uniquely associated with adolescents' change in difficulties over time. Although ecological effects were small, the study highlights the significant unique roles that proximal and distal social contexts play in the development of difficulties.

  6. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.

  7. Conduct Problems in Young, School-Going Children in Ireland: Prevalence and Teacher Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Lynda; Ní Mháille, Grainne; Lodge, Anne; McGilloway, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Conduct problems in school settings can pose significant challenges for both children and teachers. This study examined the teacher-reported prevalence of conduct problems in a sample of young children (N?=?445) in the first two years of formal education. A secondary aim was to assess teachers' perceptions of child behaviour and their classroom…

  8. A 30-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Hyperactive Boys with Conduct Problems: Adult Criminality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; Faller, Katherine J.; Crinella, Francis M.; Schell, Anne M.; Swanson, James M.; Homer, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the official arrest records for a large number of hyperactive boys (N = 179), most with conduct problems, and 75 control boys; to examine childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, and parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems for their contribution to criminal behavior in adulthood; and to compare adult outcome…

  9. The Neuroscience of Callous-Unemotional Subtype of Conduct Problems: Implications for Intervention and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alice P.; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel school-based intervention programme for children with chronic and severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. The main aim of the programme is to reduce conduct problems and to increase prosocial behaviours. The ultimate aim of such a programme is to help pupils with severe and chronic conduct problems back on track…

  10. Uniqueness in the Calderón problem with partial data for less smooth conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we study the inverse conductivity problem with partial data. Moreover, we show that, in dimension n ⩾ 3, the uniqueness of the Calderón problem holds for the C^{1}\\bigcap H^{\\frac{3}{2},2} conductivities.

  11. Analogy of the Grounded Conducting Sphere Image Problem with Mirror Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the grounded conducting sphere image problem, all the necessary information about the image charge can be found from a mirror equation and a magnification formula. Then, we propose a method to solve the image problem for an extended charge distribution near a grounded conducting sphere. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Childhood Conduct Problems Are Associated with Increased Partnership and Parenting Difficulties in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Woodward, Lianne J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from a sample of 337 parents studied at age 30 to examine the linkages between childhood conduct problems assessed at ages 7-9 and later partnership and parenting outcomes. The key findings of this study were: 1) increasing levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with increased risk of partnership difficulties,…

  13. The Treatment of Conduct Problems in Children With Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, David J.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of callous-unemotional (CU) traits on treatment outcomes and processes in a 10-week behavioral parent-training intervention with young boys referred for conduct problems (N = 56; mean age 6.29 years). CU traits were associated with greater conduct problems at pretreatment and with poor outcomes at…

  14. Community Differences in the Association between Parenting: Practices and Child Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma; Conger, Rand D.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys African American families (N=841) to test hypothesis that community context might influence the association between parent control and punishment on child conduct problems. Survey found the deterrent effect of caretaker control on conduct problems became smaller as deviant behavior became more widespread. Results suggest that a particular…

  15. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  16. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems: A Multilevel Analysis with an African American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.; Brody, Gene H.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of African American children and their primary caregivers to examine the association between various community factors and child conduct problems. The analysis revealed a rather strong inverse association between level of collective socialization and conduct problems. This relationship…

  17. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  18. Peer Deviancy Training and Peer Coercion: Dual Processes Associated with Early-Onset Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; McEachern, Amber; Barner, Stacy; Johnson, Kassy; Provines, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The prospective relationships of conduct problems and peer coercion and deviancy training during kindergarten (mean age = 5.3 years) to overt and covert conduct problems in third-fourth grade were examined in a sample of 267 boys and girls. Coercion and deviancy training were distinct peer processes. Both were associated with earlier child conduct…

  19. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  20. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  1. Conceptualization of Fractions and Categorization of Problems for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charron, Camilo

    2002-01-01

    165 students, from the fifth, seventh and ninth grades were asked to solve written problems involving fractions. In the problems a reference quantity (RQ) was multiplied by a fraction (FR), yielding the value of a compared quantity (CQ). The fraction expressed either an part-whole ratio (PW), or a part-part ratio (PP). Six type of problems were…

  2. Challenges in Conducting A Multi-Site Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Harry; Woodside, Blake; Agras, Stewart; Halmi, Katherine; Johnson, Craig; Kaye, Walter; Wilfley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe obstacles in the implementation of a controlled treatment trial of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Method The original aim was to enter 240 participants with AN to one of 4 cells: Behavioral family therapy (BFT) plus fluoxetine; BFT plus placebo; systems family therapy (SFT) plus fluoxetine; SFT plus placebo. Results Recruitment was delayed pending a satisfactory resolution concerning participant safety. After 6 months of recruitment it became clear that the medication was associated with poor recruitment leading to a study redesign resulting in a comparison of two types of family therapy with a projected sample size of 160. One site was unable to recruit and was replaced. Discussion Problems with the delineation of safety procedures, recruitment, re-design of the study, and replacement of a site, were the main elements resulting in a 1-year delay. Suggestions are made for overcoming such problems in future AN trials. PMID:21495052

  3. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157

  4. Problem video game playing is related to emotional distress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo

    2016-09-29

    Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.

  5. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex.

  6. Cognitive Abilities Adjustment and Parenting Practices in Preschoolers with Disruption Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Parra, A.; Lopez-Rubio, S.; Mata, S.; Calero, M. D.; Vives, M. C.; Carles, R.; Navarro, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Conduct problems arising in infancy are one of the main reasons for which parents seek psychological assistance. Although these problems usually begin when the child has started school, in recent years a group of children has been identified who begin to manifest such problems from their earliest infancy and whose prognosis seems to…

  7. The Effects of Conducting a Functional Analysis on Problem Behavior in Other Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Nathan A.; Findley, Addie J.; Reavis, Andrea R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may be unethical (e.g., Carr, 1977), the implication being that doing so may result in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current study assessed whether conducting a FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA…

  8. Co-transmission of conduct problems with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: familial evidence for a distinct disorder.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, H; Chen, W; Oades, R D; Asherson, P; Taylor, E A; Lasky-Su, J; Zhou, K; Banaschewski, T; Buschgens, C; Franke, B; Gabriels, I; Manor, I; Marco, R; Müller, U C; Mulligan, A; Psychogiou, L; Rommelse, N N J; Uebel, H; Buitelaar, J; Ebstein, R P; Eisenberg, J; Gill, M; Miranda, A; Mulas, F; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J A; Sonuga-Barke, E J S; Steinhausen, H-C; Thompson, M; Faraone, S V

    2008-01-01

    Common disorders of childhood and adolescence are attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). For one to two cases in three diagnosed with ADHD the disorders may be comorbid. However, whether comorbid conduct problems (CP) represents a separate disorder or a severe form of ADHD remains controversial. We investigated familial recurrence patterns of the pure or comorbid condition in families with at least two children and one definite case of DSM-IV ADHDct (combined-type) as part of the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics Study (IMAGE). Using case diagnoses (PACS, parental account) and symptom ratings (Parent/Teacher Strengths and Difficulties [SDQ], and Conners Questionnaires [CPTRS]) we studied 1009 cases (241 with ADHDonly and 768 with ADHD + CP), and their 1591 siblings. CP was defined as > or =4 on the SDQ conduct-subscale, and T > or = 65, on Conners' oppositional-score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to ascertain recurrence risks of the pure and comorbid conditions in the siblings as predicted by the status of the cases. There was a higher relative risk to develop ADHD + CP for siblings of cases with ADHD + CP (RRR = 4.9; 95%CI: 2.59-9.41); p < 0.001) than with ADHDonly. Rates of ADHDonly in siblings of cases with ADHD + CP were lower but significant (RRR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.6-5.3, p < 0.001). Children with ADHD + CP scored higher on the Conners ADHDct symptom-scales than those with ADHDonly. Our finding that ADHD + CP can represent a familial distinct subtype possibly with a distinct genetic etiology is consistent with a high risk for cosegregation. Further, ADHD + CP can be a more severe disorder than ADHDonly with symptoms stable from childhood through adolescence. The findings provide partial support for the ICD-10 distinction between hyperkinetic disorder (F90.0) and hyperkinetic conduct disorder (F90.1).

  9. Developmental Associations Between Conduct Problems and Expressive Language in Early Childhood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Doyle, Orla; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood.

  10. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2016-11-03

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  11. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  12. Which Kindergarten Children Are at Greatest Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant…

  13. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.

  14. Influences of parental problem drinking on internet addiction among early adolescents: a multiple-mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies.

  15. Sexual initiation and emotional/behavioral problems in Taiwanese adolescents: a multivariate response profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.

  16. Self-Regulation and External Reinforcement in Problem-Solving Strategies of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Trevor E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among self-regulatory behaviors, perceptions of social reinforcement from significant persons, and problem-solving performance of Black adolescents (N=33). Components of self-regulatory processes--self-reinforcement, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring--were interrelated highly. Perceptions of neither positive nor negative…

  17. Informal Helpers' Responses when Adolescents Tell Them about Dating Violence or Romantic Relationship Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…

  18. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  19. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  20. The Ethnic Context of Child and Adolescent Problem Behavior: Implications for Child and Family Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural…

  1. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  2. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  3. Family Management Practice, School Achievement, and Problem Behavior in African American Adolescents: Mediating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, R.D.; Lopez, E.I.

    2005-01-01

    The association of mothers' report of family management practices (e.g., family routine and parental achievement expectations) with school achievement, school engagement, and problem behavior was assessed among African American mothers and adolescents. Findings revealed that family routine was positively associated with school achievement and…

  4. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  5. Family Stressors and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Pathway to Problem Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…

  6. New Model of Mapping Difficulties in Solving Analogical Problems among Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Perceived Friendship Intimacy, Constructive Problem Solving, and Depression from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…

  8. Sex Related Differences in Problem Solving in Rural Black, Anglo, and Chicano Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John L.

    This study explored the variance in mathematical problem-solving achievement accounted for by sex and ethnicity. Each of 316 adolescents in a rural school district in southeast Texas was administered the California Achievement Test and a set of five affective scales. Reading scores accounted for 49.5% of the variance; computation, 14.6%; affective…

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Mental Health: Problem Co-Occurrence and Access to Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…

  10. M-Rated Video Games and Aggressive or Problem Behavior among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of…

  11. School Violence: To What Extent Do Perceptions of Problem Solving Skills Protect Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkum, Ayse Sibel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' perceptions of problem solving skills differ according to their sex, experiences of exposure to violence, age and grade, and the variables predicting their experiences of exposure to violence. Data were collected from 600(298 females, 302 males) 14-19 year-old students attending various types of high…

  12. Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

  13. The Life You Save May Be Your Own: New Jersey Addresses Prevention of Adolescent Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    New Jersey's governor describes his state's response to the problems and needs of adolescents by creating the School-Based Youth Services Program. The program involves schools and community agencies in the provision of comprehensive services to teenagers, including mental health and family counseling, health services, and other interventions. (AF)

  14. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  15. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  16. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions…

  17. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  18. Perceptions of Problem Behavior in Adolescents' Families: Perceiver, Target, and Family Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manders, Willeke A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Cook, William L.; Oud, Johan H. L.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on the reliability and validity of informant reports of family behavior, especially maternal reports of adolescent problem behavior. None of these studies, however, has based their orientation on a theoretical model of interpersonal perception. In this study we used the social relations model (SRM) to examine…

  19. Precocious Puberty in Adolescent Girls: A Biomarker of Later Psychosocial Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Line; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…

  20. Persistence of Literacy Problems: Spelling in Adolescence and at Mid-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Barbara; Messer, J.; Collishaw, S.; Pickles, A.; Snowling, M.; Yule, W.; Rutter, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Developmental reading problems show strong persistence across the school years; less is known about poor readers' later progress in literacy skills. Method: Poor (n = 42) and normally developing readers (n = 86) tested in adolescence (ages 14/15 years) in the Isle of Wight epidemiological studies were re-contacted at mid-life (ages…

  1. The role of child and parental mentalizing for the development of conduct problems over time.

    PubMed

    Ha, Carolyn; Sharp, Carla; Goodyer, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the role of parental and child mentalizing in the development of conduct problems over time in a community sample of 7- to 11-year-olds (N = 659). To measure child mentalizing, children were asked to complete a social vignettes task at baseline as a measure of distorted mentalizing. Parents (primarily mothers) were asked to complete the same task, guessing their child's responses in the social scenarios as a measure of maternal mentalizing. Conduct problems were evaluated using repeated measures from multi-informant (self-, teacher-, and parent-report) questionnaires completed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. As expected, children who had an overly positive mentalizing style were more likely to be reported by teachers as having conduct problems at 1-year follow-up. These findings held when controlling for baseline conduct problems, IQ, SES, and sex. Findings for maternal mentalizing were significant for follow-up parent-report conduct problem symptoms at the bivariate level of analyses, but not at the multivariate level when controlling for baseline conduct problems and age. These findings extend previous reports by providing predictive validity for distorted mentalizing in the development of conduct problems.

  2. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Non-detained Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966

  3. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.

  4. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  5. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  6. Developing and validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lauren C; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christine; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R). Qualitative free listing (n = 74) and key informant interviews (n = 47) identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research.

  7. Internet Use and Video Gaming Predict Problem Behavior in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…

  8. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)Adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by…

  9. Conducting Functional Communication Training via Telehealth to Reduce the Problem Behavior of Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, David P.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Kopelman, Todd G.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Kuhle, Jennifer; Pelzel, Kelly E.; Dyson, Shannon; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Waldron, Debra B.

    2012-01-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) was conducted by parents of 17 young children with autism spectrum disorders who displayed problem behavior. All procedures were conducted at regional clinics located an average of 15 miles from the families’ homes. Parents received coaching via telehealth from behavior consultants who were located an average of 222 miles from the regional clinics. Parents first conducted functional analyses with telehealth consultation (Wacker, Lee, et al., in press) and then conducted FCT that was matched to the identified function of problem behavior. Parent assistants located at the regional clinics received brief training in the procedures and supported the families during the clinic visits. FCT, conducted within a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, reduced problem behavior by an average of 93.5%. Results suggested that FCT can be conducted by parents via telehealth when experienced applied behavior analysts provide consultation. PMID:23543855

  10. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  11. Sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Associations with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

  12. Focus on Methodology: Beyond paper and pencil: Conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Armstrong, Jessica; Tran, Steve P; Griffith, Aisha N; Walker, Kathrin; Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Computer-assisted data collection offers advantages over traditional paper and pencil measures; however, little guidance is available regarding the logistics of conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings. To address this gap, we draw on our experiences conducting a multi-site longitudinal study of adolescent development. Structured questionnaires programmed on laptop computers using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) were administered to groups of adolescents in community-based and afterschool programs. Although implementing ACASI required additional work before entering the field, we benefited from reduced data processing time, high data quality, and high levels of youth motivation. Preliminary findings from an ethnically diverse sample of 265 youth indicate favorable perceptions of using ACASI. Using our experiences as a case study, we provide recommendations on selecting an appropriate data collection device (including hardware and software), preparing and testing the ACASI, conducting data collection in the field, and managing data.

  13. Greater attention problems during childhood predict poorer executive functioning in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Naomi P; Haberstick, Brett C; Willcutt, Erik G; Miyake, Akira; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K

    2007-10-01

    Attention problems (behavior problems including inattention, disorganization, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) are widely thought to reflect deficits in executive functions (EFs). However, it is unclear whether attention problems differentially relate to distinct EFs and how developmental stability and change predict levels of EFs in late adolescence. We investigated, in an unselected sample, how teacher-rated attention problems from ages 7 to 14 years related to three correlated but separable EFs, measured as latent variables at age 17. Attention problems at all ages significantly predicted later levels of response inhibition and working memory updating, and to some extent set shifting; the relation to inhibiting was stronger than the relations to the other EFs or IQ. Growth models indicated that attention problems were quite stable in this age range, and it was the initial levels of problems, rather than their changes across time, that predicted later EFs. These results support the hypothesis that attention problems primarily reflect difficulties with response inhibition.

  14. Black Unwed Adolescent Fathers: A Comparative Study of Their Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Leo E.; Howard, Cleopatra S.; Caesar, Patricia P.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the kinds of problems these young fathers are likely to seek help for and addresses itself to the question: Is there a difference in the help-seeking behavior of unwed adolescent fathers who reside in different cities? Despite the complexity and diversity of their difficulties, it was clear from the analyses that the young fathers were likely to have emotional as well as concrete needs. Additionally, it was found that the unmarried adolescent fathers in this research were more similar than they were different in their help-seeking behavior. PMID:7277520

  15. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  16. Telephone Counseling to Implement Best Parenting Practices to Prevent Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, John P.; James, Lisa E.; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G.; Williams, Rebecca E.; Trinidad, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomized controlled trial recruited and randomized a national population sample of 1036 families to an intensive parenting intervention using telephone counseling or to a no-contact control group. At enrollment, eligible families had an eldest child between the ages of 10–13 years. The intervention included an initial training program using a self-help manual with telephone counselor support. Implementation of best parenting practices was encouraged using quarterly telephone contacts and a family management check-up questionnaire. A computer-assisted structured counseling protocol was used to aid parents who needed additional assistance to implement best practices. This, along with a centralized service, enabled implementation of quality control procedures. Assessment of problem behavior is undertaken with repeated telephone interviews of the target adolescents. The study is powered to test whether the intervention encouraging parents to maintain best parenting practices is associated with a reduction of 25% in the incidence of problem behaviors prior to age 18 years and will be tested through a maximum likelihood framework. PMID:17964223

  17. Knowledge lability: Within-person changes in parental knowledge and their associations with adolescent problem behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Fosco, Gregory; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities has been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from Grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in Grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, plus measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence. PMID:26381431

  18. Prevalence of mental health problems in adolescent schoolchildren in Galle District, Sri Lanka: eight months after tsunami.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Fonseka, Pushpa

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associations of mental health problems (MHPs) among adolescent schoolchildren in Sri Lanka 8 months after the tsunami disaster. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Galle Municipality area, Sri Lanka. The study instrument consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and the validated Sinhalese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The prevalence of MHPs in the study population was 32.2% (confidence interval [CI] = 28.44% to 35.96%). Direct experience of the tidal wave (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, P = .013), perception of being affected by tsunami (OR = 1.79, P = .0014), and impact of rumors (OR = 1.85, P < .001) were significantly associated with MHPs. Not having a close friend (OR = 1.79, P = .04), being criticized by teachers (OR = 1.66, P = .008), and adolescents being not satisfied with their academic achievements (OR = 2.42, P = .02) were also significantly associated with MHPs. Even 8 months after the tsunami, MHPs among adolescent schoolchildren in the affected areas are still very high.

  19. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  20. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  1. Ineffective parenting and childhood conduct problems: the moderating role of callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Wootton, J M; Frick, P J; Shelton, K K; Silverthorn, P

    1997-04-01

    A sample of 6- to 13-year-old clinic-referred (n = 136) and volunteer (n = 30) participants was investigated for a potential interaction between the quality of parenting that a child receives and callous-unemotional traits in the child for predicting conduct problems. Ineffective parenting was associated with conduct problems only in children without significant levels of callous (e.g. lack of empathy, manipulativeness) and unemotional (e.g., lack of guilt, emotional constrictedness) traits. In contrast, children high on these traits exhibited a significant number of conduct problems, regardless of the quality of parenting they experienced. Results are interpreted in the context of a model that proposes that callous-unemotional traits designate a group of children with conduct problems who have distinct causal factors involved in the development of their problematic behavior.

  2. Home sweet home(s): parental separations, residential moves, and adjustment problems in low-income adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2002-09-01

    Associations between histories of family disruption (residential moves and separations from parent figures) and adolescent adjustment (including educational, internalizing, externalizing, and sexual behavior outcomes) were examined in a random sample of 267 African American girls from 3 urban poverty neighborhoods. Higher numbers of residential moves and parental separations significantly predicted greater adolescent adjustment problems after household demographic characteristics were controlled. Adolescents' perceptions of their current relationships and neighborhoods were significantly associated with adolescent adjustment but did not mediate the effects of family disruption. Associations between parental separations and adolescent outcomes were strongest for externalizing problems and were found for both male and female caregivers, for long-standing and more temporary caregivers, and for separations in early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence.

  3. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  4. Inclusiveness: a mental health strategy for preventing future mental health problems among adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G; Mokomane, Z

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise an argument that inclusiveness will lessen the pain of losing a parent among adolescents orphaned by AIDS and as a result, prevent future mental health problems that may occur because of inappropriate grieving and maladaptive coping strategies. Participation of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in decisions pertaining to their parents' illnesses and funeral arrangements, for example, may shorten the grieving process and allow for closure. The paper draws data from focus group discussions that were held with 15 adolescents orphaned by AIDS in urban South Africa. The focus group discussions that were structured around four themes: grieving patterns; coping strategies; experience with loss; and expectations. The results of the study demonstrate inclusiveness as an overarching factor in the healing process. The concept is thus a strong recommendation for mental health practice and further study.

  5. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  6. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  7. Adolescent anabolic steroid use, gender, physical activity, and other problem behaviors*.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    To test the comparative value of strain theory and problem behavior theory as explanations of adolescent anabolic steroid use, this study examined gender-specific relationships among steroid use, physical activity, and other problem behaviors. Based on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, binge drinking, cocaine use, fighting, and sexual risk-taking were associated with higher odds of lifetime steroid use. In gender-specific analyses, steroid use was strongly associated with female fighting and smokeless tobacco use as well as male sexual risk. Neither athletic participation nor strength conditioning predicted odds of steroid use after controlling for problem behaviors, nor did steroid-using athletes report more frequent use than steroid-using nonathletes. The study's limitations and policy implications were noted. These data suggest that other problem behaviors such as substance use, fighting, and sexual risk are better predictors of adolescent steroid use than physical activity. Interventions to prevent steroid use should not be limited to male participants in organized sports programs, but should also target adolescents identified as at risk for other problem behaviors.

  8. Adolescent Caffeine Consumption and Self-Reported Violence and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…

  9. Randomized Trial of Family Therapy versus Non-Family Treatment for Adolescent Behavior Problems in Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Henderson, Craig E.; Bobek, Molly; Johnson, Candace; Lichvar, Emily; Morgenstern, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Objective A major focus of implementation science is discovering whether evidence-based approaches can be delivered with fidelity and potency in routine practice. This randomized trial compared usual care family therapy (UC-FT), implemented without a treatment manual or extramural support as the standard-of-care approach in a community clinic, to non-family treatment (UC-Other) for adolescent conduct and substance use disorders. Method The study recruited 205 adolescents (mean age 15.7 years; 52% male; 59% Hispanic American, 21% African American) from a community referral network, enrolling 63% for primary mental health problems and 37% for primary substance use problems. Clients were randomly assigned to either the UC-FT site or one of five UC-Other sites. Implementation data confirmed that UC-FT showed adherence to the family therapy approach and differentiation from UC-Other. Follow-ups were completed at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Results There was no between-group difference in treatment attendance. Both conditions demonstrated improvements in externalizing, internalizing, and delinquency symptoms. However, UC-FT produced greater reductions in youth-reported externalizing and internalizing among the whole sample, in delinquency among substance-using youth, and in alcohol and drug use among substance-using youth. The degree to which UC-FT outperformed UC-Other was consistent with effect sizes from controlled trials of manualized family therapy models. Conclusions Non-manualized family therapy can be effective for adolescent behavior problems within diverse populations in usual care, and it may be superior to non-family alternatives. PMID:25496283

  10. A model-based cluster analysis approach to adolescent problem behaviors and young adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mun, Eun Young; Windle, Michael; Schainker, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based sample of 1,126 10th- and 11th-grade adolescents were analyzed using a model-based cluster analysis approach to empirically identify heterogeneous adolescent subpopulations from the person-oriented and pattern-oriented perspectives. The model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities and accordingly to classify subpopulations using more rigorous statistical procedures for the comparison of alternative models. Four cluster groups were identified and labeled multiproblem high-risk, smoking high-risk, normative, and low-risk groups. The multiproblem high risk exhibited a constellation of high levels of problem behaviors, including delinquent and sexual behaviors, multiple illicit substance use, and depressive symptoms at age 16. They had risky temperamental attributes and lower academic functioning and educational expectations at age 15.5 and, subsequently, at age 24 completed fewer years of education, and reported lower levels of physical health and higher levels of continued involvement in substance use and abuse. The smoking high-risk group was also found to be at risk for poorer functioning in young adulthood, compared to the low-risk group. The normative and the low risk groups were, by and large, similar in their adolescent and young adult functioning. The continuity and comorbidity path from middle adolescence to young adulthood may be aided and abetted by chronic as well as episodic substance use by adolescents.

  11. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  12. Recognizing and Preventing Adolescent Eating Disorders and Muscularity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. Relationships between Peer Harassment and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Forrester, Kathleen K.; Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.

    2005-01-01

    Concurrent and predictive relationships between peer harassment and problem behavior were examined for middle and high school students as well as gender differences in these relationships. Students recruited in fifth through seventh grades (n = 223) and their parents provided quarterly questionnaire data and were followed up into high school. As…

  14. COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.

  15. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  16. Treatment Participation among Children with Conduct Problems and the Role of Telephone Reminders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Bruce D.; Hoyland, Margaret; Best, Denisse; Dadds, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Children with antisocial, aggressive and disruptive behaviour problems are among the most frequent referrals to mental health services. These young people and their families present with a range of adverse contextual factors and can prove challenging to engage. We examined the characteristics of children with conduct problems, treatment…

  17. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  18. An Introductory Packet on Conduct and Behavior Problems: Intervention and Resources for School Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this introductory packet, the range of conduct and behavior problems are described using fact sheets and the classification scheme from the American Pediatric Association. Differences in intervention needed are discussed with respect to variations in the degree of problem manifested and include exploration of environmental accommodations,…

  19. Links between Preschool Children's Prosocial Skills and Aggressive Conduct Problems: The Contribution of ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…

  20. Differentiating Developmental Trajectories for Conduct, Emotion, and Peer Problems Following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Schlotz, Wolff; Kreppner, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The development of conduct and emotional problems involves a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. The child-rearing environment contributes to this process. Gross deviations, such as those seen in abusive or neglectful homes, or where the parent has serious mental health problems, have been shown to contribute to the…

  1. Risk Factors for Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms in a Cohort of Ukrainian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2006-01-01

    Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…

  2. Latent Class Analysis of Conduct Problems of Elementary Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toupin, Jean; Déry, Michèle; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Lecocq, Aurélie; Jagiellowicz, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Students with conduct problems (CPs) may present heterogeneity in terms of behavioral manifestations and service needs. Previous studies using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to capture this heterogeneity have been conducted mostly with community samples and have often applied a narrow definition of CP. Considering this context, this study…

  3. Psychophysiology of Aggression, Psychopathy, and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 95 studies was conducted to investigate the relations of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) with aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems. Analyses revealed a complex constellation of interactive effects, with a failure in some cases of autonomic patterns to generalize across antisocial spectrum behavior…

  4. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  5. Prenatal drug exposure, behavioral problems and drug experimentation among African American urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Nair, Prasanna; Zhu, Shijun; Magder, Larry; Black, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine how prenatal heroin/cocaine exposure (PDE) and behavioral problems relate to adolescent drug experimentation. Methods The sample included African American adolescents (mean age=14.2 yr, SD=1.2) with PDE (n=73) and a non-exposed community comparison (n=61). PDE status was determined at delivery through toxicology analysis and maternal-report. Internalizing/externalizing problems were assessed during adolescence with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. Drug experimentation was assessed by adolescent-report and urine analysis. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of drug experimentation related to PDE and behavioral problems, adjusting for age, gender, prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure, perceived peer drug use and caregiver drug use. Interaction terms examined gender modification. Results 67 (50%) used drugs. 25 (19%) used tobacco/alcohol only and 42 (31%) used marijuana/illegal drugs. 94 (70%) perceived peer drug use. PDE significantly increased the risk of tobacco/alcohol experimentation (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.09–8.66, p=0.034), but not after covariate adjustment (aOR=1.31, 95% CI: 0.39–4.36, p>0.05). PDE was not related to overall or marijuana/illegal drug experimentation. The likelihood of overall drug experimentation was doubled per Standard Deviation (SD) increase in externalizing problems (aOR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.33–3.91, p=0.003) and, among girls, 2.82 times greater (aOR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.34–5.94, p=0.006) per SD increase in internalizing problems. Age and perceived peer drug use were significant covariates. Conclusions Drug experimentation was relatively common (50%), especially in the context of externalizing problems, internalizing problems (girls only), age, and perceived peer drug use. Findings support Problem Behavior Theory and suggest that adolescent drug prevention address behavioral problems and promote prosocial peer groups. PMID:24768161

  6. Item analysis and differential item functioning of a brief conduct problem screen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item characteristics of the Authority Acceptance scale from the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (AA-TOCA-R; L. Larsson-Werthamer, S. G. Kellam, & L. Wheeler, 1991) in 8,820 kindergarten children and estimated the degree of differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and race/urban status. The mean level of latent conduct problems was best represented by behaviors such as being stubborn, breaking rules, and being disobedient, whereas breaking things and taking others' property best represented the construct at one standard deviation above the mean. DIF by gender was detected, such that at equivalent levels of latent conduct problems, males received more endorsements of overt behaviors from teachers, whereas females received more endorsements of nonphysical behaviors. Moreover, overt behaviors were better discriminators of latent conduct problems for males, and nonphysical behaviors were better discriminators of latent conduct problems for females. Differences across race/urban status were not found to be conceptually meaningful. The authors' analyses also suggest that the item scaling of the AA-TOCA-R may be best represented by 5e categories instead of 6. These findings provide support for the use of IRT modeling to examine item characteristics of conduct problem scales and DIF to test for scalar equivalence across diverse subpopulations.

  7. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    PubMed

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  8. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  9. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as Moderators of the Relation Between Social Withdrawal and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2017-04-01

    Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.

  10. Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context.

  11. Family Conflict, Mood, and Adolescents' Daily School Problems: Moderating Roles of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…

  12. Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Intergenerational Relations on Adolescent Problem Behavior in U.S. Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, En-ling; Farrell, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether the effects of single-mother families (SMFs) on adolescent problem behavior are buffered by supportive mothering and the involvement of nonresident fathers and whether the effectiveness of these two buffers varies by ethnicity. Based on the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors find…

  13. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  14. Approaches in the Treatment of Adolescents with Emotional and Substance Abuse Problems. Technical Assistance Publication Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm

    This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…

  15. Problem-Solving Orientation and Attributional Style as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Egyptian Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…

  16. Buffering the Effects of Violence: Communication and Problem-Solving Skills as Protective Factors for Adolescents Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Monique; Self-Brown, Shannon; Shepard, Desti; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    Although many adolescents exposed to violence evidence negative outcomes, some report few deleterious effects, indicating the presence of moderating variables. This study examined the moderating role of family communication and problem solving on positive and negative outcomes in adolescents exposed to school and neighborhood violence.…

  17. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  18. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  19. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  20. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  1. Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Conduct Problems, Interventions, and Partner Contact With the Child.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Vu, Nicole L; Rancher, Caitlin; Mueller, Victoria

    2016-06-30

    Children's contact with their mother's violent partner is a potentially important variable for understanding conduct problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Within the context of a treatment study evaluating a parenting intervention (Project Support) for families exiting a domestic violence shelter, this study tested four hypotheses regarding children's postshelter contact with their mother's violent partner: (1) participation in Project Support decreases the frequency of children's contact with their mother's violent partner; (2) postshelter contact is positively associated with children's conduct problems and is associated more strongly for girls than boys; (3) frequency of contact mediates Project Support's effects on children's conduct problems; and (4) frequency of contact is positively associated with IPV and partner-child aggression, and these latter associations help explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Participants were 66 women (26 White) with a child (32 girls) between 4 and 9 years. Families were assessed every 4 months for 20 months after departure from a domestic violence shelter. Project Support reduced the extent of partner-child contact. In addition, within-subject changes in contact over time were associated with girls', but not boys', conduct problems, and it partially mediated effects of Project Support on girls' conduct problems. Higher average levels of contact over time were also positively associated with further incidents of IPV and partner-child aggression, and partner-child aggression helped explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Children's postshelter contact with the mother's violent partner relates positively to several negative family outcomes.

  2. Personality Correlates of the Common and Unique Variance across Conduct Disorder and Substance Misuse Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Externalising behaviours such as substance misuse (SM) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms highly co-ocurr in adolescence. While disinhibited personality traits have been consistently linked to externalising behaviours there is evidence that these traits may relate differentially to SM and CD. The current study aimed to assess whether this was the…

  3. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women.

  4. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood Through Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa.

  5. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood through Middle Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christopher J.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1,164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child’s performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and after school caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa. PMID:26096194

  6. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  7. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  8. Endocrine problems in children and adolescents who have disabilities.

    PubMed

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of disability span almost all aspects of life, for families and for an affected individual. Endocrine aspects of disability cover disorders of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction, bone health, puberty, fertility, sexual function and contraceptive needs. Adequate endocrine assessment for a child with a disability requires extensive and sensitive history to address social issues, general nutrition, vitamin D status, specific hypothalamic pituitary problems, together with parental concerns regarding puberty and contraception. Bone health assessment includes history of minimal trauma fracture, need for intervention or fitness for surgery. Strategic interventions to improve outcome include management of puberty, vitamin D status, biomechanical stimulation with vibration and standing and possible consideration for bisphosphonate in special circumstances. Both early and late puberty cause major family concerns. The paediatrician must be aware of a range of management options to improve outcomes for the child and family.

  9. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  10. The ethnic context of child and adolescent problem behavior: implications for child and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J

    2007-06-01

    This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural influence is identified at three levels: (a) intrapersonal developmental processes (e.g., ethnic identity development, development of coping modifies mechanisms and self-regulatory mechanisms), (b) family socialization processes (e.g., racial and ethnic socialization), and (c) interaction with larger societal contexts (e.g., maintenance of bicultural competence in adapting to mainstream and ethnic cultures). We discuss limitations of current assessment and intervention practices that focus on reducing adolescent problem behavior with respect to the cultural issues identified above. We propose that empirically supported adaptive and tailored interventions for adolescent problem behavior are optimal for serving multicultural children and families. To empower such interventions to better serve children and families of color, it is essential that assessments that guide the adaptation and tailoring process include culturally salient dynamics such as ethnic identity, racial socialization, and culturally informed parenting practices.

  11. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Transactional Associations Among Maternal Depression, Parent-Child Coercion, and Child Conduct Problems During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Hails, Katherine A; Reuben, Julia D; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-02-26

    Maternal depression is among the most consistent and well-replicated risk factors for negative child outcomes, particularly in early childhood. Although children of depressed mothers are at an increased risk of adjustment problems, conversely, children with emotional or behavioral problems also have been found to adversely compromise maternal functioning, including increasing maternal depression. The purpose of this investigation was to examine transactional associations among maternal depression, parent-child coercive interaction, and children's conduct and emotional problems in early childhood using a cross-lagged panel model. Participants were 731 toddlers and families that were part of the Early Steps Multisite Study, a sample of diverse ethnic backgrounds and communities (i.e., rural, urban, suburban) recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement Centers. Analyses provided support for the existence of some modest transactional relations between parent-child coercion and maternal depression and between maternal depression and child conduct problems. Cross-lagged effects were somewhat stronger between children age 2-3 than age 3-4. Similar patterns were observed in the model with child emotional problems replacing conduct problems, but relations between coercion and maternal depression were attenuated in this model. In addition, the transactional hypothesis was more strongly supported when maternal versus secondary caregiver reports were used for child problem behavior. The findings have implications for the need to support caregivers and reinforce positive parenting practices within family-centered interventions in early childhood.

  13. Sex-specific relationships among attachment security, social values, and sensation seeking in early adolescence: implications for adolescents' externalizing problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-06-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others" - that is, their "social value orientation" - with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were administered self-report measures in order to examine the relationships (a) between early adolescents' perceived attachment security to mothers and fathers, social values (related to family and the socio-cultural context), and sensation seeking (as a temperamental predisposition to risk-taking), and (b) between these variables and adolescents' externalizing problem behaviour. Adolescents were more securely attached to the same-sexed parent. Further, attachment security with the opposite-sexed parent predicted more conservative social value orientations, and lower levels of problem behaviour. In contrast, sensation seeking predicted self-enhancement and openness-to-change values to a greater extent, and, in girls, lower levels of attachment security to mothers and fathers.

  14. Cyber and Traditional Bullying Victimization as a Risk Factor for Mental Health Problems and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially

  15. Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: from age three to age fifteen.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Henry, B; McGee, R O; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A

    1995-02-01

    We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.

  16. Schooling Relates to Mental Health Problems in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants—Mediation by Hearing and Family Variables

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Pletzer, Belinda; Giourgas, Alexandros; Nickisch, Andreas; Kunze, Silke; Illg, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter study was to investigate whether schooling relates to mental health problems of adolescents with cochlear implants (CI) and how this relationship is mediated by hearing and family variables. One hundred and forty secondary school students with CI (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.5), their hearing parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Additional audiological tests (speech comprehension tests in quiet and noise) were performed. Students of special schools for hearing impaired persons (SSHIs) showed significantly more conduct problems (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher total difficulty score (TDS) (p < 0.05) compared to students of mainstream schools. Mental health problems did not differ between SSHI students with sign language education and SSHI students with oral education. Late implanted students and those with indication for additional handicaps were equally distributed among mainstream schools and SSHIs. However, students in SSHIs were more restricted to understand speech in noise, had a lower social background and were more likely to come from single-parent families. These factors were found to be partial mediators of the differences in mental health problems between the two school types. However, no variable could explain comprehensively, why students of SSHIs have more mental health problems than mainstream pupils. PMID:26733898

  17. Callous traits in children with and without conduct problems predict reduced connectivity when viewing harm to others

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Keith J.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Decety, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The presence of elevated callous unemotional (CU) traits seems to designate a distinct group of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. However, the extent to which CU traits impact the aversive reaction to harm is still a contentious issue. Here, we examined the effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex in a large number of children (N = 123, age 9–11, 60 females) with various levels of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in response to visual stimuli depicting other people being physically injured. Perceiving others being harmed was associated with increased hemodynamic activity in the left amygdala and right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). Children with higher callous traits showed less functional connectivity seeded in anterior cingulate with left amygdala and anterior insula. Conversely, CD symptoms were positively related to connectivity of insula with rTPJ. Overall, these results suggest that callousness is marked by the disruption of widespread cortical networks responsible for detecting and appropriately responding to important environmental cues, such as the distress of others. PMID:26832606

  18. Authoritarian parenting attitudes as a risk for conduct problems Results from a British national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards

    2003-04-01

    This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.

  19. Mapping the developmental pathways of child conduct problems through the neurobiology of empathy.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    The notion that antisocial behavior reflects failures of empathy has a long history in the clinical literature, yet only recently has evidence emerged to support neuroscientific accounts of empathy and the development of child conduct problems. Much of this evidence has come from research into callous-unemotional traits, which correspond to the affective component of psychopathy and therefore encompass deficits in empathy within a broader cluster of emotional impairments. In this review we integrate current evidence concerning the biobehavioral bases of empathy and callous-unemotional traits, and discuss how it may inform models of heterogeneous subgroups of individuals with early onset conduct problems. We argue that somewhat distinct failures of empathy map onto distinct risk pathways to early onset conduct problems, and that these pathways may be best understood by examining empathy in terms of cognitive and environmental prerequisites and the various neurochemical systems implicated therein.

  20. Preventing Serious Conduct Problems in School-Age Youths: The Fast Track Program

    PubMed Central

    Slough, Nancy M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, E. Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2009-01-01

    Children with early-starting conduct Problems have a very poor prognosis and exact a high cost to society. The Fast Track project is a multisite, collaborative research project investigating the efficacy of a comprehensive, long-term, multicomponent intervention designed to prevent the development of serious conduct problems in high-risk children. In this article, we (a) provide an overview of the development model that serves as the conceptual foundation for the Fast Track intervention and describe its integration into the intervention model; (b) outline the research design and intervention model, with an emphasis on the elementary school phase of the intervention; and (c) summarize findings to dale concerning intervention outcomes. We then provide a case illustration, and conclude with a discussion of guidelines for practitioners who work with children with conduct problems. PMID:19890487