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Sample records for adolescent conduct problems

  1. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  2. Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed. PMID:25148793

  3. Introduction to Special Issue on Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of Behavior Modification is designed to add to the literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of CP displayed by adolescents. Contained in this issue are six empirical articles dealing with important issues on the topic. They provide examples of the richness of clinical problems classified as "conduct problems"…

  4. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  5. Measuring Impulsivity in Adolescents with Serious Substance and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laetitia L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth A.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use and conduct disorders have high rates of aggression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), all of which have been characterized in part by impulsivity. Developing measures that capture impulsivity behaviorally and correlate with self-reported impulsivity has been difficult. One promising behavioral…

  6. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  7. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200

  8. Developmental Pathways to Conduct Problems: A Further Test of the Childhood and Adolescent-Onset Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandreaux, Danielle M.; Frick, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for…

  9. Parenting Behavior and the Occurrence and Co-occurrence of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated prevalence of the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems in a community sample of 10th-grade adolescents participating in a four-year longitudinal study. Found that early hostile parent behavior increased the probability of later occurrence and co-occurrence of elevated depressive symptoms and conduct problems, whereas…

  10. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  11. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  12. Intervention Groups for Adolescents with Conduct Problems: Is Aggregation Harmful or Helpful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…

  13. The Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jennifer C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive body of research documents the high prevalence of comorbidity among child and adolescent disorders in general and between conduct problems and depression in particular. These problems co-occur at significantly higher rates than would be expected by chance and their comorbidity may have significant implications for nosology, treatment,…

  14. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  15. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  16. A Biopsychosocial Model of the Development of Chronic Conduct Problems in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2003-01-01

    A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. The model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment…

  17. ADHD and risky sexual behavior in adolescents: Conduct problems and substance use as mediators of risk

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Dustin E.; McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. Methods ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=115; mean age=14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Results Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive but not inattentive symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. Conclusions The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. PMID:24813803

  18. Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

  19. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12-19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a 'desisting' CP group, an 'intermediate' CP group and a 'stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis-comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)-showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  20. Conduct Problems Moderate Self-Medication and Mood-Related Drinking Consequences in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Gould, Laura Feagans; Hersh, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested whether conduct problems moderate the relation between negative mood and drinking in adolescents as consistent with either a self-medication or a drinking consequences model. Method The sample included 75 rising ninth graders who completed a two-stage, multi-method, multi-reporter study. We used experience sampling to assess negative mood and drinking over 21 days and Hierarchical Linear Modeling to test our hypotheses. Results Counter to predictions, both self-medication and drinking consequence mechanisms were only evident in youth with fewer conduct problems. Conclusions Findings provide support for the importance of considering multiple mechanisms as underlying the relation between negative mood and drinking as pertaining to sub-populations of vulnerable youth. Implications for prevention and understanding negative mood-drinking relations in adolescents are discussed. PMID:18299772

  1. Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Demetriou, Chara A; Kimonis, Eva R

    2013-07-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research suggests that lower anxious primary and high-anxious secondary variants exist. Using a community sample of 2,306 Greek-Cypriot adolescents (M age = 16 years; 49.7 % female), the first aim of the study was to examine whether variants of callous-unemotional traits could be identified using latent profile analysis of scores on measures of callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety. Additional aims of the study were to compare the identified clusters on external measures theorized to distinguish them (i.e., self-esteem, narcissism, impulsivity, sensation seeking and proactive/reactive aggression) and social factors relevant to adolescent development. Results indicated that, in addition to low risk (i.e., low scores on callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems, and anxiety) and anxious (i.e., high scores on anxiety, low scores on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems) subgroups, two groups of youth scoring high on callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems were identified. High-anxious secondary callous-unemotional variants were distinguished by lower self-esteem in combination with greater narcissism, aggression, and markedly higher conduct problems, whereas lower anxious primary variants showed higher self-esteem. Secondary callous-unemotional variants also reported greater susceptibility to peer pressure and popularity striving than primary variants. Both variants exhibited poorer outcomes relative to low risk and anxious youth, although anxious youth reported lower self-esteem and higher impulsivity and reactive aggression scores in comparison with low risk youth. Findings integrate two

  2. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. Objectives To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. Methods We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Results Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right>left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Conclusion Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches. PMID:26337200

  3. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12–19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a ‘desisting' CP group, an ‘intermediate' CP group and a ‘stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis—comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)—showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  4. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents. PMID:24882504

  5. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents' Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…

  6. A Biopsychosocial Model of the Development of Chronic Conduct Problems in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    A biopsychosocial model of the development of adolescent chronic conduct problems is presented and supported through a review of empirical findings. This model posits that biological dispositions and sociocultural contexts place certain children at risk in early life but that life experiences with parents, peers, and social institutions increment and mediate this risk. A transactional developmental model is best equipped to describe the emergence of chronic antisocial behavior across time. Reciprocal influences among dispositions, contexts, and life experiences lead to recursive iterations across time that exacerbate or diminish antisocial development. Cognitive and emotional processes within the child, including the acquisition of knowledge and social-information-processing patterns, mediate the relation between life experiences and conduct problem outcomes. Implications for prevention research and public policy are noted. PMID:12661890

  7. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-Occurring Depression and Conduct Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; Mc Cauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were…

  8. An Independent Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Non-Court-Referred Adolescents with Serious Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom; Ngo, Victoria K.; Caron, Annalise; Gallop, Robert; Guth, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent conduct problems exact serious social as well as personal costs, and effective treatments are essential. One of the most widely disseminated and effective programs for the treatment of serious conduct problems in adolescents is Multisystemic Therapy (MST). However, most evaluations of MST have involved the developers of MST. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an independent evaluation of MST, with non-court-referred adolescents with conduct problems. Method Participants were 164 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years who were recruited from self-contained behavior intervention classrooms in public schools. Adolescents and their families were randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual. Outcome measures assessed conduct problems, school functioning, and court records of criminal behavior. Participants were followed for 18 months after baseline using parent, adolescent, and teacher reports; arrest data were collected for 2.5 years post-baseline. Results Two of four primary outcome measures focused on externalizing problems showed significant treatment effects favoring MST. Several secondary and intervention targets pertaining to family functioning and parent psychopathology showed positive effects of MST, and no negative effects were identified. Conclusions Results provide some further support for the effectiveness of MST, although smaller effect sizes than previous studies also suggest the complexity of successful dissemination, particularly to non-court-referred populations. PMID:23937347

  9. Conduct Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories, Predictors and Outcomes in a Six-Year Follow Up.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Andershed, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Understanding youth conduct problems requires examination from a developmental perspective, analyzing distinctive pathways across childhood and adolescence, and identifying early predictors which will lead to specific adolescent outcomes. Bearing this in mind, developmental trajectories of conduct problems were identified from a person-oriented perspective, and using data collected from three waves over a six-year period, in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study. Conduct problems showed five distinctive trajectories which were grouped into three major pathways in further analyses: Stable low, Stable high, and Decreasing. Associations with early personality and psychopathic traits, as well as with a wide range of adolescent behavioral and psychosocial outcomes were examined, revealing the Stable high group as exhibiting the highest risk profile. These results contribute to improving our knowledge about one of the most relevant problems in youth populations, and will help in refining interventions strategies by recognizing the developmental heterogeneity of the construct. PMID:25354563

  10. Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Erin M.; Kohl, Gwynne O.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving…

  11. A Current Review of Multisystemic Therapy: A Social-Ecological Approach to the Treatment of Conduct Problems among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpell, Jody V.; Andrews, Jac

    2006-01-01

    A current empirical review of the treatment efficacy of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for adolescent conduct problems (CP) was conducted. Conclusions based on this review suggest that MST can be a very powerful alternative to the usual legal and social service approaches (e.g. justice system, day treatment programs) used in the treatment of…

  12. All Might Have Won, But Not All Have the Prize: Optimal Treatment for Substance Abuse Among Adolescents with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066

  13. The Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Monitoring and Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of…

  14. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems’ developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact. PMID:25944445

  15. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  16. Effects of childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and family violence on adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Jennifer; Stewart, Michael; Bernet, Christine; Coe, Michael; Brown, Sandra A

    2002-04-01

    Exposure to familial alcoholism has been associated with many behavioral and emotional difficulties among offspring. However, few studies have examined environmental risks that often coexist with familial alcoholism, and which may influence the development of offspring psychosocial problems. This study examined potential additive and interactive effects of childhood exposure to family violence and childhood exposure to familial alcoholism on adolescent functioning. Three domains of adolescent functioning were examined in a high-risk community sample of 109 families: lifetime levels of substance use, conduct disorder behaviors, and self-esteem. Results indicated that both childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and childhood exposure to family violence were associated with psychosocial functioning of offspring during adolescence, although the relations differ according to domain of functioning and gender. PMID:12013062

  17. Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V; Thornton, Laura C; Kahn, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on the use of callous and unemotional (CU) traits for designating an important subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems. It focuses on the etiological significance of recognizing this subgroup of youths with severe conduct problems, its implications for diagnostic classification, and the treatment implications of this research. The review highlights limitations in existing research and provides directions for future research. The available research suggests that children and adolescents with severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits show distinct genetic, cognitive, emotional, biological, environmental, and personality characteristics that seem to implicate different etiological factors underlying their behavior problems relative to other youths with severe conduct problems. Recognizing these subgroups could be critical for guiding future research on the causes of severe conduct problems in children and adolescents. Further, children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits appear to be at risk for more severe and persistent antisocial outcomes, even controlling for the severity of their conduct problems, the age of onset of their conduct problems, and common comorbid problems, which supports the clinical importance of designating this group in diagnostic classification systems. Finally, although children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits tend to respond less positively to typical interventions provided in mental health and juvenile justice settings, they show positive responses to certain intensive interventions tailored to their unique emotional and cognitive characteristics. PMID:23796269

  18. The Contribution of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Problems to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Petrides, K. V.; Frederickson, Norah

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although a lot is known about the association of conduct problems with bullying, less attention has been paid to co-occurring traits, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits that might additionally contribute to the risk of engaging in bullying. This study investigated the contribution of CU traits to direct and indirect bullying,…

  19. Variants of Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…

  20. Using MMPI-A Profiles to Predict Success in a Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents with Academic and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha

    2004-01-01

    Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who successfully complete…

  1. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  2. Test of "Facilitation" vs. "Proximal Process" Moderator Models for the Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on Adolescents with Severe Conduct Problem.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan S; Tran, Nam T; Gallop, Robert; Ngo, Victoria K

    2015-07-01

    The present study identified moderators of Multisystemic Therapy's (MST) effects on adolescent conduct problems, considering facilitation and proximal process moderation models. The sample included 164 adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years; 83% male) randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual; parent, youth, and teacher reports of adolescent functioning were obtained. A number of significant moderators were identified. Proximal process moderation patterns were identified (e.g., families with parents with lower levels of adaptive child discipline skills gained more from MST), but the majority of significant interactions showed a facilitation moderation pattern with, for instance, higher levels of adaptive functioning in families and parents appearing to facilitate MST (i.e., greater benefits from MST were found for these families). This facilitation pattern may reflect such families being more capable of and/or more motivated to use the resources provided by MST. It is suggested that factors consistently identified as facilitation moderators may serve as useful foci for MST's strength-based levers of change approach. Other implications of these findings for individualized treatment also are discussed. PMID:25387903

  3. Concurrent Changes in Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: A Developmental Person-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rusan; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of conduct problems (CP) and depressive symptoms (DS) is an important topic in developmental psychopathology; however, research in this area is still in early stages. We used data from a school-based longitudinal sample of 2,453 adolescents with 5 waves from grade 6 to 9 to examine the prevalence, etiology, and consequences of the co-occurrence of CP and DS. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was applied to obtain findings consistent with a developmental person-centered view. As hypothesized, a small proportion of boys (8.8%) and girls (3.7%) reported high in both CP and DS over time. Among the adolescents with the highest level of CP, only 6.3% boys and 6.0% girls experienced the highest level of DS. However, among those with the highest level of DS, 42.9% boys and 10.2% girls reported the highest level of CP, indicating increased risk of depressed boys for CP. Psychosocial and family factors were identified as vulnerable precursors to the co-occurrence of CP and DS, a finding in line with the multiple domain risk model for CP and the transactional model for DS. The study also found that adolescents with co-occurrence of CP and DS were more similar to those with ‘pure’ DS than those with ‘pure’ CP in academic adjustment at 9th grade. PMID:19144234

  4. A Risk-Taking "Set" in a Novel Task among Adolescents with Serious Conduct and Substance Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. Method: Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program…

  5. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  6. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  7. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds. PMID:24736982

  8. Prospective Association of Childhood Receptive Vocabulary and Conduct Problems with Self-Reported Adolescent Delinquency: Tests of Mediation and Moderation in Sibling-Comparison Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4–9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4–9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14–17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds. PMID:24736982

  9. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  10. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers'…

  11. Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: the moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J; Burke, Jeffrey D

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  12. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  13. Disentangling the Role of Psychopathic Traits and Externalizing Behaviour in Predicting Conduct Problems from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, M. Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Child and youth conduct problems are known to be a heterogeneous category that implies different factors and processes. The current study aims to analyze whether the early manifestation of psychopathic traits designates a group of children with severe, pervasive and persistent conduct problems. To this end, cluster analysis was conducted in a…

  14. Early Intervention in Conduct Problems in Children. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Gooley, Shylaja; Nicholson, Jan

    Conduct problems represent a complex set of symptoms and can have a range of negative effects in many areas of a child's life, including ongoing development; family functioning; peer relationships; and learning. These problems generally appear during the preschool years and early identification and intervention are critical to their treatment.…

  15. Role of overlapping genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between early adolescent conduct problems and substance use in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Karin J.H.; Creemers, H.E.; Korhonen, T.; Latvala, A.; Dick, D.M.; Rose, R. J.; Huizink, A.C.; Kaprio, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine 1) the prospective associations of conduct problems during early adolescence with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use in young adulthood and 2) to what extent these associations are due to overlapping genetic versus environmental influences. Design A prospective twin study using biometric twin modelling. Setting Finland. Participants 1847 Finnish twins (943 males and 904 females) were interviewed in early adolescence, of which 73% (N=1353, 640 males and 713 females) were retained in young adulthood. Measurements Symptom counts of conduct disorder (CD) criteria were obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in early adolescence (age 14–15 years, M=14.2, SD=0.15). Frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use was obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in young adulthood (age 19.9–26.6 years, M=22.4, SD=0.7). Findings We found modest to moderate phenotypic correlations (r=0.16 to 0.35) between early adolescent CD symptoms and substance use in young adulthood. In males, the phenotypic correlations of CD symptoms with all three substance use variables are largely explained by overlapping genetic influences. In females, overlapping shared environmental influences predominantly explain the phenotypic correlation between CD symptoms and tobacco and cannabis use. Conclusions Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear to moderately predict substance use in early adulthood. In males, genetic influences seem to be most important in explaining the relationship between conduct disorder symptoms and substance use whereas in females, shared environmental influences seem to be most important. PMID:26748618

  16. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  17. Adherence to Honor Code Mediates the Prediction of Adolescent Boys' Conduct Problems by Callousness and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somech, Lior Y.; Elizur, Yoel

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that culture-related factors are associated with aggressive behavior, their effect on the development of conduct problems (CP) has been insufficiently studied. This study focused on adherence to honor code (AHC), defined by the endorsement of honor culture attitudes at the identity narrative level of…

  18. Being “SMART” about Adolescent Conduct Problems Prevention: Executing a SMART Pilot Study in a Juvenile Diversion Agency

    PubMed Central

    August, Gerald J.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of adaptive treatment strategies (ATS) represents the next step in innovating conduct problems prevention programs within a juvenile diversion context. Towards this goal, we present the theoretical rationale, associated methods, and anticipated challenges for a feasibility pilot study in preparation for implementing a full-scale SMART (i.e., sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial) for conduct problems prevention. The role of a SMART design in constructing ATS is presented. METHOD The SMART feasibility pilot study includes a sample of 100 youth (13–17 years of age) identified by law enforcement as early stage offenders and referred for pre-court juvenile diversion programming. Prior data on the sample population detail a high level of ethnic diversity and approximately equal representations of both genders. Within the SMART, youth and their families are first randomly assigned to one of two different brief-type evidence-based prevention programs, featuring parent-focused behavioral management or youth-focused strengths-building components. Youth who do not respond sufficiently to brief first-stage programming will be randomly assigned a second time to either an extended parent- or youth-focused second-stage programming. Measures of proximal intervention response and measures of potential candidate tailoring variables for developing ATS within this sample are detailed. RESULTS Results of the described pilot study will include information regarding feasibility and acceptability of the SMART design. This information will be used to refine a subsequent full-scale SMART. CONCLUSIONS The use of a SMART to develop ATS for prevention will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of prevention programing for youth with developing conduct problems. PMID:25256135

  19. Being "SMART" About Adolescent Conduct Problems Prevention: Executing a SMART Pilot Study in a Juvenile Diversion Agency.

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Piehler, Timothy F; Bloomquist, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The development of adaptive treatment strategies (ATS) represents the next step in innovating conduct problems prevention programs within a juvenile diversion context. Toward this goal, we present the theoretical rationale, associated methods, and anticipated challenges for a feasibility pilot study in preparation for implementing a full-scale SMART (i.e., sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial) for conduct problems prevention. The role of a SMART design in constructing ATS is presented. The SMART feasibility pilot study includes a sample of 100 youth (13-17 years of age) identified by law enforcement as early stage offenders and referred for precourt juvenile diversion programming. Prior data on the sample population detail a high level of ethnic diversity and approximately equal representations of both genders. Within the SMART, youth and their families are first randomly assigned to one of two different brief-type evidence-based prevention programs, featuring parent-focused behavioral management or youth-focused strengths-building components. Youth who do not respond sufficiently to brief first-stage programming will be randomly assigned a second time to either an extended parent- or youth-focused second-stage programming. Measures of proximal intervention response and measures of potential candidate tailoring variables for developing ATS within this sample are detailed. Results of the described pilot study will include information regarding feasibility and acceptability of the SMART design. This information will be used to refine a subsequent full-scale SMART. The use of a SMART to develop ATS for prevention will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of prevention programing for youth with developing conduct problems. PMID:25256135

  20. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior. PMID:26081013

  1. Test of “Facilitation” vs. “Proximal Process” Moderator Models for the Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on Adolescents with Severe Conduct Problem

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan S.; Tran, Nam T.; Gallop, Robert; Ngo, Victoria K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study identified moderators of Multisystemic Therapy’s (MST) effects on adolescent conduct problems, considering “facilitation” and “proximal process” moderation models. The sample included 164 adolescents (mean age=14.6 years; 83% male) randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual; parent, youth, and teacher reports of adolescent functioning were obtained. A number of significant moderators were identified. Proximal process moderation patterns were identified (e.g., families with parents with lower levels of adaptive child discipline skills gained more from MST), but the majority of significant interactions showed a facilitation moderation pattern with, for instance, higher levels of adaptive functioning in families and parents appearing to facilitate MST (i.e., greater benefits from MST were found for these families). This facilitation pattern may reflect such families being more capable of and/or more motivated to use the resources provided by MST. It is suggested that factors consistently identified as facilitation moderators may serve as useful foci for MST’s strength-based levers of change approach. Other implications of these findings for individualized treatment also are discussed. PMID:25387903

  2. Predictors of Adolescent Functioning in Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Childhood ADHD, Conduct Problems, and Peer Status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a five-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3–18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions/expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, noncompliance, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference. PMID:16836474

  3. Delinquent histories of adolescents adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct.

    PubMed

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-09-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared subgroups of adolescents with ( n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that adolescents with and without prior delinquent behaviors differed on a majority of the variables measured in this study. Adolescents with sexual offending behaviors who also had prior delinquent behaviors were older and had higher rates of documented childhood maltreatment, and drug and alcohol use. These adolescents had caregivers with more substance use and abuse problems and more extensive criminal histories. These findings have a number of practice implications when working with adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors. The findings also suggest that comparisons between adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors and other delinquents may be misleading if these subgroups of adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors are not distinguished. PMID:18309043

  4. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  5. Impact of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions on the Temporal Ordering of Conduct Problems and Depression across Childhood and Adolescence in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…

  6. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  7. Conduct Problem or Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.

    1974-01-01

    Forty-seven third grade boys with conduct problems were administered a battery of tests to determine how many had reading problems and central processing dysfunctions and the correlations between their reading performance and 1) central information processing abilities, 2) race, 3) social class, and 4) maternal employment. (Author/DB)

  8. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  9. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  10. Problems of Adolescents in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; Harper, Juliet F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the problems of 514 male and female adolescents of 14 and 15 years of age using an open-ended questionnaire. Boys reported more problems concerned with educational adjustments, girls more problems concerned with family adjustment. (Author/SDH)

  11. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  12. An examination of the developmental propensity model of conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Hink, Laura K; Johnson, Daniel P; Smith Watts, Ashley K; Young, Susan E; Robinson, JoAnn; Waldman, Irwin D; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2016-05-01

    The present study tested specific hypotheses advanced by the developmental propensity model of the etiology of conduct problems in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a prospective, longitudinal, genetically informative sample. High negative emotionality, low behavioral inhibition, low concern and high disregard for others, and low cognitive ability assessed during toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) were examined as predictors of conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence (age 4 to 17 years). Each hypothesized antisocial propensity dimension predicted conduct problems, but some predictions may be context specific or due to method covariance. The most robust predictors were observed disregard for others (i.e., responding to others' distress with active, negative responses such as anger and hostility), general cognitive ability, and language ability, which were associated with conduct problems reported by parents, teachers, and adolescents, and change in observed negative emotionality (i.e., frustration tolerance), which was associated with conduct problems reported by teachers and adolescents. Furthermore, associations between the most robust early predictors and later conduct problems were influenced by the shared environment rather than genes. We conclude that shared environmental influences that promote disregard for others and detract from cognitive and language development during toddlerhood also predispose individuals to conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence. The identification of those shared environmental influences common to early antisocial propensity and later conduct problems is an important future direction, and additional developmental behavior genetic studies examining the interaction between children's characteristics and socializing influences on conduct problems are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653135

  13. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  14. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  15. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied…

  16. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  17. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  18. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems. Data Trends #105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents findings from research examining the influence of collective socialization, concentration of disadvantage, and prevalence of crime on conduct problems among African…

  19. Lead and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded considerably…

  20. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  1. Features of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescents' Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Zook, Joan M.

    Seven features of adolescents' relationships with mothers and with fathers (time together per day, number of activities, degree of influence, subjective closeness, and frequency of experiencing positive, hostile, and sad emotions in the relationship) were used to predict adolescents' problem behavior and chemical use. Using a sample of 64 seventh-…

  2. Attention and conduct problems in children exposed to family violence.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kimberly Barletto; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of family violence on the development of attention and conduct problems in girls and boys. Mothers (n = 287) were interviewed and given diagnostic assessment instruments to measure attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder in 1 of their children. Six years later, youths were interviewed about their delinquent behavior. Family violence related to attention and conduct problems in girls only. Girls who displayed these problems in childhood were not necessarily at risk for later delinquency. Family violence in childhood had a direct effect on delinquency in girls. Boys who developed attention problems were more likely to show conduct problems that eventually led to adolescent delinquency. Family violence failed to account for problems or delinquency in boys. PMID:14964597

  3. A parallel process growth mixture model of conduct problems and substance use with risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-10-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model. PMID:20558013

  4. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  5. The Relation of Substance Use to Trauma and Conduct Disorder in an Adolescent Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evansm, Allison Schettini; Spirito, Anthony; Celio, Mark; Dyl, Jennifer; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most problematic health risk behaviors among adolescents. Given that research consistently finds increased levels of substance use among adolescents with conduct problems as well as trauma-related symptoms, it is important that substance abuse be examined to better understand its role in Conduct Disorder (CD) and…

  6. Ethics: problems of clinical conduct.

    PubMed

    Luglié, P F; Campus, G; Lai, V

    2005-09-01

    The study provides a framework for ethical medical conduct. A number of articles of International Law, the Italian Constitution, the Penal Code and the Medical Code of Conduct have therefore been taken into consideration. Art. 32 of the Italian Constitution, relating to the ''right to health'' is examined, paying particular attention to certain parts, and is related to Art. 35 of the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights. In considering Art. 43 of the Penal Code, which addresses the psychological element of criminal acts, reference is made to the Medical Code of Conduct and to the Hippocratic Oath. The considerations made point up the importance of a relationship of trust and esteem between doctor and patient in clinical practice, and that this approach must be cultivated starting from the first year of university studies. PMID:16215531

  7. Predictors of Adolescent Functioning in Girls with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Childhood ADHD, Conduct Problems, and Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2…

  8. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  9. Covariation among Adolescent Problem Behaviors: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Lynne; And Others

    Problem behaviors during adolescence can include substance use, low educational achievement, delinquent or conduct-disordered behavior, and indiscriminant, precocious, or risky sexual behavior. Despite the dissimilarities of these behaviors, some researchers believe that such actions share common underlying causes, which can be explained by the…

  10. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  11. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  12. Temperament and Developmental Pathways to Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Paul J.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews research linking a number of temperamental vulnerabilities to the development of severe conduct problems in children. Also reviewed are 2 areas of research that focus on important developmental processes that could mediate the relation between temperament and conduct problems. These processes are the development of emotional…

  13. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  14. Common sexual problems of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, S

    1975-08-01

    The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional. PMID:1101177

  15. Animistic thinking in psychotic versus conduct-disordered hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J A; Miller, A L; Arsenio, W F

    1993-10-01

    25 adolescents showing a Psychotic-spectrum Disorder were compared with 24 adolescents showing Conduct Disorder on a task eliciting reasons for attributing life to an ambiguous pictorial stimulus (dough on a beach). Consistent with expectations from earlier research, the psychotic adolescents showed greater modes of animistic thinking (attributions of life to nonlife forms) than conduct-disordered youth, associated with theorized merging between self and the nonhuman environment. Implications are discussed. PMID:8234613

  16. Bullying and Victimization: The Role of Conduct Problems and Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and victimization occurring in adolescence can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. This study investigates whether conduct problems (CP) and dimensions of psychopathy predict the developmental course of bullying and victimization from ages 12 to 14 among 1,416 Greek-Cypriot adolescents. Results indicate that initial levels…

  17. Treatment of Comorbid Conduct Problems and Depression in Youth: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jennifer C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a cognitive behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with co-occurring conduct problems and depression. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. A sample of five adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, participated; all five families completed the…

  18. Problems, Plans, and Ambitions of German and Foreign Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    Compared personal and social problems and ambitions of Italian, Spanish, and Greek adolescents living in Germany with those of German adolescents. Found that family and religion played more important role for foreign adolescents than for Germans. While parents appeared to have same importance for all adolescents, emotional relations with siblings…

  19. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  20. Delinquent Histories of Adolescents Adjudicated for Criminal Sexual Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…

  1. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  2. Relationships of Social Context and Identity to Problem Behavior among High-Risk Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the extent to which (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity is associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed measures of family and school functioning, personal and ethnic identity, conduct problems, and drug use. Parents completed measures of family functioning and adolescent conduct problems. Results indicated that school functioning and personal identity confusion were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking indirectly through adolescent reports of conduct problems. Adolescent reports of family functioning were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking through school functioning and conduct problems. Results are discussed in terms of the problem behavior syndrome and in terms of the finding of relative independence of contextual and identity variables vis-à-vis conduct problems, substance use, and sexual risk taking. PMID:19412356

  3. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  4. A Longitudinal Study into the Interplay between Problem Orientation and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has documented a link between negative problem orientation (NPO) and poor emotional well-being, but little of this research has focused on adolescence or has collected multiple waves of data. The authors conducted a 3-wave longitudinal survey of 841 adolescents in Grades 8, 9, and 10 (428 boys, 411 girls, 2 unidentified). The survey…

  5. [Externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescent suicide attempters].

    PubMed

    Ribakoviene, Virginija

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at comparative analysis between externalized and internalized behavior of adolescents. The girls were grouped into a group of suicide attempters and non-attempters. The group of attempters was patients taken to child departments of Psychiatry clinics after attempting a suicide. Lithuanian students formed the control group of the study. The groups were similar in respect of age, gender and place of living. Suicide attempters demonstrated more evident problems of internalized behavior. Their depressiveness was found to be at the higher levels, also they presented more somatic complaints. There was a statistically important difference on scales of depressiveness (p < or = 0.001) and somatic complaints (p < or = 0.001). The suicide attempters also reported a bigger number of other problems than girls of control group did. The values of subscales of aggression and delinquency were much higher than ones in the control group (p < or = 0.001). The research shows that the attempters often have not only emotional problems, but also are more aggressive and demonstrate more behavioral problems than the rest of children. Disobedience in relationships with adults and breaking of existing rules are those symptoms of conduct disorder, which have the strongest relationship with suicidal attempts among adolescent girls. Depression symptoms of sad mood and suicidal thinking had the strongest relation to suicidal attempts of the adolescents. PMID:12474788

  6. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  7. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  8. A Developmental Perspective on Peer Rejection, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Conduct Problems Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Diane; Drabick, Deborah A G; Burgers, Darcy E

    2015-12-01

    Peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are linked consistently to the development and maintenance of conduct problems. Two proposed models may account for longitudinal relations among these peer processes and conduct problems: the (a) sequential mediation model, in which peer rejection in childhood and deviant peer affiliation in adolescence mediate the link between early externalizing behaviors and more serious adolescent conduct problems; and (b) parallel process model, in which peer rejection and deviant peer affiliation are considered independent processes that operate simultaneously to increment risk for conduct problems. In this review, we evaluate theoretical models and evidence for associations among conduct problems and (a) peer rejection and (b) deviant peer affiliation. We then consider support for the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Next, we propose an integrated model incorporating both the sequential mediation and parallel process models. Future research directions and implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25410430

  9. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Stress Buffering for Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In a study of middle adolescents, the interrelationships between stressful events, perceived social support, internalization of problems, and externalization of problems were examined. Social support did not act as a buffer of stress. Stressful events and low family support predicted problem behaviors for adolescent girls. (BC)

  11. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations. PMID:23568422

  12. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  13. Quality of perceived parenting in oppositional and conduct disordered adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rey, J M; Plapp, J M

    1990-05-01

    In order to ascertain whether there was a relationship between parenting style and the development of conduct (CD) and oppositional (OD) disorder, the authors compared ratings on a self-report measure of perceived parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument) by normal adolescents (N = 62) and by adolescents with CD (N = 62) or OD (N = 49). No differences were found between the CD and OD groups. However, there were significant differences between the clinical groups and the normal control group: adolescents with CD or OD perceived their parents as more overprotective and less caring. PMID:2347834

  14. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  15. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  16. International note: parenting, academic achievement and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibin; Walker, Richard; Armstrong, Derrick

    2014-06-01

    In light of differing findings regarding the relations between parenting and adolescent academic/behavioural outcomes and the dearth of such research in a Chinese context, we conducted research to examine the relationship between parental supervision/attachment and academic achievement/problem behaviour among mainland Chinese adolescents. In the study, 636 Grade 11 students completed a questionnaire comprising parenting and problem behaviour variables complemented by academic achievement (GPA) data drawn from school records. The study found that the relations between parenting (parental supervision and attachment) and Chinese adolescents' academic and behavioural outcomes are very weak. PMID:24793385

  17. Does Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Relate to Social, Emotional Problems in Adolescents with and without Criminal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…

  18. Examining the Link between Infant Attachment and Child Conduct Problems in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vando, Jessica; Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the extent to which infant attachment status is directly related to child conduct problems 6 years later, and assessed the potential mediating roles of hostile parenting and maternal depression. The sample included 84 adolescent mothers and their children (45 girls, 39 boys). Infant attachment status was assessed using the Strange…

  19. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  20. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so-called early-starters, are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an…

  1. Child Psychopathy: Theories, Measurement, and Relations with the Development and Persistence of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…

  2. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732

  3. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  4. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  5. An Emerging Income Differential for Adolescent Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…

  6. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  7. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  8. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  9. Efficacy of Brief Strategic Family Therapy in Modifying Hispanic Adolescent Behavior Problems and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problem adolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample. PMID:12666468

  10. Identical genetic influences underpin behavior problems in adolescence and basic traits of personality

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. We extend work in this field examining the extent to which genetic factors underlying the five-factor model of personality are common with genetic influences on adolescent behavior problems (namely, anxiety, peer problems, conduct, hyperactivity, and low prosociality). Method A nationally representative twin sample (Twins Early Development Study) from the general population of England and Wales, including 2031 pairs of twins aged 16 years old, was used to decompose variation into genetic and environmental components. Behavioral problems in adolescence were assessed by self-report with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Adolescent behavior problems were moderately associated with normal personality: Specifically, a fifth to a third of phenotypic variance in problem behaviors was accounted for by five-factor model personality traits. Of central importance here, genetic influences underpinning personality were entirely overlapping with those genetic factors underlying adolescent behavior problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that adolescent behavior problems can be understood, at least in part, within a model of normal personality trait variation, with the genetic bases of these behavior problems the same as those genetic influences underpinning normal personality. Read the Commentary for this article on doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12292 PMID:24256444

  11. The Psychological Problems of North Korean Adolescent Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja

    2012-01-01

    Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519

  12. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  13. [GEITDAH consensus on conduct disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco

    2015-08-16

    In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26204088

  14. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  15. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

  16. Interparental Conflict, Adolescent Behavioral Problems, and Adolescent Competence: Convergent and Discriminant Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…

  17. Agreement between parents and adolescents on emotional and behavioral problems and its associated factors among Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent–adolescent agreement on adolescents’ problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent–adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11–18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess parent–adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent–adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. Results The parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. Conclusions A high level of parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents. PMID:24735388

  18. Parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors: The mediating role of family functioning.

    PubMed

    Finan, Laura J; Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-08-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage = 16.15; SD = .75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  19. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage=16.15; SD=.75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  20. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  1. The Role of Substance Use Initiation in Adolescent Development of Subsequent Substance-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…

  2. Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

  3. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  4. Problems of Adolescent Crime in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savina, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…

  5. Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intersection of Conduct Problems and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    The current paper reviewed extant literature on the intersection between poverty and the development of conduct problems (CP) in early childhood. Associations between exposure to poverty and disruptive behavior were reviewed through the framework of models emphasizing how the stressors associated with poverty indirectly influence child CP by compromising parent psychological resources, investments in children’s welfare, and/or caregiving quality. We expanded upon the most well studied of these models, the family stress model, by emphasizing the mediating contribution of parent psychological resources on children’s risk for early CP, in addition to the mediating effects of parenting. Specifically, in we focused on the contribution of maternal depression, both in terms of compromising parenting quality and exposing children to even higher levels of stressful events and contexts. Implications of the adapted family stress model were then discussed in terms of its implications for the prevention and treatment of young children’s emerging CP. PMID:24471370

  6. Strategies for Conducting Adolescent Health Research in the Clinical Setting: The Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center HPV Experience

    PubMed Central

    Braun-Courville, Debra K.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Rojas, Mary; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Hollman, Dominic; Linares, L. Oriana; Diaz, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical research with adolescents can be challenging due to issues of informed consent, parental involvement, institutional review board requirements, and adolescent psychosocial development. This presents a dilemma, particularly in the area of sexual health research, as adolescents are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV). To successfully conduct adolescent research in the clinical setting, one requires an awareness of state statutes regarding adolescent confidentiality and consent for medical care, and a close partnership with the IRB. Case Study In 2007, the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center (MSAHC) in collaboration with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a longitudinal research study to examine the natural history of oral, cervical, and anal HPV in an adolescent female population engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. We use this research project as a case study to explore the ethical, methodological, and clinical issues related to conducting adolescent health research. Summary and Conclusions Several strategies were identified to promote adolescent study participation, including: (1) building a research team that is motivated to work with adolescents; (2) combining research and patient care visits to avoid duplication of services; and (3) establishing a personalized communication network with participants. Using these methods, adolescent sexual health research can successfully be integrated into the clinical setting. While retaining a prospective cohort of adolescents has its challenges, a persistent and multi-disciplinary approach can help improve recruitment, sustain participation, and acquire critical data that will lead to improved healthcare knowledge applicable to understudied populations of adolescents. PMID:24332677

  7. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  8. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…

  9. Sleep problems predict cortisol reactivity to stress in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Tyson, Anna; Turan, Bulent; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the role of sleep problems and sleep duration on stress-related HPA axis reactivity among urban, low income adolescents. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36 years; 50% male; 95% African American) and their parents provided information on adolescents' sleep problems and sleep quantity. Adolescents completed a standardized social stress test in the laboratory (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Saliva samples collected before and after the TSST yielded measures of cortisol pre-test, 15 min post-test, and 55 min post-test, as well as overall cortisol secretion and its increase (AUCG and AUCI). More sleep problems and longer sleep duration predicted higher cortisol reactivity to the TSST, particularly among females. Self-reports of sleep were more consistently related to stress-related cortisol reactivity than parent reports. Sleep problems and longer sleep duration may place adolescents at risk for HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress, contributing to academic, behavioral and health problems. PMID:26679739

  10. Sleep in conduct-disordered adolescents--a polysomnographic and spectral power analysis study.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Sailas, Eila; Virkkala, Jussi; Urrila, Anna-Sofia; Virkkunen, Matti

    2008-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to characterize sleep in conduct-disordered adolescents using polysomnography and spectral power analysis. The two hypotheses were that conduct disorder would be associated with objective sleep problems, and that conduct disorder--as a precursor of adult antisocial personality disorder--would be associated with the same kind of abnormal sleep architecture, with both increased deep sleep and delta power, as previously reported in antisocial personality disorder. The patients consisted of 15 adolescents (age range 13-17 years, mean age 14.7 years) with histories of antisocial behavior so functionally impairing that they were ordered by child welfare to undergo a psychosocial evaluation in a closed social services ward. The healthy age-matched controls comprised 20 volunteers recruited with a newspaper advertisement. Opposite to earlier subjective sleep studies among conduct-disordered children, no significant differences in sleep parameters were observed between the two groups. The adolescents with conduct disorder slept a little bit longer, but the percentage amount of different sleep stages did not differ significantly between the two groups. Relative spectral power of sleep, delta power in particular, was similar in both groups, assessed in total sleep time as well as in first half of it. Different alternative explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:18462804

  11. The life world of the adolescent with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Peens, T; Poggenpoel, M

    2001-03-01

    Adolescents are currently being more and more exposed to the expectations of parents, educators, health-workers/helpers and policy makers to meet the demands of society and conform to it. The perception arises that adults are not able to let the adolescent take responsibility for the HOW of his own life story, despite all the expectations and demands. Under the influence of the post-modernistic approach to science and the narrative therapy it appears that each person is an expert of his own life and that each person is responsible for the how and the writing and rewriting of his own life story. This means that even the adolescent with mental health problems is busy with the writing and rewriting of his life story till even unpleasant incidents and experiences gain new meaning. This demands from the adolescent with mental health problems to be actively involved with his treatment program while the therapist is a participating observer of the therapeutic events. A one-sided approach, where the therapist's objectives and ideas make the difference in the treatment of adolescents with mental health problems, becomes redundant. An alternative approach is suggested where the adolescent with mental health problems becomes co-author of his own life story and his treatment program. In this research the researcher aimed to explore and describe the HOW of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The utilization of the case-study format as research method enabled an in-depth, holistic description of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The implementation of the strategies to ensure trustworthiness, as described by Guba was applied to ensure the validity and reliability of this study. Focus was specifically placed on the application of the strategy of cross validation. This implies that multiple data-collection sources, different experts, theories and respondents were utilized in the exploration of the life world of the adolescent

  12. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    PubMed

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services. PMID:25533404

  13. Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

  14. Unsupervised self-care predicts conduct problems: The moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Olivia E; Schofield, Thomas J; Sitka, Angela; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread speculation about the detrimental effect of unsupervised self-care on adolescent outcomes, little is known about which children are particularly prone to problem behaviors when left at home without adult supervision. The present research used data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin children residing in the United States to examine the prospective effect of unsupervised self-care on conduct problems, and the moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender. Results showed that unsupervised self-care was related to increases over time in conduct problems such as lying, stealing, and bullying. However, unsupervised self-care only led to conduct problems for boys and for children with an aggressive temperament. The main and interactive effects held for both mother-reported and observational-rated hostile aggression and after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:26820648

  15. Development and Validation of the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Rothman, Russell L.; Russell, William; Pittel, Eric J.; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13–17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Results Empirical elimination of items using Principal Components Analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 57% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, p<.001), self-efficacy (r=0.54, p<.001), and glycemic control (r= −0.24, p<.01). Conclusion The DAPSQ is a brief instrument for assessment of diabetes self-management problem solving in youth with T1D associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. Practice Implications The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. PMID:25063715

  16. The structure of problem behaviours among Irish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W; Morgan, M

    1990-05-01

    Problem behaviour theory proposes that adolescent substance use and other problem behaviours comprise a single dimension reflecting a general underlying tendency towards deviance. This general deviance hypothesis was tested with survey data obtained from 2731 adolescents from Dublin, Ireland. A series of hierarchical maximum likelihood factor analyses indicated that three specific factors were necessary to account for the covariation among problem behaviour measures. These factors corresponded to substance use (drinking, smoking, marijuana use, and other drug use), relatively minor problem behaviours (swearing, lying), and relatively serious problem behaviours (stealing, vandalism). Contrary to the general deviance hypothesis, a second order factor representing general deviance accounted for only 14% of the variance in substance use, on the average, as opposed to 74% of the variance in minor and serious problem behaviours. These findings thus indicate that substance use among these Irish adolescents is relatively independent of a general tendency toward deviance. They also suggest that the general deviance hypothesis, as it usually is applied, may be culturally specific and relevant only for adolescents from the United States and similar cultural contexts. PMID:2354284

  17. Persisting Behavior Problems in Extremely Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992–1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8 to 14 years. Method Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 weeks) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cut-offs for clinical disorder. Results The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p’s<0.01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p< 0.01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Conclusions ELBW adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood. PMID:25741950

  18. Does low reading achievement at school entry cause conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn J; Brown, K Stephen; Boyle, Michael; Racine, Yvonne; Offord, Dan

    2003-06-01

    Conduct problems place children at increased risk for a broad array of negative health and social outcomes that include conduct disorder, injuries and violence, school failure, substance abuse, depression, and suicide. Prevention interventions have the potential to interrupt the chain of events linking early conduct problem symptoms to future negative life outcomes, but have received much less emphasis than interventions designed to treat established cases of disorder. Reading problems are a well-established correlate of conduct disorder. However, whether or not reading problems cause conduct disorder continues to be debated. If they are in fact a causal risk factor this would justify the design and evaluation of interventions designed to enhance reading skills and/or remediate problems. In this paper we use logistic regression techniques to evaluate the relation between reading achievement at school entry and conduct problems 30 months later, in a representative, non-clinic sample of kindergarten and grade one children, in Ontario, Canada. The findings show that an eight point increase in reading scores (equivalent to an moderate effect size of 0.5) would result in a 23 per cent decrease in the risk of conduct problems 30 months later, after controlling for gender, income and baseline conduct problem symptoms. We conclude that reading problems may contribute to the early onset of conduct disorder. Randomized experimental studies designed to evaluate the effects of reading programmes in non-clinic samples of children are needed to: (i) establish whether the link between reading problems at school entry and conduct disorder is causal; and (ii) determine whether reading intervention programmes are an effective conduct disorder prevention strategy. PMID:12742607

  19. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability with and without Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…

  20. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  1. Sex Differences in Autonomic Correlates of Conduct Problems and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hong, James; Marsh, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate group differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding between males and females with conduct problems and determine whether aggression accounts for variance in ANS responding over the effects of conduct problems. The results indicated marked differences in psycho-physiological responses between males and females.

  2. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  3. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  4. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. PMID:20303580

  5. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  6. Gender Differences in Internalizing Problems among Sexually Abused Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we determined whether sexually abused adolescent boys or girls were more likely to have internalizing behavior scores in the clinical range. Second, after determining boys were more likely than girls to have an internalizing behavior problem, we tested whether this relationship would persist…

  7. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  8. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  9. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  10. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  11. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents. [Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.

    This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…

  12. Civic Participation and the Development of Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Santinello, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the links between civic participation and adolescent behavior problems (bullying, physical fighting, and alcohol and tobacco use), and whether civic engagement could be a moderator of the negative effects of parent/family detachment. Participants were 7,097 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds (48.6% girls) in a region of Northern Italy.…

  13. The breakdown of meaning and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown. PMID:12964443

  14. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  15. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  16. A Whole-Brain Investigation of White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sagari; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Blackwood, Nigel; Scott, Stephen; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The biological basis of severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents is poorly understood. We recently reported that adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) have significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (a white matter (WM) tract that connects the amygdala to the frontal lobe) compared to their non-CD peers. However, the extent of WM abnormality in other brain regions is currently unclear. Methods We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate whole brain WM microstructural organisation in 27 adolescent males with CD, and 21 non-CD controls. We also examined relationships between FA and behavioural measures. Groups did not differ significantly in age, ethnicity, or substance use history. Results The CD group, compared to controls, had clusters of significantly greater FA in 7 brain regions corresponding to: 1) the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles, corticopontocerebellar tract, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tract; 2) right superior longitudinal fasciculus; and 3) left cerebellar WM. Severity of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional symptoms were significantly correlated with FA in several of these regions across the total sample, but not in the CD or control groups alone. Conclusions Adolescents with CD have significantly greater FA than controls in WM regions corresponding predominantly to the fronto-cerebellar circuit. There is preliminary evidence that variation in WM microstructure may be dimensionally related to behaviour problems in youngsters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that antisocial behaviour in some young people is associated with abnormalities in WM ‘connectivity’. PMID:27271503

  17. Peer-victimization and mental health problems in adolescents: are parental and school support protective?

    PubMed

    Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age and gender were additionally considered as moderating factors. The Social and Health Assessment survey was conducted among 986 students aged 11-18 years in order to assess peer-victimization, risk and protective factors and mental health problems. For mental health problems, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. Effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems were additionally compared with normative SDQ data in order to obtain information about clinically relevant psychopathology in our study sample. Results of this study show that peer-victimization carries a serious risk for mental health problems in adolescents. School support is effective in both male and female adolescents by acting as a buffer against the effect of victimization, and school support gains increasing importance in more senior students. Parental support seems to be protective against maladjustment, especially in peer-victimized girls entering secondary school. Since the effect of peer-victimization can be reduced by parental and school support, educational interventions are of great importance in cases of peer-victimization. PMID:20221691

  18. "Processes Linking Adolescent Problems to Substance-Use Problems in Late Young Adulthood"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven; Klein, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study explores three avenues in early young adulthood through which adolescent problems may be linked to later substance use problems: problematic substance use, failure to assume adult roles and responsibilities, and exposure to pro-drug social influences. Method: Participants (N = 1,986; 49% female) filled out surveys at…

  19. Relationships between Problem Behaviors and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: The Unique Role of Attention Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Doran, Jeffrey W.; Newell, Stephanie B.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Barbetti, Victor; Robbins, Brent Dean

    2002-01-01

    This study examined relationships among eight teacher-reported problem behavior syndromes and standardized measures of academic achievement among 58 adolescents in an alternative school. Analysis suggested association between attention problems and academic achievement was primarily due to inattention component of the syndrome rather than the…

  20. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  1. Nicotine Dependence and Problem Behaviors Among Urban South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of “Black,” “White,” “Coloured,” and “Indian” youths aged 12–17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents’ demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  2. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  3. Sexual Abuse History and Problems in Adolescence: Exploring the Effects of Moderating Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the relationship between sexual abuse and two problem outcomes in adolescents (N=42,568): binge drinking and suicidal ideation. Focused on factors related to problem behaviors among adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Results indicate that adolescents who endured sexual and physical abuse exhibited more problems than those experiencing…

  4. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs. PMID:18047940

  5. Protective factors in the development of early child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study utilized a resilience model to investigate child, family, and community protective factors in toddlerhood as they relate to low levels of conduct problems at age 5 in a sample of low income children at risk for early disruptive problem behavior. Child, family, and community factors were associated with lower levels of conduct problems at age 5. Child, family, and community protective factors also distinguished between children who remained below and above a clinical threshold for aggressive problems between age 2 and 5. Finally, each domain of protective factors made small but significant unique contributions to lower aggression at age 5. These results emphasize the importance of multivariate analysis of the ecology of development predicting child outcome, and suggest potential areas for intervention with children at high risk for conduct problems. PMID:25774071

  6. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584

  7. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  8. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  9. Correlates of at-risk/problem internet gambling in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling amongst adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the internet. Method Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high-school-student gamblers were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent internet gamblers than in non-internet gamblers. As compared to at-risk/problem gambling in the non-internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio=2.99; p=0.03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio=0.32; p=0.0003). At-risk/problem gambling in both the internet and non-internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at p<0.05 each with multiple adverse measures including dysphoria/depression (odds ratios=1.76, 1.96), getting into serious fights (odds ratios=2.50, 1.93), carrying weapons (odds ratios=2.11, 1.90), and use of tobacco (odds ratios=2.05, 1.88 for regular use), marijuana (odds ratios=2.02, 1.39) and other drugs (odds ratios=3.24, 1.67). Conclusions Clinically, it is important to assess for teenagers’ involvement in internet gambling, particularly as adolescent at-risk/problem internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use and poor academic functioning. PMID:21241952

  10. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    PubMed

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  11. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  12. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Adolescent Problems: A Case of Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrake, Eunai Kim

    Focusing on Korean Americans, this study examined the overall pattern of adolescents' perceptions of their parents and its effects on adolescent problem behaviors. Analyses of survey data from 218 Korean American adolescents indicated that these adolescents perceived their parents as "authoritarian yet warm," and that this parenting style had an…

  13. Comparing Learning Styles for Students with Conduct and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrasi, Salvatore; Sennett, Kenneth H.; Macklin, Theodore O.

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase study was conducted with elementary and junior high school students to compare learning styles for students with conduct and emotional problems. Findings were examined in light of federal special-education eligibility criteria, specifically the exclusion of "socially maladjusted" students. Implications for the multidisciplinary…

  14. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  15. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  16. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so called “early-starters,” are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an early age of onset, and a persistent developmental course of CP. However, females were historically neglected from this literature. Although research on female CP has increased, conclusions drawn from limited prior work continue to predominate. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the updated literature to determine the percentage of females who show the early-starter CP pattern relative to two other trajectories often theorized to be more characteristic of females: early-starting desisting and adolescent onset CP. The findings suggest that a subgroup of females exhibits an early-starting and persistent CP pattern, while a separate group of females demonstrates an onset of CP in adolescence. In addition, although it has been argued that females with childhood CP are not likely to show CP into adolescence and adulthood, evidence for early-starting desisting CP was inconsistent. The results are discussed with respect to implications for developmental taxonomy theory and future basic research in the area of CP development, as well as intervention efforts. PMID:23076722

  17. The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit. PMID:25886655

  18. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-01

    Only few studies have so far investigated possible health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) in children and adolescents, although experts discuss a potential higher vulnerability to such fields. We aimed to investigate a possible association between measured exposure to RF EMF fields and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. 1,498 children and 1,524 adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany) cities. During an Interview data on participants' mental health, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. Mental health behaviour was assessed using the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained radio-frequency EMF exposure profiles over 24 h. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Overall, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields was far below the reference level. Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:19960235

  19. Transactional cascades of destructive interparental conflict, children's emotional insecurity, and psychological problems across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Coe, Jesse L; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the transactional interplay among dimensions of destructive interparental conflict (i.e., hostility and dysphoria), children's emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems from middle childhood and adolescence. Participants were 232 families, with the first of five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade (M age = 7 years). Cross-lagged, autoregressive models were conducted with a multiple-method, multiple-informant measurement approach to identify developmental cascades of interparental and child cascades. Results indicated that emotional insecurity was a particularly powerful mediator of prospective associations between interparental conflict (i.e., dysphoria and hostility) and child adjustment during adolescence rather than childhood. In reflecting bidirectionality in relationships between interparental and child functioning, children's psychological problems predicted increases in interparental dysphoria during childhood and adolescence. Although emotional insecurity was not identified as a proximal predictor of interparental difficulties, an indirect cascade was identified whereby insecurity in early adolescence was associated with increases in teen psychological problems, which in turn predicted greater interparental dysphoria over time. Results are interpreted in the context of how they advance transactional formulation of emotional security theory and its resulting translational implications for clinical initiatives. PMID:27427798

  20. Suicidality, Bullying and Other Conduct and Mental Health Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario. Method and Findings Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9) of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52), attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39), seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10), and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45). Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70), being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05), and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90), compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours. Conclusions Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and

  1. Predicting Behavior Problems and Social Competence in Children of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes longitudinal investigation evaluating additive model of impact of adolescent mothers' parenting practices on children. Suggests infant-mother attachment predicted behavior problems among preschool children of adolescent mothers and adolescent mothers' depression explained significant additional variance in those problems. States mothers'…

  2. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  3. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  4. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  5. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14–39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine whether genetic or environmental selection processes underlie the observed association between marital conflict and conduct problems. Results indicate that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence the risk of marital conflict. Furthermore, genetic influences mediated the association between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems. These results highlight the need for quasiexperimental designs in investigations of intergenerational associations. PMID:17328690

  6. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent antisocial girls. This question is important because disturbance of HPA functioning has been found in populations of violent adult males and antisocial adolescent males, suggesting that it may be a marker of a physiological disorder associated with…

  7. School and Cognitive Functioning Problems in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Eve Khlyavich; Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Kaplan, Simona C.; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that students with overweight and obesity have impairments in performance IQ and executive function, and worse school functioning in comparison to normal weight peers. Objectives The current study assessed school and cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with severe obesity being evaluated for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Setting: Psychiatry Department, University Medical Center, United States. Methods Eligible candidates for bariatric surgery were referred for psychiatric evaluation which included a semi-structured clinical interview measuring school functioning and the vocabulary and matrix reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Results Self-reported school problems were common, with 55.5% of adolescents failing a grade or subject, 38.7% attending summer school, and 17.8% failing a citywide exam. A significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI),estimated WASI IQ(r= −0.250, p=0.005), and the vocabulary subtest (r= −0.241, p=0.006), but not matrix reasoning (r= −0.126, p=NS). Conclusions Even among a sample of adolescents with severe obesity, increased BMI was associated with lower WASI IQ and vocabulary subtest scores. Increasing awareness of potential cognitive and school problems in bariatric candidates among teachers, school counselors, and other mental health providers is an important first step to improving academic support and educational systems deficiencies for students with overweight and obesity. PMID:23932993

  8. Haitian adolescent personality clusters and their problem area correlates.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Robert C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert M

    2013-04-01

    This study identified personality clusters among a community sample of adolescents of Haitian decent and related cluster subgroup membership to problems in the areas of substance abuse, mental and physical health, family and peer relationships, educational and vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreational pursuits, aggressive behavior-delinquency, and to sexual risk activity. Three cluster subgroups were identified: dependent/conforming (N = 68), high pathology (N = 30); and confident/extroverted/conforming (N = 111). Although the overall sample was relatively healthy based on low average endorsement of problems across areas of expressed concern, significant physical health, mental health, relationship, educational, and HIV risk problems were identified in a MACI identified high psychopathology cluster subgroup. A confident/extraverted/conforming cluster subgroup revealed few problems and appears to reflect a protective style. PMID:22362195

  9. Adolescent parricide as a clinical and legal problem.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists contribute to the knowledge regarding the continuing problem of parricide by way of macrostudies, utilizing large samples that reveal patterns of how such acts are carried out, gender differences, and other aspects. Clinicians have the opportunity to pursue microinvestigations into the details of how cognitive processes and emotions operate in the adolescent who engages in such behavior. Such investigations entail pursuing specifics in the psychosocial realm, such as earlier maltreatments and ongoing psychological conflicts, and also being alert to the neurobiological differences between adolescents and adults. The use of battered child syndrome as a legal defense is discussed, with contrasts made between relying on a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) approach and a duress defense, based on explanations related to shame and humiliation. PMID:20305078

  10. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14-39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine…

  11. Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…

  12. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  13. Conducting a Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, David B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods used in applied behavioral analysis research and appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of problem behavior in persons with mental retardation are described. They are informant assessment (e.g., behavioral interviews, rating scales, and questionnaires), direct observation assessment, and experimental analysis. (Author/DB)

  14. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  15. Predicting Prognosis for the Conduct-Problem Boy: Can Family History Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgers, Candice L.; Milne, Barry J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Crump, Raewyn; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Many children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective prediction of long-term prognosis in pediatric and adolescent clinical settings is difficult. Improved…

  16. Boundary formulations for shape sensitivity of temperature dependent conductivity problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, James H.; Wang, Hua

    1992-01-01

    Used in concert with the Kirchhoff transformation, implicit differentiation of the discretized boundary integral equations governing the conduction of heat in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity is shown to generate an accurate and economical approach for computation of shape sensitivities. For problems with specified temperature and heat flux boundary conditions, a linear problem results for both the analysis and sensitivity analysis. In problems with either convection or radiation boundary conditions, a nonlinear problem is generated. Several iterative strategies are presented for the solution of the resulting sets of nonlinear equations and the computational performances examined in detail. Multizone analysis and zone condensation strategies are demonstrated to provide substantive computational economies in this process for models with either localized nonlinear boundary conditions or regions of geometric insensitivity to design variables. A series of nonlinear example problems is presented that have closed form solutions. Exact analytical expressions for the shape sensitivities associated with these problems are developed and these are compared with the sensitivities computed using the boundary element formulation.

  17. Malingered ADHD in adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder: a brief note.

    PubMed

    Conti, Richard P

    2004-06-01

    This brief note cautions clinicians about the possibility of adolescents with Conduct Disorder malingering the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to obtain medication. Presented are some guidelines to consider when the diagnosis of ADHD is indicated in forensic settings with adolescents such as the need for a comprehensive assessment and the importance of exploring the possibility of malingering. PMID:15217060

  18. Effects of Sport Participation on the Basketball Skills and Physical Self of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…

  19. Child Attachment and Family Environment Differences of Adolescent Children with ADHD and/or Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce

    This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…

  20. A right to confidentiality or a duty to disclose? Ethical guidance for conducting prevention research with children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Ioana E; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Stadler, Christina; Schmeck, Klaus; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2014-06-01

    Conducting prevention research with children and adolescents raises ethical challenges especially regarding confidentiality. Research with children and adolescents often applies methodologies which aims at the disclosure of sensitive information about practices that impact on adolescent mental and physical health such as sexual activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, self-damaging and suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts). The scope of the article is to review normative documents that cover topics relevant for confidentiality when conducting research with children and adolescents. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed to identify relevant international and European guidelines and codes of ethics that cover health, behavioural and social science research. Additionally, the European Research Ethics website was consulted for double check. However, none of the documents aimed at biomedical, behavioural or social research offers concrete support in resolving practical research ethics problems regarding confidentiality. The codes show a lack of clarity in any circumstances in which the researcher might have an obligation to breach confidentiality by disclosing sensitive information. Only little information is given on what kind of disclosed information, if disclosed, might justify breaching confidentiality. The findings prove a need for normative documents to address the ethical questions regarding confidentiality arising in research practice explicitly and specifically. Moreover, further forms of ethical guidance should be developed to support ethical research with children and adolescents. PMID:24615342

  1. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26464122

  2. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L; Riesch, Susan K

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem-solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem-Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem-Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed. PMID:26936844

  3. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L.; Riesch, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed. PMID:26936844

  4. Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conger, R D; Ge, X; Elder, G H; Lorenz, F O; Simons, R L

    1994-04-01

    We propose a model of family conflict and coercion that links economic stress in family life to adolescent symptoms of internalizing and externalizing emotions and behaviors. The 180 boys and 198 girls in the study were living in intact families in the rural Midwest, an area characterized by economic decline and uncertainty. Theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. These adolescents and their parents were interviewed each year for 3 years during the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Our theoretical model proposes that economic pressure experienced by parents increases parental dysphoria and marital conflict as well as conflicts between parents and children over money. High levels of spousal irritability, coupled with coercive exchanges over money matters, were expected to be associated with greater hostility in general by parents toward their children. These hostile/coercive exchanges were expected to increase the likelihood of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems. Overall, results were consistent with the proposed model. Moreover, the hypothesized processes applied equally well to the behavior of mothers and fathers, as well as sons and daughters. PMID:8013239

  5. Using Adventure-Based Cooperation Training To Develop Job Related Social Skills for Adolescents with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol

    This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  6. Prosocial Involvement and Antisocial Peer Affiliations as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Urban Adolescents: Main Effects and Moderating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…

  7. Development of Mastery during Adolescence: The Role of Family Problem Solving*

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137

  8. Application of Genetic Algorithms in Nonlinear Heat Conduction Problems

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Waqar A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are employed to optimize dimensionless temperature in nonlinear heat conduction problems. Three common geometries are selected for the analysis and the concept of minimum entropy generation is used to determine the optimum temperatures under the same constraints. The thermal conductivity is assumed to vary linearly with temperature while internal heat generation is assumed to be uniform. The dimensionless governing equations are obtained for each selected geometry and the dimensionless temperature distributions are obtained using MATLAB. It is observed that GA gives the minimum dimensionless temperature in each selected geometry. PMID:24695517

  9. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  10. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  11. Co-occurrence of problem behaviors in South Korean adolescents: findings from Korea Youth Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Diane; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2007-02-01

    Study findings showed problem behaviors can be observed in clusters in South Korean adolescents. Prevention programs targeting problem behavior clusters may have a greater impact on adolescents at risk for more than one problem behavior than programs targeting only a portion of the cluster. PMID:17259067

  12. Hyperactivity/Inattention Problems Moderate Environmental but Not Genetic Mediation between Negative Parenting and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Yamagata, Shinji; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between negative parenting (NP) and conduct problems (CP) in 6-year-old twins, taking into account the severity of hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIAP). Analyses of the data from 1,677 pairs of twins and their parents revealed that the shared environmental covariance between NP and CP was moderated by…

  13. Numerical solution of the imprecisely defined inverse heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smita, Tapaswini; Chakraverty, S.; Diptiranjan, Behera

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the numerical solution of the uncertain inverse heat conduction problem. Uncertainties present in the system parameters are modelled through triangular convex normalized fuzzy sets. In the solution process, double parametric forms of fuzzy numbers are used with the variational iteration method (VIM). This problem first computes the uncertain temperature distribution in the domain. Next, when the uncertain temperature measurements in the domain are known, the functions describing the uncertain temperature and heat flux on the boundary are reconstructed. Related example problems are solved using the present procedure. We have also compared the present results with those in [Inf. Sci. (2008) 178 1917] along with homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and [Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer (2012) 39 30] in the special cases to demonstrate the validity and applicability.

  14. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  15. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  16. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  17. Promising Parenting Programs for Reducing Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068

  18. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  19. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  20. [Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors. PMID:25351321

  1. Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.

    2013-09-01

    For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.

  2. [Eating disorders--an increasing problem in children and adolescents?].

    PubMed

    Brunner, R; Resch, F

    2006-08-01

    Recent evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that the prevalence of eating disorders is rising in adolescents and the age of onset has fallen. An average prevalence rate for anorexia nervosa of 0.5% and for bulimia nervosa of 0.5% was found for teenaged girls. For both disorders the highest incidence was found in females aged 10-19 years. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors are common in a substantial proportion of adolescents and are associated with an increased risk of the manifestation of a full disorder or other forms of emotional or behavior problems (depression, anxiety, substance abuse, suicidal behavior). For both disorders a complex multifactorial aetiology has been postulated, involving the interaction of genetic predisposition and certain specific environmental risk factors, particularly social factors. Next to other comorbid psychiatric conditions medical complications resulting from semistarvation and purging often require an inpatient treatment. The multimodal therapeutic approach focus on controlled weight restoration in combination of specific psychoeducational and psychotherapeutic methods involving the patients and their families. PMID:16941400

  3. Interparental Relationship Sensitivity Leads to Adolescent Internalizing Problems: Different Genotypes, Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Cleveland, H. H.; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have established that child interparental conflict evaluations link parent relationship functioning and adolescent adjustment. Using differential susceptibility theory and its vantage sensitivity complement as their framework, the authors examined differences between adolescents who vary in the DRD4 7 repeat genotype (i.e. 7+ vs. 7−) in how both interparental conflict and positivity affect adolescents’ evaluations of interparental conflict (i.e., threat appraisals) and how these evaluations affect internalizing problems. Results from longitudinal multiple-group path models using PROSPER data (N = 452) supported the hypothesis that threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents would be more affected by perceptions of interparental positivity compared to 7− adolescents; however, threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents were also less affected by interparental conflict. Among 7− adolescents, interparental conflict perceptions were associated with higher threat appraisals, and no association was found for perceptions of positivity. For adolescents of both genotypes, higher threat was associated with greater internalizing problems. PMID:25843974

  4. A Comparison of the Psychological Evaluation of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Donna P.; And Others

    While the descriptive features of anorexia nervosa are well known and agreed upon, the level of personality organization and the character style of anorexia patients is more controversial. To study and compare the cognitive style and personality functioning of anorectic patients with that of conduct disordered patients, 20 adolescent females (10…

  5. Adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems predict their affect-specific HPA and HPG axes reactivity.

    PubMed

    Han, Georges; Miller, Jonas G; Cole, Pamela M; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Hastings, Paul D

    2015-09-01

    We examined psychopathology-neuroendocrine associations in relation to the transition into adolescence within a developmental framework that acknowledged the interdependence of the HPA and HPG hormone systems in the regulation of responses to everyday affective contexts. Saliva samples were collected during anxiety and anger inductions from 51 young adolescents (M 13.47, SD = .60 years) to evaluate cortisol, DHEA, and testosterone responses. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at pre-adolescence (M = 9.27, SD = .58 years) while youths were in elementary school and concurrently with hormones in early adolescence. Externalizing problems from elementary school predicted adolescents' reduced DHEA reactivity during anxiety induction. Follow up analyses simultaneously examining the contributions of elementary school and adolescent problems showed a trend suggesting that youths with higher levels of internalizing problems during elementary school eventuated in a profile of heightened DHEA reactivity as adolescents undergoing anxiety induction. For both the anxiety and the anger inductions, it was normative for DHEA and testosterone to be positively coupled. Adolescents with high externalizing problems but low internalizing problems marshaled dual axes co-activation during anger induction in the form of positive cortisol-testosterone coupling. This is some of the first evidence suggesting affective context determines whether dual axes coupling is reflective of normative or problematic functioning in adolescence. PMID:25604092

  6. Parents "Do" Matter: Trajectories of Change in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Barker, Erin T.; Almeida, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relative influence of parenting behaviors (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and deviant peers on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Found that parents' firm behavioral control seemed to halt the upward trajectory in externalizing problems among adolescents with deviant…

  7. The Reciprocal Relationship between Early Adolescent Attachment and Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between parental attachment and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour. In this longitudinal study, 288 adolescents (mean age 13.5 years) reported on their attachment relationships with their parents and on problem behaviour three times, with…

  8. Serious Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Mental Health Contacts in American and British Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…

  9. Trends in Adolescent Emotional Problems in England: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Twenty Years Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Maughan, Barbara; Natarajan, Lucy; Pickles, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evidence about trends in adolescent emotional problems (depression and anxiety) is inconclusive, because few studies have used comparable measures and samples at different points in time. We compared rates of adolescent emotional problems in two nationally representative English samples of youth 20 years apart using identical symptom…

  10. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  11. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  12. Anxiety Symptoms Account for the Link between Reactive Aggression and Sleep Problems among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Becker, Stephen P.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Cheatham-Johnson, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are common among adolescents and have a negative impact on functioning. A better understanding of factors that contribute to sleep problems in adolescence can help guide more effective, targeted interventions. Objective: The current study examined the associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression…

  13. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  14. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  15. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. PMID:26854132

  16. Examining temporal associations between perceived maternal psychological control and early adolescent internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55% female) participating in two waves of a study. Results from multi-group, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that although early adolescents' depressive symptoms and social anxiety predicted change in perceived maternal psychological control one year later, perceived maternal psychological control did not predict change in early adolescents' internalizing problems. Elevated levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of perceived maternal psychological control one year later, whereas elevated levels of social anxiety were associated with decreased levels. Aforementioned findings were consistent across boys' and girls' data. Study findings extend limited research on adolescent effects, demonstrating that early adolescents' internalizing problems play a role in perceived maternal psychological control. PMID:19562478

  17. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  18. Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products. PMID:23358888

  19. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  20. A Behavior Genetic Investigation of Adolescent Motherhood and Offspring Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed. PMID:18020715

  1. Prefrontal cortex involvement in creative problem solving in middle adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Jolles, Dietsje D; Schel, Margot A; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Creative cognition, defined as the generation of new yet appropriate ideas and solutions, serves important adaptive purposes. Here, we tested whether and how middle adolescence, characterized by transformations toward life independency and individuality, is a more profitable phase than adulthood for creative cognition. Behavioral and neural differences for creative problem solving in adolescents (15-17 years) and adults (25-30 years) were measured while performing a matchstick problem task (MPT) in the scanner and the creative ability test (CAT), a visuo-spatial divergent thinking task, outside the scanner. Overall performances were comparable, although MPT performance indicated an advantage for adolescents in creative problem solving. In addition, adolescents showed more activation in lateral prefrontal cortex (ventral and dorsal) during creative problem solving compared to adults. These areas correlated with performances on the MPT and the CAT performance. We discuss that extended prefrontal cortex activation in adolescence is important for exploration and aids in creative cognition. PMID:23624336

  2. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  3. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  4. Testing Alternative Explanations for the Associations Between Parenting and Adolescent Suicidal Problems

    PubMed Central

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have established associations between parenting characteristics and adolescent suicidality, the strength of the evidence for these links remains unclear, largely because of methodological limitations, including lack of accounting for possible child effects on parenting. This study addresses these issues by using autoregressive cross-lag models with data on 802 adolescents and their parents across 5 years. Observed parenting behaviors predicted change in adolescent suicidal problems across one-year intervals even after controlling for adolescents’ effects on parenting. Nurturant-involved parenting continued to demonstrate salutary effects after controlling for adolescent and parent internalizing psychopathology: over time, observed nurturant-involved parenting reduced the likelihood of adolescent suicidal problems. This study increases the empirical support implicating parenting behaviors in the developmental course of adolescent suicidality. PMID:24244079

  5. Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems. PMID:25358960

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent. PMID:24851820

  7. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  8. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  9. Brief report: Peer group influences and adolescent internalizing problems as mediated by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. PMID:25863002

  10. Is co-ruminating with friends related to health problems in victimized adolescents?

    PubMed

    Guarneri-White, Maria E; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Knack, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation). PMID:25544426

  11. Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

  12. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  13. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  14. Development of Ethnic Disparities in Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, Floor V.A.; Joung, Inez M. A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bengi-Arslan, Leyla; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.; Van Der Ende, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in ethnic disparities in mental health during the development of adolescents into young adults. The aim of this study was to study the development of disparities in internalizing and externalizing problems between Dutch natives and Turkish migrant children from adolescence into adulthood. Methods: Turkish…

  15. Family Loyalty and Adolescent Problem Behavior: The Validity of the Family Group Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Oud, Johan H. L.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between perceived justice and trust within family relationships and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problem behavior. Data were gathered from the father, the mother, and two of their adolescent children in 288 families. The social relations model was used to assess perceived justice and trust at…

  16. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…

  17. Measuring Community Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Evidence from a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…

  18. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization of Young Adolescents' Substance Use and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Julie Wargo; Simon, Valerie A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined romantic partner selection and socialization of substance use (cigarettes, alcohol) and behavior problems among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders) over eleven months. Adolescent and romantic partner behaviors were assessed before and after relationships were initiated via school records and self-report. Most…

  19. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  20. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  1. Self-Concept and Identified Problem Differences Between Pre- and Postmenarcheal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwood, S. Gray; Allen, Laurel

    1979-01-01

    This study examined differences between 232 middle- and lower-class pre- and postmenarcheal adolescents and differences across four developmental levels for the postmenarcheal group. Postmenarcheal adolescents had more problems, but were higher in self-concept, supporting the view that menarche onset is a positive event for most females.…

  2. Parental Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Differences in Sex, Age and Problem Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…

  3. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  5. Examining Temporal Associations between Perceived Maternal Psychological Control and Early Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…

  6. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  7. Cortisol Reactivity, Distress Behavior, and Behavioral and Psychological Problems in Young Adolescents: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined blood cortisol levels, at three 6-month intervals, for young adolescent outpatients in relation to psychological measures derived from patient interviews preceding clinic visits and observed stress behaviors during visits. Found that adolescents in the increased cortisol reactivity group reported more behavior problems and depression…

  8. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  9. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  10. Peer Victimization during Middle Childhood as a Lead Indicator of Internalizing Problems and Diagnostic Outcomes in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. Methods This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in nine consecutive years and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10 to 11 years after the victimization assessment). Results Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Conclusions Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression. PMID:24660666

  11. Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in 9 consecutive years, and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10-11 years after the victimization assessment). Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression. PMID:24660666

  12. Youth in Crisis: Dimensions of Self-Destructive Conduct among Adolescent Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Self-mutilation and attempted sucide among adolescent prisoners are explored in relation to concrete coping tests posed by prison and to self-esteem problems posed by failure of external (family) and internal (peer) systems. Crisis sequences are traced using verbatim excerpts from interviews with prisoners. (Author)

  13. A Case Analysis of MDT with an Adolescent with Conduct Personality Disorder and Fire Setting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Siv, Alexander M.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2005-01-01

    This case study examines a 16.5-year-old male adolescent who engages in fire setting, severe aggression and self injurious and impulsive behaviors. He was treated with Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) for four months and his problem behaviors have been reduced significantly. He was previously treated with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). It…

  14. Adolescent Adjustment in Stepfamilies: Structural or Process Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine

    Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development, this study tested the hypothesis that family processes contribute more to adolescent adjustment than does family structure. Subjects for the study were 234 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old living in a stepfamily on a regular basis. This sample is a sub-sample of a representative…

  15. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  16. On Certain Aspects of the Problem of Adolescent Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…

  17. Gay and Lesbian Adolescents: Presenting Problems and the Counselor's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Jonna J.

    1998-01-01

    Development of social identity is crucial for adolescents. Because of the difficulty in developing a healthy identity in a homophobic world, gay and lesbian adolescents are an at-risk population. The counselor's role regarding the process of social identity formation, issues of isolation, educational issues, family issues, and health risks is…

  18. Adolescent Stress: The Relationship between Stress and Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Behling, Steven; Gipson, Polly Y.; Ford, Rebecca E.

    2005-01-01

    Although low levels of stressful life experiences are considered to be a normal part of development, higher levels can constitute a threat to the well-being and healthy development of children and adolescents. Adolescents are exposed to increased rates of stressful life experiences and there is some evidence that increases in stressors account, at…

  19. Problems of Adolescents and Youths: Symposium IV C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraja, Jaya; Suppiah, Chandraseagran

    This symposium contains reports on: (1) a study of drug abuse among adolescents in India, by Jaya Nagaraja; and (2) a case study of factors contributing to drug addiction among Malaysian youth, by Chandraseagran Suppiah. Based on a sample of 1,000 adolescents attending metropolitan city colleges, findings of the Indian study concern psychological…

  20. Initial Reliability and Validity of the Life Satisfaction Scale for Problem Youth in a Sample of Drug Abusing and Conduct Disordered Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Teichner, Gordon; Azrin, Nathan; Weintraub, Noah; Crum, Thomas A.; Murphy, Leah; Silver, N. Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Responses to Life Satisfaction Scale for Problem Youth (LSSPY) items were examined in a sample of 193 substance abusing and conduct disordered adolescents. In responding to the LSSPY, youth endorse their percentage of happiness (0 to 100%) in twelve domains (i.e., friendships, family, school, employment/work, fun activities, appearance, sex…

  1. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Conduct Disorder in a Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young…

  2. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  3. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief…

  4. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  5. Comparing the Family Environments of Adolescents with Conduct Disorder or Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stark, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    We attempted to differentiate the family environments of youth with Conduct Disorder (CD) compared to youth with a depressive disorder. Participants were 34 adolescents from a residential treatment facility. The K-SADS-P was used to determine the youth's diagnosis, while their family environment was assessed by the Self Report Measure of Family…

  6. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  7. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  8. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents’ Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents’ conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers’ reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents’ conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices. PMID:19636764

  9. Chronic multisite pain in adolescent girls and boys with emotional and behavioral problems: the Young-HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic multisite pain with high disability in relation to emotional or behavioral problems and resilience factors in adolescence. A second aim was to investigate if resilience factors could attenuate the associations between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. The study was based on a large cross-sectional study carried out in Norway between 2006 and 2008 and included 7,070 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Chronic multisite pain was defined as pain at least once a week during the last 3 months, scoring high on a disability index, and occurring in three or more locations. Chronic multisite pain was prevalent among adolescents with high scores (>85%) for anxiety/depression, social anxiety, conduct or attention problems (22.8-31.0 for girls, 8.8-19.0% for boys). Several coexistent psychiatric symptoms increased the prevalence of chronic multisite pain for both girls and boys. Resilience factors, including high self-esteem, seldom feeling lonely, and high scores for family cohesion or social competence, were associated with a lower prevalence and markedly attenuated the association between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. Psychiatrists should be careful to assess and treat comorbid chronic pain in adolescents with emotional or behavioral problems. PMID:25138145

  10. Individual, social, and behavioral factors associated with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A

    2013-07-01

    Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N = 1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age = 12.12) and middle (Mean age = 14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support. PMID:23408037

  11. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  12. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  13. Using Literature to Build Self-Esteem in Adolescents with Learning and Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Darcy

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Literature Project, a literature-based thematic approach to reading instruction designed to improve self-esteem in adolescents with learning and behavior problems. Discusses the effectiveness of the program. (SR)

  14. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  15. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  16. The Differential Impact of Parental Warmth on Externalizing Problems among Triangulated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Etkin, R. G.; Koss, K. J.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Triangulation is a family-wide process in which children are inappropriately involved in interparental conflict, placing them at heightened risk for adjustment problems. A common form of triangulation occurs by parents pressuring their children to take sides, which may result in feelings of being “torn” between parents. Externalizing behaviors in particular may develop as adolescents feel caught in the middle of conflict and forced to choose a side. However, the nature of the triadic process of triangulation may be impacted by dyadic-level relationships within the family. The present study thus explores how positive parenting processes may alter the relations between triangulation and adolescent externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (n = 301 families) provided assessments of adolescent externalizing problems, triangulation, and maternal and paternal warmth. Analyses revealed a three-way interaction between triangulation and maternal and paternal warmth predicting adolescent externalizing problems; child gender also moderated these relations. Among highly triangulated youth, boys displayed increased externalizing problems when both parents exhibited low or high warmth whereas girls showed increased behavior problems in the context of low maternal but high paternal warmth. These findings indicate the importance of examining the broader family context and gender when considering the impact of triangulation during adolescence. PMID:24796159

  17. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  18. An Approach to Teaching Parents and Adolescents Problem-Solving Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Arthur L.; And Others

    Parents and adolescents were taught to resolve conflicts concerning rules, responsibilities, and values through the use of problem solving and communication skills. Problem-solving included (1) defining the problem, (2) listing alternative solutions, (3) evaluating the solutions, and (4) planning implementation. Communication skills included (1)…

  19. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  20. Siblings versus Parents and Friends: Longitudinal Linkages to Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defoe, Ivy N.; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent…

  1. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  2. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  3. Effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self of adolescents with conduct disorders.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bilard, Jean

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) inter-establishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control-adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD. PMID:17916916

  4. Monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates stability of attention problems and susceptibility to life stress during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zohsel, K; Bianchi, V; Mascheretti, S; Hohm, E; Schmidt, M H; Esser, G; Brandeis, D; Banaschewski, T; Nobile, M; Laucht, M

    2015-11-01

    Attention problems affect a substantial number of children and adolescents and are predictive of academic underachievement and lower global adaptive functioning. Considerable variability has been observed with regard to the individual development of attention problems over time. In particular, the period of adolescence is characterized by substantial maturation of executive functioning including attentional processing, with the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual trajectories not yet well understood. In the present investigation, we evaluated whether the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism, MAOA-LPR, plays a role in determining continuity of parent-rated attention problems during adolescence. At the same time, a potential effect of severe life events (SLEs) was taken into account. A multi-group path analysis was used in a sample of 234 adolescents (149 males, 85 females) who took part in an epidemiological cohort study at the ages of 11 and 15 years. Attention problems during early adolescence were found to be a strong predictor of attention problems in middle adolescence. However, in carriers of the MAOA-LPR low-activity variant (MAOA-L), stability was found to be significantly higher than in carriers of the high-activity variant (MAOA-H). Additionally, only in MAOA-L carriers did SLEs during adolescence significantly impact on attention problems at the age of 15 years, implying a possible gene × environment interaction. To conclude, we found evidence that attention problems during adolescence in carriers of the MAOA-L allele are particularly stable and malleable to life stressors. The present results underline the usefulness of applying a more dynamic GxE perspective. PMID:26449393

  5. Early Adolescent Substance Use as a Risk Factor for Developing Conduct Disorder and Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M.; Baer, John S.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents’ risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Method: Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Results: Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Conclusions: Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence. PMID:24650821

  6. Early Adolescent Substance Use as a Risk Factor for Developing Conduct Disorder and Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M.; Baer, John S.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents’ risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Method: Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Results: Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Conclusions: Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence. PMID:24650822

  7. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents. PMID:12878105

  8. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  9. Ethnicity and problem behaviors among adolescent females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guiao, Isabelita Z; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2004-04-01

    Depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors are common problems among adolescents in the United States. Little is known about how these problem behaviors differ among adolescent, multiethnic females. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, regression analyses were performed to determine differences in these adolescent problem behaviors among multiethnic females using Latinas as the referent group. The random sample (N = 3,310, aged 12-19 years) included Latinas, and African-, Asian-, Native-, and Euro-American females. Measures included the CES-D, number of drinks each time alcohol was consumed in the past year, and a composite measure of suicidal behaviors. Latinas reported significantly higher risk for adolescent depression than did Euro-American peers and higher risk for alcohol use than did African- and Asian-American peers only. There were no significant differences in risk for suicidal behaviors between Latinas and their peers representing any of the other four ethnic groups. As adolescents of Latin, African, Asian, Native or aboriginal, and European ethnicity live all over the world, the findings inform future studies on adolescent depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors among adolescents representing any of these ethnic groups in any part of the globe. PMID:15199970

  10. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  11. Adolescent childbearing. Whose problem? What can we do?

    PubMed

    Scott-jones, D

    1993-11-01

    There are a number of options that help adolescents make appropriate choices about sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing. Comprehensive sex education programs are a deterrent to unwanted pregnancy and early sexual activity. Educational attitudes must be changed to reflect a recognition that sexual behavior is not deviant, but a normal part of human development during the transition to adulthood. Programs to prevent unplanned pregnancies must focus on educational expectations, educational achievement, and career preparation. Provision of child care options will help adolescents stay in school. Program focus must be applicable to two groups: older and younger adolescents. Solutions offered by Claire Brindis, based on program evaluations, suggest broad guidelines and local community-specific prevention plans. The responsible expression of sexuality needs greater emphasis than has occurred in many programs, particularly those where sex education is controversial or is confined to a small amount of time. Schools have been the most responsible vehicle for provision of sex education. In addition to sexuality education and pregnancy prevention programs, programs which instill a desire for greater formal education have resulted in delayed sexual activity and childbearing. Schools can play an important role in socializing adolescents for the appropriate transition to adulthood. Schools have become less and less meaningful to adolescents. German apprenticeship programs have been successful in orienting students to jobs in real settings. The Public Service Academy in Washington, D.C., has provided similar opportunities for part-time work or internships in government. Abortion among adolescents is still a politically charged issue in the US. Many have recommended the Maryland example of designating the physician or mental health provider, instead of a judge, as the individual responsible for determining the maturity and best interests of the child in choosing abortion

  12. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  13. Lie Symmetry Analysis of AN Unsteady Heat Conduction Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, O.; Sammarco, S.; Spinelli, C.

    2010-04-01

    We consider an unsteady thermal storage problem in a body whose surface is subjected to heat transfer by convection to an external environment (with a time varying heat transfer coefficient) within the context of Lie group analysis. We determine an optimal system of two-dimensional Abelian Lie subalgebras of the admitted Lie algebra of point symmetries, and show an example of reduction to autonomous form. Also, by adding a small term to the equation, rendering it hyperbolic, we determine the first order approximate Lie symmetries, and solve a boundary value problem. The solution is compared with that of the parabolic equation.

  14. The clinical usefulness of the new LPE specifier for subtyping adolescents with conduct disorder in the DSM 5.

    PubMed

    Jambroes, Tijs; Jansen, Lucres M C; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Colins, Olivier F; Popma, Arne

    2016-08-01

    In DSM 5, conduct disorder (CD) has been expanded with a new specifier 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE) in addition to the age-of-onset (AoO) subtyping, and is thought to identify a severe antisocial subgroup of CD. However, research in clinical practice has been scarce. Therefore, the current study will examine differences in clinical symptoms between subtypes of CD, based on both subtyping schemes. Subsequently, it will investigate whether the LPE specifier explains unique variance in aggression, added to the AoO subtyping. A sample of 145 adolescents with CD (51 % male, mean age 15.0) from a closed treatment institution participated in this study. CD diagnoses and AoO subtype were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. The LPE specifier was assessed using the callous-unemotional dimension of the Youth Psychopathy Traits Inventory (YPI). Self-reported proactive and reactive aggression, rule-breaking behavior and internalizing problems within the subtypes were compared. Youth with childhood-onset CD and LPE showed significantly more aggression than adolescent-onset CD without LPE (proactive aggression: F = 3.1, p < 0.05, reactive aggression: F = 3.7, p < 0.05). Hierarchical regression revealed that the LPE specifier uniquely explained 7 % of the variance in reactive aggression, additionally to the AoO subtyping. For proactive aggression, the interaction between AoO and the LPE added 4.5 % to the explained variance. Although the LPE specifier may help to identify a more aggressive subtype of CD in adolescents, the incremental utility seems to be limited. Therefore, clinical relevance of the LPE specifier in high-risk adolescent samples still needs to be investigated thoroughly. PMID:26725044

  15. A Gibbs sampler for conductivity imaging and other inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Gibbs samplers have many desirable theoretical properties, but also have the pesky requirement that conditional distributions be available. We show how conditional densities can be evaluated for the posterior distribution in conductivity imaging - virtually for free in coordinate directions and very cheaply in other `special' directions. The analysis actually applies to a broad class of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize strong scattering of energy, and leads to efficient iterative algorithms whether implementing inference or optimization. The resulting Gibbs sampler draws an independent conductivity image in only a little more compute time than required for optimization.

  16. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482

  17. Multiple Victimization Experiences, Resources, and Co-Occurring Mental Health Problems Among Substance-Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Coohey, Carol; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple types of victimization experiences, psychological and social resources, and co-occurring mental health problems among substance-using adolescents. Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from a multisite research project in which adolescents ages 11–18 years participated in a comprehensive screening program for substance misuse. Multiple types of victimization, low self-efficacy beliefs, lack of support for victimization issues, and available sources of emotional support were positively related to co-occurring mental health problems. These findings suggest that treatment planning and interventions may focus on helping adolescents cope effectively with their victimization experiences and addressing their mental health needs. Particular emphasis may be placed on enhancing self-efficacy and social skills so that adolescents may benefit from their available sources of social support. PMID:23155724

  18. Premature adolescent autonomy: parent disengagement and deviant peer process in the amplification of problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

    2004-10-01

    Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships were observed on videotaped interaction tasks. Latent growth curve models were used to examine longitudinal trends between deviant friendship interactions and family management. Direct observations of deviant friendship process at age 14 were associated with degradation in family management during adolescence. A comparison of antisocial and well-adjusted boys clarified that parents of antisocial boys (started early and persisted) decreased family management around puberty, in comparison to parents of well-adjusted boys who maintained high levels of family management through adolescence. In predicting late adolescent problem behaviour, there was a statistically reliable interaction between family management degradation and deviant peer involvement in adolescence in support of the premature autonomy hypothesis. Adolescent males involved in deviant friendships, and whose parents decreased their family management, were most likely to use marijuana and commit antisocial acts at age 18. The implications for interventions that target adolescents are discussed. PMID:15475044

  19. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  20. Internalizing and Externalizing Personality Dimensions and Clinical Problems in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Ostensible psychiatric comorbidity can sometimes be explained by shared relations between diagnostic constructs and higher order internalizing and externalizing dimensions. However, this possibility has not been explored with regard to comorbidity between personality pathology and other clinical constructs in adolescents. In this study,…

  1. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Methods: Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. Results: The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75–2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV–Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use

  2. Trajectories of Adolescent Mother-Grandmother Psychological Conflict during Early Parenting and Children's Problem Behaviors at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…

  3. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  4. Comparing Adolescents in Diverging Family Structures: Investigating Whether Adoptees Are More Prone to Problems than Their Nonadopted Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William

    2001-01-01

    Used National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data to compare adolescent adjustment problems in two-parent adoptive families, two-parent biologic families, and step- or single-parent biologic families. Found that adjustment difficulties were far more common among adolescents in step- and single-parent families than in other groups.…

  5. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  6. Problem Behaviors in Adolescence: The Opposite Role Played by Insecure Attachment and Commitment Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the relations between insecure attachment styles, commitment and behavioral problems, focusing on the unique and common contribution that avoidant and anxious styles and commitment made to internalizing and externalizing problems. 535 adolescents, 267 boys and 268 girls, aged from 16 to 18 years, completed self-report…

  7. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  8. Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderValk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; de Goede, Matijn; Maas, Cora; Meeus, Wim

    2005-01-01

    In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12-24 at the 1st wave, it is examined whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring…

  9. Family Life Education: A Problem-Solving Curriculum for Adolescents (Ages 15-19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibelman, Barbara; Hamrick, Michael

    The rising incidence of teenage sexual activity and the subsequent growth in numbers of teenage parents provide the rationale for this problem-solving curriculum guide on family life education. This model curriculum for adolescents aged 15-19 is designed to promote problem-solving skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-control, and…

  10. Evaluation of a Multicomponent, Behaviorally Oriented, Problem-Based "Summer School" Program for Adolescents with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: A Rasch Analysis on Adolescent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagquist, Curt

    2008-01-01

    The PsychoSomatic Problems (PSP)-scale is built upon eight items intended to tap information about psychosomatic problems among schoolchildren and adolescents in general populations. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the PSP-scale by means of the Rasch model, with a focus on the operating characteristics of the…

  12. Explicit and Implicit Stigma towards Peers with Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…

  13. Locus of Control and Problem-Solving Interaction in Families with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jory, Brian; Xia, Yan; Freeborn, Amy; Greer, Cassandra V.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the development and refinement of a classification system of family problem-solving interaction in families (N=38) with adolescents. Results indicate that family problem-solving interaction could be classified into one of four family locus of control: individualistic, collaborative, authoritarian, and external. Compares these four types…

  14. Adolescent Depression: Assessing the Impact of Negative Cognitions and Socioenvironmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Miller, Martin G.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relative importance of socioenvironmental problems versus negative beliefs in explaining adolescent depression using a sample of high school students (N=423). Only one negative condition--low evaluation of self--was related to depression. Low parental support and employment problems were found to be predictors of depression and a…

  15. Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…

  16. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  17. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

  18. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Ingestive Problems of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are proposed for anorexia…

  19. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  20. Health Problems in Children and Adolescents before and after a Man-Made Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…

  1. Cardiovascular and Affective Responses to Social Stress in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…

  2. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  3. Reading Problems, Attentional Deficits, and Current Mental Health Status in Adjudicated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…

  4. Which kindergarten children are at greatest risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity and conduct disorder symptomatology as adolescents?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-03-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade. Kindergarten children frequently engaging in ADHD-CD-type behaviors were more likely to later experience both moderate (covariate adjusted OR = 2.37) and severe (covariate adjusted OR = 3.63) ADHD-CD symptomatology. Low academic achievement uniquely increased the risk of both moderate and severe symptomatology (adjusted OR range = 1.7 to 2.24). The results should guide early screening and school-based intervention efforts for ADHD-CD. Reducing children's risk for adolescent ADHD-CD symptomatology may require remediating low behavioral and academic functioning by the end of kindergarten. When these 2 modifiable factors occur together they increase kindergarten children's odds of experiencing severe ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade by a multiplicative factor of 8.1. PMID:26192391

  5. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  6. Prospective Associations of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems and Their Co-Occurrence with Early Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wieczorek, William F.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or…

  7. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844

  8. Item Analysis and Differential Item Functioning of a Brief Conduct Problem Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item…

  9. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  10. Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n = 48), adolescents (n = 85), and adults (n = 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth and positivity and the absence of criticism were associated with fewer behavior problems. Although a higher level of criticism was significantly associated with greater behavior problems, there were only trend-level associations between levels of warmth and positivity and behavior problems during the adolescent years. The provision of family psychoeducation programs, which can reduce parental criticism, would likely benefit both the individual with Fragile X syndrome and the family. PMID:22809078

  11. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  12. The Role of Early Language Difficulties in the Trajectories of Conduct Problems Across Childhood.

    PubMed

    Yew, Shaun Goh Kok; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-11-01

    This study uses latent growth curve modelling to contrast the developmental trajectories of conduct problems across childhood for children with early language difficulties (LD) and those with typical language (TL). It also examines whether the presence of early language difficulties moderates the influence of child, parent and peers factors known to be associated with the development of conduct problems. Unconditional and language status conditional latent growth curves of conduct problems were estimated for a nationally representative cohort of children, comprising of 1627 boys (280 LD) and 1609 girls (159 LD) measured at ages 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11. Multiple regression tested interaction between language status and predictors of the level and slope of the development of conduct symptoms. On average, children's conduct problems followed a curvilinear decrease. Compared to their TL peers, LD boys and girls had trajectories of conduct problems that had the same shape but with persistently higher levels. Among boys, LD amplified the contributions of parental hostility and SES and protected against the contributions of sociability and maternal psychological distress to a high level of conduct problems. In low SES boys, LD was a vulnerability to a slower rate of decline in conduct problems. Among girls, LD amplified the contributions of low pro-social behaviour to a higher level and sociability to a slower rate of decline of conduct problems while dampening the contribution of peer problems to a higher level of problems. PMID:26105208

  13. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. PMID:26190068

  14. Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212

  15. Development of adolescents' peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2012-09-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study, which included 1,313 Dutch adolescents, examined the development of peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors. Adolescents from 2 age cohorts annually reported their identification with 7 peer crowds and their levels of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Univariate latent growth curve analyses revealed declines (i.e., "Hip Hoppers" and "Metal Heads") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Nonconformists") in identification with nonconventional crowds and increases (i.e., "Elites" and "Brains") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Normals" and "Jocks") in identification with conventional crowds. Multivariate latent growth curve analyses indicated that stronger and more persistent identifications with nonconventional crowds were generally associated with more problem behaviors throughout adolescence. In contrast, stronger and more persistent identifications with conventional crowds were generally associated with fewer problem behaviors throughout adolescence with the notable exception of Brains, who showed a mixed pattern. Though characterized by fewer externalizing problems, this group did report more anxiety problems. These findings and their implications are discussed. PMID:22268603

  16. The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yan-Gang; Li, Jian-Bin; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2014-07-01

    Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors. PMID:24931553

  17. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  18. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. PMID:25957196

  19. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being. PMID:23979296

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling. PMID:26480847

  1. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  2. Conceptualization of Fractions and Categorization of Problems for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charron, Camilo

    2002-01-01

    165 students, from the fifth, seventh and ninth grades were asked to solve written problems involving fractions. In the problems a reference quantity (RQ) was multiplied by a fraction (FR), yielding the value of a compared quantity (CQ). The fraction expressed either an part-whole ratio (PW), or a part-part ratio (PP). Six type of problems were…

  3. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157

  4. Ten-year trends in adolescents' self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duinhof, Elisa L; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-09-01

    Changes in social, cultural, economic, and governmental systems over time may affect adolescents' development. The present study examined 10-year trends in self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among 11- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. In addition, gender (girls versus boys), ethnic (Dutch versus non western) and educational (vocational versus academic) differences in these trends were examined. By means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, trends in emotional and behavioral problems were studied in adolescents belonging to one of five independent population representative samples (2003: n = 6,904; 2005: n = 5,183; 2007: n = 6,228; 2009: n = 5,559; 2013: n = 5,478). Structural equation models indicated rather stable levels of emotional and behavioral problems over time. Whereas some small changes were found between different time points, these changes did not represent consistent changes in problem levels. Similarly, gender, ethnic and educational differences in self-reported problems on each time point were highly comparable, indicating stable mental health inequalities between groups of adolescents over time. Future internationally comparative studies using multiple measurement moments are needed to monitor whether these persistent mental health inequalities hold over extended periods of time and in different countries. PMID:25534927

  5. On a roll: the process of initiation and cessation of problem gambling among adolescents.

    PubMed

    DiClemente, C C; Story, M; Murray, K

    2000-01-01

    As gambling becomes more accessible and acceptable in society, problems associated with gambling and gaming have begun to affect ever increasing numbers of adolescents. Although restricted from most forms of gambling by law, many adolescents are finding a path into problem gambling. Some are becoming compulsive gamblers early in their gambling career, facing a future filled with consequences and problems. Understanding the pathway or process by which these adolescents become engaged in gambling behavior and how they can extricate themselves from this addictive behavior can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of our interventions. This article offers a perspective on the initiation and cessation of compulsive gambling using the basic elements of the process of intentional behavior change outlined in the Stages of Change from the Transtheoretical Model. The process of initiation of a problematic behavior is similar to the process of modification or cessation of a problematic behavior in terms of these stages of change. With adolescents it is important to distinguish between the process of initiation, which has implications for prevention of gambling problems, and the process of cessation, which often necessitates the assistance of treatment. Creating interventions that parallel the process of change offers the potential for personalizing and potentiating efforts to reduce the prevalence and consequences associated with compulsive or pathological and problem gambling. Application of this model to gambling behavior offers a heuristic that is intriguing and requires substantiation through rigorous research. PMID:14634317

  6. Removal of numerical instability in the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourgholi, R.; Azizi, N.; Gasimov, Y. S.; Aliev, F.; Khalafi, H. K.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we consider an inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). A set of temperature measurements at a single sensor location inside the heat conduction body is required. Using a transformation, the ill-posed IHCP becomes a Cauchy problem. Since the solution of Cauchy problem, exists and is unique but not always stable, the ill-posed problem is closely approximated by a well-posed problem. For this new well-posed problem, the existence, uniqueness, and stability of the solution are proved.

  7. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  8. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  9. From the child to the neighbourhood: Longitudinal ecological correlates of young adolescents' emotional, social, conduct, and academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Susan L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Hood, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological framework, we investigated the correlates of changes in early adolescents' emotional, conduct, social and academic difficulties over a 2-year period of time. A representative sample of Australian early adolescents (N = 3797, 51% boys) completed questionnaires and interviews when they were age 10 (T1) and two years later at age 12 (T2). Parents also participated. Adolescents' difficulties increased over time, but there was no difference in academic difficulties between T1 and T2. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that temperamental factors of persistence and reactivity accounted for the most unique variance in adolescents' difficulties. Factors at each ecological level, including neighbourhood advantage, school connection, and family factors, were also uniquely associated with adolescents' change in difficulties over time. Although ecological effects were small, the study highlights the significant unique roles that proximal and distal social contexts play in the development of difficulties. PMID:27111893

  10. Influences of parental problem drinking on internet addiction among early adolescents: a multiple-mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies. PMID:24622496

  11. Association between parenthood and problem behavior in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elster, A B; Ketterlinus, R; Lamb, M E

    1990-06-01

    The association between problem behaviors and parental status was studied in a national sample of urban (n = 1263) and rural (n = 388) young women 15 to 17 years of age. When assessed according to age at childbearing, there was a clear association between problem behavior and the birth of a first child prior to age 19 years. The three parental status groups studied appeared ordered in risk, with school-aged mothers having engaged in the most problem behaviors, and followed, in turn, by young adult mothers (ie, those who had a child between 19 and 21 years of age), and then by women who had not had a child by age 21 years. Young urban women who engaged in three or more problem behaviors were more likely than women who claimed no involvement in problem behaviors to subsequently have a child prior to age 19 years. In addition, black adolescents reported fewer problem behaviors than did white adolescents. When individual behaviors were analyzed, school-aged mothers were more likely than either young adult mothers or nonmothers to have reported school suspension, truancy, runaway, smoking marijuana, and fighting. Although similar results were found in both samples, the effects appeared more consistent for young urban women. In future studies, researchers must determine whether adolescent mothers are at risk for parenting difficulties because of their previous involvement in problem behaviors. PMID:2339028

  12. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

  13. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  14. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  15. The Ethnic Context of Child and Adolescent Problem Behavior: Implications for Child and Family Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural…

  16. Overview of Current Trends in Mental Health Problems for Australia's Youth and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Debra; White, Angela; Eckersley, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current trends in the mental health problems of Australia's youth and adolescents. It presents information derived from the most recent and comprehensive Australian surveys of youth mental health, and provides international comparisons and views from professional practice where relevant. An update of trends for…

  17. Can I Take the Car? Relations among Parenting Practices and Adolescent Problem-Driving Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartos, Jessica L.; Eitel, Patricia; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined relationships among parenting practices and problem-driving practices among licensed adolescents with less than 2 years of driving experience. Found that factors significantly related to risky driving behaviors, traffic violations, and motor vehicle crashes included lower levels of parental monitoring and control, lenient parental…

  18. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  19. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  20. Precocious Puberty in Adolescent Girls: A Biomarker of Later Psychosocial Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Line; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…

  1. Family Stressors and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Pathway to Problem Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…

  2. Self-Concept and Identified Problem Differences Between Pre- and Postmenarcheal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwood, S. Gray

    Differences in the number and types of problems as well as in self-reported self-concept between 232 black and white pre- and postmenarcheal adolescents were examined in this study. The study also examined differences in these variables across four developmental levels of menarcheal status: initial, intermediate, middle, and established. These…

  3. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  4. Persistence of Literacy Problems: Spelling in Adolescence and at Mid-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Barbara; Messer, J.; Collishaw, S.; Pickles, A.; Snowling, M.; Yule, W.; Rutter, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Developmental reading problems show strong persistence across the school years; less is known about poor readers' later progress in literacy skills. Method: Poor (n = 42) and normally developing readers (n = 86) tested in adolescence (ages 14/15 years) in the Isle of Wight epidemiological studies were re-contacted at mid-life (ages…

  5. School Violence: To What Extent Do Perceptions of Problem Solving Skills Protect Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkum, Ayse Sibel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' perceptions of problem solving skills differ according to their sex, experiences of exposure to violence, age and grade, and the variables predicting their experiences of exposure to violence. Data were collected from 600(298 females, 302 males) 14-19 year-old students attending various types of high…

  6. Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

  7. Informal Helpers' Responses when Adolescents Tell Them about Dating Violence or Romantic Relationship Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…

  8. Premature Adolescent Autonomy: Parent Disengagement and Deviant Peer Process in the Amplification of Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

    2004-01-01

    Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships…

  9. A Developmental Study of the Relationship Among Irrational Beliefs, Behavior Problems, and Neuroticism in Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…

  10. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  11. M-Rated Video Games and Aggressive or Problem Behavior among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Perceived Friendship Intimacy, Constructive Problem Solving, and Depression from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…

  13. New Model of Mapping Difficulties in Solving Analogical Problems among Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A three-fold…

  14. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  15. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  16. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Mental Health: Problem Co-Occurrence and Access to Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…

  17. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  18. An Exploration of Counselor Experiences of Adolescents with Sexual Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassman, Linda; Kottler, Jeffrey; Madison, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study of 18 American and Australian counselors explores the impact of working with adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Findings are reported reflecting the counselors' own histories of abuse, their feelings regarding sexual information, their sexual and emotional responses to clients, and the importance of self-care and…

  19. Analogy of the Grounded Conducting Sphere Image Problem with Mirror Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the grounded conducting sphere image problem, all the necessary information about the image charge can be found from a mirror equation and a magnification formula. Then, we propose a method to solve the image problem for an extended charge distribution near a grounded conducting sphere. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  1. Temperament and parenting during the first year of life predict future child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Van Hulle, Carol A; Keenan, Kate; Rathouz, Paul J; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Waldman, Irwin D

    2008-11-01

    Predictive associations between parenting and temperament during the first year of life and child conduct problems were assessed longitudinally in 1,863 offspring of a representative sample of women. Maternal ratings of infant fussiness, activity level, predictability, and positive affect each independently predicted maternal ratings of conduct problems during ages 4-13 years. Furthermore, a significant interaction indicated that infants who were both low in fussiness and high in predictability were at very low risk for future conduct problems. Fussiness was a stronger predictor of conduct problems in boys whereas fearfulness was a stronger predictor in girls. Conduct problems also were robustly predicted by low levels of early mother-report cognitive stimulation when infant temperament was controlled. Interviewer-rated maternal responsiveness was a robust predictor of conduct problems, but only among infants low in fearfulness. Spanking during infancy predicted slightly more severe conduct problems, but the prediction was moderated by infant fussiness and positive affect. Thus, individual differences in risk for mother-rated conduct problems across childhood are already partly evident in maternal ratings of temperament during the first year of life and are predicted by early parenting and parenting-by-temperament interactions. PMID:18568397

  2. Preventing Serious Conduct Problems in School-Age Youth: The Fast Track Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slough, Nancy M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, E. Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2008-01-01

    Children with early-starting conduct problems have a very poor prognosis and exact a high cost to society. The Fast Track project is a multisite, collaborative research project investigating the efficacy of a comprehensive, long-term, multicomponent intervention designed to "prevent" the development of serious conduct problems in high-risk…

  3. Community Differences in the Association between Parenting: Practices and Child Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma; Conger, Rand D.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys African American families (N=841) to test hypothesis that community context might influence the association between parent control and punishment on child conduct problems. Survey found the deterrent effect of caretaker control on conduct problems became smaller as deviant behavior became more widespread. Results suggest that a particular…

  4. Peer Deviancy Training and Peer Coercion: Dual Processes Associated with Early-Onset Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; McEachern, Amber; Barner, Stacy; Johnson, Kassy; Provines, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The prospective relationships of conduct problems and peer coercion and deviancy training during kindergarten (mean age = 5.3 years) to overt and covert conduct problems in third-fourth grade were examined in a sample of 267 boys and girls. Coercion and deviancy training were distinct peer processes. Both were associated with earlier child conduct…

  5. The Treatment of Conduct Problems in Children With Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, David J.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of callous-unemotional (CU) traits on treatment outcomes and processes in a 10-week behavioral parent-training intervention with young boys referred for conduct problems (N = 56; mean age 6.29 years). CU traits were associated with greater conduct problems at pretreatment and with poor outcomes at…

  6. Conduct Problems in Young, School-Going Children in Ireland: Prevalence and Teacher Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Lynda; Ní Mháille, Grainne; Lodge, Anne; McGilloway, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Conduct problems in school settings can pose significant challenges for both children and teachers. This study examined the teacher-reported prevalence of conduct problems in a sample of young children (N?=?445) in the first two years of formal education. A secondary aim was to assess teachers' perceptions of child behaviour and their…

  7. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  8. Childhood Conduct Problems Are Associated with Increased Partnership and Parenting Difficulties in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Woodward, Lianne J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from a sample of 337 parents studied at age 30 to examine the linkages between childhood conduct problems assessed at ages 7-9 and later partnership and parenting outcomes. The key findings of this study were: 1) increasing levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with increased risk of partnership difficulties,…

  9. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. PMID:26210652

  10. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  11. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior. PMID:23477426

  12. The Interaction Between Self-Regulation and Motivation Prospectively Predicting Problem Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Jessica D.; Colder, Craig R.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Eiden, Rina Das; Wiezcorek, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior, however this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Method The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11–13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Results Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). Conclusions These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior. PMID:23477426

  13. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of cortisol throughout the day. Within the ASD sample, the son or daughter’s history of behavior problems interacted with daily behavior problems to predict the morning rise of the mother’s cortisol. A history of elevated behavior problems moderated the effect of behavior problems the day before on maternal cortisol level. Implications for interventions for both the mother and the individual with ASD are suggested. PMID:19890706

  14. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  15. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  16. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  17. Internet Use and Video Gaming Predict Problem Behavior in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…

  18. Cognitive Abilities Adjustment and Parenting Practices in Preschoolers with Disruption Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Parra, A.; Lopez-Rubio, S.; Mata, S.; Calero, M. D.; Vives, M. C.; Carles, R.; Navarro, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Conduct problems arising in infancy are one of the main reasons for which parents seek psychological assistance. Although these problems usually begin when the child has started school, in recent years a group of children has been identified who begin to manifest such problems from their earliest infancy and whose prognosis seems to…

  19. Social problem solving, family functioning, and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C Lai; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationship among social problem solving, perceived family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to social problem solving and family functioning. It was further found that the linkage between social problem solving and adolescent suicidal ideation was stronger under high family functioning relative to low family functioning, thus suggesting the moderating effect of family functioning on the effect of social problem solving on suicidal ideation. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19764274

  20. Developmental Associations Between Conduct Problems and Expressive Language in Early Childhood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Doyle, Orla; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood. PMID:26496905

  1. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  2. A Behavioral Test of Accepting Benefits that Cost Others: Associations with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth with conduct problems (CP) often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU). Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. Methods/Principal Findings In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial) game a computer program presents subjects with a series of offers in which they will receive money but a planned actual charity donation will be reduced; subjects decide to accept or reject each offer. We tested (1) whether adolescent patients with CP (n = 20) compared with adolescent controls (n = 19) differed on AlAn's game outcomes, (2) whether youths with CP and CU differed significantly from controls without CP or CU, and (3) whether AlAn's game outcomes correlated significantly with CP and separately, CU severity. Patients with CP and CU compared with controls without these problems took significantly more money for themselves and left significantly less money in the charity donation; AlAn's game outcomes were significantly correlated with CU, but not CP. Conclusions/Significance In the AlAn's game adolescents with conduct problems and CU traits, compared with controls without CP/CU, are disposed to benefit themselves while costing others even in a novel situation, devoid of peer influences, where anonymity is assured, reciprocity or retribution are impossible, intoxication is absent and when the “other” to be harmed is considered beneficent. AlAn's game outcomes are associated with measures of CU. Results suggest that the AlAn's game provides an objective means of capturing information about CU traits. The AlAn's game, which was designed for future use in the MRI environment, may be used in studies attempting to identify the neural correlates of self-benefiting decision-making. PMID

  3. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  4. Effects of the Communities That Care Model in Pennsylvania on Change in Adolescent Risk and Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Damon; Greenberg, Mark T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Bontempo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the public health burden of adolescent substance use, delinquency, and other problem behavior, few comprehensive models of disseminating evidence-based prevention programs to communities have demonstrated positive youth outcomes at a population level, capacity to maintain program fidelity, and sustainability. We examined whether the Communities That Care (CTC; Hawkins and Catalano 1992) model had a positive impact on risk/protective factors and academic and behavioral outcomes among adolescents in a quasi-experimental effectiveness study. We conducted a longitudinal study of CTC in Pennsylvania utilizing biannual surveillance data collected through anonymous in-school student surveys. We utilized multilevel models to examine CTC impact on change in risk/protective factors, grades, delinquency, and substance use over time. Youth in CTC communities demonstrated less growth in delinquency, but not substance use, than youth in non-CTC communities. Levels of risk factors increased more slowly, and protective factors and academic performance decreased more slowly, among CTC community grade-cohorts that were exposed to evidence-based, universal prevention programs than comparison grade cohorts. Community coalitions can affect adolescent risk and protective behaviors at a population level when evidence-based programs are utilized. CTC represents an effective model for disseminating such programs. PMID:20020209

  5. Which Kindergarten Children Are at Greatest Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant…

  6. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected. PMID:22648315

  7. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  8. Developing and Validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lauren C.; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christine; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R). Qualitative free listing (n = 74) and key informant interviews (n = 47) identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research. PMID:24949628

  9. Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Morris; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…

  10. Recognizing and Preventing Adolescent Eating Disorders and Muscularity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)

  11. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Problems among School Adolescents with and without Reading Difficulties as Measured by the Youth Self-Report: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wichstrom, Lars; Sund, Anne Mari

    2011-01-01

    In the present study of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years, adolescents with reading difficulties (RD) were compared with adolescents without RD on emotional and behavioral problems. Of this group, 191 (7.8%) adolescents reported having RD at T[subscript 1]. At both time points, when compared with the non-RD group, those in the RD group had…

  13. Focus on Methodology: Beyond paper and pencil: Conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Armstrong, Jessica; Tran, Steve P; Griffith, Aisha N; Walker, Kathrin; Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Computer-assisted data collection offers advantages over traditional paper and pencil measures; however, little guidance is available regarding the logistics of conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings. To address this gap, we draw on our experiences conducting a multi-site longitudinal study of adolescent development. Structured questionnaires programmed on laptop computers using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) were administered to groups of adolescents in community-based and afterschool programs. Although implementing ACASI required additional work before entering the field, we benefited from reduced data processing time, high data quality, and high levels of youth motivation. Preliminary findings from an ethnically diverse sample of 265 youth indicate favorable perceptions of using ACASI. Using our experiences as a case study, we provide recommendations on selecting an appropriate data collection device (including hardware and software), preparing and testing the ACASI, conducting data collection in the field, and managing data. PMID:26950018

  14. Evaluation of a School-Based Intervention for Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Lynette; Gradisar, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study investigated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention in increasing sleep knowledge and improving adolescent sleep problems. Design: A randomized, controlled trial using 2 groups (program class, classes-as-usual: [CAU]) assessed over 3 time points (pre-program, post-program, 6-week follow-up). Participants/Setting: Eighty-one students (mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6 y; 33% male) from 2 schools in South Australia. Schools provided one class to participate in the sleep intervention program (N = 41) and a second class to act as a control class (N = 40). Intervention: Four 50-minute classes across a 4-week period. Classes consisted of educating adolescents on promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle based on a cognitive-behavior therapy framework. Measurements and Results: Data were collected pre-program, post-program, and at 6-week follow-up using an online questionnaire. Qualitative student and teacher data were collected at post-program. Baseline data indicated sleep problems were prevalent (53.1% insufficient sleep on school nights [ < 8 h] and 77.8% discrepant school/weekend rise times [ > 2 h]). These 2 criteria identified 36 adolescents with a delayed sleep timing (DST; Program, N = 21; CAU, N = 15). The program increased sleep knowledge (P = 0.001); however, analyses revealed no significant effects on target sleep variables as compared with the CAU class for the entire group (all P > 0.05). For DST adolescents, there was a significant interaction for reducing the discrepancy between school and weekend out of bed times (P = 0.002). There was no impact on other sleep parameters or depressed mood. Conclusions: School-based sleep interventions for adolescents are a novel method for addressing a prevalent problem. Future programs should develop ways to motivate adolescents to change sleep practices. Citation: Moseley L; Gradisar M. Evaluation of a school-based intervention for adolescent sleep problems. SLEEP 2009;32(3):334

  15. Chronicity of depressive problems and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Booij, Sanne H; Bouma, Esther M C; de Jonge, Peter; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2013-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies, further supported by meta-analytic studies, indicate a possible association between chronicity (i.e., persistence or recurrence) of depression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to psychosocial stress. In the present study, we examined whether and how chronicity of depressive problems predicts cortisol responses to a standardized social stress test in adolescents. Data were collected in a high-risk focus sample (n=351) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective population study with bi- to triennial measurements. Depressive problems were assessed around age 11, 13.5, and 16. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva, sampled before, during, and after the Groningen Social Stress Test (GSST), to determine the cortisol response to psychosocial stress. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCi) (i.e., change from baseline) of the cortisol response was used as a measure of HPA axis response. By means of linear regression analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance, it was examined whether chronicity of depressive problems predicted the cortisol response to the GSST around the age of 16. Chronicity of depressive problems was significantly associated with cortisol stress responses. The relationship was curvilinear, with recent-onset depressive problems predicting an increased cortisol response, and more chronic depressive problems a blunted response. The results of this study suggest that depressive problems initially increase cortisol responses to stress, but that this pattern reverses when depressive problems persist over prolonged periods of time. PMID:22963816

  16. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    PubMed

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents. PMID:6491630

  17. Transient Eating Problems in an Adolescent without Body Image Disturbances: A Diagnostic Quandary.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Rao, Pradyumna; Gupta, Sunil

    2013-10-01

    Eating problems are commonly encountered in childhood and adolescents, and may be manifestation of a variety of psychiatric disorders when medical causes are excluded. We present the case of a young lady presenting with problems of eating which presented with difficulties of ascribing a diagnostic label for eating problems. The patient, a 12-year-old girl with history suggestive of mild mental retardation and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy presented with selective eating of foodstuffs which improved spontaneously in 2 months. The different diagnostic possibilities entertained for the case are discussed. PMID:24379508

  18. Social Development Measures Associated with Problem Behaviours and Weight Status in Australian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joanne W; Canterford, Louise; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-08-01

    During the adolescent years, substance use, anti-social behaviours and overweight/obesity are amongst the major public health concerns. We investigate if risk and protective factors associated with adolescent problem behaviours and substance use are also associated with weight status in young Australian adolescents. Data comes from the 2006 Healthy Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional survey of students attending primary (grade 6, mean age 11) and secondary (grade 8, mean age 12) schools in 30 communities across Australia. Adolescents were classified as not overweight, overweight or obese according to international definitions. Logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender and socio-economic disadvantage quartile, were used to quantify associations between weight status (or BMI z-score) and the cumulative number of problem behaviour risk and protective factors. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 22.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 21.2-24.0 %) and 7.2 % (CI, 6.3-8.3 %). Average number of risk and protective factors present was 4.0 (CI, 3.7-4.2) and 6.2 (CI, 6.1-6.3). Independently, total number of risk factors present was positively associated with likelihood of overweight and obesity, while number of protective factors present was inversely associated with the likelihood of being above a healthy weight. When both risk and protective factors were included in a regression model, only risk factors were associated with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. Average BMI z-score increased by 0.03 units with each additional risk factor present. Prevention programmes targeting developmental risk and protective factors in adolescents that reduce substance use and problem behaviours may also benefit physical health. PMID:25912882

  19. Hook-up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courntey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the sexual phenomenon of “hooking-up.” A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban, middle and high school students and to examine the relationship between hooking-up and a variety of problem behaviors, including, alcohol, cigarette, illicit drug use, truancy, and school suspensions. The results revealed that 28% of the sample had engaged in at least one hook-up experience, and this percentage increased with age. Hook-ups were correlated moderately with all problem behaviors examined. PMID:22039333

  20. Time-limited, structured youth mentoring and adolescent problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Shelley A.; Zimmerman, Toni S.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Krafchick, Jennifer L.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2015-01-01

    Youth mentoring can have a profound impact on the lives of high-risk youth. This study presents the Campus Corps program, a time-limited (12-week), structured mentoring program for high-risk youth (ages 11–18), and results from a quasi-experimental pilot evaluation. Baseline and post-intervention problem behavior data from 315 offending youth were used in multiple regression analyses. After accounting for baseline group differences, pre-intervention scores, and demographic covariates, Campus Corps participants (n=187, 63.1% male) reported less engagement in problem behavior, lower acceptance of problem behavior, and greater sense of autonomy from marijuana use post-intervention than participants in the comparison condition (n=128, 66.4% male). Conversely, post-intervention group differences were not observed for peer refusal skills or autonomy from alcohol use. A description of the Campus Corps program design and supplemental preliminary findings contribute to the growing knowledge base of youth mentoring program designs and outcomes. PMID:26640362

  1. Numerical solution of an inverse electrocardiography problem for a medium with piecewise constant electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, A. M.; Zakharov, E. V.; Kalinin, A. V.; Kalinin, V. V.

    2010-07-01

    A numerical method is proposed for solving an inverse electrocardiography problem for a medium with a piecewise constant electrical conductivity. The method is based on the method of boundary integral equations and Tikhonov regularization.

  2. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  3. [Sex education and the problem of early sexual relations among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Castellanous Simons, B; Gonzalez Hernandez, A

    1981-01-01

    Puberty today occurs about 2 years earlier than it did at the beginning of the century. The age of menarche is now usually between 11-13 years, while the establishment of spermatogenesis and appearance of the 1st ejaculation usually occurs between 13-15 years. The ages at which adolescents feel mature, want to behave like adults, and initiate sexual activity are now lower than in the past. Sexual relations may occur between adolescents before they are fully capable of recognizing their consequences as autonomous and responsible acts guided by a system of moral convictions. Both marriage and parenthood may have unfavorable consequences for future personality development, sexual adjustment, and the personal-social adaptation of the individual. In Cuba, the persistence of traces of bourgeois mentality can be seen in the tendency to teach young girls false concepts of female behavior. Traits such as submissiveness, passivity, and fragility are stressed, and girls are taught to inhibit their sexuality from a very young age. Adolescent boys are expected to display virility and machismo. Adolescent boys may be so interested in the physical aspects of sexual activity that they deprecate the aspects, considering them to be weak female traits. Boys are more likely to separate the sexual object and the love object, while such duality is unusual in girls. Among the most serious problems of adolescent sexual activity in Cuba is a high rate of abortions among young adolescents. Some adolescents are promiscuous and have frequent changes of partner. The age group 15-19 years has the 3rd highest rate of syphilis and the 2nd highest of gonorrhea. The proportion of births to minors has increased from 22% in 1973 to almost half in some provinces. Divorce rates have been in constant increase in Cuba, and psychosocial immaturity of very young spouses is a principal factor in divorce. The widening temporal gap between attainment of puberty and marriage, which is likely to be postponed

  4. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  5. Early Adolescent Attachment to Parents, Emotional Problems, and Teacher-Academic Worries about the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Poitras, Sarah-Caroline; Drouin, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how attachment to mother and father predicts worries about academic demands and relationships with teachers generated by the transition from elementary to middle school through its contribution to adolescents' emotional problems (depression and anxiety). The study sample includes 626 young adolescents (289 boys and 337 girls)…

  6. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  7. Buffering the Effects of Violence: Communication and Problem-Solving Skills as Protective Factors for Adolescents Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Monique; Self-Brown, Shannon; Shepard, Desti; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    Although many adolescents exposed to violence evidence negative outcomes, some report few deleterious effects, indicating the presence of moderating variables. This study examined the moderating role of family communication and problem solving on positive and negative outcomes in adolescents exposed to school and neighborhood violence.…

  8. Family Conflict, Mood, and Adolescents' Daily School Problems: Moderating Roles of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Dealing with Adolescent Suicide and What Educators Can Do To Help Reduce This Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Catherine A.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the complex and growing problem of adolescent suicide. The annotated bibliography consists of 7 articles on recent facts and data, 10 articles on causes determined by research, 11 items on indicators seen in adolescents, and 14 documents on how educators can help. A lack of secure social…

  10. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  11. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  12. Problem-Solving Orientation and Attributional Style as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Egyptian Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…

  13. Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Girls' Pubertal Development, Perceptions of Pubertal Timing, and Parental Relations on Eating Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarr, Amy E.; Richards, Maryse H.

    1996-01-01

    Examined both concurrently and longitudinally the influence of pubertal development, perceptions of pubertal timing, and experience with parents on the development of eating problems in normal adolescent girls. Found that adolescent girls' positive relationships with both parents were related to healthier eating. Results suggest that the…

  14. Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Intergenerational Relations on Adolescent Problem Behavior in U.S. Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, En-ling; Farrell, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether the effects of single-mother families (SMFs) on adolescent problem behavior are buffered by supportive mothering and the involvement of nonresident fathers and whether the effectiveness of these two buffers varies by ethnicity. Based on the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors find…

  15. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  16. Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Yali; Ming, Qingsen; Gao, Yidian; Ma, Ren; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Alack of inhibition control has been found in subjects with conduct disorder (CD), but the underlying neuropathophysiology remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the different mechanism of inhibition control in adolescent-onset CD males (n = 29) and well-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 40) when performing a GoStop task by functional magnetic resonance images. Effective connectivity (EC) within the inhibition control network was analyzed using a stochastic dynamic causality model. We found that EC within the inhibition control network was significantly different in the CD group when compared to the HCs. Exploratory relationship analysis revealed significant negative associations between EC between the IFG and striatum and behavioral scale scores in the CD group. These results suggest for the first time that the failure of inhibition control in subjects with CD might be associated with aberrant connectivity of the frontal–basal ganglia pathways, especially between the IFG and striatum. PMID:26658732

  17. Factors Associated With Problems for Adolescents Returning to the Classroom After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; Leddy, John J; Darling, Scott R; Rieger, Brian P; Mashtare, Terry L; Sharma, Tania; Willer, Barry S

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine factors in the clinic setting associated with concussion-related problems in the school setting. A total of 91 student athletes, 13 to 19 years old, completed the SCAT2 and computerized testing during their initial visit to the clinic. During a follow-up telephone interview, one-third reported problems with return to school. The presence of problems reported in school was associated with severity of concussion as represented by recovery time and the overall number of symptoms at the first clinic visit. Gender, age, and previous concussions were not associated with school problems. Athletes with computerized test scores below the ninth percentile were more likely to report school problems. The current study offers some descriptive information for clinicians and ideas for future research related to adolescent athletes with concussion and problems with return to the classroom. PMID:26084537

  18. Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities underlying adolescent substance use and problem use: general or specific?

    PubMed

    Young, Susan E; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Stallings, Michael C; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K

    2006-07-01

    Are genetic and environmental risks for adolescent substance use specific to individual substances or general across substance classes? We examined this question in 645 monozygotic twin pairs, 702 dizygotic twin pairs, 429 biological sibling pairs, and 96 adoptive (biologically unrelated) sibling pairs ascertained from community-based samples, and ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Substance use patterns and symptoms were assessed using structured psychiatric interviews. Biometrical model fitting was carried out using age- and sex-specific thresholds for (a) repeated use and (b) problem use, defined as one or more DSM-IV symptoms of abuse or dependence. We hypothesized that problem use would be more heritable than use in adolescence, and that both genetic and environmental risks underlying tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and problem use would be significantly correlated. Results of univariate analyses suggested significant heritable factors for use and problem use for all substances with the exception of alcohol use. Shared environmental factors were important in all cases and special twin environmental factors were significant for tobacco use, tobacco problem use, and alcohol use. Multivariate analyses yielded significant genetic correlations between each of the substances (for both levels studied), and significant shared environmental correlations among use variables only. Our results suggest that tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana problem use are mediated by common genetic influences, but shared environmental influences may be more substance-specific for problem use. PMID:16619135

  19. Adolescent Caffeine Consumption and Self-Reported Violence and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…

  20. Peer Cybervictimization Among Adolescents and the Associated Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Benjamin W; Gardella, Joseph H; Teurbe-Tolon, Abbie R

    2016-09-01

    Numerous adolescents in the United States experience peer cybervictimization, which is associated with a series of internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, substance use, risky sexual behavior) problems. The current study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing research on these relationships. Included in the meta-analyses are 239 effect sizes from 55 reports, representing responses from 257,678 adolescents. The results of a series of random effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation indicated positive and significant relationships between peer cybervictimization and a series of internalizing and externalizing problems, with point estimates of this relationship ranging from Pearson's r = .14 to .34. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27447707

  1. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M age = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of exposure to sectarian antisocial behaviors has a stronger effect on youth emotion problems for older adolescents. The results also show that youth with higher strength of group identity reported fewer emotion problems in the face of sectarian antisocial behavior, but that this buffering effect is stronger for Protestants compared to Catholics. Implications are discussed for understanding the role of social identity in post-accord societies. PMID:23682959

  2. COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.

  3. Assessing and Treating Aggression and Conduct Problems in Schools: Implications from the Coping Power Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Baden, Rachel; Stromeyer, Sara; Minney, Jessica A.; Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior and conduct problems create major management problems in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates and with their own academic achievement. A contextual social-cognitive model can provide a framework for understanding risk factors involved in the development and…

  4. Links between Preschool Children's Prosocial Skills and Aggressive Conduct Problems: The Contribution of ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…

  5. Risk Factors for Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms in a Cohort of Ukrainian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2006-01-01

    Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…

  6. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity from Ages 2 to 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Conduct problems (CP) and hyperactivity/attention problems (HAP) are thought to covary with regularity, yet few studies have examined their co-occurrence or risk factors that discriminate their trajectories beginning in early childhood. Method: The present study sought to advance our understanding of this issue by examining separate…

  8. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  9. Differentiating Developmental Trajectories for Conduct, Emotion, and Peer Problems Following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Schlotz, Wolff; Kreppner, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The development of conduct and emotional problems involves a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. The child-rearing environment contributes to this process. Gross deviations, such as those seen in abusive or neglectful homes, or where the parent has serious mental health problems, have been shown to contribute to the…

  10. An Introductory Packet on Conduct and Behavior Problems: Intervention and Resources for School Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this introductory packet, the range of conduct and behavior problems are described using fact sheets and the classification scheme from the American Pediatric Association. Differences in intervention needed are discussed with respect to variations in the degree of problem manifested and include exploration of environmental accommodations,…

  11. Treatment Participation among Children with Conduct Problems and the Role of Telephone Reminders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Bruce D.; Hoyland, Margaret; Best, Denisse; Dadds, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Children with antisocial, aggressive and disruptive behaviour problems are among the most frequent referrals to mental health services. These young people and their families present with a range of adverse contextual factors and can prove challenging to engage. We examined the characteristics of children with conduct problems, treatment…

  12. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood Through Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa. PMID:26096194

  13. Psychophysiology of Aggression, Psychopathy, and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 95 studies was conducted to investigate the relations of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) with aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems. Analyses revealed a complex constellation of interactive effects, with a failure in some cases of autonomic patterns to generalize across antisocial spectrum behavior…

  14. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  15. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  16. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. PMID:27416014

  17. Item analysis and differential item functioning of a brief conduct problem screen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item characteristics of the Authority Acceptance scale from the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (AA-TOCA-R; L. Larsson-Werthamer, S. G. Kellam, & L. Wheeler, 1991) in 8,820 kindergarten children and estimated the degree of differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and race/urban status. The mean level of latent conduct problems was best represented by behaviors such as being stubborn, breaking rules, and being disobedient, whereas breaking things and taking others' property best represented the construct at one standard deviation above the mean. DIF by gender was detected, such that at equivalent levels of latent conduct problems, males received more endorsements of overt behaviors from teachers, whereas females received more endorsements of nonphysical behaviors. Moreover, overt behaviors were better discriminators of latent conduct problems for males, and nonphysical behaviors were better discriminators of latent conduct problems for females. Differences across race/urban status were not found to be conceptually meaningful. The authors' analyses also suggest that the item scaling of the AA-TOCA-R may be best represented by 5e categories instead of 6. These findings provide support for the use of IRT modeling to examine item characteristics of conduct problem scales and DIF to test for scalar equivalence across diverse subpopulations. PMID:22040514

  18. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care. PMID:23277351

  19. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Mi

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term "prevention" for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10-20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes. PMID:24348657

  20. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. PMID:23647329