Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.
Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…
Talik, Elżbieta B
The paper presents the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Religious Coping Questionnaire (the RCOPE) by Pargament et al. (2000) for Polish adolescents. The work was driven by the necessity to obtain a structural and measurement equivalence between the American and Polish versions of the instrument. The Polish version was created at the Department of Clinical Psychology of Children and Adolescents at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The exploratory factor analysis with the Oblimin oblique rotation was carried out. The principal components method was used as an extraction method of common factors. The results provided input for constructing the scales. The Adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire consists of 105 items, grouped in 16 scales, which reflects positive and negative religious coping strategies.
Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel
Introdução: O coping é um processo psicológico que leva ao ajustamento individual perante situações de stress. A Adolescent Coping Scale é um instrumento de investigação e uma ferramenta clínica, amplamente utilizada. O presente estudo tem como objectivos desenvolver uma versão Portuguesa da Adolescent Coping Scale e analisar as estratégias e estilos de coping dos jovens da nossa amostra.Material e Métodos: Um questionário anónimo compreendendo a Adolescent Coping Scale obteve respostas de 1 713 alunos (56% do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 20 anos e uma média etária de 16). O estudo de validade da escala contemplou: análise em componentes principais e avaliação da consistência interna; análise confirmatória através de modelo de equações estruturais. Posteriormente, foram comparadas por género as estratégias e estilos de coping da amostra (testes t para amostras independentes).Resultados: A estrutura final da adaptação da Adolescent Coping Scale reteve 70 itens, que avaliam 16 estratégias de coping agrupadas em três estilos distintos. As escalas apresentaram bons valores de consistência interna (alfas de Cronbach compreendidos entre 0,63 e 0,86, com a exceção de uma dimensão que apresentou um valor de 0,55) e o modelo confirmatório demonstrou bom fit (goodness of fit index compreendidos entre 0,94 e 0,96). Foram eliminadas duas estratégias de coping por motivos estatísticos (ausência de saturação de itens suficientes nas dimensões correspondentes). Verificámos que o estilo de coping focado na resolução do problema é aquele maioritariamente utilizado pelos adolescentes da nossa amostra, em ambos os sexos. No sexo feminino observaram-se valores médios mais elevados nos estilos de coping não produtivo e de referência a outros.Discussão: A versão adaptada apresenta elevada semelhança com a escala original, com alterações minor espectáveis tendo em conta que o coping é influenciado por
Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong
The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…
Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey
This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory, as well as a measure of coping with general stressors was completed by 246 adolescents. Results showed that adolescent girls were more depressed than boys, and that girls used more emotion-focused and ruminative coping than did boys. Greater degrees of ruminative coping were related to high levels of depressive symptoms. Problem-focused and distractive coping were positively correlated with masculinity and negatively associated with depression. Surprisingly, girls were more likely to use problem-focused coping. Problem-focused and distractive coping were found to mediate the negative relationship between masculinity and depression.
Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey
This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…
Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel
This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…
Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…
Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille
Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671
Egan, Mary A.; And Others
Development and initial validation are described for an instrument to assess the behavioral coping skills of adolescents. The Assessment of Behavioral Coping Skills (ABCS) was designed for use in the South Carolina Coping Skills Project, a school-based coping skills prevention program for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse. The ABCS…
Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-fang; Li, Bing
Introduction: The present research pioneered the effort in assessing adolescents' coping with visual impairment through adapting the Brief COPE in an eastern context. The first study preliminarily explored the applicability of the Brief COPE to Chinese adolescent students with visual impairments. Based on the results, the Brief COPE was modified…
de la Paz Bermúdez, María; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender, age, and type of high school (public/private) on coping styles solve the problem coping style, reference to others coping style and non-productive coping, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents. A total of 4.456 adolescents participated. The following measures were used: Adolescent Coping Scale, Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Social Stress subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. This is a cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sampling considering Spanish regions and type of high school (public/private) to select participants. The sample is representative of the national level at a 95.5% confidence interval. Results showed that males had higher scores in sexual sensation seeking and social stress compared to females. Female adolescents scored higher in reference to others coping style and non-productive coping. Compared to adolescents of public high schools, adolescents who attended to private high schools scored higher in solve the problem coping style and reference to others coping style. Associations among sexual sensation seeking, coping styles, social stress, and health risk behaviors in adolescents are discussed.
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique
Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)
Sung, Kyung Mi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest positivity with regard to family self-concept and the greatest negativity with regard to academic self-concept. The subjects most frequently used the seeking guidance strategy of approach coping and the seeking alternative rewards strategy of avoidance coping. Self-concept was positively or negatively related with various coping skills. Using content analysis, seven categories including discord in family relationships were identified. The results of this study provide information that will aid school nurses working with adolescents with regard to helping the adolescents develop a positive self-concept and more effective coping strategies.
Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Kelber, Sheryl; Warady, Bradley A
Children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) require life-long treatment. The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to identify coping strategies that adolescents with ESRD use to manage their chronic illness. Participants for this investigation were 35 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, with ESRD. The A-COPE survey instrument was used in a clinical and camp setting to measure the coping strategies used by adolescents with ESRD. Analyses revealed that adolescents with ESRD utilized a variety of coping strategies to manage the stresses of living with their chronic condition. Personal characteristics of gender, transplant status, age, and religious views were significantly related to the coping strategies the adolescents reported using.
Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John
Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…
Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.
The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.
Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…
Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…
Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…
Nounopoulos, Alex; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich
Research finds that the availability of specific coping resources can alleviate the more harmful effects of stress among adolescents. Although studies have investigated the relationship between coping resources and various outcomes among general samples of youth, no research has focused on adolescents who report high personal standards in…
Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.
The influence of gender, sex-role orientation, and self-esteem on coping strategies was looked at for adolescents. The COPE scale was given to 8th and 9th grade students (N=306) in two suburban mid-western schools to determine the coping strategies they recently used to deal with stressful peer-related situations. Measures of demographic…
Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica
Objective Psychological stress can upregulate inflammatory processes and increase disease risk. In the context of stress, differences in how individuals cope might have implications for health. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations among stress, coping, and inflammation in a sample of African-American and white adolescents. Methods Adolescents (n = 245) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and coping, provided daily diary reports of interpersonal conflict over seven days, and provided fasting blood samples for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP). Results In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and socioeconomic status, there were no significant associations between stress and CRP, but significant interactions between stress and coping emerged. For adolescents reporting more unpleasant stressful life events in the past 12 months, positive engagement coping was inversely associated with CRP (β = −.19, p < .05), whereas coping was not significantly associated with CRP for adolescents reporting fewer stressful life events. Positive engagement coping was significantly and inversely associated with CRP in the context of interpersonal stress, whether measured as stressful life events reflecting interpersonal conflict (e.g., arguments with parents or siblings, conflict between adults in the home, friendship ended) or frequency of arguments with others reported in daily diaries. Disengagement coping was unrelated to CRP. Conclusion Findings suggest that positive engagement coping is associated with lower levels of inflammation, but only when adolescents are challenged by significant stress. PMID:23576771
Coban, Aysel Esen
Problem Statement: Adolescence is a stage of major growth and development in terms of significant cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and physiological changes. For adolescents, these developmental changes could be accompanied by stressful situations. Adolescents need to cope with these stressors successfully, yet the developmental period of…
Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima
Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…
Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda
The first aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between coping styles and strategies in Spanish adolescents of both genders, with high and low eating disorder risk. Secondly, this study aims to examine the relation of coping styles and coping strategies with eating disorder risk. The sample comprised 2142 adolescents (1.130 girls and 1.012 boys), mean age 13,96 years (SD= 1.34). They completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). The results showed high use of intropunitive avoidance coping in both female and male adolescents with high EAT-40 scores. The regression analysis indicated that, in both girls and boys, the intropunitive avoidance and the tension reduction coping strategy explained a high percentage of variance of eating disorder risk. The results of this study have implications for the prevention of these behaviours in adolescents, because people with a high risk of developing an eating disorder present a maladaptive coping style before the onset of the eating disorder.
Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica
In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The Adolescent Coping Scale was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to 13 years who had learning disabilities of an overall nonproductive coping style and in particular of the nonproductive strategies of ignoring the problem and not coping. Although there was no difference in overall productive or nonproductive coping style for 14- to 15-year-olds, the students in this age group who had learning disabilities reported higher use of the strategies of not coping and ignoring the problem. These findings are discussed in relation to a need for interventions that give students who have learning disabilities strategies that address the risk of a passive coping style.
Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille
Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670
Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581
Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P
The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.
Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern
Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…
Adolescent Prenatal Program has been in existence since 1981. The prenatal portion of the clinic enrolls teenagers who conceive prior to age 16 1/2... Adolescent Mothers Karen McClure, Master of Science, 1988 Thesis directed by: Susan E. Hetherington, C.N.M., Dr. P.H. Professor Department of Maternal Child... adolescent mothers at three points in time; 2) identify changes that occur in coping strategies and social support over time; 3) determine whether changes
Preechawong, Sunida; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Heinzer, Marjorie M V; Musil, Carol M; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Aswinanonh, Rungtiwa
Within the context of Rosenbaum's theory of learned resourcefulness, this correlational study examined the relationships among family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. A convenience sample of 132 Thai adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with asthma was recruited from the outpatient asthma clinics of four hospitals in Bangkok. Self-administered questionnaires included an assessment of demographic information and asthma status, the revised Family APGAR, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Children's Self-Control Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships among variables. Effective family functioning had a significant positive effect on self-esteem (beta = .27, p < .01) and resourceful coping (beta = .30, p < .01), controlling for gender and age. However, self-esteem was not significantly correlated with resourceful coping (beta = .15, p = .08). The findings suggest that nursing interventions should take into account the role of family functioning in promoting self-esteem and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. Recommendations for future research include replication of the study with a larger sample of adolescents with asthma and with adolescents with other chronic illnesses.
Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.
The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra; Al Said, Haled
The aim of this study was to examine emotional reactions and coping strategies of Bedouin adolescents against the backdrop of house demolitions in the unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev, Israel. We compared two groups of adolescents living in unrecognized Bedouin villages, teenagers whose houses had been destroyed (acute + chronic group) and their counterparts whose houses had not been destroyed (chronic group). Data were gathered during October to December 2010 from 465 Bedouin adolescents aged 13-18 years. Adolescents filled out self-report questionnaires, which included demographics, objective and subjective exposure to house demolition, state anxiety, state anger, psychological distress and Adolescent Coping Scale. Results show differences between the two groups in stress reactions as well as in objective exposure to house demolition with the acute + chronic group reporting more stress and more exposure. In addition, different variables explained stress reactions in the different groups. Whereas in the acute + chronic group, objective and subjective exposure were the most significant variables, in the chronic group, the coping strategies explained stress with more variance. Results are discussed in terms of differentiating between types of stress, chronic versus acute + chronic and in relation to the interactionist model of coping with stress.
Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinrui
The present study examined the differences of conflict coping tactics in adolescents' grade and gender and parents' gender and explored the relationships among conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, and life satisfaction. A total of 1874 Chinese students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 completed surveys on conflict frequency, coping tactics, and life satisfaction. The results obtained by MANOVA suggested that the adolescents' reported use of assertion and avoidance with either mothers or fathers increased from Grade 7 to Grade 8 and did not change from Grade 8 to Grade 11 in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of paired sample T-tests indicated that adolescents used more conciliation in Grade 7, more conciliation and assertion in Grade 8, and more conciliation and less avoidance in Grade 10 and 11 to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Boys used more conciliation and less avoidance, while girls used more conciliation, assertion and third-party intervention to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated the significance of the primary effects of conflict frequency and coping tactics on life satisfaction. Specifically, conflict frequency negatively predicted life satisfaction. Conciliation positively and avoidance negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with either mothers or fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Assertion negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with fathers. The moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict frequency and life satisfaction were not significant.
Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.
Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…
Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia
This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between religiousness, spirituality (R/S), and coping among late adolescents within a meaning-making perspective. Specifically, global meaning and situational meaning were examined as potential mediators. Two hundred and twenty one Polish participants (115 women and 106 men) completed the Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, the Self-description Questionnaire of Spirituality, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the Situational Meaning Scale. Results of SEM analysis showed that R/S had both direct and indirect effects on coping, suggesting that global meaning and situational meaning served as partial mediators among late adolescents. The mediating role of global meaning and situational meaning may be more fully understood within the framework of the meaning-making model. Consistent with the model, individuals with higher levels of R/S had a propensity to experience stronger global meaning in life and situational meaning, which in turn contributed to more frequent using coping styles.
Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.
This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights.
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267
Berg, Cynthia A; Skinner, Michelle; Ko, Kelly; Butler, Jorie M; Palmer, Debra L; Butner, Jonathan; Wiebe, Deborah J
This study examined whether perceived coping effectiveness (PCE) was associated with better diabetes management and was higher when adolescents' dyadic coping was matched to shared stress appraisals. There were 252 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes who completed stress and coping interviews where they appraised mothers' and fathers' involvement in stress ownership (mine, indirectly shared, directly shared with parent), in coping (uninvolved, supportive, collaborative, or controlling), and rated their effectiveness in coping. Adolescents completed assessments of depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), self-care behaviors (Self-Care Inventory), and efficacy of disease management (Diabetes Self-Efficacy). Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained from medical records. Higher PCE was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, self-care behaviors, and efficacy across age and, more strongly for older adolescents' metabolic control. Appraisals of support or collaboration from parents were more frequent when stressors were appraised as shared. PCE was enhanced when dyadic coping with mothers (but not fathers) was consistent with stress appraisals (e.g., shared stressors together with collaborative coping). Stress and coping is embedded within a relational context and this context is useful in understanding the coping effectiveness of adolescents.
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo
Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Chau, Cecilia; Hendry, Leo B.; Kloepp, Marion; Terzini-Hollar, Michelle; Tam, Vicky; Naranjo, Carmen Rodriguez; Herrera, Dora; Menna, Palma; Rohail, Iffat; Veisson, Marika; Hoareau, Elsa; Luwe, Merja; Loncaric, Darko; Han, Hyeyoun; Regusch, Ludmilla
This study investigated how N = 5,126 adolescents (mean age of 15 years) from 18 countries perceive and cope with future- and school-related stress. The adolescents completed the Problem Questionnaire (PQ), which assesses stress, and the Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (CASQ), which assesses three coping styles (reflection/support-seeking,…
Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.
Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…
Hasking, Penelope A
Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides an alternative conceptualisation of the role of personality in criminal behaviour, and has generally produced more consistent findings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity and delinquent behaviour in a sample of 259 adolescents, and to examine the role that coping strategies play in this relationship. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that use of problem solving mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and delinquent behaviour, while use of non-productive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BAS drive and delinquency. Consequently, it was suggested that coping skills training could be an effective early intervention for delinquent behaviour.
Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.
Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…
Persike, Malte; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
The ways adolescents develop and use strategies to cope with stress vary according to cultural scripts and values. This cross-sectional study tested the impact of region and gender on adolescents' stress perceptions and coping styles. A total sample of 10,941 adolescents (51.3% female) from 20 countries completed questionnaires on stress and…
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Gipson, Polly; Mance, GiShawn; Grant, Kathryn E.
The current study examined patterns of coping strategies in a sample of 497 low-income urban African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (T. S. Ayers, I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, & M. W. Roosa, 1996) was not…
Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinrui
The present study examined the differences of conflict coping tactics in adolescents' grade and gender and parents' gender and explored the relationships among conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, and life satisfaction. A total of 1874 Chinese students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 completed surveys on conflict frequency, coping tactics, and life satisfaction. The results obtained by MANOVA suggested that the adolescents' reported use of assertion and avoidance with either mothers or fathers increased from Grade 7 to Grade 8 and did not change from Grade 8 to Grade 11 in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of paired sample T-tests indicated that adolescents used more conciliation in Grade 7, more conciliation and assertion in Grade 8, and more conciliation and less avoidance in Grade 10 and 11 to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Boys used more conciliation and less avoidance, while girls used more conciliation, assertion and third-party intervention to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated the significance of the primary effects of conflict frequency and coping tactics on life satisfaction. Specifically, conflict frequency negatively predicted life satisfaction. Conciliation positively and avoidance negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with either mothers or fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Assertion negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with fathers. The moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict frequency and life satisfaction were not significant. PMID:26528224
Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of coping in adolescent research. Design A review of the literature published and abstracted in four scientific databases was undertaken between July 2008 and June 2009 with the following key words: adolescent(s), cope/coping, stress(ors), and adaptation/psychological. Methods A total of 367 articles were initially identified, and review of published abstracts yielded 104 empirical articles to retrieve and examine more closely for inclusion. Criteria for inclusion in the review were that the study (a) measured coping, (b) presented original data, (c) primarily targeted adolescent participants, (d) was reported in English, and (e) was published between 1998 and June 2009. Fifty-nine subsequent articles were organized using a matrix approach that facilitated cross-study comparisons of purpose, sample, and dependent variables. Findings Fewer than half of the studies reviewed included a specific statement defining coping. Instead, many authors described coping in the context of stress response by identifying particular types or ways of coping or naming specific coping strategies used. The theoretical frameworks guiding examination of coping varied across studies. A range of measures, congruent with adolescent developmental processes, were used to assess adolescent coping. A wide range of stress-related risks or conditions were examined, including psychological stressors such as eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and depression; physical stressors such as chronic illness, HIV infection, sports participation, violence, or sexual abuse; familial stressors such as domestic violence or interparental conflict; social stressors such as romantic relationships or difficulties in settings such as school, prison, or a homeless shelter; and societal stressors such as discrimination. Conclusions Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors
Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan
This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.
Wang, Zhonghua; Gan, Yiqun
The objective of this study was to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies in the relationships between neuroticism, social support, and depression in two groups of adolescents: earthquake group and examination group. Adolescents facing earthquake stress (earthquake group, N=219) completed measures of neuroticism, perceived social support, coping strategies, and self-rating depression. Similarly, adolescents facing examination stress (examination group, N=241) completed the same measures. Results indicated that the earthquake group reported more use of secondary control engagement coping, whereas the examination group reported more use of primary control engagement coping. In addition, neuroticism was more strongly associated with coping in earthquake group and coping strategies explained significantly larger part of the relationship between neuroticism and depression. In contrary, perceived social support was more strongly associated with coping in examination group, and coping strategies explained significantly larger part of the relationship between perceived social support and depression.
Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403
Sullivan, Jeremy R.
The purpose of this article is to describe the psychometric characteristics of the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale" (ACSS), which was designed to assess college students' coping strategies within the context of a specific academic stressor. This article will present results of analyses of factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest…
Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.
Grover, Sandeep; Bhadada, Sanjay; Kate, Natasha; Sarkar, Siddharth; Bhansali, Anil; Avasthi, Ajit; Sharma, Sunil; Goel, Rashi
Aims: To assess the coping strategies and the relationship of coping with subjective burden and positive caregiving consequences as perceived by the caregivers of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional assessment. Setting: Outpatient of Endocrinology Department. Participants: Forty-one parents of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes Main Outcome Measure: Ways of coping checklist (WCC), involvement evaluation questionnaire (IEQ) and scale for assessment of positive aspects of caregiving experience (scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience) to study the coping, burden and positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Results: On WCC, the highest score was obtained for seeking social support, followed by planful problem-solving. More frequent use of coping strategies of confrontation and escape-avoidance was associated with significantly higher score on the tension domain of IEQ. Those who more frequently used problem-solving and distancing had significantly higher scores on worrying-urging-I domain of IEQ. supervision domain of IEQ was associated with more frequent use of confrontation, self-control, social support, escape-avoidance and positive reappraisal. More frequent use of distancing and problem-solving were associated with lower caregiving personal gains. More frequent use of problem-solving was associated with higher caregiver satisfaction and lower scores in the domain of self-esteem and social aspects of caring. Conclusion: Caregivers of patients with Type-1 diabetes predominantly use adaptive coping strategies. Higher use of certain coping strategies is associated with negative and positive caregiving consequences. PMID:26955574
Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny
Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.
Vögele, Claus; Sorg, Sonja; Studtmann, Markus; Weber, Hannelore
The current study investigated spontaneous anger coping, cardiac autonomic regulation and phasic heart rate responses to anger provocation. Forty-five adolescents (27 female, mean age 14.7 years) attended the single experimental session, which included monitoring of continuous heart rate and blood pressure responses to anger provocation (receiving an unfair offer) using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG). Vagal activation was operationalized as high frequency component of heart rate variability during rest periods, and spontaneous baroreflex-sensitivity (SBR) during the UG. Adolescents employing cognitive reappraisal showed higher vagal activity under resting conditions and attenuated heart rate deceleration after receiving the unfair offer compared with participants who tended to ruminate about their anger and experienced injustice. Results from SBR suggested vagal withdrawal in anger ruminators during contemplation of the unfair offer. These results provide further support for the specificity and sensitivity of vagal responses to higher cortical functions such as emotion regulation.
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from…
Robinson, M. Renee
Discusses coping and personal adjustment to chronic pain for adolescents with sickle cell anemia and presents a model of illness behavior for these adolescents. Offers a framework of disease severity and disease impact, and suggests using functional ability as an index of coping and personal adjustment. Contains 59 references. (SLD)
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Using daily diary methodology, 67 Mexican American adolescents completed measures assessing daily stressors experienced, specific coping strategies employed with reference to these stressors, and indices of psychological health over 5 consecutive days. With respect to coping usage, adolescents reported they most often used planning and least often…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…
Studied the relationships of coping resources, optimism, perceived control, and coping strategies to anxiety, physical symptoms, and cognitive functioning for 69 male and 40 female Jewish Israeli adolescents in real crisis during the Persian Gulf War. Discusses the implications of the reported mixture of active and palliative coping strategies.…
Lee, Dong Yul; And Others
Developed a 33-item, situation-specific instrument that measures assertiveness of adolescents. Based on data from 682 elementary and secondary school students, adequate reliability and validity of the Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents (ASA) were obtained when tested against several variables about which predictions could be made. (BH)
Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus
Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100
Gabriel, H. Paul; Wool, Robert
Noting that with informed understanding, parents can prepare for and cope with their adolescents' profound internal turmoil, this book provides parents with a clear view of what to expect during their child's adolescence: the major biological and psychological developments of adolescence; the most significant social, sexual, and cultural…
Öztürk, Özlem; Ocakçı, Ayşe F
This study was performed to determine the effects of a stress management training program that was administered to adolescents in prison. This was a semi-experimental study that used pretests and posttests in controlled groups; it was performed between June 2012 and March 2013 in a closed prison for children and adolescents. The study was completed with the participation of 73 adolescents (36 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group). Adolescent Lifestyle Profile scale and the Stress Coping Styles Scale were used as the data collection tools. The Stress Management Training Program was developed by the researchers and carried out for 2 weeks, a total of 10 sessions of 40 min each. The scales were administered before the program was implemented, immediately after the program and 1 month following the program. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the mean Stress Coping Styles Scale scores of the experimental and control groups before the intervention (p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found after the intervention and at re-test (p < 0.05). This study has shown that this training program could be implemented with adolescents in prison, and the program was effective in providing positive behavioural changes in stress management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kim, Pilyoung; Neuendorf, Cynthia; Bianco, Hannah; Evans, Gary W
Childhood poverty is associated with stress dysregulation which contributes to psychological illness in later ages. The adverse effects of childhood poverty on stress regulation may be mediated in part by the use of disengaging strategies to cope with stress. However, the relations among childhood poverty, coping strategies and psychopathology throughout childhood to adolescence have not been explored. This prospective, longitudinal study included 185 low- and middle-income adolescents at age 17. Chronic exposure to poverty from birth to early adolescence (age 13) was prospectively associated with increases in the use of disengagement versus engagement coping four years later. Increased use of disengagement coping between the ages of 13 and 17 explained the indirect link between poverty exposure since birth and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 17. The findings provide evidence for a coping pathway underlying the link between prolonged exposure to childhood poverty and mental health sequelae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vaccaro, Donato; Wills, Thomas A.
Investigates group differences in the relationship between stress-coping variables and substance use with urban middle school students. African-American adolescents had the lowest rate of substance use, Hispanics were intermediate, and Whites had the highest rate. The strength of predictive relationships for stress-coping variables was lower for…
Browne, Deborah C.
Examines problem disclosure and coping strategies in 21 foster adolescents. Highly significant results indicate that teenagers who have experienced crisis foster placements were more likely to disclose concerns. These young people also seemed more likely to use nonproductive coping strategies when dealing with everyday problems. (Author/JDM)
Frydenberg, Erica; Eacott, Chelsea; Clark, Nicholas
This article highlights the authors' research, beginning with the development of a language to define and discuss coping, then the development of two coping programs for adolescent-aged youth, and concluding with evaluations of these programs for youth who are low in resources. (Contains 2 tables.)
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno
Compared coping styles in 178 delinquent adolescents versus 91 controls from a region of Northern Russia and tested for possible interactions with personality traits and parental rearing factors. Discusses the specific correlational patterns discovered between coping styles and both personality dimensions and parental styles. (SLD)
Davey, Maureen; Eaker, Dawn Goettler; Walters, Lynda Henley
Investigated the role of personality variables related to self-worth and coping in the formation of distinct personality profiles for 11th graders. Identified three distinct adolescent personality profiles for coping and self worth. Found that self-worth was related to resource-soliciting mechanisms of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness to…
Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena
This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…
Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.
Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221
Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J
Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.
Arsenio, William F; Loria, Samantha
The authors assessed connections among adolescents' emotional dispositions, negative academic affect, coping strategies, academic stress, and overall grade point average (GPA). A total of 119 ninth through 12th-grade students completed assessments for (a) overall positive and negative moods, (b) GPA, and (c) academically related variables involving stress, negative emotions, and engaged and disengaged coping strategies. Greater negative academic affect and disengaged coping were related to lower GPAs, and disengaged coping mediated the connection between negative academic affect and GPA. By contrast, higher academic stress was related to students' overall moods, negative academic affect, and disengaged coping; disengaged coping mediated the connection between academic stress and negative overall moods. Discussion focused on the especially problematic nature of disengaged academic coping.
Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.
Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…
Golden, Thomas Courtenay
The college choice requires the adolescent to gather and synthesize vast amounts of information, reconcile sometimes competing personal and familial goals, and manage a range of emotions. This decision process represents a major developmental crisis with which the adolescent must cope. Scholars have noted that psychological strain and heightened…
Chibbaro, Julia S.
Professional school counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide information to parents about self-injurious behaviors and methods to cope with adolescents who self-injure. This paper explores self-injurious behaviors, discusses some of the reasons why adolescents practice self-injury and recommends six strategies that…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han
This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.
This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Garcia, Cristal D.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda
The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…
Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara
The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities.
Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola
In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic Internet Use, quality of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive-driven coping strategies. Of the participants, 36.7% are characterized by Problematic Internet Use. This subsample showed poorer interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies compared to the non-problematic subsample. Overall quality of interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies were found to be predictors of the level of Internet Problematic Use.
Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion
Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves.
Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik
Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.
Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.
This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…
Compas, Bruce E.
This chapter identifies four challenges to the study of the development of coping and regulation and outlines specific theoretical and empirical strategies for addressing them. The challenges are (1) to integrate work on coping and processes of emotion regulation, (2) to use the integration of research on neuro-biology and context to inform the…
Puffer, Eve S.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual…
Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil
Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…
Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael
The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.
Davey, Maureen; Gulish, Laurel; Askew, Julie; Godette, Karen; Childs, Nicole
The purpose of this pilot study was to gain a deeper understanding of how adolescents are affected by their mothers' breast cancer and to discover their opinions about how future intervention programs should be designed. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 10 adolescents. Findings indicate that adolescents' lives had been complicated…
Educating patients is a primary responsibility of all nurses, however due to time constraints and staff shortages, pediatric oncology nurses are often unable to adequately prepare patients for cancer treatment. Instead, patients frequently rely on the Internet as a source of information about cancer, some of which can be outdated and inaccurate. Adolescents regard the Internet to be a valuable source of health information as it is easily accessible, less threatening and confidential. Considering the need for accurate, readily available information for adolescents with cancer, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate an innovative, interactive web-based educational program to prepare early and middle adolescents for cancer treatment. Entitled Coping with Cancer, this program was developed by the investigator after conducting in-depth interviews of adolescent cancer survivors and their parents. Based on the Transactional Model of Coping, the program focuses on enhancing the adolescent’s knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment, and healthy coping strategies. Coping with Cancer can be an effective resource for pediatric oncology nurses in providing ongoing education for adolescents with cancer. PMID:19448133
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
Miller, Jeffrey P.; Bowen, Blannie E.
Responses from 709 Ohio eighth graders indicated that self-esteem and self-perceived development of competence, coping, and contributory life skills are complementary. Participation in 4-H and other clubs positively influences perceived development. (SK)
Marsac, Meghan L; Funk, Jeanne B
This study's purpose was to examine relationships among dental anxiety, psychological functioning, coping, and pain perception in child and adolescent dental patients and their parents. Participants were recruited from private dental offices and included 129 9- to 15-year-old patients and 84 parents. The children completed self-report measures of dental anxiety, dental coping, and pain perception, while parents completed self-report measures of dental anxiety, dental coping, and child's psychological functioning. The intraclass correlation coefficient method was used to examine each hypothesis. For child-ren, correlational analyses indicated positive relationships between dental anxiety and total psychological symptoms, and dental anxiety and pain perception. Both child and parent coping measures were examined using principal axis factor analysis. Clear 2-factor structures (ie, approach and avoidant-based coping factors) emerged. The children's approach-based coping was negatively related to both dental anxiety and pain perception; their use of avoidant-based coping was also negatively related to dental anxiety. Psychological functioning emerged as a mediating variable between dental anxiety and pain perception. The findings suggest that dental professionals and clinicians should consider dental anxiety and general psychological functioning to reduce pain perception in the office. Additionally, the child's coping type and approach should be considered in treatment planning.
Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal
This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…
Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…
Miers, Anne C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Cowan, Richard; Linden, Wolfgang
Attempts to explain the experience of somatic complaints among children and adolescents suggest that they may in part result from the influence of particular strategies for coping with anger on the longevity of negative emotions. To explore these relationships British (n = 393) and Dutch (n = 99) children completed a modified version of the…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.
This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi
This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…
Chan, Siu Mui
The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…
Malooly, Ashley M.; Flannery, Kaitlin M.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
Previous studies have found evidence for gender and racial/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms in adolescence; however, the mechanisms driving this relationship are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the role of individual differences in dispositional coping in the relationships between gender and depressive…
Merlo, Lisa J.; Lakey, Brian
Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages…
Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.
The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa
This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…
This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Kesselring, Christine M.; Grant, Kathryn E.
The current study examined coping strategies as mediators of the relation between maternal attachment and depressive symptoms in a sample of urban youth. Participants included 393 adolescents (M age = 12.03, SD = 0.85) participating in a larger study of the impact of stressful life experiences on low-income urban youth. Participants completed…
Holahan, Charles J.; And Others
An integrative predictive model was applied to responses of 241 college freshmen to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment. Social support from both parents and a nonconflictual parental relationship were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. (SLD)
Garcia, Carolyn; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Lindgren, Sandi
Latino girls (Latinas) experience disproportionate rates of emotional distress, including suicidal ideation, which may be indicative of inadequate coping abilities. Prevention of mental health problems, a U.S. public health priority, is particularly critical for Latina adolescents due to lack of access to mental health treatments. The purpose of…
Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention.
Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.
Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…
Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from two high schools in central Connecticut completed a comprehensive battery of self-report measures to assess their experiences of weight-based teasing and bullying at school, affective responses to these experiences, and coping strategies used to deal with incidents of weight-based victimization. Only those students who reported experiencing weight-based victimization (N = 394) were included for the purposes of the present study. Of this sub-sample, 56% were females, 84% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 16.4 years. Weight-based victimization resulted in 40-50% of adolescents feeling sad and depressed, worse about themselves, bad about their body, angry, and some feeling afraid. Gender differences emerged with respect to how boys and girls react to experiences of weight-based victimization. However, structural equation model estimates demonstrated that both boys and girls who reported negative affect in response to weight-based victimization were more likely to use coping strategies of avoidance (e.g., avoiding gym class), increased food consumption, and binge eating. Binary logistic regressions showed that the odds of students skipping school or reporting that their grades were harmed because of weight-based teasing increased by 5% per teasing incident, even after controlling for gender, age, race, grades, and weight status. To our knowledge, this study is the first systematic examination of affective reactions and coping strategies among overweight adolescents in response to weight-based victimization. These findings can inform efforts to assist overweight youth to cope adaptively with weight-based victimization.
Bowker, Anne; Bukowski, William M.; Hymel, Shelley; Sippola, Lorrie K.
Examined impact of peer experience on seventh graders' strategies for coping with peer hassles. Found that more aggressive adolescents perceived more control over hassles. More aggressive, unpopular adolescents used more negative strategies; more popular aggressive females used more problem-focused strategies. Withdrawn adolescents perceived less…
Roesch, Scott C.; Duangado, Kate M.; Vaughn, Allison A.; Aldridge, Arianna A.; Villodas, Feion
The authors examined the predictive ability of dispositional hope components (pathways, agency) in explaining minority adolescents’ consistent use of daily coping strategies. Using daily diary methodology, 126 low socioeconomic status minority participants completed a multidimensional measure of dispositional hope and reported on subsequent stressful events that they experienced and the coping strategies that they employed over the course of a 5-day period. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that hope–pathways was uniquely and positively related to direct problem solving, planning, positive thinking, religious coping, distracting action, and overall coping use. Hope–agency was uniquely and positively associated with instrumental support for actions. Discussion focuses on the role of hope as a protective factor for minority adolescents experiencing stress, and particularly the unique predictive ability of each hope component. PMID:20438157
Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Panerai, Laura; Eggum, Natalie D.; Cohen, Adam B.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
Little is known about changes in religious coping and their relations to adolescents’ and young adults’ functioning. In 686 Italian youths, trajectories of religious coping were identified from age 16–17 years to age 22–23 years; cohorts of youths reported at three of the four assessments. Four trajectories of religious coping were identified: decreasing, low stable, high stable, and increasing. A decline in religious coping was associated with high levels of externalizing problems at age 16–17, whereas an increase in religious coping was associated with higher externalizing problems at ages 18–19 and 20–21 years, and with relatively high involvement with deviant peers. High stable religious copers were high in prosocial behavior at three ages; low stable religious copers were higher than people undergoing change in their religious coping from mid-adolescence into early adulthood. These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21682728
This article examines challenges, coping strategies, and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia. It explores situations which the study participants associate with challenge and hardship, namely their experiences of transition from life in the family reindeer herding camp to schooling at the age of 7, bullying, boredom, and violence. By situating the data within the Eveny framework of resilience (khinem), the study provides the ethnographic context for coping strategies and efforts (e.g., sharing, inter- and intragenerational support, availability of safe homes) undertaken by the community in order to mitigate the situations of risk and hardship and to facilitate adolescents' resilience. The account emphasizes that instead of identifying adolescents as either resilient or vulnerable, it is necessary to explore culturally specific processes and practices which potentially contribute to their acquisition of resilience.
Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther
This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style…
The author explored the relations among Taiwanese eighth-grade students' satisfactions of the basic psychological needs (i.e., the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy), engagement versus disengagement coping with academic stress, self-regulated learning, and academic burnout. Three hundred and ninety-six eighth-grade Taiwanese students…
Caycho, Tomás P.
This correlational and comparative study aims to determine the relationship between the perception of the relationship with parents and coping strategies in a sample of 320 students chosen through a non-probabilistic sampling of 156 men (48.75%) and 164 women (51.25%). To that end, information gathering instruments like the Children's Report of…
Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…
Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher
OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645
Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian
The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.
Westers, Nicholas J; Rehfuss, Mark; Olson, Lynn; Wiemann, Constance M
Many adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) self-identify as religious, but the role of religion in their NSSI is not known. This exploratory study examined the relationship between religious coping and religiousness among adolescents who self-injure and the function of their NSSI. Thirty adolescents aged 12-19 years who had engaged in NSSI participated in an interview and completed questionnaires. Multiple regressions were used to examine the relationship between religious coping and NSSI, and Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationship between religiousness and function of NSSI. Greater use of positive religious coping was associated with lower likelihood of engaging in NSSI to rid oneself of unwanted emotions, whereas greater use of negative religious coping was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in NSSI for this reason as well as to avoid punishment or unwanted responsibility. Higher religiousness was associated with greater use of NSSI to communicate with or gain attention from others, whereas lower religiousness was associated with greater use of NSSI to relieve unwanted emotions. Having a greater understanding of how religious constructs are related to the various functions served by NSSI may inform treatment of this population, particularly among religious youth who self-injure.
Puffer, Eve S; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A
In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. Adolescents reported praying for God to partner with them to engage in positive behaviors, praying for strength to resist unwanted behaviors, and passive strategies characterized by waiting for God to provide resources or protection from HIV. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from HIV prevention interventions that integrate and build upon their use of religious coping.
Discusses the implementation of action theory with adolescents in Israel making the transition to military life. Suggests that action theory offers a comprehensive strategy for counseling persons who are confronting a stressful episode in life through a more detailed and socially embedded collaboration between the counselor, client, and peers.…
McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn
This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…
Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Maiorino, Leonardo; Piras, Paolo; Teresi, Luciano; Meiri, Shai; Itescu, Yuval; Novosolov, Maria; Baiano, Mattia Antonio; Martínez, Ricard; Fortelius, Mikael
Luxuriant, bushy antlers, bizarre crests, and huge, twisting horns and tusks are conventionally understood as products of sexual selection. This view stems from both direct observation and from the empirical finding that the size of these structures grows faster than body size (i.e., ornament size shows positive allometry). We contend that the familiar evolutionary increase in the complexity of ornaments over time in many animal clades is decoupled from ornament size evolution. Increased body size comes with extended growth. Since growth scales to the quarter power of body size, we predicted that ornament complexity should scale according to the quarter power law as well, irrespective of the role of sexual selection in the evolution and function of the ornament. To test this hypothesis, we selected three clades (ammonites, deer, and ceratopsian dinosaurs) whose species bore ornaments that differ in terms of the importance of sexual selection to their evolution. We found that the exponent of the regression of ornament complexity to body size is the same for the three groups and is statistically indistinguishable from 0.25. We suggest that the evolution of ornament complexity is a by-product of Cope's rule. We argue that although sexual selection may control size in most ornaments, it does not influence their shape.
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.
Rafique, Rafia; Hunt, Nigel
The study explored experiences of adolescents aged 15–19 with alopecia areata (AA) and investigated their accounts of coping behaviours. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth and holistic perspective of their accounts. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a volunteer sample of eight respondents diagnosed with AA. Four key themes were identified: loss (self/social), concerns (physical/future), negative (emotions/thoughts), and coping styles (adaptive/maladaptive). Females experienced greater feelings of loss, were more concerned about their looks and their future, and reported more negative thoughts and emotions. Females felt angry and blamed God for their fate; males blamed both their fate and luck. Action-oriented and practical coping styles were adopted by all of them. After the realization that initial coping behaviours were ineffective, self-distraction, acceptance, and humour were used. Psychological relief followed with the practice of religion and planning for treatments to be undertaken in the future. The findings here are similar to research conducted in the West, though with more emphasis on religion. Health care providers and student counsellors need to understand the negative psychosocial consequences for adolescents living with a visible disfigurement and provide appropriate psychological and social support. PMID:25636795
Szwedo, David E.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Method Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-white) assessed at ages 15-19 and 21, as well as a sub-sample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and non-replacement of their romantic relationship. Conclusions Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877
Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P
Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.
Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Tremblay, Isabelle; Dupuis, France; Cara, Chantal; Mercier, Geneviève; Vachon, Marie France; Fiola, Jacinthe Lachance
BACKGROUND: While mortality due to pediatric cancer has decreased, suffering has increased due to complex and lengthy treatments. Cancer in adolescence has repercussions on personal and physical development. Although suffering can impede recovery, there is no validated scale in French or English to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To develop an objective scale to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. METHODS: A methodological design for instrument development was used. Following a MEDLINE search, semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents 12 to 19 years of age who had undergone four to six weeks of cancer treatment, and with a multidisciplinary cohort of health care professionals. Adolescents with advanced terminal cancer or cognitive impairment were excluded. Enrollment proceeded from the hematology-oncology department/clinic in Montreal, Quebec, from December 2011 to March 2012. Content validity was assessed by five health care professionals and four adolescents with cancer. RESULTS: Interviews with 19 adolescents and 16 health care professionals identified six realms of suffering: physical, psychological, spiritual, social, cognitive and global. Through iterative feedback, the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale (ACSS) was developed, comprising 41 questions on a four-point Likert scale and one open-ended question. Content validity was 0.98, and inter-rater agreement among professionals was 88% for relevance and 86% for clarity. Adolescents considered the scale to be representative of their suffering. CONCLUSIONS: The ACSS is the first questionnaire to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. In future research, the questionnaire should be validated extensively and interventions developed. Once validated, the ACSS will contribute to promote a holistic approach to health with appropriate intervention or referral. PMID:26252665
Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A
We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.
Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui
Existing studies have found that parent-adolescent conflict frequency and conflict coping tactics influence adolescent family satisfaction and self-satisfaction under the background of Western culture. However, due to differences between Eastern and Western cultures, it is unknown whether previous results of the Western population can be extended to Chinese adolescents. The present study investigated grade differences in parent-adolescent conflict frequency and conflict coping tactics and examined the moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationships between conflict frequency and adolescent family satisfaction and between conflict frequency and adolescent self-satisfaction. Chinese adolescents in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 (N = 524) completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, family satisfaction, and self-satisfaction. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and structural equation model analyses found, first, that conflict frequency decreased with grade level. For coping tactics, conciliation, avoidance, and assertion behaviors increased with grade level. Second, conflict frequency was negatively related to family satisfaction regardless of conciliation and avoidance tactics. By contrast, conflict frequency was negatively related to self-satisfaction when high conciliation and high avoidance behaviors were practiced. In addition, at low conflict frequency conciliation was positively associated with self-satisfaction and was not significant at high conflict frequency.
Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen
We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin
This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…
Sinclair, Vaughn G.; Wallston, Kenneth A.
This article introduces the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), a 4-item measure designed to capture tendencies to cope with stress in a highly adaptive manner. Two samples of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (ns = 90 and 140) provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the BRCS. The BRCS has adequate internal consistency and…
Ackermann, Margot Elise; Morrow, Jennifer Ann
The present study describes the development and initial validation of the Coping with the College Environment Scale (CWCES). Participants included 433 college students who took an online survey. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed six coping strategies: planning and self-management, seeking support from institutional resources, escaping…
Bao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping; Lai, Xuefen
The association between family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment outcomes, including sleep quality, is well-established. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relation between family economic hardship and adolescents' sleep quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family economic hardship on Chinese adolescents' sleep quality, as well as the role of perceived economic discrimination as a mediator and the role of coping strategy as a moderator. Survey data from a cross-sectional sample of 997 Chinese adolescents (45% male, mean age = 15.04 years) were analyzed using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. The results of this study indicated that family economic hardship was significantly associated with adolescents' sleep quality. This association was mediated by adolescents' perceived economic discrimination. In addition, adolescents' coping strategy significantly moderated the path from perceived economic discrimination to sleep quality, with the "shift" coping strategy as a protective factor. The present study contributes to our understanding of key mechanisms underlying the association between family economic hardship and adolescent sleep quality and highlights the importance of improving sleep quality for adolescents exposed to economic hardship.
Garcia, Carolyn; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Lindgren, Sandi
Latino girls (Latinas) experience disproportionate rates of emotional distress, including suicidal ideation, which may be indicative of inadequate coping abilities. Prevention of mental health problems, a U.S. public health priority, is particularly critical for Latina adolescents due to lack of access to mental health treatments. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of Project Wings, a 14-session stress management/coping intervention. Latinas in school (ages 15–21) met weekly for 2-hr with two bilingual experienced facilitators to participate in sharing circles, relaxation exercise, and skill building. Intervention participation and post-intervention focus group data were analyzed. Fall semester intervention (n = 10) occurred during school (72% attendance rate); spring semester intervention (n = 11) was after school (84% attendance rate). Focus group data confirmed acceptability. Latina adolescents will participate in a school-based, group-based stress management/coping intervention. The findings offer insights about intervention recruitment and retention that are specifically relevant to school nurses. Future research includes intervention testing using a randomized study design. PMID:19850950
Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E
The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.
Çelik, Eyüp; Sahranç, Ümit; Kaya, Mehmet; Turan, Mehmet Emin
This research is aimed at examining the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Time Attitude Scale. Data was collected from 433 adolescents; 206 males and 227 females participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis performed to discover the structural validity of the scale. The internal consistency method was used for…
Schinke, S P; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H
This paper reports an outcome study of coping skills intervention to help adolescents manage stress associated with the transition from elementary school to junior high. In a randomized design, sixth grade students from four elementary schools were pretested, then two schools each were assigned to an intervention condition and to a control condition. Intervention condition subjects received eight sessions of instruction and practice in coping skills intervention. Following intervention, all subjects were posttested. At posttest and relative to control condition subjects, intervention condition subjects scored more positively on measures of problem solving, assertive direct refusals, adequacy of information about junior high school, ability to handle stress, ability to deal with peer pressure, and general readiness for junior high school.
Merlo, Lisa J; Lakey, Brian
Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages 14-18; N = 150) completed questionnaires to assess their attachment security, depressive symptoms, and coping strategies with different attachment figures. Measures were completed three times, based on experiences with a maternal figure, paternal figure, and closest peer. Generalizability analyses were used to separate each construct into trait and social influence components. Next, multivariate g correlations were computed to examine the correlations among the constructs for the trait component as well as the social component. Correlation magnitudes differed depending on whether the trait or social influence components were examined.
Folayan, Morenike O; Cáceres, Carlos F; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Stockman, Jamila K; Harrison, Abigail
Little is known about stressful triggers and coping strategies of Nigerian adolescents and whether or not, and how, HIV infection modulates these sources of stress and coping. This study evaluated differences in stressors and coping strategies among Nigerian adolescents based on HIV status. We analysed the data of six hundred 10-19 year old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 States of Nigeria who self-reported their HIV status. Data on stressors and coping strategies were retrieved by self-report from participants, using a validated structured questionnaire. We compared results between adolescents with and without HIV with respect to identification of specific life events as stressors, and use of specific coping strategies to manage stress. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) had significantly increased odds of identifying 'having to visit the hospital regularly' (AOR: 5.85; 95 % CI: 2.11-16.20; P = 0.001), and 'having to take drugs regularly' (AOR: 9.70; 95 % CI: 4.13-22.81; P < 0.001) as stressors; and 'Seeking social support' (AOR: 3.14; 95 % CI: 1.99-4.93; p < 0.001) and 'using mental disengagement' (OR: 1.64; 95 % CI: 0.49-1.84; p = 0.001) as coping strategies. Adolescents not living with HIV had significantly increased odds of identifying 'argument with a friend or family member' as a stressor (AOR: 6.59; 95 % CI: 3.62-11.98; P < 0.001). Life events related to adolescents' HIV positive status were significant stressors for ALHIV. Providing targeted psychosocial support could help reduce the impact of such HIV status-related stressors on ALHIV.
Bacanli, Hasan; Surucu, Mustafa; Ilhan, Tahsin
The aim of the current study was to develop a short form of Coping Styles Scale based on COPE Inventory. A total of 275 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) were administered in the first study. In order to test factors structure of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form, principal components factor analysis and direct oblique rotation was…
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark
A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths' adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bidirectional association between adolescents' relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from 2-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predict a weaker relationship with God 1 year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping.
This study assesses how a sample of African American families with a loved one with schizophrenia cope using a commonly used family coping scale (F-COPES). The scale's overall performance and psychometric properties were tested to highlight how such families cope. The results demonstrated that families used proactive verses passive ways of coping.…
Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Roshita, Airin; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty
One in eight people suffer from chronic hunger, leading to an insecure food situation. Chronic hunger mostly occurs in developing countries and includes adolescent girls. Our qualitative study, with data collected in December 2012, provided the results of an exploration of the experiences and strategies implemented by fifteen adolescent girls who tried to cope with their condition of living in food-insecure families. The age of the girls ranged from 10 to 19 years. Their coping strategies were grouped into self-initiated and parent-initiated strategies. Self-initiated coping strategies that were the girls' own initiatives included eating only rice without any vegetables or side dish, eating less-desirable food, reducing portion size, skipping meals, saving pocket money and earning money to buy food. The parent-initiated coping strategies that were initiated by the parents and followed by the girls included selling their own field produce and livestock, asking for food, borrowing food and storing maize for 6 months up to 1 year. These results show that adolescent girls living in food-insecure areas implement several coping strategies in severe conditions, which parents may not be aware of, and such conditions may compromise their growth and health. The acknowledgement of such coping strategies and the girls' food insecurity condition can lead to a useful and suitable food insecurity alleviation programme for the girls and their families.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced
Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
BACKGROUND We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. METHODS A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the US Southwest. COPE is a cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course and taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. Outcome measures included body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. RESULTS COPE teens had a significantly lower BMI at 12 months (F1, 698 = 11.22, p = .001) than Healthy Teens (24.95 versus 25.48). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of overweight and obese COPE teens from baseline to 12 months (χ2= 5.40, p = .02) as compared to Healthy Teens. For youth who began the study with extremely elevated depressive symptoms, COPE teens had significantly lower depression at 12 months compared to Healthy Teens (COPE M=42.39; Healthy Teens M=57.90); (F1, 12 = 5.78, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS COPE can improve long-term physical and mental health outcomes in teens. PMID:26522175
Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Background Mobile technologies have the potential to be used as innovative tools for conducting research on the mental health and well-being of young people. In particular, they have utility for carrying out ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research by capturing data from participants in real time as they go about their daily lives. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the utility of a mobile phone app as a means of collecting EMA data pertaining to mood, problems, and coping efficacy in a school-based sample of Irish young people. Methods The study included a total of 208 participants who were aged 15-18 years, 64% female (113/208), recruited from second-level schools in Ireland, and who downloaded the CopeSmart mobile phone app as part of a randomized controlled trial. On the app, participants initially responded to 5 single-item measures of key protective factors in youth mental health (formal help-seeking, informal help-seeking, sleep, exercise, and sense of belonging). They were then encouraged to use the app daily to input data relating to mood states (happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and worry), daily problems, and coping self-efficacy. The app automatically collected data pertaining to user engagement over the course of the 28-day intervention period. Students also completed pen and paper questionnaires containing standardized measures of emotional distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; DASS-21), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index; WHO-5), and coping (Coping Strategies Inventory; CSI). Results On average the participants completed 18% (5/28) of daily ratings, and engagement levels did not differ across gender, age, school, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or nationality. On a scale of 1 to 10, happiness was consistently the highest rated mood state (overall mean 6.56), and anger was consistently the lowest (overall mean 2.11). Pearson correlations revealed that average daily ratings of emotional states were
Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin
The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…
Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…
Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Wright, Paul
The purpose of this study was to examine coping against weight-related teasing among adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese in urban physical education. Forty-seven students perceived to be overweight or obese from a large urban school district were interviewed. Trustworthiness of data analysis was established by using a member-checking…
Garralda, M. Elena; Rangel, Luiza
Background: Functional impairment is a key feature of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of childhood. Aim: To compare impairment, illness attitudes and coping mechanisms in childhood CFS and in other paediatric disorders. Method: Participants were 28 children and adolescents with CFS, 30 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 27 with emotional…
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…
Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Akdemir, Devrim; Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin, Füsun
The main aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and identity formation in relation to adolescent suicidal behavior. This study involved 64 adolescents between 12-17 years of age, who were admitted to the emergency service with a suicide attempt. They were evaluated with a semi-structured clinical interview (K-SADS), Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI), Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). 60.9% (n = 39) of the adolescents were female, and 39.1% (n=25) were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the girls and the boys with respect to the clinical characteristics of the suicide attempt and the rate of psychiatric disorders. Of the 64 adolescents with suicide attempt, 47 (73.4%) had at least one, and 26 (40.6%) had more than one psychiatric disorder according to K-SADS. Disruptive behavior disorders were more frequent in males, whereas depression was more frequent in girls. The data indicated the importance of identity confusion, major depression and ADHD in adolescents with suicide attempt in both genders. 43.6% (n=17) of the girls and 36% (n=9) of the boys obtained scores higher than the cut-off point of SIAF indicating identity confusion. Professional help seeking and NSSI behaviors before the suicide attempt were more common in adolescents with identity confusion. While there were differences between genders with respect to the defense mechanisms used, no significant difference was found in terms of ways of coping. Evaluation of DMI scores revealed that the turning against object subscale score was significantly higher in boys compared to girls. While evaluating the adolescents at risk, their defense mechanisms, way of coping and sense of identity, as well as their psychiatric diagnosis should be assessed in detail in order to identify the suicidal thoughts and prevent possible suicide attempts.
Dahle, K P; Steller, M
A coping model for the assessment of the effect of prison life is proposed. On this basis, previous findings of such effects can be interpreted as coping patterns learned under the specific conditions. Within this theoretical framework, the individual perceptions of the inmates regarding the atmosphere in a therapeutically oriented department and in three conventional settings of the same prison are compared. Furthermore, differences in their social attitudes and self-descriptions are assessed. A total of 108 juvenile prisoners filled out a multidimensional atmosphere scale for correction institutions and a multidimensional personality inventory for prisoners. All atmosphere dimensions of the group of prisoners in the therapeutically oriented setting differed significantly from the other three. Furthermore, the inmates of the therapeutic division showed less aggressive and negative attitudes than those of the other divisions. Other personality scales showed no significant differences. From these results it is concluded that the effects of prison life can be mitigated in a setting that provides the inmates with more opportunities to develop adequate coping behavior than a conventional prison environment does.
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747
Wei, Meifen; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Russell, Daniel W.; Bonett, Douglas G.
Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from 0.72 to 0.90. In Study 2, a…
Stepleman, Lara M.; Darcy, Maria U. A.; Tracey, Terence J. G.
A measure of Brickman, Rabinowitz, Karuza, Cohn, and Kidders structure of helping and coping orientations was developed, and its relation to a variety of counseling variables was investigated. A sample of 202 college students completed the Attribution of Problem Cause and Solution Scale (APCSS), an additional measure of attribution, and measures…
Balmer, D H; Gikundi, E; Billingsley, M C; Kihuho, F G; Kimani, M; Wang'ondu, J; Njoroge, H
This study investigated the experiences and knowledge of adolescents in Nairobi, Kenya to understand how the decisions they make affect their health. Data were gathered from a sample of 216 youths aged 12-22 years (equally divided between males and females) who lived in lower socioeconomic areas. The youth met in groups of 12 over a period of 6 months. An equal number of groups were all male, all female, and mixed. The educational distribution of the participants varied according to age and was normal for Nairobi. Each group met with a qualified counselor who facilitated discussion. The minutes of the group meetings provided qualitative data. During the first 6 weeks of meetings, the facilitators led the groups through a series of exercises to create an atmosphere in which the youth felt free to express themselves. During the 20-week second stage, an open agenda was used, and the facilitators restricted their role to clarifying issues and resolving conflicts. The topics, which were ranked according to the percentage of time they consumed, included (in order) emerging sexuality, drugs, alcohol, pregnancy, rape (many of the girls were victims and some of the boys were perpetuators), suicide, marriage, religion, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS, parents, contraceptives, money, masturbation, lying, politics, language, and leisure/sports. Values expressed in order of importance were parental love, education, honesty, employment, religion, money, personal freedom, friendship, beauty, marriage, and politics. Coping strategies were use of drugs, stealing, masturbation, alcohol, providing sex for favors, noncooperation, lying, secret language, clubs, silence, religion, and exercise/sports. It is concluded that social changes in developing countries have exacerbated the ambiguity experienced by adolescents and that a comprehensive review of adolescents is necessary in order to improve their health.
Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J
Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.
Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.
Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…
Wilkinson, Ross B.
Two studies are reported presenting the development of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS), a 30 item self-report measure of adolescent close friendship conceptualized as an attachment relationship. Study One reports the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of 490 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years. A…
Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population. PMID:21738867
Burghy, Cory A.; Fox, Michelle E.; Cornejo, M. Daniela; Stodola, Diane E.; Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Westbrook, Cecilia A.; Van Hulle, Carol; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.; Birn, Rasmus M.
Stress and emotion involve diverse developmental and individual differences. Partially attributed to the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the precise genetic and experiential contributions remain unknown. In previous work, childhood basal cortisol function predicted adolescent resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and psychopathology. To parse experience-driven (non-genetic) contributions, we investigated these relations with a monozygotic (MZ) twin design. Specifically, we examined whether intrapair differences in childhood afternoon cortisol levels predicted cotwin differences in adolescent brain function and coping. As expected, intrapair differences in childhood cortisol forecast amygdala-perigenual PFC rs-FC (R2 = 0.84, FWE-corrected p = 0.01), and amygdala recovery following unpleasant images (R2 = 0.40, FWE-corrected p < 0.05), such that the cotwin with higher childhood cortisol evinced relatively lower rs-FC and poorer amygdala recovery in adolescence. Cotwin differences in amygdala recovery also predicted coping styles. These data highlight experience-dependent change in childhood and adolescence. PMID:27872489
Beutler, Ivan F.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.
The development of two new money-attitude scales measuring entitlement and conscientiousness in adolescents are described. The scales were developed through student and focus group input and from a review of literature on entitlement and conscientiousness as a new adolescent financial education curriculum was being developed. The findings from 265…
Thomsen, Tamara; Fritz, Viktoria; Mößle, Regine; Greve, Werner
Coping research has consistently shown that accommodative coping is positively correlated with individuals' health. Until now, however, there have been little to no studies on the prognostic impact of accommodative coping on health, and only a few studies investigating its buffering effect on the relation between stress and health in childhood and…
Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí; Guilera, Georgina; Abad, Judit
Given the high prevalence of internalizing disorders during adolescence, it is necessary to determine the factors influencing their development and evolution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polyvictimization in developing internalizing symptoms while considering the possible effect of non-productive coping and the availability of social support. The participants were 144 adolescents (M=14.31, SD=1.48) cared for in child and adolescent mental health services. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that polyvictimization, non-productive coping and social support were good predictors of internalizing symptoms. In addition, non-productive coping acted as a mediator in the relationship between polyvictimization and internalizing symptoms. The results of the study emphasized the importance of the studied factors to understanding the process of development internalizing symptoms and to preventing or treating adolescents who suffer from these types of disorders.
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.
Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation efforts produced Mastery-Family and Mastery-Friends subscales, along with a Mastery-Self subscale. We tested these measures for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12 to 18-year-old predominately Yup’ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities — a non-Western culturally distinct group hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism and communal mastery. Results demonstrate a subset of items adapted for youth function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale’s underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors organized under one higher order mastery factor. PMID:21928912
Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther
In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.
The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) are three scales for assessing the relative strength of three aspects of personal resiliency as a profile in children and adolescents. This article presents preliminary evidence to support the use of the RSCA in preventive screening. First, this article examines associations between the…
Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A
The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolution of characteristic coping styles and identify areas for intervention. Pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), pain coping strategies (Pain Coping Questionnaire), and coping efficacy were assessed in children (ages 8-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years), presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (n=272). Significant sex differences in coping strategies were found. After controlling for pain intensity, girls used social support seeking more than boys, while boys used more behavioral distraction techniques. Adolescents engaged in more positive self-statements (a cognitive strategy) than children. Both boys and girls showed a trend toward pain coping efficacy being negatively correlated with average pain intensity. For girls, pain coping efficacy was also significantly negatively correlated with internalizing/catastrophizing. However, no sex or age differences in coping efficacy were found. This study demonstrates the early emergence of sex- and aged-based preferences in coping strategies among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The findings establish a basis for further research on early social influences in the development of pain coping styles in males and females. Implications for further clinical research in this area are discussed.
Zeltzer, Lonnie; And Others
Adolescent perceptions of the impact of illness were measured through the administration of an original questionnaire to 345 healthy adolescents and 168 adolescents (mean age of both groups, 15) with diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and cardiac, renal, or rheumatologic diseases. Journal availability: C. V. Mosby Co; 11830 Westline…
Mofield, Emily; Parker Peters, Megan; Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita
Perfectionism can influence how one approaches challenges and deals with setbacks, and, consequently, can inhibit or facilitate achievement. The present study (1) explored the relationship between Frost's six dimensions of perfectionism and five types of coping strategies; (2) examined how dimensions of perfectionism predict coping in response to…
Learning about global problems, such as climate change, is not only a cognitive endeavor, but also involves emotions evoked by the seriousness and complexity of these problems. Few studies, however, have explored how young people cope with emotions related to climate change. Since coping strategies could be as important as the emotions themselves…
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance.
Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Yaptangco, Mona; Semana, Sharla; Buscaino, Emil; Thompson, Valeria; Cochrane, Katie; Tabile, Marissa; Alving, Erin; Rosenberg, Abby R
This study explored the association between personal resilience and distress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in 50 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Resilience was defined by a factor score derived from validated instruments measuring self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem. Variable- and person-focused methodologies were used to explore these associations. Low resilience was associated with higher distress, poor quality of life, and poor glycemic control. Participants with low resilience used more maladaptive coping strategies and were at greatest risk of poor outcomes. Findings suggest that resilience is a promising candidate for interventions designed to reduce distress and improve outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.
The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…
Compas, Bruce E.; And Others
Conducted four studies to develop Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (APES), measure of major and daily stressful events during adolescence. Describes test construction, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of APES. Summarizes subsequent research showing APES to be significantly related to behavior problems and psychological…
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156
Nelemans, Stefanie A; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc
In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence. These findings suggest that the short version of the SAS-A is a developmentally appropriate instrument that can be used effectively to examine adolescent social anxiety development.
Heightened levels of support provision are systematically observed in adults immediately following natural disasters, yet knowledge about adolescents' social support provision is less extensive. This longitudinal study of 262 adolescents assessed their help-providing behaviors during and after a flood. It was hypothesized that social support provided by adolescents would relate to subsequent perceptions of their relationships with others and perceptions of the self. Descriptive analyses demonstrated that the majority of respondents reported that they provided tangible, emotional, and informational support to others in need. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of support provided following the flood were subsequently associated with higher levels of perceived social support, a stronger sense of community at school, and greater propensity to engage in proactive coping. These associations were statistically significant, controlling for the impact of exposure to disaster stressors, age, gender, and received social support. Theoretical considerations and practical implications related to processes of social support provisions in times of stress are discussed.
Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; Germán, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans’ (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed. PMID:20644653
Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.
Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.
The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…
Frydenberg, Erica; Lewis, Ramon; Bugalski, Kerry; Cotta, Amanda; McCarthy, Cathy; Luscombe-Smith, Neringa; Poole, Charles
Children and adolescents today face a plethora of stressful problems, including family and relationship conflict, death of close family members or friends, and academic and social pressures. Such problems have been found to contribute to an increased risk of various emotional-social-cognitive difficulties in adolescence. These include academic…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W.
The research on highly mobile military adolescents has produced mixed findings. Whereas early descriptive studies reported that adolescents experiencing multiple residential moves exhibited symptoms of what was termed "military family syndrome", more recent quantitative studies have found few negative effects after controlling for prior status.…
Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin
Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…
Escher, Fabian; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
Fragestellung: In der Untersuchung klinisch auffälliger Jugendlicher fehlen bislang Studien zum Coping mit alltäglichen Stressoren im Vergleich zu gesunden Jugendlichen. Methodik: Klinisch auffällige Jugendliche mit verschiedenen Störungen (gemischten Störungen einschließlich Delinquenz, Sucht, Depression) wurden anhand des Coping across Situations Questionnaire (
Soldatova, Galina Urtanbekovna; Rasskazova, Elena Igorevna
The article examines the opportunities and limitations of the coping behavior of children and teenagers on the Internet and the assistance that they receive from significant adults (parental mediation) in the context of the new developmental social situation, which is mediated by modern information and communication technologies, and in particular…
Scott, Lionel D.
Surveyed African American high school students regarding whether strategies they used to cope with perceived discrimination related to their racial identity and racial socialization. The degree to which race was central to self-concept and identity was unrelated to both approach and avoidance strategies. Frequency of receiving socialization…
de Anda, Diane; Bradley, Misty; Collada, Cristina; Dunn, Lynne; Kubota, Julie; Hollister, Valerie; Miltenberger, Julie; Pulley, Jerry; Susskind, Andrew; Thompson, Lisa A.; Wadsworth, Tina
Examined Los Angeles area middle school students' (N=54) stress, environmental stressors, and coping strategies. Results indicate the presence of gender differences, with girls indicating higher levels of stress; boys and girls reported different behavioral and affective responses to stress. School-related stressors were highest in frequency,…
Benson, Molly A.; Compas, Bruce E.; Layne, Christopher M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pasalic, Hafiza; Katalinksi, Ranka; Pynoos, Robert S.
We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (RSQ; Connor-Smith, Compas, Saltzman, Thomsen, & Wadsworth, 2000) in a sample of Bosnian youth (N = 665; age = 15 to 20 years) five years post-war. Participants reported on their coping and involuntary responses to post-war stressors including trauma reminders,…
Minehan, Janet A.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Galaif, Elisha R.
Purpose in life and coping skills are hypothesized to mediate association between cognitive abilities (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and polydrug use. Results indicated relationship between crystallized intelligence and alcohol use was mediated by purpose in life. Older age predicted higher cognitive abilities, stronger coping…
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears; Ayres, Melanie M.
Peer sexual harassment is a stressor for many girls in middle and high school. Prior research indicates that approach strategies (seeking support or confronting) are generally more effective than avoidance strategies in alleviating stress. However, the deployment of effective coping behaviors depends partly on how individuals evaluate different…
Cross, Tracy L.; Swiatek, Mary Ann
Much of the research on the social coping of students with gifts and talents has relied on a single administration of an instrument while the participants were attending a summer program. This study attempts to understand how attendance at a residential high school (academy) may affect academically gifted students over time. Students in two…
du Bois-Reymond, Manuela, Ed.; And Others
This book examines how young people in Germany and the Netherlands grow into adults in their society and how they cope with the accompanying experiences and changes. The 14 chapters of the book are: (1) "The Modernization of the Youth Phase. Educational, Professional and Family Careers of Dutch Youth in the Nineties" (Els Peters); (2)…
Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul
The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed…
Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A
This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.
Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J
The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.
Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.
Despite consensus that development shapes every aspect of coping, studies of age differences in coping have proven difficult to integrate, primarily because they examine largely unselected age groups, and utilize overlapping coping categories. A developmental framework was used to organize 58 studies of coping involving over 250 age comparisons or…
Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm
To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…
Pinard, Courtney; Smith, Teresa M; Calloway, Eric E; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Bertmann, Farryl M; Yaroch, Amy L
The objective of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary testing of new scales to assess hunger-coping behaviors in a very low-income population. Very low-income adults (≥ 19 years), caregivers to at least one child (n = 306) completed a survey in a community setting (e.g., libraries). The survey included novel items assessing hunger-coping behaviors (e.g., trade-offs to purchase food, strategies to stretch and obtain food), food insecurity status, and physiological hunger. Internal consistency of hunger-coping scales, one-way ANOVAs, post-hoc analyses, Spearman's correlations among variables. Respondents were 75% female, 51% African American, 34% White, and 15% Hispanic, and 73% earned <$20,000/year. Four scales emerged: hunger-coping trade-offs, financial coping strategies, rationing coping strategies, and physiological adult hunger symptoms. All scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α/KR-20 = 0.70-0.90). Predictive, construct, and content validity were demonstrated by correlations between hunger-coping scales and food insecurity (FI), measured with the USDA 6-item HFSSM (rs = 0.42-0.68, ps < 0.001). Higher levels of hunger-coping trade-offs (F(2,297) = 42.54, p < 0.001), financial coping strategies (F(2,287) = 70.77, p < 0.001), and rationing coping strategies (F(2,284) = 69.19, p < 0.001), corresponded with increasing levels of FI. These preliminary results support use of newly developed hunger-coping scales in a very low-income population and can compliment traditional food security measures to inform hunger prevention policy and programming.
Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.
This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…
Stevens, Heath R.
Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.
This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…
Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A
Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.
Roberto, Christina A.; Sysko, Robyn; Bush, Jennifer; Pearl, Rebecca; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Dovidio, John F.
The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties and clinical correlates of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) in a sample of obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Sixty five adolescents enrolled in a bariatric surgery program at a large, urban medical center completed psychiatric evaluations, self-report questionnaires including the WBIS and other measures of psychopathology and physical assessments. The WBIS had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .92). As in previous research with adults, the one underlying factor structure was replicated and 10 of the original 11 items were retained. The scale had significant partial correlations with depression (r = .519), anxiety (r = .465), social and behavioral problems (r = .364), quality of life (r = −.480), and eating (r = .579), shape (r = .815), and weight concerns (r = .545), controlling for body mass index. However, WBIS scores did not predict current or past psychiatric diagnosis or treatment or past suicidal ideation. Overall, the WBIS had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of obese treatment-seeking adolescents and correlated significantly with levels of psychopathology. These findings suggest that the WBIS could be a useful tool for healthcare providers to assess internalized weight bias among treatment-seeking obese youth. Assessment of internalized weight bias among this clinical population has the potential to identify adolescents who may benefit from information on coping with weight stigma which in turn can augment weight loss efforts. PMID:21593805
Yusoff, N; Low, W Y; Yip, C H
This paper validates the Brief COPE Scale in Malaysian women with breast cancer. Test-retest evaluation was undertaken at two/three weeks and ten weeks following surgery. Internal consistencies ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Meanwhile, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. Sensitivity of the scale was indicated by the mean differences as observed in most of the domains with Effect Size Index (ESI) ranged from 0 to 0.53. Significant differences between mastectomy and lumpectomy were observed for Active coping, Planning and Acceptance. Brief COPE Scale showed fairly good reliability and validity.
van Hamel, Anton; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Takane, Yoshio; Dickson, Laurie; Gupta, Rina
Data were collected for 1998 middle/high-school students in Ontario to assess involvement in gambling, substance use, and generalized risky behavior. To predict these outcomes, measures for anxiety, family cohesion, and coping style were also administered. Three a-priori models were posited to account for the impact of risk factors, protective factors, and combined risk/protective factors on the development of risky behaviors. A high-risk cohort composed of subjects endorsing at least one risky behavior (gambling, substance use, or generalized risky behavior) within the clinical range was created to test an unobserved outcome variable created from all three measures of risky behavior, which was successfully predicted by two of the three a-priori models. Implications for the inclusion of gambling within a constellation of high-risk behaviors and recommendations for future prevention efforts are discussed.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.
This study reports on the validation of a scale to assess adolescent girls' frequency of sexual communication with their parents. The Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS) was administered to 522 African American female adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18. The PACS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (across multiple…
Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents.
Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M
The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.
Strittmatter, Esther; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
Fragestellung: In der vorliegenden Studie wurde untersucht, ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen pathologischem Internetgebrauch, Mobbing und Copingstilen bei Jugendlichen mit Mobbingerfahrungen besteht. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer europäischen schulbasierten Studie (SEYLE) wurde eine repräsentative Querschnittsuntersuchung an 1357 Schülern aus Heidelberg und Umgebung durchgeführt (710 weibliche/647 männlich Jugendliche; mittleres Alter 14.7; SD 0.8). Pathologischer Internetgebrauch wurde mit dem Young Diagnostic Questionnaire erhoben. Mobbing wurde in verbales, körperliches Mobbing und Mobbing in der Beziehung unterteilt. Hinsichtlich der Copingstile wurden aktives Coping, Vermeidung, Hilfe suchen und sonstige Strategien unterschieden. Als Kovariate wurde die psychische Symptombelastung mittels Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire erfasst. Ergebnisse: 4.8 % der Schüler wiesen einen pathologischen Internetgebrauch auf, 14.4 % zeigten einen problematischen Internetgebrauch. Insgesamt berichteten 52.3 % der Jugendlichen über Erfahrungen mit Mobbing (38.7 % verbales Mobbing, 19.8 % körperliches Mobbing, 34.1 % Mobbing in der Beziehung). Es bestand ein signifikanter Zusammenhang von Mobbingerfahrungen und pathologischem Internetgebrauch, der zum Teil durch die psychische Symptombelastung erklärt werden konnte. Hinsichtlich der Copingstile bei stattgefundenem Mobbing bestand kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen Schülern mit normalem, problematischem und pathologischem Internetgebrauch. Schlussfolgerungen: Aufgrund des Zusammenhanges zwischen Mobbing, psychischer Symptombelastung und pathologischem Internetgebrauch sind in der Zukunft schulbasierte sowie familienbezogene Präventionsmaßnahmen und evaluierte Therapieprogramme erforderlich.
Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S
Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P < .01) and defensive self-enhancement (P < .05). Self-control showed an interaction effect: Females with cleft lip and palate scored higher than controls, but males did not differ between groups (P < .05). Males with cleft lip and palate scored lower than controls in personal power but higher in body functioning (P < .05); females showed no differences between groups. The groups did not differ with regard to coping styles or quality of life, but several correlations were found between self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P < .01). Conclusions : Late adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.
Van Der Zee, Karen I; Ali, Anees J; Haaksma, Iris
The present study examined the influence of family and parental work factors, personality, and attachment on the intercultural adjustment of expatriate children and adolescents (N=104). Children from families high in cohesion exhibited higher levels of adjustment than children from low cohesive families. Expatriate work satisfaction was significantly related to children's adjustment. Emotional Stability appeared as an independent predictor of adjustment. Attachment dominated as the strongest predictor of adjustment, whereby an ambivalent attachment style was negatively related to adjustment. Interestingly, personality and attachment moderated the influence of family- and work-related factors on adjustment, whereby the beneficial effects of a healthy family and work situation were particularly found among children high on the intercultural traits and high in secure attachment.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). A sample of 1,806 high-school students between the ages of 13 and 18 years, recruited in 6 Italian cities, completed the A-DES. The A-DES showed high internal consistency, excellent item-to-scale homogeneity, good split-half reliability, and a single-factor structure. The scores of the Italian adolescents were comparable to those found in previous research with the measure. No gender differences were found in mean A-DES scores, but boys and girls showed different patterns of responses on A-DES items. Age differences were also found, with 13- and 18-year-old students scoring higher on the measure than the other participants. A cluster analysis showed that participants could be consistently grouped into 2 clusters of low- and high-dissociative adolescents. This study supports the A-DES as a reliable and valid screening measure for dissociative symptoms in adolescents.
Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136
Gilman, Rich; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne; Dewall, C Nathan; Adams, Ryan E; Carboni, Inga
This study validates a new self-report measure, the Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents (OES-A). Nineteen items were tested on a sample of 876 high school seniors to assess 2 of the most common ostracism experiences: being actively excluded from the peer group and being largely ignored by others. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical regression provided support for the construct validity of the measure. The findings provided psychometric support for the OES-A, which could be used in research into the nature and correlates of social ostracism among older adolescents when a brief self-report measure is needed. Further, the OES-A may help determine how social ostracism subtypes differentially predict health-compromising behaviors later in development, as well as factors that protect against the most pernicious effects of ostracism.
Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi
This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective.
La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C
Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.
Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…
Lagerløv, Per; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Holager, Tanja; Helseth, Sølvi
Objective The aim of this study was to describe how different adolescents experience and manage pain in their daily life, with a focus on their use of over-the-counter analgesics. More specifically, the aim was to explore different patterns among the adolescents in pain descriptions, in the management of pain, in relationships with others, and in their daily life. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews on experiences with pain, pain management and involvement of family and friends during pain. Pain and stress management strategies and attachment theory will be in focus for interpretations. Participants and setting 25 participants aged 15–16-years from six different junior high schools, both genders, with and without immigrant background were interviewed at their local schools in Norway. Results We identified 4 groups of adolescents with similarities in attitudes and management strategies to pain: ‘pain is manageable’, ‘pain is communicable’, ‘pain is inevitable’ and ‘pain is all over’. The participants within each group differed in how they engaged their parents in pain; how they perceived, communicated and managed pain; and how they involved emotions and used over-the-counter analgesics. Conclusions The adolescents’ different involvement with the family during pain related to their pain perception and management. Knowledge of the different ways of approaching pain is important when supporting adolescents and may be a subject for further research on the use of over-the-counter analgesics in the family. PMID:26932141
Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana
The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy.
Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…
Lang, Christin; Feldmeth, Anna Karina; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus
In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study;…
Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…
Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo
The objective of this study was to develop a short and reliable Family Dynamic Environment Scale (FDES) that would better serve the needs of mental health professionals in detecting the potential for delinquent behavior in Korean adolescents related to a dysfunctional family dynamic environment. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adolescents were initially conducted to generate a set of items, after which, 44 participants were included in method test-retest reliability test. Finally, 544 participants recruited by proportional stratified random sampling were included in a factor analysis. The original version of the FDES had 60 items in 7 categories; the final version included 42 items grouped into 5 factors. Both test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were high for the final version of the scale. As a result of factor analysis, five factors were extracted: family psychological climate, parent-child relationship, paternal parenting attitude, family cohesion, and maternal parenting attitude. These contributed 50.3% of the variance in the item scores. All 42 items loaded above .35 on their respective factors. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency were .95 for the total 42 items and .92, .81, .82, .78, and .71, respectively, for each of the 5 factors.
Skinner, Ellen A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping as "regulation under stress" establish links to the development of emotional, attentional, and behavioral self-regulation and suggest constitutional underpinnings and social factors that shape coping development. Second, analyses of the functions of higher-order coping families allow identification of corresponding lower-order ways of coping that, despite their differences, are developmentally graded members of the same family. This emerging framework was used to integrate 44 studies reporting age differences or changes in coping from infancy through adolescence. Together, these advances outline a systems perspective in which, as regulatory subsystems are integrated, general mechanisms of coping accumulate developmentally, suggesting multiple directions for future research.
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.
In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…
Lucey, Christopher F.; Lam, Sarah K. Y.
This study was designed to identify characteristics of family functioning that relate to suicide potential in an outpatient adolescent population. Participants included 51 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who were involved in outpatient counselling. The Family Environment Scale and the Suicide Probability Scale were used to assess…
Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Chang, Chee-Jen
This study used cross-validation and discriminant analysis to evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale between the overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey method was used and 660 adolescents participated in this study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that the AHP is a valid and reliable scale to discriminate between the health-promoting behaviors of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents. For the total scale, cluster analyses revealed two distinct patterns, which we designated the healthy and unhealthy groups. Discriminate analysis supported this clustering as having good discriminant validity, as nonoverweight adolescents tended to be classified as healthy, while the overweight tended to be in the unhealthy group. In general, overweight adolescents practiced health-related behaviors at a significantly lower frequency than the nonoverweight. These included exercise behavior, stress management, life appreciation, health responsibility, and social support. These findings can be used to further develop and refine knowledge of adolescent overweight and related strategies for intervention.
Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa
This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.
Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Reyes, Ralph Warren P; Colet, Paolo C; Estacio, Joel C; Caldeira, Sílvia; Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Koenig, Harold G
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Filipino versions of the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL-F) and the Spiritual Coping Strategies scale (SCS-F) for hemodialysis (HD) patients in the Philippines. A convenient sample of 162 HD patients was included in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The DUREL-F and SCS-F exhibited acceptable internal consistency and stability reliability, as well as excellent content and construct validity. The findings confirmed the soundness of the psychometric properties of the two scales. Thus, they can be used for timely and accurate assessment of religiosity and spiritual coping utilization among Filipino patients receiving HD.
The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…
Chiessi, Monica; Cicognani, Elvira; Sonn, Christopher
Sense of Community (SoC) is a key theoretical construct in community psychology. This study validated a SoC scale for adolescents (SoC-A) in Italy. The scale comprises 20 items and five components: satisfaction of needs and opportunities for involvement; support and emotional connection with peers; support and emotional connection in the…
Zhang, Yu; Shao, Feng; Wang, Qiong; Xie, Xi
Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28–41) CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood. In addition, adult rat exposure to adolescent CMS had a relatively inhibited activation in ERK signaling and downstream protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that immobility and set-shifting performance were positively correlated with the inhibition of ERK signaling. These results indicated adolescent CMS can be used as an effective stressor to model an increased predisposition to adult depression. PMID:28182105
Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.
The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were…
Phuphaibul, Rutja; Thanooruk, Rujires; Leucha, Yuwadee; Sirapo-ngam, Yupapin; Kanobdee, Chantima
This quasi-experimental research is the subsequent part of the Health Promotion for Early Adolescents Project, which focuses on the training of schoolteachers in using the module Immune of Life for Teens, which was developed in 1999, for evaluating its impact. The module consists of a manual and a VDO cassette display of a story of a teenager who has difficulty adjusting to life changes. The program aimed at improving the coping skills and psychological health or mental health of junior high school students. Schoolteachers from 13 schools participated nationwide as part of an experimental group and received training in the use of the module in their schools with students in Grades 7-9. The control group was composed of 3 schools that did not apply the module. Each school performed the pretest and posttest 1 month after the module's application. The total number of the students in the study was 1,580. There were 445 students in the control group, 474 in the experimental I group (intensive training) group, and 661 in the experimental II group (nonintensive group). The instruments used to evaluate impact were the following: (1) Young Adult Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, which was developed by Patterson, McCubbin, and Grochowski in 1983, and the (2) Thai Mental Health Questionnaire, a 70-item self-administered questionnaire developed by Pattrayuwat in 1999 to assess mental health status. The findings reveal that both experimental groups had better coping behaviors than the control group when using pretest scores as covariates (experimental I group: F = 9.425, p < .01; experimental II group: F = 22.446, p < .001) 1 month after the module was implemented. They also show that both experimental groups had better mental health than the control group when using pretest scores as covariates (experimental I group: F = 6.034, p < .05; experimental II group: F = 6.596, p < .001) 1 month after the module was implemented. The study confirmed the impact of the Immune
Cooley, Eric; Toray, Tamina; Roscoe, Lauren
The predictive validity of the Reactions to Loss Scale (RTL) was assessed in two studies (N = 185 and 170) of college students who reported a recent loss and their feelings about and preoccupation with the loss. Across a 9-week interval, participants reported an increase in positive feelings about the loss event and a decrease in negative feelings, regret, and preoccupation with the loss. The Positive Reappraisal Scale of the RTL predicted increased positive feelings and a reduction of regret. Avoidance scale of the RTL predicted higher levels of regret and the Loss of Control scale predicted higher levels of negative affect (Study 2). This longitudinal data supports the validity of the Reactions to Loss scale and supports the value of assessing positive, resilient responses to a loss.
Rubin, Daniel; Dodd, Melissa; Desai, Neelam; Pollock, Bradley; Graham-Pole, John
The literature supporting a relationship between religion/spirituality and physical/mental health has led to recommendations that health professionals attend to these issues in patient assessment and intervention. Many studies indicate that spiritual issues are important to adolescents, especially those with physical and/or psychological health concerns. Although several instruments have been developed to measure religion/spirituality in adults, no validated instrument currently exists for assessing this concept in children or adolescents. The applicability of two adult scales, the SIBS and the SWBS, were assessed to explore the spiritual well-being of adolescents by comparing spirituality scores of 38 chronically ill and 38 healthy adolescents and their parents. No significant difference was found between ill and well adolescents on either scale. Parents scored significantly higher than adolescents on both scales. Although this could indicate that parents have greater spiritual well-being than their children, these two findings taken together suggest these measures may be insufficiently sensitive measures of spirituality in childhood. This is supported by the finding that most adolescents and their parents felt both scales to be ineffective measures of adolescent spirituality. The authors concluded that a more specific scale should be developed for measuring spirituality in the young, especially those with chronic illness. Such an instrument might best be developed through a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Drake, Emily C.; Sladek, Michael R.; Doane, Leah D.
Many late adolescents who transition to the college environment perceive changes in psychosocial stress. One such stressor, loneliness, has been associated with numerous health problems among adolescents and adults. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is one mechanism through which loneliness may affect health. Guided by a risk and resilience…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.
The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…
Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Fisher, Paige H.; Pincus, Donna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the…
Canivez, Gary L.
Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the "Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents" (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical…
Sun, Jiandong; Dunne, Michael P.; Hou, Xiang-yu; Xu, Ai-qiang
This article describes the development and initial validation of a new instrument to measure academic stress--the Educational Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA). A series of cross-sectional questionnaire surveys were conducted with more than 2,000 Chinese adolescents to examine the psychometric properties. The final 16-item ESSA contains five…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
Freiheit, Stacy R.; And Others
The utility of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory personality disorder scales was studied with 217 male adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Analyses of variance found patterns consistent with research on adult samples in spite of differences in factor structure. These similarities suggest that adolescent assessment may provide information…
Hock, Ellen; Eberly, Mary; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Ellwanger, Pamela; Widaman, Keith F.
Developed and validated Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale with parents of sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders, and college freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both showed distinctive change patterns with child age.…
Pedrosa, Ignacio; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Lozano, Luis M.; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo
Adolescence is a critical period of life during which significant psychosocial adjustment occurs and in which emotional intelligence plays an essential role. This article provides validity evidence for the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) scores based on an item response theory (IRT) approach. A sample of 2,693 Spanish adolescents (M = 16.52…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…
Anderson, Emily R; Jordan, Judith A; Smith, Ashley J; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M
Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in relation to other well-established measures of social phobia and depression in a non-referred sample of adolescents. Results support the convergent validity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale and provide some support for its discriminant validity, suggesting its utility in the initial assessment of social phobia. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Binary logistic regression analyses determined the predictive utility of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Implications for assessment are discussed.
Tulbure, Bogdan T; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel
Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social anxiety scales for children and adolescents were identified. An overview about the scientific support accumulated by these scales is offered. Our main results are consistent with recent reviews that consider the Social Phobia and Anxiety Scale for Children (SPAI-C) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among the most pertinent and empirically supported measures of social anxiety for youngsters. However, after considering the existing evidence, we highly recommend another couple of scales that proved to be empirically supported (i.e., the Social Phobia Inventory-SPIN, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents-LSAS-CA).
Olivares, José; Sánchez-García, Raquel; López-Pina, José Antonio
The purpose of this study was to analyze the component structure and reliability of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, self-report version (LSAS-CA-SR), in a Spanish community population. The sample was made up of 422 students from elementary and high schools, aged between 10 and 17 years. Exploratory factor analysis isolated one component for the Anxiety subscale and one component for the Avoidance subscale. Medium-strong associations were found between the total score and subscale scores. LSAS-CA-SR scores had stronger associations with instruments of social anxiety. Internal consistency for the Fear subscale was .91, and for the Avoidance subscale, it was .89. Gender and age effects were assessed for LSAS-CA-SR scores. Effect sizes for age and gender and interaction of age and gender were very low on both the Fear and the Avoidance subscales. There were significant differences between female and male means on the Fear subscale. The findings suggest that the LSAS-CA-SR is reliable and valid.
Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…
Oliva, Alfredo; Antolin, Lucia; Lopez, Ana Maria
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess features of a neighborhood that are relevant to the development and adjustment of adolescents. First, a scale was created from a literature review. Second, the content validity of this scale was validated through expert opinion. Finally, the scale was administered to a…
Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.
This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Weaver, Scott R; Shen, Yishan; Wu-Seibold, Nina; Liu, Cindy H
Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families. Using data from 279 Chinese American families with adolescents who function as language brokers for their parents, the current study developed a comprehensive scale to assess adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of language brokering. Both versions, parent and adolescent, showed stable factor structures. We also examined measurement equivalence, including factorial and construct-validity invariance, for each subscale across parent gender, adolescent gender, adolescent nativity, and translation frequency. In general, metric factorial invariance was observed for most subscales across the different groups; these subscales can thus be used in future studies examining the relations between language brokering and other variables. Further, two adolescent subscales (i.e., adolescent-focused burden, positive relations with parents) and three parent subscales (i.e., parent-focused burden, negative feelings, positive relations with child) demonstrated strong factorial invariance consistently across different groups, and can thus be used in future studies examining mean group differences in language-brokering experiences. In terms of construct-validity equivalence, most subscales were associated with parent-child conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms to a similar degree across parent gender, adolescent gender, and nativity. Implications of the current findings and recommendations for future use are discussed.
Schmidt, Stephan; Post, Teun M; Peletier, Lambertus A; Boroujerdi, Massoud A; Danhof, Meindert
In this study we demonstrate the added value of mathematical model reduction for characterizing complex dynamic systems using bone remodeling as an example. We show that for the given parameter values, the mechanistic RANK-RANKL-OPG pathway model proposed by Lemaire et al. (J Theor Biol 229:293-309, 2004) can be reduced to a simpler model, which can describe the dynamics of the full Lemaire model to very good approximation. The response of both models to changes in the underlying physiology and therapeutic interventions was evaluated in four physiologically meaningful scenarios: (i) estrogen deficiency/estrogen replacement therapy, (ii) Vitamin D deficiency, (iii) ageing, and (iv) chronic glucocorticoid treatment and its cessation. It was found that on the time scale of disease progression and therapeutic intervention, the models showed negligible differences in their dynamic properties and were both suitable for characterizing the impact of estrogen deficiency and estrogen replacement therapy, Vitamin D deficiency, ageing, and chronic glucocorticoid treatment and its cessation on bone forming (osteoblasts) and bone resorbing (osteoclasts) cells. It was also demonstrated how the simpler model could help in elucidating qualitative properties of the observed dynamics, such as the absence of overshoot and rebound, and the different dynamics of onset and washout.
Wisner, Betsy L.; Jones, Barbara; Gwin, David
Schools are searching for innovative ways to meet the unique academic, social-emotional, and behavioral needs of adolescents, many of whom face serious personal and family challenges. An innovative practice that is currently being introduced into school settings is meditation. Types of meditation offered in school-based settings include…
Lodge, J.; Feldman, S. S.
Peer victimization, especially appearance-related bullying, is a highly stressful experience for a young person and is associated with significant negative outcomes. Perhaps, the most common consequence of peer victimization in adolescence is lowered self-esteem. Evidence supports the role of low self-esteem as a non-specific risk factor and high…
Zhao, Jinxia; Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a Mainland Chinese community sample. The 38-item Chinese version of SCAS was administered to 1878 children and adolescents. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses supported a common 6-factor model of SCAS for children and adolescents, and for boys and girls. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of SCAS were satisfactory. Convergent and divergent validity of SCAS were supported by significant correlations with a measure of anxiety to a greater extent than with a measure of depression. Adolescents reported higher anxiety levels than children, and girls reported higher anxiety levels than boys. Compared to other studies, anxiety symptoms of Chinese children were found at a moderate level, but anxiety symptoms of Chinese adolescents were found at a high level. Our findings suggest that the SCAS is suitable for assessing anxiety symptoms in Mainland Chinese children and adolescents.
Shin, Kyoung Min
Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean version of Ruminative Response Scale (K-RRS) for Korean adolescents. Methods A community sample of 1220 adolescents was recruited from middle schools and high schools. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and additional analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the K-RRS. Results An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of adolescents (n=550) yielded a three factor structure: 'depressive rumination', 'reflective pondering', and 'brooding'. Confirmatory factor analyses of another sample of adolescents (n=530) supported the three-factor model for the K-RRS. The K-RRS was found to have good internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion Our results suggest that K-RRS is a valid measurement to assess rumination in adolescents, as well as in adults. PMID:26508962
Pearl, Amanda M.; Murray, Michael J.; Smith, Laura A.; Arnold, Mariah
There is a paucity of instruments designed to measure social competence of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The Social Responsiveness Scale is one of a few that can be used. This study compared differences between mother and father reports of social competence of adolescents. Data were collected from parents of 50 adolescents with and…
Rivero, Raul; Garcia-Lopez, Luisjoaquin; Hofmann, Stefan G
Contemporary theories of social anxiety emphasize the role of cognitive processes. Although social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental health problems in adolescents, there are very few self-report instruments available to measure cognitive processes related to social anxiety in adolescents, let alone non-English instruments. The Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale (SSPS; Hofmann & DiBartolo, 2000) is a brief self-report measure designed to assess self-statements related to public speaking, the most commonly feared social performance situation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, we translated the SSPS into Spanish and administered it to 1,694 adolescents from a community sample, a clinical sample composed of 71 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a clinical control group consisting of 154 patients. The scale showed good psychometric properties, supporting the use of the Spanish version of the SSPS in adolescents.
Andrucci, G L; Archer, R P; Pancoast, D L; Gordon, R A
This study examined the relationship of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) measures, including the MacAndrew alcoholism (MAC) scale, and the Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) to adolescents' drug use across nine drug categories. Subjects were 51 male and 72 female high school students between the ages of 14 and 18 (mean age = 16 years, 5 months). The drug use/abuse measure consisted of adolescents' self-reports on the Segal (1973) Alcohol-Drug Use Research Survey. Drug categories included for investigation were alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, caffeine, cocaine, hallucinogens, marijuana, narcotics, and tobacco. Scores from standard MMPI scales, the MAC scale, and the SSS were examined in relation to individual drug use outcomes, and multivariate procedures were used to predict polydrug versus single drug use patterns. Results demonstrated significant and meaningful relationships between personality measures and drug use among adolescents, with consistently strong findings for the SSS.
Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph
The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.
Zhou, Xinyue; Xu, Qian; Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; La Greca, Annette M.
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in a sample of 296 adolescents (49% boys) in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 with a mean age of 15.52 years. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor structure of the SAS-A in the Chinese sample: Fear of Negative…
Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Jen-Huang
With ever increasing exposure to computer games, gaining an understanding of the attitudes held by young adolescents toward such activities is crucial; however, few studies have provided scales with which to accomplish this. This study revisited the Computer Game Attitude Scale developed by Chappell and Taylor in 1997, reworking the overall…
Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica
The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long form.
Quist, Ryan M.; Matshazi, Dumiso G. M.
Tests the degree to which the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale, a mental health assessment tool, predicts recidivism among juvenile offenders. It was found that the scale was significantly related to recidivism. The practical application of the results as well as the value of emphasizing research on dynamic predictors that enable…
The PsychoSomatic Problems (PSP)-scale is built upon eight items intended to tap information about psychosomatic problems among schoolchildren and adolescents in general populations. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the PSP-scale by means of the Rasch model, with a focus on the operating characteristics of the…
Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.
Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129
Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong; Jin, Putai; Gross, Miraca
The heritage of Confucianism has been immensely spread in East Asian countries, including Vietnam. This philosophy has been transferred from preceding generations and has influenced the Vietnamese way of life, especially the love for learning. Vietnamese gifted adolescents are part of the philosophically Confucian affected communal. This study…
López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat
Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.
Trouillet, Raphaël; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants' confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy).
The Swedish translation of a new scale developed for childhood and adolescent anxiety, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), was studied regarding reliability and convergent validity and to obtain norms in a general population. Four hundred and five adolescents, reasonably representative of Swedish adolescents, were asked to rate their anxiety symptoms on the MASC. In order to study the convergent validity, they also rated their depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), their attitude to their body on the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) and filled in demographical data on themselves. The MASC showed adequate internal consistency both for the whole scale (alpha = 0.87) and for subscales (range 0.64-0.84). The scale showed convergent validity through a moderate correlation with the CDI (r=0.400, P=0.0001) and the BESAA (r= - 0.29, P=0001). Girls scored higher (mean = 38.9) than boys (mean = 31.9) on the MASC total score (t(385) = 5.14, P=0.0001) and on the subscales, except Harm avoidance. Using the MASC as a general screen for anxiety, scores of 48 for boys and 56 for girls using MASC total scores, or scores of 15 for boys and 17 for girls using the Anxiety Disorders Index could be employed (both representing the 90th percentiles). The MASC appears to be a reliable and valid scale both on the global and on the subscale level.
Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938
Orgilés, Mireia; Spence, Susan H; Marzo, Juan C; Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P
The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale is an instrument widely applied in the assessment of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examines its psychometric properties and the factorial structure in a large community sample of Spanish-speaking adolescents (N = 1,374) aged 13 to 17 years. The scale demonstrated strong internal consistency and good convergent and discriminant validity. Factor analysis confirmed the 6-factor original model, providing a good fit of the data for the Spanish sample. The good psychometric properties support its use by clinicians and researchers, adding evidence to the international empirical support for this measure.
Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M
Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.
Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou
Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:28068404
Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.
Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi
This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Herlickson, Allison B.; Wettersten, Kara B.; Herrick, Christen G.; Kim, Grace Y.; Hunter, Patricia J.; Guilmino, Adam; Faul, Kiri; Jagow-France, Desiree; Mach, Barbara; Napton, Sean; Beecher, Timothy; Holzer, Kendra; Rudolph, Susan E.
The Initial development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Pro-Educational Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (APPEABS) are reviewed. Evidence of content convergent, and construct validity are reported. The APPEABS demonstrated usefulness as a scale of predicting the role of adolescents' perceptions of parents'…
This study examines psychometric properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) in two clinical samples: one child sample (n = 110) and one adolescent sample (n = 178). The purpose of the study was to examine the distribution characteristics and internal consistency of RSCA scale, subscale, and index scores for youth who…
This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…
Manganello, Jennifer A.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Davis, Terry C.; Schottler-Thal, Carrin
Background Health literacy has been found to be a crucial component of successful communication and navigation in health care. Various tools have been developed to measure health literacy skills, but few have been developed specifically for adolescents, and most require in-person administration. This study sought to develop a self-report health literacy scale for adolescents to assess four key health literacy domains: the ability to obtain, communicate, understand, and process health information. Methods We collected data from 272 youth aged 12–19 recruited from a pediatrics clinic (37%) and the community (63%). We administered the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen, Newest Vital Sign, and three surveys, and used factor analysis to identify scale items. Results Using multiple health literacy assessments, it was clear that many teens struggle with low health literacy skills. When identifying items that can be used as self-report items in future research, factor analysis identified three subscales; a 5-item communication scale (alpha = 0.77), a 4-item confusion scale (alpha = 0.73), and a 6-item functional health literacy scale (alpha = 0.76). The scales performed reasonably well when compared with validation items. Conclusions Self-report items can be used to assess health literacy skills for adolescents when in-person administration is not possible or feasible. Such items will allow for greater study of how health literacy impacts communication in not only health care settings, but for all levels of health communication. The tool will also allow researchers to better understand how adolescent health literacy is related to a variety of health outcomes. Further testing of these scales with different populations is warranted. PMID:27656257
Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu
Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale (SOES) and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSES). A total of 232 fifth and sixth graders from four elementary schools in Taiwan participated in the study. Both scales had good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, the 6-item SOES with two factors accounted for 54.72% of total variance and the 15-item ASSES with three factors accounted for 56.49% of total variance. The SOES had convergent and discriminant validity and ASSES had convergent validity. The two scales could help school nurses to understand early adolescents' smoking outcome expectation and antismoking self-efficacy and to develop more appropriate antismoking curricula.
Faraci, Palmira; Gori, Alessio
Objective Alexithymia is a personality construct that inhibits and interferes with normal affect regulating abilities. The purpose of our study was to assess psychometric properties of TAS-20 in younger adolescents. Methods Data were collected from 508 younger adolescents (48.8% male and 51.2% female) with a mean age of 12.56 years (DS=0.50, range: 12-13 years). We administered the following scales: 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analysis performed on the second random subsample showed reasonable goodness-of-fit for the oblique bi-factorial model: [chi]2 (32, n=254)=54.22; p=0.008; χ2/df=1.69; NNFI=0.92; CFI=0.95; SRMR=0.05; RMSEA=0.05; 90% confidence interval=0.027-0.078. Conclusion Based on the outcomes of our research we support the idea of evaluating adolescents for alexithymia. PMID:26508961
Dwyer, Dominic B; Harrison, Ben J; Yücel, Murat; Whittle, Sarah; Zalesky, Andrew; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B; Fornito, Alex
Adolescence is a time when the ability to engage cognitive control is linked to crucial life outcomes. Despite a historical focus on prefrontal cortex functioning, recent evidence suggests that differences between individuals may relate to interactions between distributed brain regions that collectively form a cognitive control network (CCN). Other research points to a spatially distinct and functionally antagonistic system--the default-mode network (DMN)--which typically deactivates during performance of control tasks. This literature implies that individual differences in cognitive control are determined either by activation or functional connectivity of CCN regions, deactivation or functional connectivity of DMN regions, or some combination of both. We tested between these possibilities using a multilevel fMRI characterization of CCN and DMN dynamics, measured during performance of a cognitive control task and during a task-free resting state, in 73 human adolescents. Better cognitive control performance was associated with (1) reduced activation of CCN regions, but not deactivation of the DMN; (2) variations in task-related, but not resting-state, functional connectivity within a distributed network involving both the CCN and DMN; (3) functional segregation of core elements of these two systems; and (4) task-dependent functional integration of a set of peripheral nodes into either one network or the other in response to prevailing stimulus conditions. These results indicate that individual differences in adolescent cognitive control are not solely attributable to the functioning of any single region or network, but are instead dependent on a dynamic and context-dependent interplay between the CCN and DMN.
Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu; Kumandas, Hatice
This study aims to identify the perception levels of characteristics considered important to choose friends by adolescents from secondary education and to scale them with pair-wise comparison judgements. In this respect, this study was conducted with 100 10th grade students from a state vocational high school located in Marmara region in Turkey.…
Domingo, Meera; Chambliss, Catherine
The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) (N. Collins and S. Read, 1996) and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire (ARQ) (E. Scharfe and K. Bartholomew, 1995) widely used self-assessment measures of attachment behavior. This study investigated the validity of these two measures by administering them concurrently to 117 introductory psychology college…
Stratta, Paolo; Riccardi, Ilaria; Di Cosimo, Alessandra; Cavicchio, Alessandra; Struglia, Francesca; Daneluzzo, Enrico; Capanna, Cristina; Rossi, Alessandro
The validity of the Italian version of the 28-items Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) was examined. A sample of 472 senior high school students between 18 and 20 years of age were used for this purpose. Reliability and validity were investigated by means of Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. The…
Kim, JiHyeon; Choi, HeeCheol; Kim, HyunSoon; Park, KwanSung
The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Korean version of the Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents (GRCS-A; Blazina et al. 2005) in Korea. Korean high school students (N = 374) completed the K-GRCS-A. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the original 4-factor structures. Reliability was acceptable to…
Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.
The core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) was examined with a sample of 375 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. The 6 ASCA core syndrome raw scores produced an identical two-factor solution as observed in samples of American youths. Principal axis exploratory factor…
Maher, Charles A.; Barbrack, Christopher R.
Describes Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) as a potentially useful way of evaluating goal attainment of individual counseling provided to public school adolescents with conduct problems. Presents an application of the GAS method and reports formative evaluation data pertaining to practical and technical properties of the approach. (LLL)
Çapan, Bahtiyar Eraslan; Bakioglu, Fuad
In this study, reliability and validity are assessed for a Turkish culture adaptation of the Collective Moral Disengagement Scale for Adolescents. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, translation, exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency coefficients, and test-retest method were performed; in the second stage,…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Canivez, Gary L.
Study reports on the psychometric properties of a brief instrument, the Sexual Communication Scale, used to measure the frequency of communication about sexual matters between parents and adolescents. Instrument addresses sexual topics ranging from dating to sexual intercourse to homosexuality to HIV/AIDS. Analyses showed that the SCS demonstrated…
Canivez, Gary L.
Independent examination and replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) is reported. A sample of 1,020 children were randomly selected from their classroom and rated on the ASCA by their teacher. The six ASCA core syndromes produced a…
McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Rhoad, Anna M.; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.
Given relevant cultural distinctions across nations, it is important to determine the dimensional structure and normative characteristics of psychological assessment devices in each focal population. This article examines the national standardization and validation of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) with a nationally…
Osman, Augustine; Gilpin, Andrew R.; Panak, William F.; Kopper, Beverly A.; Barrios, Francisco X.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Chiros, Christine E.
Examines construct validity and psychometric properties of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Confirmatory factor analysis provides support for the fit of the 28-item, four-factor model. Results of regression analyses reveal that high scores on the repulsion by life and the attraction to death subscales…
Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena
The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…
Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine
Research has suggested that self-report measures of expressed emotion (EE) may be employed as a proxy measure of environmental stress in the home. The appropriateness of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale as a measure of perceived expressed emotion was examined in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 239 male and 422 female adolescents…
Klos, Dennis S.; Paddock, John R.
Three criteria for assessing parent-child relationships were proposed: self-disclosure despite risk of parental disapproval; openness to critical feedback from parents; and constructive confrontation when angry with parents. These concepts were operationalized as narratives of parent-adolescent dilemmas. Scales were constructed and cross validated…
Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Altoè, Gianmarco; Spada, Marcantonio M
Background and aims Recent research on problematic Facebook use has highlighted the need to develop a specific theory-driven measure to assess this potential behavioral addiction. The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Problematic Facebook Use Scale (PFUS) adapted from Caplan's Generalized Problematic Internet Scale model. Methods A total of 1,460 Italian adolescents and young adults (aged 14-29 years) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed in order to assess the factorial validity of the scale. Results Results revealed that the factor structure of the PFUS provided a good fit to the data. Furthermore, results of the multiple group analyses supported the invariance of the model across age and gender groups. Discussion and conclusions This study provides evidence supporting the factorial validity of the PFUS. This new scale provides a theory-driven tool to assess problematic use of Facebook among male and female adolescents and young adults.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chou, Chien; Kim, Dong-Il; Watanabe, Hiroko; Ho, Roger C M
The Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was developed to assess Internet addiction in Chinese populations, but its psychometric properties in adolescents have not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of CIAS-R in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. 860 Grade 7 to 13 students (38 % boys) completed the CIAS-R, the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) in a survey. The prevalence of Internet addiction as assessed by CIAS-R was 18 %. High internal consistency and inter-item correlations were reported for the CIAS-R. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure of Compulsive Use and Withdrawal, Tolerance, Interpersonal and Health-related Problems, and Time Management Problems. Moreover, results of hierarchical multiple regression supported the incremental validity of the CIAS-R to predict mental health outcomes beyond the effects of demographic differences and self-reported time spent online. The CIAS is a reliable and valid measure of internet addiction problems in Hong Kong adolescents. Future study is warranted to validate the cutoffs of the CIAS-R for identification of adolescents with Internet use problems who may have mental health needs.
Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others
Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…
In this self-concept scale for adolescents based on Havighurst's developmental task, the person is asked to read a paragraph which explains the task and to report the way he sees and feels about his ability to achieve the task in relation to what he can do, what others do, and what it takes to be successful at the task. Response is on a scale of…
Suinn, R M; Edwards, R
Describes the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A). Normative data on over 1,200 junior high and senior high students are reported. In addition, psychometric data that relate to reliability and construct validity for the MARS-A scale are discussed. Two factors were identified in the scale, a factor of numerical anxiety that appeared in 91% of the items and a factor of mathematics test anxiety that appeared in the remaining items. Results that show the association between high mathematics anxiety scale scores and low grade average in mathematics courses are reported on two samples of students.
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Eklund, Robert C; Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Garbarino, Jean-Marie; Stephan, Yannick
We conducted a series of studies to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) among a total sample of 1,563 nonclinical French adolescents. The, first study provided support for the item content of the preliminary version of the French SPAS for adolescents. Then, the second study supported the convergent validity of the English and French version of the SPAS. Finally, Studies 3 to 6 provided support for the factor validity, measurement invariance (across genders, age groups and samples), latent mean structure invariance (across age category and samples), reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity of a 7-item version of the SPAS.
Piqueras, José Antonio; Olivares, José; Hidalgo, María Dolores
The aim of this study was to analyse the screening utility of the Social Anxiety Screening Scale (SASS/EDAS) in a sample of 227 adolescents with social anxiety disorder and 156 Without it (14-17 years). Results showed that the EDAS subscales (Avoidance, Distress and Interference) scores were reliable in terms of internal consistency (alpha > .80). All the subscales discriminated between adolescents with and without the disorder. They also showed a positive and significant correlation with other empirically validated measures of social anxiety. The three subscales indicated relevant sensitivity (69.16-84.14%), specificity (63.46-66.03%) and areas under the curve (.74-.81%). Binary logistic regression analyses indicated the adequate predictive utility of EDAS subscales, with the Distress subscale as the best diagnostic predictor. The data provide empirical evidence of the usefulness of EDAS as a screener for adolescent social anxiety disorder in terms of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness.
White, Rebecca M. B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures. PMID:22116736
White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H
The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.
Aim The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Results Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems. PMID:27646730
Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001) Conclusion: According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents. PMID:27713893
Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica
As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…
Zhou, Xinyue; Xu, Qian; Inglés, Cándido J; Hidalgo, María D; La Greca, Annette M
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in a sample of 296 adolescents (49% boys) in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 with a mean age of 15.52 years. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor structure of the SAS-A in the Chinese sample: Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Social Avoidance and Distress in New Situations (SAD-New), and Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were appropriate. The results also revealed a clear and predictable pattern of relationships between the SAS-A and the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents and the International Personality Item Pool. Chinese boys reported greater SAD-General than Chinese girls, and this difference increased with grade. The SAS-A scores were compared to previously collected data from the USA and Spain, revealing that Chinese adolescents scored significantly higher in social anxiety than American and Spanish adolescents.
Pinto, Katia S.; Carvalho, Camila G. C.; Nakamoto, Lilian; Nunes, Luiz G. N.
ABSTRACT Background Assessments of motor-functional aspects in cerebral palsy are crucial to rehabilitation programs. Objective To introduce the Sarah motor-functional evaluation scale and to report the initial results of its measurement properties. This scale was created based on the experience of the Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals in the care of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Method Preliminary results concerning the measurement properties of the scale were obtained via assessment of 76 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Experts' opinions were used to determine an expected empirical score by age group and to differentiate severity levels. Results The scale exhibited a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.95). Strong correlation was observed with experts’ classification for severity levels (0.81 to 0.97) and with the scales Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (0.80 to 0.98). Regression analysis detected a significant relationship between the scale score and the severity of the child’s motor impairment. The inter-rater reliability was also strong (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.98 to 0.99). The internal responsiveness of the scale score was confirmed by significant differences between longitudinal evaluations (paired Student’s t test with p<0.01; standardized response mean of 0.60). Conclusion The Sarah scale provides a valid measure for assessing the motor skills and functional performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. The preliminary results showed that the Sarah scale has potential for use in routine clinical practice and rehabilitation units. PMID:27437718
Farahani, Azam Shirinabadi; Rassouli, Maryam; Yaghmaie, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Sajjadi, Moosa
Background: Given the greater tendency during adolescence toward risk-taking, identifying and measuring the factors affecting the adolescents’ health is highly important to ensure the efficacy of health promoting interventions. One of these factors is self-transcendence. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric features of the Self-Transcendence Scale (adolescents’ version) in students in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Methods: This research was conducted in 2015. For this purpose, 1210 high school students were selected through the multistage cluster sampling method. After the backward-forward translation, the psychometric properties of the scale were examined through the assessment of the (face and construct) validity and reliability (internal consistency and stability) of the scale. The construct validity was assessed using two methods, factor analysis, and convergence of the scale with the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Results: The result of face validity was minor modifications in some words. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in the extraction of two dimensions, with explaining 52.79% of the variance collectively. In determining the convergent validity, the correlation between hopefulness score and self-transcendence score was r=0.47 (P<0.001). The internal consistency of the scale was determined using Cronbach’s alpha of 0.82 for the whole scale and 0.75 and 0.70 for each of the sub-scales. The stability reliability was found to have an ICC of 0.86 and a confidence interval of 95%. Conclusion: The Persian version of the Adolescents’ Self-Transcendence Scale showed an acceptable validity and reliability and can be used in the assessment of self-transcendence in Iranian adolescents. PMID:27218113
Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Coşguner, Tolga
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale (PMPUS) for Turkish Adolescents. The psychometric properties of PMPUS were tested in two separate sample groups that consisted of 950 Turkish high school students. The first sample group (n=309) was used to determine the factor structure of the scale. The second sample group (n=461) was used to test data conformity with the identified structure, discriminant validity and concurrent scale validity, internal consistency reliability calculations, and item statistics calculations. The results of exploratory factor analyses indicated that the scale had three factors: interference with negative effect, compulsion/persistence, and withdrawal/tolerance. The results showed that item and construct reliability values yielded satisfactory rates in general for the three-factor construct. On the other hand, the average variance extracted value remained below the scale value for three subscales. The scores for the scale significantly correlated with depression and loneliness. In addition, the discriminant validity value was above the scale in all sub-dimensions except one. Based on these data, the reliability of the PMPUS scale appears to be satisfactory and provides good internal consistency. Therefore, with limited exception, the PMPUS was found to be reliable and valid in the context of Turkish adolescents.
Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu
Objectives To develop and validate brief scales to measure common emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents in the examination-oriented education system and collectivistic culture of China. Setting Middle schools in Hunan province. Participants 5442 middle school students aged 11–19 years were sampled. 4727 valid questionnaires were collected and used for validation of the scales. The final sample included 2408 boys and 2319 girls. Primary and secondary outcome measures The tools were assessed by the item response theory, classical test theory (reliability and construct validity) and differential item functioning. Results Four scales to measure anxiety, depression, study problem and sociality problem were established. Exploratory factor analysis showed that each scale had two solutions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable to good model fit for each scale. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of all scales were above 0.7. Item response theory showed that all items had acceptable discrimination parameters and most items had appropriate difficulty parameters. 10 items demonstrated differential item functioning with respect to gender. Conclusions Four brief scales were developed and validated among adolescents in middle schools of China. The scales have good psychometric properties with minor differential item functioning. They can be used in middle school settings, and will help school officials to assess the students’ emotional/behavioural problems. PMID:28062469
Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.
Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…
Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.
This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…
Hagborg, Winston J.
Administered Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents to 150 adolescents in grades 8 through 12. Correlational and cross-validation multiple regression analyses found that RSE total score and both its factor scores were strongly related to Global Self-Worth. Females reported significantly lower RSE…
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Besser, Avi; Su, Chang; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boucher, Daniel; Munro, Yvette; Davidson, Lisa A.; Gale, Olga
There is growing interest in perfectionism among children and adolescents as well as growing interest in the measures designed to assess perfectionism in young people. The current article describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), a measure that assesses self-oriented…
Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun
Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang
The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…
Dockendorff, Sally A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Martin, Scott
The Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) initially was developed in a sample of college women to measure adaptive forms of eating, such as eating based on physiological rather than emotional cues. This study extends the work of Tylka (2006) and reports the psychometric evaluation of the IES in a sample of 515 middle-school boys and girls.…
Robles-García, Rebeca; Fresán, Ana; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia; Gómez, Diego; de Quevedo Y Domínguez, María Emilia G; Rafful, Claudia; Real, Tania; Vásquez, Lucía; Medina-Mora, María Elena
To validate the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in a sample of Mexican adolescents, this brief 23-item self-report questionnaire has been developed to screen four high-risk personality traits for substance misuse, to guide targeted approaches to prevention of addictions in adolescents. The scale has been previously validated in United Kingdom, Canada, Sri Lanka and China. A sample of 671 adolescents aged 11-17 completed a Spanish translation of the SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. The Spanish translation of the SURPS has moderate internal consistency, and demonstrated a four-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The four subscales show good concurrent validity and three of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. The Spanish translation of the SURPS seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a Mexican adolescent population.
Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Inglés, Cándido J; García-Fernández, José M; Hidalgo, María D; Bermejo, Rosa; Puklek Levpušček, Melita
This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Slovenian-developed Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SASA; Puklek, 1997; Puklek & Vidmar, 2000) using a community sample (Study 1) and a clinical sample (Study 2). Confirmatory factor analysis in Study 1 replicated the 2-factor structure found by the original authors in a sample of Slovenian adolescents. Test-retest reliability was adequate. Furthermore, the SASA correlated significantly with other social anxiety scales, supporting concurrent validity evidence in Spanish adolescents. The results of Study 2 confirmed the correlations between the SASA and other social anxiety measures in a clinical sample. In addition, findings revealed that the SASA can effectively discriminate between adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and those without this disorder. Finally, cut-off scores for the SASA are provided for Spanish adolescents.
This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure.
Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T
The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.
Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.
Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463
Robbins, Lorraine B; Wu, Tsu-Yin; Sikorskii, Alla; Morley, Blair
The purpose of this study was to psychometrically test the Adolescent Physical Activity Perceived Benefits and Barriers Scales developed for middle-school-age youth. A total of 206 racially diverse 6th, 7th, and 8th graders completed questionnaires at two time points (2 weeks apart). For the 10-item Perceived Benefits Scale and the 9-item Perceived Barriers Scale, test-retest reliability (r = .70; r = .71, respectively) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was .80 and .79, respectively, at time 1) were supported. Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was employed to assess construct validity. A 2-factor solution emerged for each scale as predicted. The relationship between both scale scores and self-reported physical activity provided additional evidence of validity. Both instruments were found to be reliable and valid for measuring the perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity in middle school youth.
Essner, Bonnie; Noel, Melanie; Myrvik, Matthew; Palermo, Tonya
This study examined the factor structure of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale (ASWS) among 491 adolescents (12-18 years) with and without pediatric health conditions. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using iterated principal axis factoring with varimax rotation. Highly cross-loading items were systematically removed and analyses were rerun until a clean solution was attained. The final solution explained 57.1% of the total model variance, including 10 items and three factors: Falling Asleep and Reinitiating Sleep-Revised, returning to Wakefulness-Revised, and Going to Bed-Revised. Internal consistency reliability scores were acceptable to good, with the exception of the Going to Bed-Revised subscale for the healthy sample. Adolescents with chronic pain reported significantly poorer overall sleep quality and more problems in falling asleep, reinitiating sleep, and returning to wakefulness as compared to healthy adolescents, providing preliminary evidence for construct validity of the new factors. The resulting ASWS version is a concise assessment tool with empirically derived, distinct behavioral sleep dimensions that can be used for clinical and research purposes.
Chang, Bonny; Sharp, Carla; Ha, Carolyn
The purpose of the current study was to examine the criterion validity of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (BPFS-C) by assessing the performance of the self-report and a newly developed parent report version of the measure (BPFS-P) in detecting a borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnosis in adolescent inpatients. This study also examined parent-child agreement and the internal consistency of the BPFS subscales. An inpatient sample of adolescents (n = 51) ranging from ages 12-18 completed the BPFS and were administered the Child Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD) by trained clinical research staff. ROC analyses revealed that the BPFS-C has high accuracy (AUC = .931; Se = .856; Sp = .840) in discriminating adolescents with a diagnosis of BPD, as measured by the CI-BPD, while the BPFS-P has moderate accuracy (AUC = .795; Se = .733; Sp = .720). Parent-child agreement on total scores was significant (r = .687; p < .005). Cronbach's alphas suggested internal consistency for the four subscales of the BPFS. These findings support the criterion validity of this measure, particularly the self-report version, in adolescent inpatient settings.
Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H
This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record
da Silva, Hítalo Andrade; dos Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira; de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. Results The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. Conclusion The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. PMID:28076595
Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko
The recent development of internet infrastructure has fuelled a popular concern that young Asian internet users are experiencing Internet addiction due to excessive Internet use. In order to understand the phenomenon, psychometric validation of a 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), with 417 Chinese adolescents has been performed. Compared to other instruments for use with Chinese populations, e.g. the 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the CIUS is relatively concise, and easy to use for measuring and diagnosing Internet addiction. The present psychometric validation has found good factorial stability with a one-factor solution for the CIUS. The internal consistency and model fit indices were very good, and even better than any previous CIUS validations. The Chinese CIUS is a valid and reliable self-reporting instrument for examining compulsive Internet use among Chinese adolescents. Other findings included: male adolescents tend to experience more compulsive Internet use than their female counterparts, and CIUS scores were positively correlated with the daily Internet use time and negatively correlated with the academic performance of the participants. No significant relationships between the CIUS, ICT accessibility, family economic condition, parental occupation or religion were found.
Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano
For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability.
Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano
For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability. PMID:27445909
Samant, Asawari; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A; Vlachos, Dionisios G
Background The fundamental role that intrinsic stochasticity plays in cellular functions has been shown via numerous computational and experimental studies. In the face of such evidence, it is important that intracellular networks are simulated with stochastic algorithms that can capture molecular fluctuations. However, separation of time scales and disparity in species population, two common features of intracellular networks, make stochastic simulation of such networks computationally prohibitive. While recent work has addressed each of these challenges separately, a generic algorithm that can simultaneously tackle disparity in time scales and population scales in stochastic systems is currently lacking. In this paper, we propose the hybrid, multiscale Monte Carlo (HyMSMC) method that fills in this void. Results The proposed HyMSMC method blends stochastic singular perturbation concepts, to deal with potential stiffness, with a hybrid of exact and coarse-grained stochastic algorithms, to cope with separation in population sizes. In addition, we introduce the computational singular perturbation (CSP) method as a means of systematically partitioning fast and slow networks and computing relaxation times for convergence. We also propose a new criteria of convergence of fast networks to stochastic low-dimensional manifolds, which further accelerates the algorithm. Conclusion We use several prototype and biological examples, including a gene expression model displaying bistability, to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy and applicability of the HyMSMC method. Bistable models serve as stringent tests for the success of multiscale MC methods and illustrate limitations of some literature methods. PMID:17524148
Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; de León, Ma Celeste Dávila; Sorroche, María Gutiérrez
Adolescents tend to be much later chronotypes than other age groups. This circadian phase delay is attributed as much to biological as psychosocial factors. Because the consequences of this change on performance and health have been documented, questionnaires to identify morning and evening-type adolescents are necessary. The aim of the present study was to validate a Spanish version of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) by means of several relevant psychological variables as external criteria. A sample of 623 urban high school students completed the MESC and self-reported measures of sleep behaviors, subjective alertness, physical performance, and mood. On the whole, results indicate a good validity of MESC. Significant differences in the self-reported ratings between morning and evening types were obtained by time-of-day. These results provide preliminary support for the Spanish version of MESC.
Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon
Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water
Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606
Chaffin, M; Wherry, J N; Dykman, R
Strategies used by 84 sexually abused children, ages 7 to 12, to cope with their abuse were evaluated, along with child abuse-related symptoms, parent-reported behavioral symptoms, and teacher-reported behavioral symptoms. Principal components analysis of coping yielded four strategies that were labeled avoidant coping, internalized coping, angry coping, and active/social coping. Each coping strategy was found to be associated with a unique set of abuse characteristics, abuse-related social environment, and symptoms. In contrast to findings with adult survivors and adolescents, use of avoidant coping strategies among school-age children was found to be related to fewer behavioral problems, although it was also associated with greater sexual anxieties. Internalized coping was found to be associated with increased guilt and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Active/social coping was the only strategy found to be unrelated to symptoms, but neither was it associated with measured benefits. In contrast to some clinical opinion that externalizing blame and venting anger is a helpful strategy, angry coping was found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the child's home-room school teacher. Results are discussed in terms of a proposed mediational model.
Buran, Constance F; Sawin, Kathleen J; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S
The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, USA has identified activities, beliefs, and perceptions critical for healthy development. The aim of this study was to measure the activities, beliefs and expectations, and perceived outcomes of adolescents with myelomeningocele. In this descriptive study, 66 adolescents with myelomeningocele, aged 12 to 21 years and functioning at grade level, completed a structured interview. Thirty-eight (58%) of the participants were female. The level of lesion was distributed as follows: 30% had thoracic level lesions, 32% had lumbar level lesions, 15% had lumbosacral level lesions, and 23% of the sample had sacral level lesions. Instruments used had both established reliability and validity (WeeFIM, Harter's Self-Perception Profile, Austin's Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale, and Snyder's Hope Scale, Adolescent Decision-Making Inventory, Adolescent Coping Scale) or were scales developed for this study (Adolescent Activities Inventory, Future Expectations Scale, Communication Efficacy, and Adolescent Self-Management and Independence Scale). Scale reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. These participants, though hopeful and positive in their attitudes toward myelomeningocele and generally able to perform activities of daily living independently, are not engaging in the full range of adolescent activities (decision making, friendship activities, and household responsibilities) and achieving positive outcomes (self-management and job) necessary to make a successful transition to adulthood. This might explain why so many individuals with myelomeningocele are underemployed and are not living independently as young adults.
Pereira, Bruna Antunes de Aguiar Ximenes; Schram, Patricia Franco Cintra; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de
The scope of this article is to present the Brazilian version of the CRAFFT scale for screening drug use among adolescents and to assess its comprehensibility. It is a descriptive and quantitative study, which evaluated the applicability of the Brazilian version of the CRAFFT scale through a convenience sample of adolescents aged 14-21 enrolled at two technical schools. Three main aspects were evaluated: difficulty in understanding the scale; the validity of the translated scale comparing a subsample (28,8%) that also filled out the CEBRID questionnaire; and the percentage of adolescents who scored positive on the CRAFFT/CESARE using the pre-established cutoff point. The kappa coefficient was applied to establish correspondence between questionnaires and the ROC curve was used to evaluate the psychometric differences within different cutoffs. The CRAFFT/CESARE scale was applied in 2005 students, of which 1882 are within the defined age bracket. Only 2.2% of adolescents had difficulty in understanding the questions. The specificity of the CRAFFT/CESARE scale was 73.3%, and sensitivity was 87.1%. The concordance degree (Kappa) was considered good (0.461). The CRAFFT/CESARE scored positive in 36.2% of the adolescents.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio
This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…
Kelly, Yvonne; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara
Resilience is a process reflecting positive adaptation in the face of adversity. The Resilience Scale for Adolescence (READ) incorporates intrapersonal and interpersonal protective factors mapping onto the three salient domains of resilience, including individual, family and external environment. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the READ by means of factor analysis, multi-group analysis, inter-correlations and internal consistency measures. Participants were 6085 young people in Ireland aged 12-18 years. Participants completed the My World Survey - Second Level (MWS-SL), assessing risk and protective factors of mental health. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the original five-factor structure of the READ including Personal Competence, Social Competence, Structured Style, Family Cohesion, and Social Resources, χ(2) (340) = 6146.02, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.056 (90% CI = 0.054-0.057), CFI = 0.97; GFI = 0.93. Measurement invariance indicated that the five-factor structure was similar across gender, school cycle and distress levels. Construct validity was evident, by correlating the five factors of the READ with various social, psychological and behavioural variables. The findings suggest that the READ is a valid measure to assess resilience factors among adolescents in Ireland, demonstrating its applicability in a different cultural context and with a wider age range of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen
The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.
Calvete, Esther; Camara, Maria; Estevez, Ana; Villardón, Lourdes
This study examined the role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms, as well as gender differences in this process. Participants included 978 adolescents (aged 14-18 years), who completed measures of social stressors, coping responses, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of the study and measures of depressive symptoms at a six-month follow-up. High levels of disengagement and low levels of secondary control coping predicted a residual increase in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Interactive effects were weak and moderated by gender: among female adolescents, the use of disengagement coping exacerbated the impact of social stressors on depressive symptoms, whereas the use of secondary control reduced these effects. Female adolescents scored higher than male adolescents on perceived social stress, disengagement, and primary control coping. Moreover, differences in perceived social stress and disengagement coping contributed to explain the female adolescents' higher scores on depressive symptoms. These findings have important implications for interventions.
Schützler, Lena; Witt, Claudia M.
Background. Expectancies regarding a treatment play an important role in recovery as has been shown in placebo research. The role of expectations regarding the bodily capability to overcome illness is less investigated although in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such capability is the target of interventions. We introduced a new construct, body-efficacy expectation, defined as the conviction that one's body is able to deal with health-threatening factors by itself, and developed and validated a scale for its measurement. Methods. The scale was developed following expert recommendations. Using online survey data from 1054 participants an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and psychometric properties of the scale were examined (item characteristics, reliability, and validity). Results. The exploratory factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution explaining 51.96% of total variance (Cronbach's α = 0.77). One of the originally six items was removed due to poor item characteristics. Correlations with several validation measures were in line with the theoretical background of the construct. Most importantly, participants with better general health showed higher body-efficacy expectation than participants with poorer health status. Conclusions. Further studies confirming the factor structure and using clinical samples are recommended. Also, the relations with the appraisal of CAM and CAM use warrant further research. PMID:24312132
Woodman, A. C.; Hauser-Cram, P.
Background: Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) face greater caregiving demands than parents of children without DD. There is considerable variability in parents' adjustment to raising a child with DD, however. In line with a strengths-based approach, this study explores coping strategies as potential mechanisms of resilience…
Spencer, Margaret Beale; Tinsley, Brian
This article reviews how minority status, resiliency, and privilege interact to affect adolescent coping responses. It then presents a model which seeks to show how identity interacts with ecological theory. (Contains 1 figure.)
Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A
Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.
Kuo, Ben C H
A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This
Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Duarte, Cristiane; Shen, Sa
Objective: This article provides the results of the psychometric testing of the Brief Impairment Scale (BIS). The BIS is a 23-item instrument that evaluates three domains of functioning: interpersonal relations, school/work functioning, and self-care/self-fulfilment. It capitalizes on the strengths of existing global measures while addressing some…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron; de Kemp, Raymond; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined the psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the 'triangular love scale' (TLS), which assesses three components of romantic relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using data from 435 Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years, we found evidence for convergent validity, showing that dimensions of intimacy, passion, and commitment were all positively correlated with relationship satisfaction and duration. Evidence was also found for divergent validity, as adolescents' perceptions of the main (dis)advantages of being involved in romantic relationships showed a specific pattern of associations with intimacy, passion, and commitment. Finally, CFA analyses in LISREL showed that a model in which all separate questionnaire items were specified to load on three underlying, correlated factors (intimacy, passion, commitment) fit the data adequately. Overall, this measure seems appropriate for use with adolescents.
Robbins, Lorraine B; Ling, Jiying; Wesolek, Stacey M; Kazanis, Anamaria S; Bourne, Kelly A; Resnicow, Ken
Purpose . To examine psychometric properties of a Commitment to Physical Activity Scale for Adolescents (CPASA). Design . Two test-retest studies and a prospective study, approved by a university institutional review board, were conducted in midwestern U.S. urban areas. Setting . The first test-retest study occurred in four community centers, the second test-retest study took place in a community school, and the prospective study occurred in eight middle schools. Subjects . To measure commitment at baseline and 1 week later, 51 girls in the first test-retest study completed an original 26-item scale, and 91 in the second test-retest study completed a revised 11-item scale. In the prospective study, 503 girls completed the 11-item scale. Measures . Commitment was measured via the CPASA. After completing the CPASA, girls in the prospective study wore ActiGraph GT3X-plus accelerometers that measured light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Analysis . Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated. Both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to cross-validate the factor structure. Results . For the 11-item CPASA, Cronbach α ranged from .81 to .82, and test-retest reliability was .88. Both EFA and CFA indicated a single factor. The scale was significantly correlated with LMVPA (r = .10) and MVPA (r = .11). Conclusion . The 11-item CPASA demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity with girls.
Rohde, Paul; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.; Mace, David E.
Objective: To describe the development and initial evaluation of the Coping Course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention designed to enhance general coping and problem-solving skills among incarcerated youth. Method: Between 2001 and 2002, 76 male adolescents incarcerated at a youth correctional facility were assessed by questionnaire and…
Bosco, Francesca M.; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia
This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11–17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563
Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…
According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility.
Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min
The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults…
Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.
The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…
Loneliness is a prevailing experience which is particularly familiar to adolescents and young adults. It is a subjective experience which is influenced by one's personality, life experiences, and situational variables. The present study examined the influence of drug cessation on coping with loneliness. Drug abusers, during their stay in detox…
Bates, Michael P; Furlong, Michael J; Green, Jennifer Greif
Presents a psychometric analysis of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), one of the most commonly used measures of functional impairment in youths with emotional and behavioral disorders. Specific aims of the current investigation were to (a) examine the conceptual organization of the CAFAS items, (b) explore its scaling properties, and (c) investigate its construct validity. In Phase 1, a group of advanced graduate students and clinicians rated CAFAS items with respect to the degree that they reflect the originally assigned subscales. In Phase 2, additional raters assigned severity values to the subset of CAFAS items selected from Phase 1. Items were then scaled using simplified successive intervals scaling techniques. Results show differences between new empirically derived item weights and the original scoring method. This investigation highlights the benefits of continued examination and critique of level-of-functioning scaling for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in children and adolescents.
Hussong, Andrea M; Chassin, Laurie
The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11-23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed.
Elkins, R Meredith; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S
The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS; Shear et al., 1997) is a well-validated measure that assesses symptoms of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PDA) in adults. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale for Children (PDSS-C) is an adaptation of the PDSS for youth ages 11-17. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the PDSS-C. Participants included 60 adolescents from a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an intensive cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent PDA. Convergent and discriminant validity of PDSS-C scores were evaluated via observed associations between the PDSS-C and the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, & Peterson, 1991), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC; March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, & Conners, 1997), and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 2003). Baseline and posttreatment data afforded the opportunity to evaluate the measure's sensitivity to treatment-related change. PDSS-C scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = .82) and adequate 1-day test-retest reliability (r = .79). Convergent and discriminant validity of the PDSS-C scores were supported through significant associations with the CASI and the MASC, and nonsignificant associations with the CDI, respectively. Linear regression analysis demonstrated sensitivity to treatment-related changes-that is, greater PDSS-C change scores were significantly associated with assignment to CBT vs. waitlist condition. Clinical utility was further established through significant associations between PDSS-C change scores and MASC and CASI change scores, and through nonsignificant associations with CDI change scores. Results support the use of PDSS-C scores as reliable, valid, and clinically useful for the assessment of youth panic disorder in research and clinical settings.
Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi
This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.
The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid
This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…
Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Isorna Folgar, Manuel; Araujo Gallego, Manuel; Varela Mallou, Jesús
Adolescents' use of the Internet is becoming a matter of great concern for different sectors of society. The psychological and behavioural consequences of problematic Internet use in young people demands quick and effective answers. One of the major challenges in this context is the development of empirically validated tools, which would facilitate early detection and screening for potential risk cases. This is precisely the aim of this paper. Based on a sample of 1,709 secondary-school students from Galicia (a region in northern Spain) aged 11 to 17 (M = 13.74, SD = 1.43), the analysis carried out permitted us to present a brief and simple tool (with just 11 items). It has substantial theoretical support, since both the existing background information and the views of experts from the academic and professional spheres were taken into account in the course of its development. The scale is adapted to the Spanish cultural context and to the language of young people. It has satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability of the scores (α = .82), evidence of its internal structure (tested via a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis), sensitivity (81%), and specificity (82.6%). Moreover, its use enables the gradation of adolescents on a risk or problematic Internet use continuum. In our view, all of this lends it enormous applied potential in both the educational and clinical contexts.
Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su
The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides.
Storch, Eric A; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Fisher, Paige H; Pincus, Donna B; Liebowitz, Michael R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the social interaction and performance subscales for the anxiety and avoidance ratings yielded poor fit indices. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution with a higher order factor for the LSAS-CA anxiety and avoidance ratings. Based on item content, factors were named Social and School Performance. The internal consistency of the factors was high and the convergent and divergent validity was supported vis-à-vis correlations with measures of depression and social anxiety, and clinician ratings of impairment and functioning. Findings suggest that the anxiety and avoidance ratings are best explained by a two-factor solution that measures social anxiety and avoidance in social and school performance interactions. This factor structure appears to be a reliable and valid framework for assessing childhood social phobia.
Pinto, Melissa D.; Hickman, Ronald L.; Thomas, Tami
Stigma is one of the greatest obstacles to mental health care and is associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms, impaired daily functioning, and limited engagement in mental health treatment. The Stigma Scale for Receiving Professional Psychological Help (SSRPH) is a measure of public stigma, which has been used in young adults and has limited psychometric data in adolescents. This paper reports the reliability and validity of the SSRPH in adolescent girls (n=156, age 13–17). Discriminant validity was supported, but concurrent validity was not. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed excellent model fit and serves as beginning evidence for construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha for the SSRPH was .65. The SSRPH was stable over 8 weeks. Findings suggest that the SSRPH can serve as a foundation for further instrument development. Future studies may explore enhancing the reliability and validity of the SSRPH and employ advanced analytic techniques to examine the overall global construct of stigma, the latent constructs of public and private stigma, and associations of individual items to these constructs. PMID:25100566
Zubeidat, Ihab; Salinas, José María; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Social phobia is an excessive concern about scrutiny by other people in situations the person considers embarrassing or humiliating. The purpose of this study is to explore the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the social fear and social avoidance subscales of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and to analyze the score distribution of both subscales. To this end, we assessed a sample of 1,012 Spanish adolescents attending school. The results of a first-order factor analysis indicate the existence of a dominant factor in both subscales of the LSAS--as well as three other less relevant factors--and explain most of the variance of the subscales. The internal consistency of the first factor was quite high in both subscales. The LSAS and its two subscales showed adequate theoretical validity with different variables related to social interaction. Finally, the different scores obtained in both subscales make it possible to group adolescents into three clusters with different characteristics. A study of the sociodemographic variables of the components of the clusters showed a significant relation only with sex.
Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…
O'Brien, Sandra L.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rising exponentially. U.S. public health authorities report a 78% increase in ASD prevalence rate during the period (2002-2008), effecting 1 child in 50. Families of adolescents with ASD face the complex task of managing their children's transition into adulthood. Complicating this task is…
Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and explored the relationship between FAS and health in a general adolescent population of Taiwan. Our data was obtained from a 2009 school-based survey. In total, 3,368 students (1,741 boys, 1,627 girls) in grades 6-10 in Kinmen County, Taiwan completed a…
This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Courville, Troy
This article examines invariance of the three-factor structure of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents across age band and gender within normative samples. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the three-factor model fits for all groups. In addition, invariance analysis shows no statistical differences in factor structure between…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Tested the validity of the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS), which assesses the quality of children's and early adolescents' relationships with their best friends along five aspects of the friendship relation: companionship, conflict, help/aid, security, and closeness. Discusses the dimensions according to the issues related to the measurement of…
Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy
The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…
Hunter, Simon C.; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa
While there is increasing recognition of the need to go beyond measures of mental ill health, there is a relative dearth of validated tools for assessing mental well-being among adolescents. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is a promising tool for use in this context, and this study evaluated its use in an Australian context.…
Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul
There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…
Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Corwyn, Robert Flynn
Examined the cross-age comparability of the widely used Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 414 adolescents and 900 adults in families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Found similarities of means in the RSES across groups. (SLD)
Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Moyer, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Gerardo E.
The "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale" (MOSS) is a norm-referenced, self-report instrument designed to assess characteristics of psychopathology among children and adolescents from 11 to 18 years of age. Although the MOSS has been used in several research studies within juvenile justice or disciplinary education contexts, the psychometric…
Canivez, Gary L.
Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB-5; Roid, 2003a) for child and adolescent samples is reported. Multiple criteria for factor extraction unanimously supported extraction of only one dimension and a unidimensional model. However, following results from DiStefano and Dombrowski (2006)…
Wong, Wing S.
The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale were examined in a sample of 415 Chinese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses of the present data disconfirmed the original 4-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to explore the underlying structure of the data set. A…
Piscione, P Janine; Davis, Aileen M; Young, Nancy L
This study provides an examination of responses on the Activities Scale for Kids, performance version (ASKp), for evaluating physical function in adolescents with malignant lower extremity bone tumors. Twenty-one participants (ages 10.4 to 17.9 years), who had tumor resection surgery, completed the ASKp on two occasions. ASKp data were examined for ceiling and/or floor effects, item distributions, and Not Applicable (NA) responses, as well as textual comments. Ceiling effects were 12.5% and 19%, and 0% demonstrated floor effects. The extreme response options were chosen most frequently, and approximately one third of respondents used NA more than 10% of the time. Overall, this population demonstrated moderately high NA rates and higher than anticipated ceiling effects on the ASKp. These data suggest that caution should be taken when interpreting item-level data in this population and further studies guiding the scoring and interpretation of NA responses are recommended.
Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; Sicilia, Álvaro; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto
The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of Motl and Conroy's model of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS-7). To achieve this goal, a sample of 398 secondary school students was used, and the psychometric properties of the SPAS-7 were examined through different analyses. The results supported the seven-item model, although the item 5 did not show any significant correlation with two items from this model and had a lower factor loading than the rest of items. The structure of the model was invariant across gender and Body Mass Index (BMI). Alpha value over .70 and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Girls and students classified according to the BMI as overweight and obese had higher scores in social physique anxiety than boys and the group classified as underweight and normal range. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the SPAS-7 in a Spanish adolescent sample.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G
Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth.
Schneider, Kerri M.; Phares, Vicky
This article addresses the process by which children and adolescents cope with severe acute stress of parental loss from causes other than divorce or death. Participants were 60 children and adolescents from a residential treatment facility. Most had experienced neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse, and their parents had their parential…
Basilio, Camille D; Knight, George P; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Torres, Marisela
Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born in either Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores and present confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale is available in English and in Spanish. The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans.
Piqueras, José Antonio; Olivares, José; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Marzo, Juan Carlos
The aim of this work was to update the validation of the Social Anxiety Screening Scale (SASS/EDAS) in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To achieve this, one study with a sample of 1489 students in secondary education, of ages 14 to 17 years, were carried out. The psychometric properties of EDAS were examined through confirmatory factor analysis, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), temporal stability (test-retest), and concurrent criterion validity. The results supported the three-independent-factor structure (avoidance, distress and interference), that showed best fit indices compared to alternative models. They also showed that the scores of participants on EDAS scales were reliable in terms of internal consistency (alpha > .80) and moderately reliable concerning temporal stability (r = .48-.60) over a five-week period. The correlations between the EDAS factors and other social anxiety measures were positive and significant. Data provide empirical evidence of the estimation of reliability and validity of this scale. Future work should extend the validation of the EDAS in clinical samples.
Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu
Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…
Background Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. Methods A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. Results The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. Conclusions The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa
Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.
Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R
Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.
DORUK, Ali; DUGENCİ, Muharrem; ERSÖZ, Filiz; ÖZNUR, Taner
Introduction We aimed to explore the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and coping mechanisms in a nonclinical sample with the same age and educational level. Methods The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale was used to evaluate the coping mechanisms. The IU scale was used to evaluate IU situations. Results We found that the negative impact of uncertainty on the action in female students was greater than males. While female students used more planning, instrumental support, reinterpretation, religion, emotional support, venting, and mental disengagement coping styles, male students used more humor, denial, and alcohol/drug abuse coping styles. Subjects with psychological problems had higher IU scores and used some more coping mechanisms (restraint, acceptance, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol/drug abuse) than the others. Conclusion Our results suggest that healthy subjects use different coping styles and respond differently to uncertainty in both genders.
A combined analysis of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R): Different perfectionist profiles in adolescent high school students.
Sironic, Amanda; Reeve, Robert A
To investigate differences and similarities in the dimensional constructs of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 938 high school students completed the 3 perfectionism questionnaires, as well as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Preliminary analyses revealed commonly observed factor structures for each perfectionism questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis of item responses from the questionnaires (combined) yielded a 4-factor solution (factors were labeled High Personal Standards, Concerns, Doubts and Discrepancy, Externally Motivated Perfectionism, and Organization and Order). A latent class analysis of individuals' mean ratings on each of the 4 factors yielded a 6-class solution. Three of the 6 classes represented perfectionist subgroups (labeled adaptive perfectionist, externally motivated maladaptive perfectionist, and mixed maladaptive perfectionist), and 3 represented nonperfectionist subgroups (labeled nonperfectionist A, nonperfectionist B, and order and organization nonperfectionist). Each of the 6 subgroups was meaningfully associated with the DASS. Findings showed that 3 out of 10 students were classified as maladaptive perfectionists, and maladaptive perfectionists were more prevalent than adaptive perfectionists. In sum, it is evident that combined ratings from the FMPS, CAPS, and APS-R offer a meaningful characterization of perfectionism.
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan
Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300
Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma
The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.
Basilio, Camille D.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Torres, Marisela
Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born either in Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (MABS; 27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores, and confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The MABS is available both in English and Spanish (see Appendix). The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans. PMID:24548151
Perpiñá, Conxa; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Torró, Maria-Isabel
The aims of this study were to validate the Emotional Eating Scale version for children (EES-C) in a Spanish population and study the differences in emotional eating among children with binge eating (BE), overeating (OE), and no episodes of disordered eating (NED). The questionnaire was completed by 199 children aged 9 to 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed five scales: eating in response to anger, anxiety, restlessness, helplessness, and depression. The EES-C showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and it showed moderate relationships with measures of disordered-eating [Children's Eating Attitudes Test-26 (ChEAT-26), Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Adolescent Version (QEWP-A)] and psychopathology (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist). There were significant differences between the BE/NED groups (with the OE group in the middle position) in desire to eat when Anger (the girls in BE group, and the oldest children in OE group obtaining higher scores) or Helplessness were present. Eating due to Depression was higher in the older groups. Multiple regression analysis conducted showed that anxiety-trait was the best predictor of emotional eating. Results support the potential utility of the EES-C in the study of emotional eating in children and its validity in the Spanish population.
Mewton, Louise; Kessler, Ronald C; Slade, Tim; Hobbs, Megan J; Brownhill, Louise; Birrell, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Andrews, Gavin
The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) is a screener for psychological distress that has robust psychometric properties among adults. Given that a significant proportion of adolescents experience mental illness, there is a need for measures that accurately and reliably screen for mental disorders in this age group. This study examined the psychometric properties of the K6 in a large general population sample of adolescents (N = 4,434; mean age = 13.5 years; 44.6% male). Factor analyses were conducted to examine the dimensionality of the K6 in adolescents and to investigate sex-based measurement invariance. This study also evaluated the K6 as a predictor of scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The K6 demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, with the 6 items loading primarily on 1 factor. Consistent with previous research, females reported higher mean levels of psychological distress when compared with males. The identification of sex-based measurement noninvariance in the item thresholds indicated that these mean differences most likely represented reporting bias in the K6 items rather than true differences in the underlying psychological distress construct. The K6 was a fair to good predictor of abnormal scores on the SDQ, but predictive utility was relatively low among males. Future research needs to focus on refining and augmenting the K6 scale to maximize its utility in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record
Randomized Controlled Trial of the Acceptability, Feasibility, and Preliminary Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Skills Building Intervention in Adolescents with Chronic Daily Headaches: A Pilot Study
Hickman, Carolyn; Jacobson, Diana; Melnyk, Bernadette
Introduction The treatment challenge of adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDHs) creates an urgent need for evidence-based interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a brief cognitive behavioral skills building intervention (CBSB) with thirty-six, 13-17 year-old, adolescents with CDHs and mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were randomly assigned either to the Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment Headache Education Program (COPE-HEP) or to a headache education comparison group. Results Adolescents and parents found the COPE-HEP to be highly acceptable. Medium to large positive effects were demonstrated on the adolescents’ depression in both groups and on anxiety and beliefs in the COPE-HEP group. COPE-HEP offered additional benefits of a larger decrease in adolescent anxiety over time and stronger beliefs in the teens’ ability to manage their headaches. Discussion Adolescents with CDHs and elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms should be offered headache hygiene education plus cognitive-behavioral skills building interventions. A full-scale trial to determine the more long-term benefits of COPE-HEP is now warranted. PMID:25017938
Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others
Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…
Reed, Daniel J
The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health - measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed.
Reed, Daniel J
The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health – measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed. PMID:27186146
Ahmad, Muayyad M; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Resnick, Martin I
The purpose of this study was to identify how cognitive appraisal and types of coping affect the health status of men with prostate cancer. Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping guided this correlational, cross-sectional study. The convenience sample was composed of 131 men with prostate cancer who completed the Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Short-Form Health Survey using mailed questionnaires. Participants who appraised more harm or loss experienced worse physical and mental health. When participants perceived their diagnosis as posing more harm or loss or a greater threat, they were more likely to use emotion-focused coping. When the diagnosis was perceived as a challenge, men were more likely to use more problem-focused coping. The findings of this study enable health care providers to be more attentive to the psychosocial needs of prostate cancer patients.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping
The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.
Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.
Investigates the factor structure of a measure of racial socialization attitudes for African American adolescents to determine whether the components of the construct are reliable and measure different phenomena. Four factors, based on research with 200 inner-city adolescents, were found to be very meaningful and moderately reliable. Development…
Lund, Crick; Boyce, Gerard; Flisher, Alan J.; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Dawes, Andrew
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems have poor service cover in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about the resources that would be required to provide child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in these countries. The purpose of this study was to calculate the human resources and associated…
Davies, Allison; And Others
Investigated sensitivity of Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in assessing psychotic states in adolescents. Results from comparison of 29 psychotic and 58 nonpsychotic adolescent psychiatric inpatients suggest the need for a profile-analytic approach to PIC and MMPI interpretation in…
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima
The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.
de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Tomé, Gina; Borges, Ana Inês; Manso, Dina; Simões, Celeste; Ferreira, Aristides
This study used depression (CDI - Kovacs, 1981), anxiety (MASC - March, 1997) and coping strategy (CRI-Y - Moos, 1993) scales and studied the fitness and discriminant validity of reduced versions. The sample consisted of 916 Portuguese pupils, 54.3% feminine, aged 10 to 21 years old. The participants were selected from a set of public schools nation-wide. Two classes were chosen from the 5th to the 12th grades. A set of principal component analyses was carried out in a randomly chosen sample (n = 394) and all the three reduced measures were found to be strongly correlated with the previous. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) using the other part of the sample (n = 522) revealed adjustment indexes suggesting a good fit for both the whole model and gender and age groups separately. All scales revealed a good internal consistency. Globally, girls were more anxious and developed more coping strategies than boys. Older students tended to be less depressed, while younger adolescents present higher scores in depression and anxiety and less coping strategies. Reduced scales are sensitive to gender and age differences and can be used in school settings in order to establish a baseline and roadmaps for both universal and selective mental health school based programs.
Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Khoda, Maryam Omid; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Vatankhah, Mona
The current study aimed to investigate the coping strategies and level of psychological distress in mothers of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and the family impact of this disorder. Participants were mothers of 55 children or adolescents with nonsyndromic CLP recruited from families attending a CLP clinic and 2 university hospitals in Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Family impact, psychological distress, and coping strategies were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires including Family Impact Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Coping Response Inventory. Findings revealed that mothers relied more on the use of approach-oriented rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. According to General Health Questionnaire scores, 38.2% of mothers showed some evidence of psychological distress, and 23.6% were suspected of having severe psychological problems. Regarding the family impact of CLP, mothers reported the greatest impact to be on the family's financial status and parental emotions. Those mothers who used avoidant coping strategies reported a greater family impact of CLP (P = 0.002). Emotional discharge and acceptance coping were significant predictors of family impact (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mothers of 13- to 18-year-old patients with CLP reported greater use of problem-solving coping strategy when compared with mothers of younger patients (P = 0.006). Child's age and coping strategies were not significant predictors of the level of mother's psychological distress. Increased knowledge about how parents cope with their child's craniofacial condition may help caregivers develop a more family-oriented care approach, which is sensitive to the psychosocial needs of parents, children, and their families.
Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William; Holstein, Bjørn; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias
Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross-national levels in over 30 countries in Europe and North America. We present an overview of HBSC papers published to date that examine FAS-related socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour, using data from the HBSC study. Findings suggest consistent inequalities in self-reported health, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together with ideas for future development of the measure.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K
Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.06). The final 20-item scale included three subscales: internalized stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond.
Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro
The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures.
Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir
The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."
ŞAHİN, Nilfer; ÖZTOP, Didem Behice; YILMAZ, Savaş; ALTUN, Hatice
Introduction The aim of the present study was to identify psychopathology, parental attitudes, perceptions of quality of life, and relationships between these factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Fifty adolescents (12–18 years old) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy adolescents and their parents were recruited for the study. Clinical interviews with the diabetic adolescents were performed using “Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL).” Both groups completed the “Depression Scale for Children,” “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,” and “Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children,” while their parents completed the “Parental Attitude Research Instrument,” “The Coping Strategy Indicator,” and “Health Related Quality of Life Scale for Children-Parent Form.” Results The psychological disorder ratio in diabetic adolescents was 68%. No significant difference was found regarding perceptions of quality of life between the diabetic group and control group. However, diabetic adolescents with psychological disorder had reduced perception of quality of life than those without psychological disorder. Among parental attitudes, an authoritarian attitude was found to be more common in the diabetic group. It was found that among coping strategies, parents in the diabetic group use avoidance more commonly. Conclusion In the present study, a high rate of psychopathology was detected among adolescents with type 1 DM. In addition, no clear impairment in quality of life was reported in patients with type 1 DM; however, there was worsening in the perception of quality of life in the presence of psychiatric disorders accompanying diabetes. It was found that parents of diabetic children use inappropriate coping strategies and negative parental attitudes more often than those of healthy controls.
Briggs, Denise Broholm; Munley, Patrick H
Relations were examined among therapist stress, coping styles, career sustaining behaviors and therapist working alliance. 160 therapists completed a demographic questionnaire, a rating of stress experienced in work as a psychotherapist, a rating of stress experienced in work with an individual client, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Career Sustaining Behavior Questionnaire, the COPE, and the Working Alliance Inventory. After controlling for demographic and therapists' stress variables, and alternating entry of Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores in the regression model, Career Sustaining Behavior contributed significant variance to predicting working alliance, and COPE scores accounted for significant variance in working alliance with active coping a significant predictor. Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores entered together accounted for significant unique variance in Working Alliance with career sustaining behavior and avoidant coping identified as significant predictors.
Muller, L; Spitz, E
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for
Fayyad, John; Cordahi-Tabet, C; Yeretzian, J; Salamoun, M; Najm, C; Karam, E G
Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child-Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES). Resilient adolescents were defined as those who experienced war trauma, but did not manifest any symptoms on the SDQ or CRIES. Resilience was related to being male, using problem-solving techniques, having leisure activities, and having parents who spent time with their adolescents and who supported them with school work. Interventions designed for war-traumatized youth must build individual coping skills of children and adolescents, yet at the same time target parents and teachers in an integrated manner.
Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.
Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…
Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.
Friendships serve as a secure base and buffer that help adolescents to cope with the psychological challenges of the social ecology of high school. Through these relationships, adolescents develop a stronger sense of belonging to their schools.
Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Ballard, Ariane; Théroux, Jean; Charette, Sylvie; Villeneuve, Edith; Parent, Stefan; Tsimicalis, Argerie; MacLaren Chorney, Jill
Background Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S) scale. Methods Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation. Results Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current medication received (Factor 1), actions taken by nurses and doctors to manage pain (Factor 2) and information received after surgery (Factor 3). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91, showing very good internal consistency. Data on satisfaction and clinical outcomes were also reported. Conclusion The SAP-S is a valid and reliable measure of satisfaction with postoperative pain management that can be used in both research and clinical settings to improve pain management practices. Although it was developed and validated with adolescents who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, it can be used, with further validation, to assess adolescents’ satisfaction with pain management in other postoperative contexts. PMID:28138264
Amar, Angela Frederick; Alexy, Eileen M
Stalking is a serious public health and societal concern affecting the college population. Although numerous studies illustrate the physical and mental effects of stalking, literature addressing how individuals cope with this phenomenon is lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe stalking experiences of college students and the coping strategies used to manage stalking. In this descriptive study, 262 college students completed an online survey that included a stalking questionnaire and coping survey. Slightly more than one-fourth of the sample (n = 69) reported experiencing stalking victimization. Results indicated that the most common coping strategies employed were: ignoring the problem, minimizing the problem, distancing, detaching or depersonalizing, using verbal escape tactics, attempting to end the relationship, controlling the interaction, and restricting accessibility. Implications for refining current practice and research on coping strategies and stalking are suggested.
Shachar, Iris; Aderka, Idan M; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA-SR) is a validated instrument for the assessment of social anxiety in youth. The three main objectives of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the LSAS-CA-SR; (b) to validate the factors against relevant personality measures, and (c) to create a brief and reliable version of the questionnaire. A total of 1,362 adolescents completed self-report measures of social anxiety, temperament, character and personality traits. The factor structure was examined using a combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The analysis was conducted on both the anxiety and avoidance sub-scales, and identical items for both sub-scales were maintained. Two factors emerged: social interaction and school performance. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and a significant correlation with relevant self-report measures. A brief version comprised of 14 items was highly correlated (0.96) with the full version. The new factor structure represents advancement over the previous efforts, and holds promise for efficient utilization of the LSAS-CA.
Mathyssek, Christina M; Olino, Thomas M; Hartman, Catharina A; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A
We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10-17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10-12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence.
This study explored perceived racism and the usual ways of coping with these perceptions in a sample of 269 Black university students (53% female). Perceptions of inter- and intragroup racism were assessed with the Life Experiences and Stress scale, and coping was measured with the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. A principal…
We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae
The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…
Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.
A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…
Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Tahbaz, Sahar; Chen, Zhuo Job
This study examined the religious and psychological implications of religious coping in Iran. University students (N = 224) responded to the Brief Positive and Negative Religious Coping Scales along with measures of Religious Orientation, Integrative Self-Knowledge, Self-Control, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem, Guilt, Shame, and Self-Criticism. As in previous research elsewhere, Positive Religious Coping was stronger on average than Negative Religious Coping, and Positive and Negative Religious Coping predicted adjustment and maladjustment, respectively, In addition, this study demonstrated that direct relationships between Positive and Negative Religious Coping appeared to be reliable in Iran; that Positive Religious Copings was broadly compatible with, and Negative Religious Coping was largely irrelevant to, Iranian religious motivations; and that Negative Religious Coping obscured linkages of Positive Religious Coping with religious and psychological adjustment.
Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.
Current practice for assessing children and adolescents rely on objectively scored deficit-based models and/or informal assessments to determine how maladaptive behaviors affect performance. Social-emotional assessment instruments are used in schools and typically provide information related to behavioral and emotional deficits, but provide little…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions--sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk--transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions…
Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody
Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…
White, Rebecca M. B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American…
Rhone, Lorna M.
Explored the reliability and validity for four self-report anxiety scales: the Test Anxiety Scale for Children, the Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Scale for Children, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and a newly developed Reading Anxiety Scale. Conclusions are drawn regarding the use of these scales with minority-group…
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Essau, Cecilia A; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; O'Callaghan, Jean; Bray, Diane
The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a large community sample of adolescents (N = 1984), aged 12-17 years, in Ahvaz City, Iran. In addition to the SCAS, all participants completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). The internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = .92) and the validity of the Iranian translation of the SCAS was excellent. The SCAS total scores correlated significantly with the CES-DC, as well as with the emotional, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems subscales of the SDQ. However, Steiger's Z test demonstrated that correlations between the SCAS scores and the SDQ conduct problems or hyperactivity-inattention subscales were significantly lower than the correlations between the SCAS scores and the SDQ emotional symptoms subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed the same 6-factor structure as the original SCAS. The SCAS proved to be a reliable and valid measure of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Iran.
Taheri-Kharameh, Zahra; Zamanian, Hadi; Montazeri, Ali; Asgarian, Azadeh; Esbiri, Roya
Background Religious coping is known as a main resource influencing how individuals cope with the complications and stressors of chronic disease. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between religious coping and quality of life among hemodialysis patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Qom, Iran, from June 2012 to July 2013. Ninety-five end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis were selected via the convenience sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising items on sociodemographic information, quality of life, the anxiety and depression scale, and religious coping. Following this, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results The mean age of patients was 50.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 15.7) years, and most were male (61%). The mean score for positive religious coping was 23.38 (SD = 4.17), while that for negative religious coping was 11.46 (SD = 4.34). It was found that 53.6% of patients had higher than the mean score of positive religious coping, while those with negative religious coping made up 37.9%. Negative religious coping was associated with worse quality of life, including physical functioning (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; P = 0.009), role physical (OR = 0.79; P = 0.04), vitality (OR = 0.62; P = 0.005), social functioning (OR = 0.69; P = 0.007), and mental health (OR = 0.58; P = 0.01) after controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and anxiety and depression variables. Conclusions The results indicated that patients with negative religious coping abilities were at risk of a suboptimal quality of life. Incorporating religious support in the care of hemodialysis patients may be helpful in improving quality of life in this patient population. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these associations are causal and the direction of effect. PMID:27896237
Harper, Christopher R.; Parris, Leandra N.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
Peer victimization is a documented antecedent of poor mental health outcomes for children and adolescents. This article explored the role of coping effectiveness in the association between victimization and perceived school safety. A sample of urban middle school students (N = 509) in the southeastern United States were surveyed regarding…
James, Linda; Martin, Don
Sand tray with group therapy can be an effective treatment approach for parents coping with adolescent substance abuse and/or dependency. Excerpts of parent sand trays are presented to demonstrate pretreatment tasks that decrease denial, reduce reactive anger, stop enabling behaviors, and build support systems. Parent-child relational issues,…
Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa
There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.
Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)
Jones, Jami I.
Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)
Bendersky, Nora; And Others
Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to transitions. (JAC)
This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…
Ireland, Jane L
The current study explores conceptualizations of victimization by men, focusing on threat appraisal, coping appraisal, and beliefs, and seeking to apply protection motivation theory, the applied fear response model, and social cognition. Five hundred and sixty-six male prisoners, comprising adults and adolescents, completed a measure of victimization and perpetration (DIPC-SCALED) and of fear, appraisal, and beliefs (TAB). It was predicted that increased threat appraisal and ineffective coping appraisal would predict increased fear of victimization, particularly among the mutual perpetrator/victim group. This group was expected to select strategies for managing the threat of victimization, which carried more risk to them (e.g., such as an aggressive reaction) and to present with beliefs supporting the use of aggression as a response to victimization. Fear of victimization was predicted by threat and coping appraisal although the deficit for victims appeared in coping appraisal only. Mutual perpetrator/victims presented with a specific difficulty in appraising their ability to cope with threat. Differences in beliefs supporting an aggressive response to threat were also noted across perpetrator and/or victimization groups. The article concludes by outlining the implications for theory and clinical practice.
Thompson, Stephanie F; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J
Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8-12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents' appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children's adjustment in response to stress.
Hunsucker, S; Flannery, J; Frank, D
This study explored the coping strategies of families of critically ill patients in a rural Southern Appalachian setting. A convenience sample of 30 family members of 22 critically ill patients in two rural hospitals completed the Jaloweic Coping Scale. The five most frequently used coping methods were helping, thinking positively, worrying about the problem, trying to find out more about the problem and trying to handle things one step at a time. The five most effective coping strategies were talking the problem over with friends, praying, thinking about the good things in life, trying to handle things one step at a time and trying to see the good side of the situation. Findings contradicted many of the more "negative" descriptions of Appalachian people in the literature. Similarities outweighed differences when comparing the coping styles of rural and urban populations. Findings suggest that coping strategies must be considered for positive outcomes in the delivery of care to such a rural population.
Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia
The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population. PMID:28222193
Grygiel, Paweł; Humenny, Grzegorz; Rębisz, Sławomir
The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors. Essential unidimensionality (the general factor accounting for three fourth of the common variance) suggest that the interpretation of the subfactors over and above the general factor is inappropriate. The longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor structure of the DJGLS is invariant over time. Correlations with self-rated loneliness, sociometric acceptance/rejection, social self-efficacy, identification with class group, family structure, and gender provide support for the validity of the DJGLS. This implies that it could be used as a measure of loneliness in adolescence, which does not involve references to the school context, making it possible to conduct studies that go beyond school period and compare the intensity of the feeling of loneliness in that group with other age groups.
Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Parker, Robert A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V.
HIV clinics formerly supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11–18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7–8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents’ linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%–97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned. PMID:28192387
Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others
Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.
Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…
Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.
The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…
Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William
Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…
Lim, Jung-won; Townsend, Aloen
Objective: The current study examines the equivalence of a measure of family coping, the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation scales (F-COPES), in Chinese American and Korean American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods: Factor structure and cross-ethnicity equivalence of the F-COPES were tested using structural equation modeling with 157…
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Daniels, Lia M.; Klassen, Robert M.; Li, Johnson C.-H.
Although past research has shown the benefits of using approach coping in dealing with negative emotions, little is known about how students cope with a common negative achievement emotion, boredom, across cultures. Therefore, the goals of this study were to validate the Boredom Coping Scale (BCS) in Canada (n = 151, mean age = 23.29) and China (n…
Krypel, Michelle N.; Henderson-King, Donna
We explored the meanings that undergraduate students make of their education and how these meanings relate to students' perceived stress, styles of coping with stress, and optimism. Participants completed a meaning of education questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the COPE (a measure of coping styles), and the Life Orientation Test-Revised.…
Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne
After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation.
Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie
Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572
Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, “What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?” The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572
Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, "What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?" The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed.
Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…
Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. Adolescents reported praying for God to partner with them to engage in positive behaviors, praying for strength to resist unwanted behaviors, and passive strategies characterized by waiting for God to provide resources or protection from HIV. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from HIV prevention interventions that integrate and build upon their use of religious coping. PMID:22505794
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P
The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p < 0.05). However, between-group differences of emotional and total problems declined over time. While adolescents who are blind and those who have low vision had similar levels of psychological problems, SDQ scores showed less improvement in adolescents with an earlier age at onset of vision loss. In conclusion, a minority of adolescents with visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.