Castillo, Linda G.; Phoummarath, Marion J.
Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student's mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors…
White, Rebecca M B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Perez-Brena, Norma; Burleson, Elizabeth
The ethnic and racial structuring of U.S. neighborhoods may have important implications for developmental competencies during adolescence, including the development of heritage and mainstream cultural orientations. In particular, living in highly concentrated Latino neighborhoods during early adolescence-which channels adolescents into related school environments-may promote retention of the ethnic or heritage culture, but it also may constrain adaptation to the mainstream U.S. culture. We tested these hypotheses longitudinally in a sample of 246 Mexican origin adolescents (50.8% girls) and their parents. Data were collected 4 times over 8 years, with adolescents averaging 12.5 (SD = .58) to 19.6 (SD = .66) years of age across the period of the study. Latino ethnic concentration in early adolescents' neighborhoods promoted the retention of Mexican cultural orientations; Latino ethnic concentration in middle schools undermined the development of mainstream U.S cultural orientations. Findings are discussed in terms of integrating cultural-developmental theory with mainstream neighborhood theory to improve understandings of neighborhood and school ethnic concentration effects on adolescent development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Garcia, Andrea; Gaddes, Amy
A decade ago, the subtractive schooling of many Latino youth in the United States resulted in a devaluing of cultural identity and heritage as resources to support learning. Today, educators are urged to revalue cultural resources toward literacy development. This study explores the experiences of Latina adolescent students as writers during an…
Beineke, John A.
"Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…
DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Irwin-DeVitis, Linda, Ed.
Written by a prominent array of scholars and practitioners, this book elucidates the complexities, contradictions, and confusion surrounding adolescence in American culture and education. For too long, harmful public myths and lies have portrayed teenagers as a principal cause of our nation's social ills. Similar unfair charges have been lodged…
"Invisible Girls" is an examination of twenty-four at-risk adolescent girls' writing practices in a Third Space setting located within a school but outside of the confines of a regular classroom. Through a description of the girls' writing over a three-and-a-half-year period in this setting, Mellinee Lesley details phenomena that both support and…
Hernández, Maciel M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F
The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; Mage = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from parent to child and that parental warmth promotes the child's positive response to cultural socialization. Results showed that mother and father cultural socialization predicted youth ethnic pride and that this relation was stronger when parents were high in warmth. The findings highlight the positive role parent cultural socialization may play in the development of adolescent ethnic pride. Furthermore, findings reveal the role of parent-child relationship quality in this process.
Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette
The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…
Baxter, Leslie A.; Goldsmith, Daena
Examines the natural language descriptions employed by American high school adolescents in talking about the kinds of communication events they experience in everyday life. Finds that adolescents describe communication events through use of setting, participant, speech act, and purpose marker terms. Differentiates nine basic clusters of…
Kelly, Deirdre M.
This book addresses issues related to teen mothers and schooling, examining how teen mothers have become scapegoats for social anxieties, how schools respond to these stigmatized students, and what helps/hinders the success of schools attempting to form more inclusive settings for teen mothers. The book links an ethnographic study of two schools…
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
"Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…
Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477
Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M
As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls.
Hernández, Maciel M.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F.
The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; M[subscript age] = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from…
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dewald, Julia F.; Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.
Study Objective. To test whether sleep duration on school nights differs between adolescents in Australia and the United States and, if so, whether this difference is explained by cultural differences in school start time, parental involvement in setting bedtimes, and extracurricular commitments. Participants. Three hundred eighty-five adolescents…
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance.
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156
Vagle, Mark D., Ed.
"Not a Stage!" is written for teachers, students, and scholars interested in the academic, social, and emotional needs of young adolescents. It is unique because it actively resists basing the practice, research, and theory of young adolescent education on developmentalism and the developmental stage of young adolescence. The purpose of…
Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C
Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.
This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
The current study presents the prevalence of students' reports of perpetration of violence toward peers and teachers among 16,604 7th- through 11th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel and examines the individual and school contextual factors that explain students' violence. The study explores how students' reports of violence are influenced by individual factors (gender, age, perception of school climate and intervention) and school contextual factors (cultural affiliation, SES of students' families, school and class size, school climate, intervention). Almost one third of all students reported at least one form of perpetration toward peers, and one in five reported perpetration against teachers. Compared to the school climate characteristics, school organizational factors, and cultural affiliation, students' SES has the highest contribution to explained variance in reports of violence toward others. The discussion highlights the need to allocate more resources to schools in low-SES contexts to protect low-SES students from school violence.
Khan, Shamus Rahman
As one of the most prestigious high schools in the nation, St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, has long been the exclusive domain of America's wealthiest sons. But times have changed. Today, a new elite of boys and girls is being molded at St. Paul's, one that reflects the hope of openness but also the persistence of inequality. In…
Marteleto, Leticia; Andrade, Fernando
Most studies find a positive correlation between family cultural capital and educational achievement. As compelling as the evidence on the advantages of family cultural capital for educational achievement is, most studies have focused on countries characterized by having a large middle class and high levels of income, not addressing societies with…
Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.
This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…
In this paper, I analyze the theorization of adolescent femininity within three popular cultural texts about girls and schooling written by women and published in the United States during the 1990s. The books, referred to as "Ophelia narratives," include Lyn Mikel Brown and Carol Gilligan's (1992) "Meeting at the Crossroads," Mary Pipher's (1994)…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky
The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…
Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea
"Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…
Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira
An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks.
Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira
An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks. PMID:25931647
Gazis, Nicki; Connor, Jason P.; Ho, Robert
This study investigated cultural identity and peer influence on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in a culturally diverse sample of Northern Australian adolescents. Middle school students (n = 274) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and measures of their own and perceived friends' substance use. Higher scores on the full…
Hu, Fa-Wen; Wang, Pei; Li, Li-Ju
In this study, we used the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire (CMACIQ) and collected valid data from 1,036 participants to systematically examine the mental model of cultural identity in Chinese multiethnic adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed on the data to discover the factor structure and dimensions of cultural identity. The psychometric properties of the scale were rigorously validated in 2,744 new multiethnic participants from 5 native ethnic groups in Yunnan province in China. The results indicated that CMACIQ had reasonable metric properties and good fit indices. The hierarchical model of cultural identity consisted of 2 second-order factors, Ethnic Cultural Identity and Mainstream Cultural Identity in School. The first higher order factor was composed of preference for ethnic things, ethnic acceptance, religious belief, and ethnic convention, while the second comprised 2 first-order factors, Social Norms and Dominant Culture. The potential application and limitations of CMACIQ are discussed.
As the founding principal of DC International School, a public charter school in Washington, D.C., Simon Rodberg has set out to create what he calls a "culturally-positive school" to prepare students for a global future. In this article, he details how the school has invited students and families to bring their cultures into classrooms.…
Hess, Robyn S.; Magnuson, Sandy; Beeler, Linda
"Counseling Children and Adolescents in Schools" is a text and workbook designed to help aspiring school psychologists and counselors gain the necessary theoretical background and skill set to work effectively with youth in schools. The dual focus on school counselors and school psychologists provides students with a broader view of the different…
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
Following a previous study's finding that demographic and psychosocial factors mediated the effect of ethnicity in predicting standardized reading performance, this study examined the effects of these predictors on immigrant adolescents' reading achievement. It investigated the extent to which Asian-origin and Spanish-speaking groups differed in…
Reading underachievement among adolescent students, particularly in urban areas, has been well documented in the literature. This reality points to two problems: Schools possess neither the capacity needed to prepare students for higher education and the workforce, nor the ability to help students view literacy as a tool for critical thinking,…
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life.
Bates, Percy; And Others
Articles in this issue of "Equity Coalition" are intended to encourage all to broaden horizons and improve knowledge about the wide range of cultures that make up diverse school communities. The following are included: (1) "Building an Equitable School Culture" (Percy Bates); (2) "The Social Context of Schooling" (Bob Croninger); (3) "From 'A…
Deiulio, Anthony M.
Discusses the characteristics of adolescent graffiti, analyzes recent trends in graffiti content, and argues that graffiti tend to reflect the same feelings and concerns uncovered by formal studies of adolescents conducted by sociologists and pollsters. (JG)
Ognibene, Richard, Ed.
Jonathan Kozol has been a leading educational critic and social activist since 1967 when "Death at an Early Age," his book about racism in Boston's schools, was published and won a National Book Award. Since then, Kozol has written eleven more books which focus on such issues as segregation in schools and society, poverty, inequitable school…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.
Baker, Katherine; Narula, Bhavna
The research is clear on the importance of student connectedness to school. Adolescents who feel connected to school and perceive the adults there to be caring are more likely to be academically and socially engaged. Middle school is a critical time for students to feel connected to school, but these grade levels present greater challenges to…
Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather
Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.
The increasing failure of cross-generational cultural transmission in America can be examined through research into the meaning of adolescent language usage. Adolescents view inconsistencies in adult society as contradictory to imposed norms. Since society is experiencing a loss of culture, secondary schools need to become the locus for its…
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
This article draws on ethnographic research of a youth theatre program within a Hmong arts organization to explore the ways in which a culturally responsive program nurtured critical consciousness among Hmong immigrant youth. Hmong youth "named" struggles with stereotypes and acculturation expectations, and constructed positive ethnic…
School culture is unique, which has a lot to do with the unpredictable and sometimes irrational behavior that can occur at the bargaining table. When confronting the uniqueness of school cultures, the key to understanding and leading through the trials and tribulations of collective bargaining is to recognize the uniqueness of the people who enter…
Chu, Judy Y.
Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…
Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the nature and causes of school discipline problems and school violence including an increase in the number of racial, cultural, and class hostility incidents; and (2) to offer remedies which might help alleviate disruptions to the learning process. Eight middle schools with a total of 3,212…
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Díaz-Albertini, Kristine; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Simpson, Brett; Cortes, Lissette; Kibler, Jeffrey L
Research on cultural factors and substance use among Hispanic adolescents has focused primarily on acculturation, while specific core Hispanic values and attributes have received minimal attention. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between traditional Hispanic cultural assets and substance use among adolescents. A purposive sample of 225 Hispanic adolescents (47% male) aged 13 to 16 years were recruited from community venues (e.g., park, school, mall) in a predominately Hispanic neighborhood. Participants completed a survey to assess cultural factors (familism, simpatía, respeto, and ethnic pride) and substance use in the past 3 months (alcohol and drug). Point-biserial correlations revealed significant associations of alcohol and drug use with greater familism (family connectedness), simpatía (interpersonal relationship harmony), and respeto (respect). Two stepwise binary logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the independent association between the cultural factors and substance use. The interaction of gender with each cultural factor was examined in both analyses. Simpatía emerged as the only cultural factor independently associated with alcohol use. Greater simpatía was related to abstention from alcohol. Both simpatía and familism independently correlated with drug use. Stronger endorsements of simpatía and familism were associated with absence from drug use. Interactions between cultural factors and gender were not observed. Simpatía emerged as the strongest cultural asset that may confer protection against substance use. If replicated, our results suggest substance prevention programs targeting Hispanic adolescents may benefit from the inclusion of cultural assets in the intervention paradigm.
Findings from a 1.5 year study of black adolescent mathematics students attending an African-centered school in the US are used to highlight the benefits of separate schooling for this population of students. Critical race theory is used to frame a dialogue surrounding the ways in which this type of school environment and embedded racialized…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E.; Goodrich, Thane R.
In an effort to validate the use of a Western model of adolescent development with Asian youth, 781 urban and rural Taiwanese high school students (56% female) completed questionnaires about their development. Adolescents were first divided into cultural value orientations (i.e. collectivistic, individualistic, or transitional) and compared…
Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.
Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those
An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…
McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro
This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…
Phuntsog, Nawang B.
This purpose of the study was to ascertain the level of ethnic identity formation and its perceived role on school engagement for Tibetan adolescents enrolled in public schools in two Midwestern states in the USA. The journey of these students from culturally encapsulated schools from Nepal, Bhutan, and India to multiculturally diverse settings…
Kitchenham, Andrew D.
This article outlines a recent study on school culture and technology adoption. Adapting Hargreaves' (2003) model of school cultures, research findings are presented on three schools involved in a study on teacher transformation using educational technology to explain how each school represents a separate school culture and school regime. Each…
This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…
Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo
The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…
Natvig, Gerd Karin; Albrektsen, Grethe; Anderssen, Norman; Qvarnstrom, Ulla
Analyzed associations between psychosomatic symptoms and school-induced stress and personal and social resources among Norwegian adolescents who completed questionnaires as part of the World Health Organization's European Network of Health Promoting Schools. There was a consistent association between school- related stress experience and risk of…
Norwalk, Kate E.; Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Barnes, Kathryn L.
The present study examined the effects of teacher attunement to victimization on student perceptions of the bullying culture of their schools as a means of fostering a sense of belonging among early adolescents. Participants (n = 1,264) in sixth grade reported on the frequency that they had been bullied, and teachers were asked to report students…
Interviews with low-income and high-income adolescents investigated various aspects of schooling. Low-income adolescents described aggressive behaviors, numerous school circumstances that made them angry, and humiliation and ostracism at school. High-income adolescents felt much more successful at school and entitled to disproportionate school…
Wallace, Tanner LeBaron; Ye, Feifei; Chhuon, Vichet
Adolescents' sense of belonging in high school may serve a protective function, linking school-based relationships to positive youth outcomes. To advance the study of sense of belonging, we conducted a mixed method, factor analytic study (Phase 1 focus groups, N = 72; Phase 2 cross-sectional survey, N = 890) to explore the multidimensionality of…
Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.
Friendships serve as a secure base and buffer that help adolescents to cope with the psychological challenges of the social ecology of high school. Through these relationships, adolescents develop a stronger sense of belonging to their schools.
Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See
In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…
Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.
Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…
Masselam, Venus S.; And Others
Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…
Sabanci, Ali; Sahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Melek Alev; Yilmaz, Ozan
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between school administrators' communication skills and school culture. This research was conducted as a survey using a descriptive method in order to ascertain the views of school managers and teachers about the correlation between school managers' communication skills and school culture in…
This report on young adolescents 10 to l5 years old, who are on their own from 3:00 to 6:00 p.m. discusses after-school programs, barriers to providing a broader array of programs, and strategies for decision making about after-school opportunities for latchkey children. Explored are the nature and extent of the problem, its multiple causes and…
Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly
Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
This study examined the association between adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhoods' safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling…
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
Constantine, Madonna G.; Blackmon, Sha'kema M.
Explored the relationship between parental racial socialization messages and area-specific self-esteem (home, school, and peer) among African American adolescents. Surveys of middle school students indicated that parental racial socialization messages reflecting pride and knowledge about African American culture positively associated with…
Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle
Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…
Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.
Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548
Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.
Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…
Tinsley, Barbara J; Lees, Nancy B; Sumartojo, Esther
The authors' goal is to review and integrate theory and research focused on the impact of the family, within a cultural perspective, on HIV prevention in childhood and adolescence. Families' impact on adolescents' HIV risk and prevention is examined through the lens of culture, focusing on the individual adolescent factors and family-level influences that converge to determine adolescents' HIV risk status. Family-based risk and health socialization during childhood and adolescence is theoretically and empirically evaluated, from developmental, cultural, and communication perspectives. The influence of families on adolescents' HIV knowledge, risk, and prevention strategies is explored from a developmental perspective. Finally, a future research agenda, focused on remaining issues that affect the ability to understand and modify HIV risk in adolescence, is outlined.
Ferguson, Gail M.; Desir, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.
Adolescents are an emerging population in Haiti, particularly after the deadly 2010 earthquake. The steady penetration of U.S. culture into this poor, disaster-prone country begs the question, Do today's adolescents possess a similar fondness for their home country, culture, and traditional family values as did Haitians of old? Or are they more…
Success at school increases self-esteem. Any difficulty will have consequential effects on the psychological health of the subject. The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions (mass schooling without any individual orientation before the end of college) oblige the teenager to submit to teaching methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems (anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create pathology by not recognising the heterogeneity of individual development and differences in cognitive functioning. In adolescence, the ego is particularly vulnerable. Anything that may induce its instability can create behavioural problems (instability, aggressiveness, inhibition) or problems of thought (anxiety links, difficulties in abstraction). In order to cope with such a haemorrhage of the ego, the adolescent may have recourse to certain behaviours (e.g. use of drugs leading to dependence). So it is important the know well the links between school failure and behavioural problems or drug consumption because, in one way or another, by their sanction or by lack of motivation, these situations will lead very quickly to school disengagement, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the ego.
Masselam, Venus Shirley
Fifty-two families of students successful in public school and 40 families of students requiring alternative school programs completed self-report instruments on their perceptions of parent-adolescent communication and family functioning. The alternative school programs included residential and day treatment programs for adolescents with emotional…
Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…
Shaw, Julia T.
This article is based on a multiple embedded case study, the purpose of which was to explore adolescent choral students' perceptions of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in three demographically contrasting choirs of an urban nonprofit children's choir organization. The case presented here focused on an after-school choir situated in a Puerto…
Brice, Alejandro E.; Franklin, Emily; Ratusnik, David L.
Introduction: Classroom language demands increase when children enter the middle school environment (Brice & Heath, 1986; Larson & McKinley, 1998; Larson & McKinley, 1987). The pragmatic skills or social language skills of culturally and linguistically diverse adolescents from three different backgrounds were the focus of this study…
Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il
Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…
Gilliland, Elizabeth A.
This dissertation describes and analyzes the academic language socialization of culturally and linguistically diverse adolescents through a multi-case ethnographic study of high school writing instruction in California. I argue that there is a significant gap between the norms for writing in English language development classes and those in the…
Wagner, Christopher R.
School culture consists of "the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors which characterize a school" (Phillips, 1996, p. 1). It is the shared experiences both in school and out of school (traditions and celebrations) that create a sense of community, family, and team membership. It affects everything that happens in a school, including student…
It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
This study examined the association between adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhoods' safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling that were more psychosocial in nature (e.g., school attachment) than those that were more cognitive (e.g., test scores). Examination of neighborhood and family moderators of these associations revealed that perceived neighborhood safety was negatively associated with grades for youth from low-income families but was positively associated with school attachment for youth from such families when they lived in neighborhoods rated by observers as high in physical disorder.
Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.
Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005
This paper presents key concepts from the theoretical literature on organizational change and school learning cultures. It concludes with eight actions school leaders can take to help school communities develop or enhance learning cultures that are receptive to change. [This report is based on a literature review by Albert J. Boerema.
Squires, David A.; Kranyik, Robert D.
Site-management designs generally fail to establish structures and processes that help school communities work through cultural change. The Comer School Development Program succeeds because it supports a change in school culture and focuses on children's development, not just their speech, language, and intellectual capabilities. Lessons from…
Cordova, David; Ciofu, Amanda; Cervantes, Richard
Despite the profound impact that intrafamilial stressors, including parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies, may have on Latino adolescent behavioral and mental health, this line of research remains underdeveloped. The purpose of this study is to obtain rich descriptions from Latino adolescents of the most salient intrafamilial stressors. The authors employ focus group methodology with a grounded theory approach. A total of 25 focus groups were conducted with 170 Latino adolescents in the Northeast and Southwest United States. Findings indicate that Latino adolescents experience significant stressors related to parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies. From this qualitative study the authors derive a series of testable hypotheses aimed at fully understanding the role of parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies on Latino adolescent behavioral and mental health and informing the development of culturally responsive preventive interventions for this population. PMID:25530653
Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094
Robinson, W LaVome; Case, Mary H; Whipple, Christopher R; Gooden, Adia S; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed.
Alexander, Justin T.
This study explored the traits and leadership tactics of an effective leader that influenced the climate and culture of a school. This study examined changes a principal made to the climate in order to establish leadership and cultivate positive school culture. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership and culture together by observing…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora
Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…
Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K
Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps. The authors of the study examined the associations of such generational gaps with adolescents' behavioral problems and whether youth's appreciation of Chinese parent-adolescent relationships (parental devotion, sacrifice, thoughtfulness, and guan) described by the notion of qin would moderate the relationship between discrepancies and youth's adjustment. A total of 634 high school students (M = 15.97 years; 95 and 154 first- and second-generation Chinese American respectively, and 385 European Americans) completed measures of parental warmth, parent-adolescent open communication, qin, and psychological adjustment. The U.S.-born Chinese American adolescents' ideals exceeded perceptions of parents' warmth and open communication to a greater degree than it did for European American adolescents (ps < 0.05). Such discrepancies in parental warmth were related to greater internalizing symptoms for second-generation Chinese American youth than for their European American peers. In addition, for second-generation Chinese, their perceptions of qin, particularly parents' devotion and sacrifice, had stronger moderating effects, diminishing the associations between generational cultural gaps and youth's behavioral problems compared with those of European American and first-generation Chinese youth. Parental thoughtfulness also played a similar beneficial role, but did so for all youth.
Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457
Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.
Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…
Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Rukundo, Aloysius; Kibanja, Grace; Steffens, Karl
Introduction: Psychoactive substance use among adolescents influences behavioral and cognitive processes and is associated with adolescents' performance in school. We therefore sought to investigate association of PASU with adolescents' school performance. Methods: We employed quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. To test the…
Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; Germán, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans’ (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed. PMID:20644653
McWhinney, Betty D.
Some adolescents present in school with problems of poor academic performance and unacceptable behaviour. A physician's evaluation of such a problem requires a careful history and consideration of emotional factors. A neuro-developmental assessment should reveal a pattern of strengths as well as any areas of delay. Management includes demystifying the problem to the student and counselling parents, as well as providing an explanation to the school staff. Stimulant medication, when the primary problem is one of attention-deficit disorder, can be a useful part of the therapeutic program. Long-term follow up, counselling and support are essential. Working within the school gives the counsellor access to teachers and other staff to ensure that understanding of, and help with, the problem continues. PMID:21267219
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…
Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz
The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…
Adelson, Joseph; And Others
Adolescence was the focus of an Urban Development Forum, a component of the Research for Better Schools, that explored the factors of effective schooling in terms of their impact on young people in large, urban systems. This forum featured a major presentation by Joseph Adelson. Focusing his presentation on the cognitive growth in adolescence, he…
Sabia, Joseph J.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between school-year employment and academic performance of young adolescents under age 16. Ordinary least squares estimates show a significant positive relationship between modest hours of school-year employment and grade point average.…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.
Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…
A study investigated the effects of instruction in indigenous Mexican culture on Chicana and Chicano adolescents' reading preferences. Subjects, 81 Mexican-American students in a Southwestern middle school, were administered a culture interest inventory as a pre- and post-test for identifying reading preferences. Students participated in 4 days of…
Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…
Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…
Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.
Schmidt, Ralph E; Van der Linden, Martial
According to recent meta-analyses, adolescents across different countries and cultures do not get the recommended amount of sleep. Extracurricular activities, part-time jobs, and use of electronic devices in the evening delay bedtime in adolescents. Early school start times also shorten the time for sleep. Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been associated with weakened emotional-behavioral regulation and poor academic achievement. Multicomponent intervention programs have been developed on the basis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to improve sleep in youth.
Examines role of schools and peer group culture in constructing male and female identity among adolescents in the context of gender violence. Discusses a United Kingdom Department for International Development funded study of abuse of girls in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Ghana. Reveals contemplative sexual socialization processes in which male violence…
Gumuseli, Ali Ilker; Eryilmaz, Arzu
Background: School culture is a system of shared orientations that holds a unit together and gives it a distinctive identity (Hoy, 1997). It is a multifaceted concept composed of different factors (Devos et al., 2004; Maslowski, 2001). Aim: The study both aimed to measure the realization rates of collaborative school culture in Turkish public…
Braswell, Charley Alexandria
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influences of a school-based cultural awareness program on ethnic identity and self-esteem in fifth grade early adolescents. The development and implementation of a school-based cultural awareness program was intended to offer students a basic foundation for the development and/or…
Thomas, Kendra J; Napolitano, Patricia H
The purpose of this study is to understand the development of Brazilian adolescents' justice perceptions across different contexts of educational privilege. Past research has found that, in adolescence, the belief in a just world (BJW) differentiates between personal and general and declines. However, prior research has not included adolescents from various socioeconomic statuses, samples in Latin America, or focused on the role of the educational context on the developmental trajectory. Participants were 385 adolescents from 3 schools (private, public and military) in Southern Brazil between 9th and 11th grade. Students completed the personal and general BJW survey. Results revealed a significant interaction of school and grade level of adolescents' personal BJW. Contrary to previous research, personal and general BJW was not always lower in higher grades. Among privileged educational contexts, data indicated that personal BJW may even increase, with the decrease notable in the lower resourced school. In contrast, general BJW was relatively consistent across all Brazilian adolescents. Results provide important insight into the role that privilege and education play across adolescents' development of BJW. This research questions the generalizability of previous studies on the development of BJW and indicates that the trajectory may be dependent upon educational and cultural context.
Taylor-Dunlop, Korynne; Norton, Marcia M.
Few schools provide an equitable environment for female and minority students. This paper examined the culture of a high school as it was perceived and experienced by female, at-risk students in grades 9-12. Interviews were conducted with 11 female at-risk students at a high school in the greater New York metropolitan area, their parents,…
Lieberman, Ann, Ed.
The second wave of reform involves a comprehensive view of restructuring schools. This means rebuilding relationships among all school community members, changing organizational arrangements, and rethinking the curriculum. Written by second wave educators committed to professionalizing teaching and building a more collaborative school culture, the…
Hoadley, Ursula; Galant, Jaamia
Drawing on Bernstein's notion of pedagogic culture or the "mode of being" of the school, this paper develops and uses a theoretical framework for the analysis of school organization that draws attention to specialization of instructional practice. An understanding of the ordering principles of the school emerges from the analysis,…
Discusses a survey of 115 high school students who are deaf or hard of hearing, which examined the pros and cons of mainstreaming. Results found that center schools offered a stronger representation of deaf culture and that more residential students than mainstream students were satisfied with their school experience overall. (Author/CR)
Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L
The specific aim of this investigation was to map cultural factors associated with aggressive behavior in Latino adolescents. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 481 foreign- and U.S.-born Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona. Structural Equation Modeling was used to validate a conceptual model linking adolescent and parent culture-of-origin and U.S. cultural involvement, acculturation conflicts, and perceived discrimination to family processes (familism and parent-adolescent conflict) and adolescent aggression. Parent-adolescent conflict was the strongest cultural risk factor followed by perceived discrimination. Familism and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement were key cultural assets associated with less aggressive behavior. Exploratory mediation analyses suggested that familism and parent-adolescent conflict mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts, parent and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement, and parent U.S. cultural involvement on adolescent aggression. Implications for prevention programming were discussed.
Hartley, Jane E K
Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.
Boys' underachievement and oppositional behavior in school has for a long time been the target of various public debates. Drawing on ethnographic data from fieldwork in two Swedish secondary schools, this article explores how the influential theory of boys' anti-school culture can be interpreted as a master narrative that is reproduced, but also…
Adil, Abo-mali; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Abdo, Hussein
Tobacco is the single most important cause of chronic morbidity in the Developed World. Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. By 2015 tobacco use is projected to cause 50% more deaths than AIDS. A cross sectional school based survey was conducted in primary and secondary school in Khartoum State. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking in school adolescents and associated personal and social factors. A total of 910 students with complete questionnaires were included in the analysis, of whom 13.6% were found to be current cigarette smokers. Factors that played role in initiation of smoking included smoking among parents, other family members and close friends. School adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control. Smoking should become public health priority in Sudan to educate adolescents and parents regarding its hazards. PMID:27493344
Lynch, Patrick D.
This report focuses on Hispanic American culture in the schools of the lower Rio Bravo Valley (Texas) through impressions and descriptions of the interrelationship of school and community. School culture is defined as reflecting the shared characteristics and uniqueness of the community cultures around the school. The school cultures of the Valley…
Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…
Presents some of the unique socio-political-cultural factors that impact upon the psychological development of Southeast Asian refugee adolescents, including adjustment problems and intercultural conflicts. Recommends clinicians working with this population assess major stresses, strengths, and culturally specific responses to mental health…
Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.
Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…
Schmuck, Richard A.; Schmuck, Patricia A.
A comparison of adolescents views about school, based on data gathered 26 years apart, shows remarkable similarities. Students interviewed in 1963 were from Detroit schools while 1989 interviews were conducted in small-town schools of Texas, Missouri, and Minnesota. viewed poor teachers as lacking respect for students, unwilling to try to…
Hurrelmann, Klaus; And Others
Adolescence is considered a transitory phase in the life course. Failure in school during adolescence can carry with it the risk of an occupational and social downward mobility in the future life course in comparison to the family of origin. The stress associated with this risk can have detrimental effects on the social and emotional climate…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Boyacioglu, Nur; Kucuk, Leyla
The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to determine the extent to which irrational beliefs of students in early adolescents predict test anxiety. The study sample consisted of 557 students recruited from primary schools in Turkey. The Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents (IBS-A) and the Test Anxiety scale were used as…
Turner, Sherri L.
The study in this article investigated how academic preparation, career development skills, parental assistance, and social/environmental barriers predicted inner-city adolescents' psychological preparation to transition into high school. Results showed that academic preparation, parents' instrumental assistance, adolescents' career development…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Romero, Andrea J.; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Córdova, David; Piña-Watson, Brandy M.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Purpose We sought to determine the extent to which initial levels and over-time trajectories of cultural stressors (discrimination, negative context of reception, and bicultural stress) predicted well-being, internalizing symptoms, conduct problems, and health risk behaviors among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. Addressing this research objective involved creating a latent factor for cultural stressors, establishing invariance for this factor over time, estimating a growth curve for this factor over time, and examining the effects of initial levels (intercepts) and trajectories (slopes) of cultural stressors on adolescent outcomes. Methods A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents in Miami (Mdn 1 year in the US at baseline) and Los Angeles (Mdn 3 years in the US at baseline) was recruited from public schools and assessed 6 times over a 3-year period. Results Perceived discrimination, context of reception, and bicultural stress loaded onto a latent factor at each of the first five timepoints. A growth curve conducted on this factor over the first five timepoints significantly predicted lower self-esteem and optimism, more depressive symptoms, greater aggressive behavior and rule breaking, and increased likelihood of drunkenness and marijuana use. Conclusions The present results may be important in designing interventions for Hispanic immigrant children and adolescents, including those within the current wave of unaccompanied child migrants. Results indicate targeting cultural stressors in interventions may have potential to improve well-being and decrease externalizing behaviors and substance use within this population. PMID:25650112
Frey, Ariel; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Martin, Andres; Schwab-Stone; Mary
Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA)…
Harris, Mekel S.
As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…
Norwalk, Kate E; Hamm, Jill V; Farmer, Thomas W; Barnes, Kathryn
The present study examined the effects of teacher attunement to victimization on student perceptions of the bullying culture of their schools as a means of fostering a sense of belonging among early adolescents. Participants (n = 1,264) in sixth grade reported on the frequency that they had been bullied, and teachers were asked to report students who were "picked on." Teacher attunement represented the correspondence between self-identified and teacher-identified victims. Attunement at the beginning of the school year was related to positive changes in student reports that their peers would intervene in bullying; in turn, sense of belonging was greater when students perceived that their peers would intervene in bullying. Teacher attunement was indirectly related to greater belonging through its impact on student perceptions of the bullying context.
Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter
As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.
Foskett, Nicholas H.
Develops an analytical methodology for service organizations by examining four key cultural and managerial developments: understandings of markets and marketing held within the school; organizational responses to the market; use of analytical tools; and development of appropriate marketing strategies. Shows variations in schools' development of a…
Unnever, James D.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Study assessed the nature and extent of student attitudes toward bullying. Data from surveys of over 2,400 students in six middle schools indicated that a culture of bullying was pervasive among middle school students. Students believed that, in most cases, neither classmates nor teachers would intervene to stop bullying. Most students denied that…
Smith, Stuart C.; Stolp, Stephen
Although, theoretically, an organizational vision can unite school-community members, it can also destroy organizational culture without the consensus of those members. This publication offers guidelines for creating a collaborative vision--one that gives all members the opportunity to help create the vision. Each school should choose a strategy…
Annandale, Neil O.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Dean, Brenda; Kemple, Ana; Takino, Yozo
This study reviewed school-based crisis planning resources and guidelines provided by 40 state departments of education and offices of safe and drug-free schools. Content was examined for indications of cultural competency. The most frequently reported topics included: (a) assisting students with mental and physical disabilities, (b) tapping into…
Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.
Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048
Scherff, Lisa, Ed.; Spector, Karen, Ed.
In "Culture, Relevance, and Schooling: Exploring Uncommon Ground," Lisa Scherff, Karen Spector, and the contributing authors conceive of culturally relevant and critically minded pedagogies in terms of opening up new spatial, discursive, and/or embodied learning terrains. Readers will traverse multiple landscapes and look into a variety of spaces…
Ramsey, Margaret A.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that conflict, change, and deviance in school board behavior can be effectively studied and examined within generalized models of culture. In the first section, problems in studying educational cultures are identified and the biased views of educational anthropologists are discussed. Section II presents…
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
Dennee, Phyllis M.; And Others
This leader's manual contains the materials required to present a school-based weight management curriculum that may be offered both in school and outside the school setting for middle-school adolescents. The first section contains instructor information regarding the following topics: need for the program; program objectives; timeline and…
Grover, Kenneth O.
Kenneth Grover, the principal at Innovations Early College High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, describes a student he calls Jessica who is, unfortunately, one of thousands of students across the country entering and walking away from high school during their first year. These students' efforts are sincere, their attendance superb, and their…
Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Suryani, Angela O.; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Handani, Penny; Arasa, Josephine; Mazrui, Lubna; Murugumi, Margaret
Despite its popularity, the factorial structure of the Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) Questionnaire remains controversial. The current study set out to clarify its structure across different cultural contexts. The study was carried out among 1,928 adolescents aged 11 to 20 years in the Netherlands, Kenya, Indonesia, and Spain.…
Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya
The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.
WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793
van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou
This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…
Scales, Peter C.
Many young adolescents, possibly as many as half, feel boxed in and bored in their middle schools. Research suggests that schools, parents, and the rest of the community must do more to make middle schools places where young adolescents thrive. In spite of the emergence of the junior high school and later the middle school in the 20th century,…
Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.
Young African Americans face several critical issues such as dire economic circumstances, peer pressure, random violence, and feelings of alienation from the cultural mainstream in America. Black popular culture for these youth creates a value system born out of these same issues. This analysis will address the influence of Black popular culture…
Boulard, Aurore; Quertemont, Etienne; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Born, Michel
This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants…
Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin
This study examines the relationships between school-related stress, gender and psychosomatic symptoms in a sample of 531 adolescent pupils in years (grades) 8, 9 and 10 (aged 13-16 years) from two compulsory schools in Norway. Results showed that 18.1 percent reported being very much affected by at least one of the assessed psychosomatic…
Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.
Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…
Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti
Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)
Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza
The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…
Loukas, Alexandra; Ripperger-Suhler, Ken G.; Horton, Karissa D.
This study examined (a) the associations between school connectedness and early adolescent adjustment problems over a 1 year period and (b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Five hundred middle school students (53.4% female), initially in the 6th and 7th grades, participated in the two-wave study. Results from two-group…
Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill
Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…
Finkenbine, Ryan D.; Dwyer, R. Gregg
Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school…
Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana
Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…
Cassata, Linda; Dallas, Constance
Childbearing adolescents represent a vulnerable population with documented health disparities. Although nurses have more contact with childbearing adolescents than any other health professional, little is known about nurses' attitudes and how their attitudes influence nursing practice. The relationship of the provider's attitude to the patient has been associated with health outcomes. An exploratory, descriptive study using focus groups of registered nurses from two hospitals within the Chicago area were asked to discuss their perceptions of challenges, barriers and opportunities related to the care of low-income childbearing adolescents. The theme of system-level barriers to care was discussed by most nurses. The most dense area of data, however, centered on cultural conflict and chasm. Many nurses felt that they had not received the skills and knowledge needed to provide care to diverse families. This study illuminated the need for nursing education and practice settings to enhance cultural knowledge and skills.
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Introduces this special theme issue examining the roles of socialization, biology, and culture as they affect adaptive and maladaptive developmental outcomes. Problems of adolescence addressed include antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, low achievement, and eating problems. Considers factors implicated in successful…
Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.
The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…
Poulsen, Shruti S.
Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…
Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom
Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…
In this paper, a series of vignettes is used to explore important current challenges in TESOL. These vignettes are drawn from many different settings, including Bengali-, Pahari- and Chinese-speaking children in UK primary schools, speakers of Aboriginal English in Australia and Chinese teachers of English on courses in Higher Education. A number…
Ajaheb-Jahangeer, Shamim; Jahangeer, Abdul Cayum
This paper presents a case study of the school culture in a secondary school in Mauritius. It analyses how the school culture has an impact on the effectiveness of an educational organisation. The literature on school culture is reviewed and discussed. The education system in the Mauritian context is described; and its advantages and drawbacks…
Lewis, Jennifer; Asberry, Jacqueline; DeJarnett, Gregory; King, Gwendolyn
School culture is the belief and attitude influencing every aspect of how a school functions. Culture shared by all school stakeholders makes the actualization of both short-and long-term objectives easier. In this context, the best practices for shaping school culture for professional educators are personal mastery, team learning, and building a…
Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.
This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Im, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sunhee; Yun, Tae-Jin; Choi, Jae Young
Advancements in medical and surgical treatment have increased the life expectancy of patients with CHD. Many patients with CHD, however, struggle with the medical, psychosocial, and behavioural challenges as they transition from childhood to adulthood. Specifically, the environmental and lifestyle challenges in school are very important factors that affect children and adolescents with CHD. This study aimed to evaluate school-related adjustments depending on school level and disclosure of disease in children and adolescents with CHD. This was a descriptive and exploratory study with 205 children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, who were recruited from two congenital heart clinics from 5 January to 27 February, 2015. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and a univariate general linear model. School-related adjustment scores were significantly different according to school level and disclosure of disease (p<0.001) when age, religion, experience being bullied, and parents' educational levels were assigned as covariates. The school-related adjustment score of patients who did not disclose their disease dropped significantly in high school. This indicated that it is important for healthcare providers to plan developmentally appropriate educational transition programmes for middle-school students with CHD in order for students to prepare themselves before entering high school.
Jafelice, Luiz Carlos
This work is addressed to educators and geography, science, biology and physics teachers who deal with elementary, middle and high school education. It discusses the importance of adopting the anthropological perspective regarding issues that are considered within the astronomy area. It also presents practical proposals for those who intend to introduce cultural astronomy in elementary, middle and high school education – from the beginning of the 1st grade in Elementary school to the end of the 3rd grade in Secondary school, in formal as well as in informal education. This work is proposed within the context of the holistic and transdisciplinary environmental education. Our approach values above all the experience and aims at a humanistic education that includes epistemological and cultural diversities. The suggested practical proposals can be also beneficially used to address works that include contents related to Brazilian indigenous and Afro-descent cultures in the school curriculum, as the new law requires. The guidelines presented here were tested in real school situations.
Bhatta, Madhav P.; Shakya, Sunita; Jefferis, Eric
Background: This study examined the association of ever being bullied in school with suicide ideation (ever thinking about killing oneself) and ever seriously making a plan to kill oneself (suicide planning) among rural middle school adolescents. Methods: Using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Middle School Youth Risk Behavior…
Wickrama, Thulitha; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
The current study examined the direct and multiplicative influences by adolescent school context experiences (disengagement and maltreatment) and contextual characteristics (school minority concentration and school aggregated family poverty) on changes in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescent experiences with…
Kandel, Denise; Lesser, Gerald S.
Study explores how patterns of school friends' and parents' influence converge within the school and the role of the school in shaping adolescents' plans. One conclusion is that school program is more influential in the United States. (Author/DB)
Long, Rachel F; Huebner, E Scott; Wedell, Douglas H; Hills, Kimberly J
The tripartite model of subjective well-being (SWB) incorporates 3 components: frequent positive emotions, infrequent negative emotions, and an overall positive evaluation of life circumstances (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). In light of the large amount of time that youth spend in school, this study investigated a tripartite model of school-related SWB among adolescents, based on 3 measures of SWB appropriate for adolescents. The measures included a measure of school satisfaction (SS) and measures of positive and negative emotions experienced specifically during school hours. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to analyze the factorial validity of 3- and 4-factor models of school-related SWB in a sample of 921 adolescents. Results indicated that a 4-factor model comprised of positive emotions, negative emotions, fear-related negative emotions, and SS best described the structure of school-related SWB in the current sample. Results also revealed a comparable factor structure for male and female students. The study points to the possible benefits of a contextualized approach to SWB that takes into account the specific environments in which adolescents live.
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S
Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention.
Crespi, Tony D.; Hughes, Tammy L.
Adolescents are in crisis in school, home, and in the community. With an increasing array of problems, from alcohol and drug addiction to teenage pregnancy, the nation's youth are facing difficult challenges. In particular, family problems experienced by adolescents alone can seem daunting, with such issues as divorce, abuse, and discord changing…
Gariépy, Geneviève; Janssen, Ian; Sentenac, Mariane; Elgar, Frank J
Insufficient sleep is a serious problem in adolescents and school start time is thought to be a key contributor. This study provided the first comprehensive assessment of school start times across Canada and examined whether school start times were associated with sleep duration and tiredness among adolescents. We collected information on school start times from 362 schools that participated in the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. We calculated sleep duration from weekday bedtime and wake time reported by 29 635 students (aged 10-18 years). We classified weekday sleep as sufficient if it met national recommendations, and used data on self-reported tiredness at school in the morning. Random-effects regression models estimated the association of school start time with sleep duration, sleep sufficiency and tiredness. On average, schools started at 08:43 hours. Students slept an average of 8:36 h on weekdays and 69% met sleep duration recommendations, but 60% reported feeling tired in the morning. Every 10-min delay in school start time corresponded with 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.5] additional minutes of sleep, a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) greater probability of sufficient sleep and a 2.1% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) smaller probability of feeling tired at school in the morning. Students from schools that started later slept longer, were more likely to meet sleep recommendations and were less likely to report feeling tired in the morning. The study adds weight to the mounting evidence that delaying school start time benefits adolescent sleep.
Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)
Arata, Luis O.
These materials provide narratives about selected topics of cultural importance in the Hispanic world from the pre-Columbian past until after the Spanish conquest. The materials are designed for enrichment of current programs, and can be used in a variety of areas by elementary school teachers. The topics are treated in a story format so that…
Laughter, Judson C.; Adams, Amelia D.
To respond to calls for more research on culturally relevant science teaching, we present findings from one middle school science teacher's practices in an effort to contribute to this research. We describe how a discussion lab centered on Derrick Bell's (1992) short story "The Space Traders" was purposively included in a lesson on scientific bias…
Kozyrev, F. N.; Avest, K. H. ter
In Russia a new school subject has been introduced in order to facilitate educators in shaping the enculturation process of the autonomous student into the cumulative tradition. In this article the Russian societal and educational context is described and the concepts "religion" and "culture" are clarified. Together they build…
Nind, Melanie; Benjamin, Shereen; Sheehy, Kieron; Collins, Janet; Hall, Kathy
This article addresses the methodological challenges faced in a pilot study of the processes and cultures of inclusion and exclusion in two primary school classrooms. The authors, who were the research team, engaged with a range of practical and ethical challenges, some of which face any researcher entering classroom contexts and some of which…
Pagani, Camilla; Robustelli, Francesco; Martinelli, Cristina
The basic assumption of this paper is that school's potential to improve cross-cultural relations, as well as interpersonal relations in general, is enormous. This assumption is supported by a number of theoretical considerations and by the analysis of data we obtained from a study we conducted on the attitudes toward diversity and…
Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.
Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…
Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr
The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…
Examines the concept of school culture to understand individual schools. Analyzes the terms culture and school culture and compares the concept of school culture to the concept of organizational culture. Argues that organizational culture is a key concept in school development. Assesses the methodology of the organizational culture approach. (CAJ)
Waters, Stacey; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese
Background: Connectedness to school is a significant predictor of adolescent health and academic outcomes. While individual predictors of connectedness have been well-described, little is known about school-level factors which may influence connectedness. A school's ecology, or its structural, functional, and built aspects, coupled with…
Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Staff, Jeremy
Longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study is used to examine: (1) how young people establish work with self-identified career potential and how these patterns are linked to educational attainments; and (2) how adolescent achievement orientations, experiences in school and work, and sociodemographic background distinguish youth who establish themselves in careers and those who flounder during this transition. Multilevel latent class models reveal four school-to-work pathways from ages 18 to 31: two groups that attain careers through postsecondary education (via Bachelor’s or Associates-Vocational degrees) and two groups that do not (distinguished by attempting college). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrate that academic orientations, socioeconomic background, and steady paid work during high school help adolescents avoid subsequent floundering during the school-to-work transition. PMID:24791132
Uecker, Jeremy E
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents' religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers' involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers', but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed.
Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Jackson, Kristina M.
Background An important question is whether the high-school entry is a critical developmental event associated with escalation of alcohol use. The present study examined trajectories of adolescent alcohol use as a function of a normative developmental event, the high-school entry. In addition, given that at-risk youth may be particularly vulnerable to the stress associated with this transition, we examined how these alcohol use trajectories may be shaped by a measure of early behavioral risk, early adolescent delinquency. Methods Participants included 891 12-year olds from the prospective National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 (NLSY97) for whom relevant longitudinal school data were available (51.2% boys; 61.4% White). Results Alcohol use after high-school entry increased at a significantly greater rate than did use during the middle-school years, even after accounting for students’ age at transition. In addition, early delinquency emerged as a risk factor such that differences in alcohol use existed prior to the transition. That is, children with early delinquency characteristics displayed more rapid progression in alcohol use, but this effect was evident only during middle school. Conclusions High-school entry appears to be a critical developmental event associated with increased social risk for greater alcohol use that goes beyond the simple maturational (i.e., ageing) factors. Youth with behavioral problems appear to be at greater risk in middle school, in contrast to lower risk youth for whom high school entry may be a more critical event, in part because high school is a less restrictive environment and/or because alcohol use becomes more normative at that time. Adolescent substance use may be described as a series of distinct developmental stages that closely correspond to school transitions, and suggest a critical period for targeted intervention that may differ as a function of pre-existing risk. PMID:25939277
Individuals organize their behaviors in light of the social groups of which they consider themselves a part. Risks shared between individuals take on symbolic significance and become cultural meanings for those involved. In other words, risks provide content for creating shared knowledge significant for group relations. This study examined the…
Turan, Selahattin; Bektas, Fatih
Problem Statement: Creation of a common culture in educational organizations, particularly in schools, depends first on the presence and cohesiveness of an interacting group of individuals. Individual aims are more likely to turn into a shared objective in schools with a strong, participatory culture. Culture shared by all school stakeholders…
Sailes, JaDora; Cleveland, Roger; Tyler, Tiffany
Recognizing the role of cultural audits in identifying a school's organizational and cultural characteristics, this article offers insight about developing school improvement plans. The multiple cultures that shape the "null curriculum" of a school, in which certain concepts and skills are left out of students' scope of…
This review examines literature on aspects of school culture and students' physical activity participation. The following questions were addressed: (1) what aspects of school culture have been examined in relation to physical activity, (2) what is the weight of evidence concerning the relationships between school culture factors and physical…
Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and…
Straub, Stephen J.
While the high school setting holds the best promise of employment for the recently certified athletic trainer, most student athletic trainers do not spend time working with the secondary school athlete. The athletic trainer must be aware of the stages of adolescent psychological maturity and be sensitive to the athlete's psychological needs. It is important that the athletic trainer develops strategies for dealing with both the athlete and his/her parents. ImagesINGINGINGINGINGING PMID:16558210
Cooper, Gregory D; Clements, Paul Thomas; Holt, Karyn E
Adolescent suicide is a preventable tragedy yet is still the third leading cause of death in young people of age 10-24. Contrary to the idea that childhood bullying is a normal part of growing up or a rite of passage, it is now correlated with adolescent suicidality. An integrative review of the contemporary, extant literature was conducted to examine the following question: Are adolescents who have been involved in childhood bullying or cyberbullying as victim, offender, or victim/offender at greater risk for suicidality than those who have not. It is important to empower school nurses with current and evidence-based information regarding childhood bullying and examine empirical science and tools to effectively address the current serious problem of adolescent suicide risk assessment and intervention.
Millstein, Susan G.
The future of school-linked adolescent health centers cannot be determined without further evaluation. The recent development of school-linked health centers stems from concerns about the special health needs of adolescents. Currently there are 125 school-based and school-linked centers in operation. Characteristics include the following: (1) most…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.
Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…
Meisel, Samuel N; Colder, Craig R
Although developmental models of risk behavior highlight the role of school connectedness in the etiology of adolescent substance use, no studies to our knowledge have assessed longitudinal mediational models examining how adolescents form bonds to their school, and how the quality of those bonds relate to substance use. To address this gap, the current study used four waves of data, spanning ages 11-16 (grades 5-11), to examine the association between individual differences in agentic (Dominance/Power) and communal (Nurturance/Affiliation) social goals and school connectedness, and in turn, whether levels of school connectedness are associated with substance use. The community sample (N = 387, 55% female) was assessed annually and included non-Hispanic Caucasian (83.1%), African American (9.1%), Hispanic (2.1%), and Asian (1.0%), as well as youth of mixed ethnicity (4.7%). The results supported a mediational pathway whereby agentic goals were associated with low levels of school connectedness, which, in turn, were associated with high levels of substance use. Counter to our hypotheses, no association was found between communal goals and school connectedness. These findings provided initial evidence for the important role social goals play in shaping an adolescent's connectedness to their school and risk for substance use.
Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Moses, Mindi; Kann, Tiffany Koloroutis; Mariscal, E Susana; Levy, Michelle; Navarro, Carolina; Fite, Paula J
Teen pregnancy remains a public health concern particularly among Latinos, whose pregnancy rate of 83.5 per 1000 girls constitutes one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy among all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. To enhance the effectiveness of interventions for diverse Latino populations in the US, it is crucial to assess the community's understanding of the etiology of the problem of adolescent pregnancy and to implement programs that reflect the local community's beliefs and preferences. We present findings from six focus groups held with parents (n = 18), teachers (n = 23) and school stakeholders (n = 8) regarding teen pregnancy prevention among Latino youth at a high school located in a large, Midwestern city. Two investigators analyzed data iteratively using a template organizing approach. A consensus emerged across the groups regarding content that emphasized respect for oneself and one's family, a focus on personal and shared responsibility in reproductive health behavior, information about the "realities" or consequences associated with engaging in sexual activity, and information about contraceptives. The strong request from participants to include a parental education component reflects the community's belief that parents play a crucial, protective role in the socialization and development of adolescent sexual behavior, a view that is supported by empirical research. Findings highlight the importance of involving local school communities in identifying adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies that are responsive to the community's cultural values, beliefs, and preferences, as well as the school's capacity and teacher preferences.
Hurrelmann, Klaus; And Others
Questionnaire surveys were completed by 1,717 West German students between the ages of 13 and 16. Data support hypotheses that psychosomatic symptom frequency is reinforced when adolescents experience failure in school and social and emotional conflict in their relationships with parents. Multivariate analysis showed these effects to be…
This article formulates an overarching, inclusive model of integral counseling that enables school counselors to help male adolescents challenge the norm of conventional masculinity. The model draws from 3 areas: transpersonal counseling, holistic education, and mindful social action. The aim is to move the students' level of self-development and…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat
Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…
Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Fomby, Paula
An emerging literature suggests that the increasingly complex family histories of American children are linked with multiple domains of adolescent development. Much of this scholarship focuses on associations at the individual level. Here, the authors consider whether key dimensions of the school context, specifically the aggregate level of family…
Mills, Kathy A.
Recent research has emphasized the multimodal and digital nature of adolescent literacy practices. These practices cross multiple social spaces, particularly settings outside of schools. This article re-examines current research to yield three caveats that counter assumptions about the pervasiveness, relevance, and spontaneity of youths'…
Mansfield, Caroline F.
Student motivation during adolescence has become an increasingly important issue for educators and researchers. Using a goal theory perspective, researchers have investigated a range of goals (including achievement goals, social goals and future goals) that influence students' desire to achieve at school. The present study examines the range of…
This study examines the role of racial/ethnic segregation and peer effects in shaping educational achievement and attainment, using multi-level modeling on a nationally representative sample of adolescents. As in many prior studies, school socioeconomic composition was a significant predictor of achievement and attainment for students of all…
Thompson, John L.; And Others
The manual outlines the processes, policies, and actual program implementation of one component of a Minnesota program for emotionally disturbed adolescents (Project SAIL): the development of school-based therapy/intervention groups. The characteristics of SAIL students are described, and some considerations involved in providing group services…
Drawing on a variety of qualitative data, this case study explored one Chinese adolescent's decade-long educational journey at various American schools. The findings reveal academic triumphs, familial conflicts, and developmental dilemmas experienced by the student and the family across different sociocultural spaces. This research has…
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo
This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…
Hayes-Bohn, Rachel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Mellin, Alison; Patterson, Joan
This study explored opinions, concerns, and recommendations regarding care of Type 1 diabetes in schools. Thirty adolescent females and their parents participated in semi- structured, individual interviews that were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and qualitatively analyzed. Responses emerged in three categories: (1) knowledge/training of school…
Kennedy, Angie C.
Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…
Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Perez, Sergio Murgui; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Ruiz, David Moreno
The present study examined the influence of family and classroom environments on the development of particular individual characteristics, including level of empathy, attitude to institutional authority and perceived social reputation, and the role these characteristics may in turn play in school aggression. Participants were 1319 adolescents aged…
Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio
The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk.
Egbochuku, E. O.; Aihie, N. O.
The study focused on the influence of peer group counselling and school influence on the self-concept of adolescents' in Nigerian secondary schools. Sixty-eight Senior Secondary School II students from three schools--a boys' school, a girls' school and a co-educational school in Benin City participated in the study. A pre-test, post-test control…
Frey, Ariel; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Martin, Andrés; Schwab-Stone, Mary
Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.
Talik, Elżbieta B
The paper presents the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Religious Coping Questionnaire (the RCOPE) by Pargament et al. (2000) for Polish adolescents. The work was driven by the necessity to obtain a structural and measurement equivalence between the American and Polish versions of the instrument. The Polish version was created at the Department of Clinical Psychology of Children and Adolescents at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The exploratory factor analysis with the Oblimin oblique rotation was carried out. The principal components method was used as an extraction method of common factors. The results provided input for constructing the scales. The Adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire consists of 105 items, grouped in 16 scales, which reflects positive and negative religious coping strategies.
Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.
We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at-risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English and math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and math grades), while males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058
Figlio, David; Ludwig, Jens
This paper examines the effects of private schooling on adolescent nonmarket behaviors. Differences between private- and public-school students were controlled by making use of the rich set of covariates available with the Nation Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) microdataset. An instrumental-variables strategy was also employed that exploits…
Sekhar, Deepa L.; Zalewski, Thomas R.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Czarnecki, Beth; Barr, Ashley L.; King, Tonya S.; Paul, Ian M.
High frequency hearing loss (HFHL), often related to hazardous noise, affects one in six U.S. adolescents. Yet, only 20 states include school-based hearing screens for adolescents. Only six states test multiple high frequencies. Study objectives were to (1) compare the sensitivity of state school-based hearing screens for adolescents to gold…
Andrade Adaniya, Fernando Humberto
Children and adolescents are exposed to multiple contextual influences along their development towards adulthood. Before they transition to adulthood, adolescents acquire skills and knowledge usually in schools, which are one of the most influential contexts during adolescence. During school years performing well academically can generate better…
Swartz, Karen L.; Kastelic, Elizabeth A.; Hess, Sally G.; Cox, Todd S.; Gonzales, Lizza C.; Mink, Sallie P.; DePaulo, J. Raymond, Jr.
In an effort to decrease the suicide rate in adolescents, many interventions have focused on school-based suicide prevention programs. Alternatively, depression education in schools might be effective in decreasing the morbidity, mortality, and stigma associated with adolescent depression. The Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP)…
Roaten, Gail K.; Roaten, David J.
Brain growth and change is a key factor in adolescent development, influencing cognitions, emotions, and behavior. As technology has improved, so has the research on the adolescent brain. School counselors working with adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work with middle and high school students.…
Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcome variables of parents' perception and behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This web-based intervention could be delivered across diverse settings, such as schools and community mental health centers, to increase parents' knowledge of adolescent's mental health and allow for early detection of mental health problems. Mental health nurses working in schools may spend a significant amount of time addressing students' mental health issues; thus, this web-based intervention could be a useful resource to share with parents and children. In this way, the mental health nurses could facilitate parental engagement in the intervention and then help them to continue to apply and practice the knowledge and skills obtained through the program.
Shuster, Michael M; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural values (collectivism and social harmony) and parenting practices (psychological control and inductive reasoning) at Time 1. While controlling for Time 1 adolescent aggression, maternal collectivism and social harmony indirectly and longitudinally linked to adolescent aggression through maternal parenting practices. Specifically, maternal collectivism was positively related to inductive reasoning, which, in turn, negatively related to adolescent overt aggression at Time 2. Similarly, maternal social harmony negatively related to psychological control that positively predicted later adolescent relational aggression. Results of the present study shed light on mechanisms through which culture may indirectly influence adolescent aggression.
Young, Jami F; Kranzler, Amy; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This paper reports on school and social functioning outcomes in a randomized depression prevention study that compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST) with usual school counseling (SC). Outcome analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models and mixed model analysis of variance. IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater improvements than SC adolescents in total social functioning and friend functioning during the intervention. IPT-AST adolescents also demonstrated improvements in school, dating, and family functioning and emotional engagement in school, although these improvements were not significantly greater than seen in SC adolescents. Finally, in the 18 months following the intervention, IPT-AST adolescents were less likely than SC adolescents to be asked to leave school for academic or behavioral reasons. These findings extend the potential range of impact of depression prevention programs such as IPT-AST and provide preliminary evidence of the benefits of these programs on school and social functioning.
Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra
To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…
Rauf, Parwazalam Abdul; Ali, Syed Kamaruzaman Syed; Aluwi, Aliza; Noor, Nor Afizah Mohd
This study explores the influence of school culture on the management of professional development in secondary schools in Malaysia. It illustrates how school culture influences the school professional development management. The instrument used in this study is a self-administered questionnaire involving 515 secondary school teachers. The results…
Harrison, Jo-Ann; Kuint, Sarah
Examines the variability of Israeli schools' emergency preparedness and response to the Gulf War and the association of school culture with school effectiveness during this emergency. Policy guidelines should include recommendations for diagnosing and identifying dimensions of school culture (including religious beliefs and school ideology) that…
Bauer, Anne M.; Brown, Glenda Myree
Written with teachers, administrators, and students of Purcell Marian High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, this book is grounded in a 2-year action research project that created an inclusive high school. Chapter 1 provides snapshots of interactions in an inclusive high school and refutes some of the concerns expressed by teachers and administrators.…
Barnes, Vernon A; Bauza, Lynnette B; Treiber, Frank A
Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress reduction via the Transcendental Meditation program on school rule infractions in adolescents. Methods Forty-five African American adolescents (ages 15–18 years) with high normal systolic blood pressure were randomly assigned to either Transcendental Meditation (n = 25) or health education control (n = 20) groups. The meditation group engaged in 15-min sessions at home and at school each day for 4 months. The control group was presented 15-min sessions of health education at school each day for 4 months. Primary outcome measures were changes in absenteeism, school rule infractions and suspension days during the four-month pretest period prior to randomization compared with the four-month intervention period. Results Comparing the pretest and intervention periods, the meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 6.4 absentee periods compared to an increase of 4.8 in the control group (p < .05). The meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 0.1 infractions over the four months compared to an increase of 0.3 in the control group (p < .03). There was a mean reduction of 0.3 suspension days due to behavior-related problems in the meditation group compared to an increase of 1.2 in the control group (p < .04). Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in the school setting has a beneficial impact upon absenteeism, rule infractions, and suspension rates in African American adolescents. PMID:12740037
MacTaggart, Heather; Abbott, John
Children learn a whole raft of skills in the first seven or eight years of life by closely imitating their parents and teachers. But for children to grow up as clones at a time of rapid cultural and economic environmental change would be nothing short of disastrous. We now know that children need the struggle of adolescence to put away those…
Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Janosz, Michel
This study investigates heterogeneity in adolescents' trajectories of global self-esteem (GSE) and the relations between these trajectories and facets of the interpersonal, organizational, and instructional components of students' school life. Methodologically, this study illustrates the use of growth mixture analyses, and how to obtain proper student-level effects when there are multiple schools, but not enough to support multilevel analyses. This study is based on a 4-year, six-measurement-point, follow-up of 1,008 adolescents (M(age) = 12.6 years, SD = 0.6 at Time 1.) The results show four latent classes presenting elevated, moderate, increasing, and low trajectories defined based on GSE levels and fluctuations. The results show that GSE becomes trait-like as it increases and that school life effects, moderated by gender, played an important role in predicting membership in these trajectories.
Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara
The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.
Espiner, Deborah; Guild, Diane
Mt. Richmond Special School is the first Circle of Courage school in New Zealand. The school reflects the richness of the cultural and learning diversity found in many New Zealand schools. Located in the heart of South Auckland, the school's 130 students represent a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. The universal values in the Circle of Courage…
Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui
Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…
Between fiscal years 1985-86 and 1990-91 the Swedish government earmarked funding for cultural projects. The aims were both to increase the element of culture in schoolwork and to establish and strengthen ties between school and cultural life outside school. Local municipalities could apply for funding for projects initiatiated by the schools.…
Nawab, Tabassum; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal Mohammed; Ansari, Mohammed Athar
Introduction: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660). Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2%) and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%) was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV) viewing more than 2 h/day. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing. PMID:28217587
Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…
Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz
Objectives: To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. Results: The study found significant differences between “problem solving level” and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers’, fathers’ siblings’ closeness level; between “loneliness level” and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers’, fathers’, siblings’ closeness level; between “depression level” and life quality, family income, fathers’ closeness level. Conclusion: Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended. PMID:27882035
Pearman, Silas N., III; Thatcher, William G.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Examined private and public high school adolescents' weight control and nutrition behaviors, using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data. Private school females were more likely to diet and exercise than public school females. Public school males were more likely to attempt weight gain than private high school males. Private school students…
Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki
Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740
Napoli, Maria; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen
This article presents the results of a study conducted with 243 Native American students who were part of a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents attending middle school in a large urban center in the Southwest region of the United States. Native adolescents who felt a stronger sense of belonging in their school were found to report a lower lifetime use of alcohol and cigarettes, lower cigarette and marijuana use in the previous month, lower frequency of current use of these substances, fewer substances ever used, and a later age of initiation into drug use than other Native students. Research implications are discussed in relationship to school environment, culturally-grounded prevention curricula, and school social work practice. PMID:21359140
Tavares-Silva, Fabiany de C.; Pessanha, Eurize C.
In recent years, we have developed research studies to analyze the relationships between the fields of history and sociology of curriculum, school, and culture. Using previously conducted studies, we investigate topics such as school culture and education management, which broaden our understanding of education, school days and spaces, classes and…
Theriot, Matthew T.
Although research has highlighted that dating violence is a serious and pervasive problem in many adolescent relationships, the prevalence and characteristics of such violence at schools is not fully understood. Yet, adolescents spend a great deal of time at school, and schools facilitate their relationships by providing numerous opportunities for…
Damico, Sandra Bowman
This paper presents a study conducted to document adolescents' visual perceptions of school. Specifically, an attempt was made to determine whether black and white adolescents, when given cameras, an entire school day, and complete freedom from class assignments, would select different physical and social aspects of their school environment to…
Walley, Cynthia T.; Grothaus, Tim
Given the prevalence of adolescent mental health issues and the impact they have on adolescent development and school success, school counselors are challenged to provide appropriate prevention and intervention services. Yet the sufficiency of school counselor training for these challenges is unclear. Qualitative procedures were used to examine…
Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.
This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…
Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.
The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…
This paper contrasts two aspects of the adolescent's sojourn in the metaphorical landscape of the borderland. Either this 'dance with death' can prove life-affirming and serve individuation as the intensity of being poised on the cusp between life and death negates numbing dissociation, or it can spiral into madness and suicide when the adolescent gets trapped in a mimetic hall of mirrors. This paper considers both the oscillations between mimesis and alterity, and how culture and cultural complexes may define expressions of distress. It concludes with the question of whether one can-and whether one should-make sense of the demons from the other side; and whether they are psychotic, pseudo-psychotic or dissociative manifestations as they emerge during the course of therapy.
Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K.
Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps.…
Milner, Murray, Jr.
Peer relationships in secondary schools in two different cultural areas of India are compared. A general theory of status relations and a specification of the distinctive cultural features of each area are used to explain the observed differences in peer inequality, clique formation, petty deviance, putdowns, fashion consciousness, romantic…
Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities.
Uecker, Jeremy E.
I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers’ involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers’, but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed. PMID:21709822
Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue
Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students.
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…
Partial results from a larger Finnish-Polish study on the relations between grandchildren, parents, and grandparents are presented here. The results are based on a content analysis of essays written by 731 Finnish and Polish adolescents between eleven and twenty-one. Older children used more abstract descriptions, girls mentioned more personality features and feelings than boys, and grandmothers, especially maternal grandmothers were described in the most positive terms. The central new finding was that there are highly significant cross-cultural differences in the descriptions of grandparents; the Poles describe them in more abstract terms even after controlling for age and gender. Polish adolescents make more mention of their feelings, their personality, and their skills as well as of emotional/intellectual input from them; they use more positive terms than do the Finns, but make less mention of activities and appearance. These differences between the two cultures are mediated by contact frequency, which through its working on the proximal level enables co-construction of the relationship and the transmission of interactional styles.
Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
The authors investigated the relationship between the acquisition of cultural life scripts and the degree of coherence in children's and adolescents' life stories. Three groups of Danish school children aged 9 to 15 years participated. In 3 sessions, they wrote down a recently experienced single autobiographical event, their life story, and their…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.
Adolescent Students' Intercultural Awareness When Using Culture-Based Materials in the English Class (La conciencia intercultural de estudiantes adolescentes al usar materiales con contenido cultural en la clase de inglés)
Castañeda Usaquén, Mireya Esther
This article reports on a qualitative and interpretative case study conducted at a high school located in the southeast of Bogotá. The case is comprised of a group of fifty-one eighth graders who had had little contact with English. It aimed at exploring how these adolescents made sense of the culture-based materials implemented in the English…
Mendoza, Ramón; López Pérez, Pilar
This paper aims to describe the prevalence of tobacco consumption among pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain at the start of the 21st century. The data were collected within the framework of the "Estilos de Vida de los Adolescentes Escolarizados" (EVAE) project, a nationwide cross-sectional study on the lifestyles of adolescent school children. In this study, a random sample of 8429 students aged from 10 to 18 years old (49.9% boys and 50.1% girls) was selected. The school children filled in an anonymous questionnaire in their classrooms. Among the 12-year-old age group, there are a significantly higher number of boys than girls who have ever smoked tobacco. Figures are higher for girls in the 14-year-old or older age groups. Between the 12 and the 14-year-old age groups, there is an increase of 40 percentage points for girls who have ever smoked tobacco. The prevalence of daily smoking exceeds 10% among the 14-year-old or older age groups, with significantly higher rates for girls than for boys among the 15-year-old group and older students. Among the 17-year-old group, 25% of boys and 35% of girls report that they smoke daily. The recent experience of Spain and other countries shows that it is possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption among school children within a few years. The primary prevention of tobacco consumption among adolescents can be highly effective and should constitute a priority for the health system, the education system and other sectors involved.
Eide, A H; Acuda, S W
A classroom survey was conducted in June 1994 among 3061 secondary school students in four provinces in Zimbabwe, with the main objective of measuring health behaviours, school performance and environmental and cultural factors as predictors for drug use. This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between cultural orientation and alcohol use. The survey instrument was based on previous studies undertaken in Zimbabwe and in Europe and adapted to the local situation. A two-staged stratified random sampling strategy distinguished between four different socio-cultural groups. Standardized instructions were given in classrooms by a trained research team. Respondents' mean ages were 14.9 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls, and 51.4% were boys. For a number of core questions, test-retest reliability was shown to be satisfactory. A 14-item scale focusing on language, mass media and music preferences was constructed to measure cultural orientation. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct factors with low interfactor correlation and acceptable scale reliability (alpha), one representing Western orientation and the other Zimbabwean or traditional cultural orientation. Zimbabwean orientation was found to be associated with lower alcohol use, whereas western orientation was associated with higher probability for alcohol use.
Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita
The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…
Weinstein, Erica S.
This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…
Pesola, Carol Ann
Explores ways in which elementary school foreign language programs can fully integrate cultural insights, skills, and understanding through an examination of instructional models and developmental factors in the teaching of culture, goal setting for teaching culture, and culture and curriculum in the foreign language classroom and in other areas.…
Nir, Adam E.
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) has affected schools' culture of consumption and the inequalities between schools with different socio-economic backgrounds. An analysis of financial reports from 31 SBM schools over four years reveals that schools have increased rather…
Berndt, Thomas J.; Keefe, Keunho
A short-term longitudinal study investigated theoretical perspectives on friends' influences and compared the influence of a student's closest friend with that of several close friends. Participants were 297 seventh and eighth graders in junior high schools in small towns or rural areas adjacent to a medium-sized city. Measures obtained in the…
Gunasekera, Sashya; Houghton, Stephen; Glasgow, Kenneth; Boyle, Christopher
Setting clear achievable goals that enhance reputational status has been shown to direct the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. It appears to be the case that following transition from Intensive English Centres (IECs) into mainstream schooling, students from African refugee backgrounds experience…
Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim
Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…
Fleischman, Katie; Smothers, Melissa K.; Christianson, Heidi F.; Carter, Laura; Hains, Anthony A.; Davies, W. Hobart
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) as they transitioned into high school in order to understand the contextual factors that impact diabetic health-related behaviors and self-identity. A qualitative interviewing methodology called consensual qualitative research (CQR) was…
Crisp, Heather L.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Shirk, Stephen R.
This paper describes the Adolescent Mood Project (Project AMP), a study transporting an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent depression from the university lab setting to a school-based setting. Extant research on the psychosocial treatment of adolescent depression is reviewed and rationale for transporting evidence…
McCombs, Amanda; Forehand, Rex
Examined relationship between adolescent school achievement and family factors which may mediate negative influence of divorce. Findings from 71 early adolescents and their recently divorced mothers revealed that adolescents with high grade point averages had mothers with lower depression, higher education, less conflict with ex-spouse, and less…
Harder, Annemiek T.; Huyghen, Anne-Marie N.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Köngeter, Stefan; Zeller, Maren; Knorth, Erik J.
Background: Despite poor school performance by adolescents in secure residential care and the potential importance of education during care, little is known about how to achieve academic success with these adolescents. Objective: Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess adolescents' academic achievement during secure residential…
Young, R.; Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.
Background: Leaving school is an important time for adolescents, with increasing autonomy and developing adult identities. The present study sought to shed light on the content and emotional impact of worries amongst adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (IDs) at this time of change. Methods: Twenty-five adolescents with mild to…
Unger, Jennifer B.
Hispanic adolescents represent a growing segment of the U.S. population. In addition to the typical stressors encountered during adolescence, Hispanic adolescents may experience acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and conflicts with parents about acculturation, which can lead to maladaptive behaviors such as substance use. Personal cultural resources may help Hispanic youth cope with cultural stressors and avoid substance use, but little is known about how such factors affect decisions about substance use. In 2005, my research group began studying a group of Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles. The participants completed surveys annually about cultural issues such as acculturation, ethnic identity, and perceived discrimination; family and peer relationships; and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. We found that Hispanic adolescents’ perceptions that they were discriminated against put them at greater risk for substance use, and that Hispanic orientation protected the youth from substance use. The findings can inform the development of culturally relevant prevention interventions for Hispanic adolescents and emerging adults. PMID:24729791
Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G. K.; Meena, G. S.; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Rajesh
Background: Hypertension is fast emerging as a major health problem amongst all school adolescents, particularly in urban areas. Regular screening of the students for this is required for preventing the emergence of complications later in life. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the prevalence of hypertension amongst urban school adolescents and its correlation with anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a school in Central Delhi involving all 315 students of 9th and 11th standard. A preforma was filled by the students and anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken for each student. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 2005 and SPSS 16.0. Results: Out of the total 315 students, 208 (66%) were boys and 107 (34%) were girls and the mean age was 14.31 ± 0.96 years. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 24% and boys were found to be more obese as compared to girls. There were 5 students (1.6%) who were found to have systolic hypertension while 17 (5.4%) were found to have diastolic hypertension while 4.1% (n = 13) of the participants were systolic pre-hypertensive and 26% (n = 82) were in stage of diastolic pre-hypertension. Body mass index and gender were found to be independent predictor for systolic hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was high amongst the school children. BP check-up for children and adolescents is thus recommended to take remedial action on time. PMID:24791194
Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin
Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.
Barr, Jason J.
This research examined the relationship between teachers' empathy and perceptions of their school's culture. Teachers' ability to change their school's culture might be limited by their inability to interpret and respond appropriately to student behaviour. As teachers' empathic abilities increase, it seems likely that they would be better able to…
Matza, Maria; Maughan, Erin; Barrows, Beth M
NASN conducted a needs assessment to learn about the cultural competence skills needed by school nurses. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of the needs assessment and describe actions taken to address cultural competency needs for the U.S. school nurse workforce.
Kaplan, Gisela; Eckermann, Anne-Katrin
Observes the activities and characteristics of Aboriginal children in an Aboriginal school and compares these to the culture shock and alienation experienced when they transfer to a mainstream school. Identifies five major stressors of culture shock as mechanical differences, communication, attitudes and beliefs, customs, and isolation. (MJP)
Use Friday Focus memos to motivate and engage your staff every week, and help create a school culture focused on the growth of students "and" teachers. Easy to understand and implement, Friday Focus memos offer an effective and efficient way to improve student learning, staff development, and school culture from within. Written by educational…
Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn
This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…
Rowland, Michael L; Bean, Canise Y; Casamassimo, Paul S
During the last decade, cultural competency has received a great deal of attention in health care and the literature of many fields, including education, social services, law, and health care. The dental education literature provides little information regarding status, strategies, or guiding principles of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. This study was an attempt to describe the status of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. A web-based thirty-question survey regarding cultural competency education coursework, teaching, course materials, and content was sent in 2005 to the assistant/associate deans for academic affairs at fifty-six U.S. dental schools, followed up by subsequent email messages. Thirty-four (61 percent) dental school officials responded to the survey. The majority of respondents (twenty-eight; 82 percent) did not have a specific stand-alone cultural competency course, but indicated it was integrated into the curriculum. Recognition of local and national community diversity needs prompted course creation in most schools. Respondents at almost two-thirds of schools indicated that their impression of students' acceptance was positive. Teachers of cultural competency were primarily white female dentists. Few schools required faculty to have similar cultural competency or diversity training. Thirty-three of the thirty-four U.S. dental schools responding to this survey offer some form of coursework in cultural competency with little standardization and a variety of methods and strategies to teach dental students.
Usen, Stella Anietie; Eneh, Grace Akaniyene; Udom, Inwang Etim
The purpose of this study was to ascertain how cognitive distortion could predict in-school adolescents' depressive symptoms and academic performance in the South-South Nigeria. The study adopted a correlation design with a sample of in-school adolescents who showed evidence of cognitive distortion (N = 798). In-School Adolescents' Cognitive…
Bradford, Judith Young; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.
School health clinics are one way to meet the objectives in "Healthy People 2010" for adolescent health. To determine the relationship between adolescent health status and use of the school health clinics in four Mississippi high schools, the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was used. The CHIP-AE identifies…
Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…
The current study explores the relationship between friendship formation, school engagement, and belonging among White and Hispanic students. It employed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in high school. The sample consisted of 6,366 Mexican, 1,132 Cuban, 1,330 Puerto Rican,…
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…
Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael
This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane
Background: Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims: Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between…
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Gilbert, Dorie J.
Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…
Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.
Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…
Scully, Jennifer E.
Secondary newcomer schools vary tremendously in format but share the common characteristic of being comprised of recently arrived adolescent immigrants. These schools, designed to meet the educational and acculturative needs of adolescent immigrants, have been proliferating across the United States for years. Yet little is known about the…
Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.
This study explores the relationship between social capital and adolescent violent behaviors for a national sample of secondary school students (N = 4,834). Cross-sectional data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to evaluate multivariate models examining the family school and neighborhood correlates of violent…
Dietrich, Julia; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
This study investigated adolescents' and parents' co-regulation of career-related goals during the post-school transition. Finnish adolescents (N = 807, 49% female) were assessed twice in high school and once after graduation. It was examined how their career goal motivation (autonomous vs. controlled) and appraisals (goal attainability, effort,…
Garnefski, Nadia; Okma, Sjoukje
Analyzed data from 2,814 15- and 16-year-old secondary school students to investigate the collective influence of family, school, and peers on behavioral problems in adolescence. Adolescents with behavioral problems had a more negative perception of the environment, indicating that behavioral problems are associated with problems in multiple…
Vela, Javier Cavazos; Flamez, Brande; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Lerma, Eunice
The impact of high school counselors' support on Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs was examined. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore predictors of Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. Perceptions of accessibility and expectations from school counselors positively impacted college-going beliefs…
Suitor, J. Jill; Powers, Rebecca S.; Brown, Rachel
We used data from 1,733 college students to explore whether adolescents' avenues to prestige differ in public and private high schools. Students attending seven large universities during the 1997-98 academic year provided information on the ways in which adolescents in their high schools had gained prestige with peers. The analyses revealed no…
Li, Yibing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Arbeit, Miriam R.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lerner, Richard M.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of school engagement on risky behavior in adolescence. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents, discrete-time survival analyses were conducted to assess the effect of behavioral and emotional school engagement on the initiation…
Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke
Few studies with respect to grade retention and school-disruptive behavior have focused on adolescence. Moreover, previous retention research has ignored multilevel issues. This study aims to fill these research lacunae by addressing the role of grade retention in adolescent students' school misconduct. Furthermore, we explore the role of the…
Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.
Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…
McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.
Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…
Frömel, Karel; Svozil, Zbynek; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota
Background: This study investigates school lifestyle among adolescents in terms of physical activity (PA) structure: (1) adolescents participating in a physical education lesson (PEL) versus (2) aggregate recess time exceeding 60 minutes. Methods: The research was conducted in 24 secondary schools in the Czech Republic (boys N = 208, girls N =…
Price, Richard H.; And Others
This paper reviews social support programs designed to have a preventive impact on young adolescents. A review of supportive programs for reducing adolescents' risks of educational failure and poor health has identified a number of innovative school- and community-based support programs. School-based support programs are aimed at enhanced…
Osakinle, E. O.
This paper examines in-school adolescents and career choices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed…
Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Clawson, Angela; Chang, Hanna; Surya, Shruti; Jérémie-Brink, Gihane
Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating. Overall, the participants experienced a cultural split and discontinuity between the 2 worlds of home and ethnic community versus school and society in general. They received strong ethnic socialization messages from family and ethnic community. Although most participants experienced hurtful racial discrimination, they used passive coping (e.g., dismiss, minimize, defend perpetrators). The model minority stereotype was prevalent and deeply engrained in many aspects of their lives including ethnic identity development, cultural socialization messages from mainstream society, discrimination experiences, and academic/occupational demands imposed by self, parents, peers, and society. Although they appreciated parents' high expectations of academic/occupational success, they felt pressured and desired to have space and independence. Friendship/dating patterns reflected ethnic identity development as well as contextual influence. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Using social cognitive career theory, we examined the relationships between parental variables (parental career expectations, adolescent-parent career congruence) and adolescent career aspirations and career actions (planning, exploration) in a sample of Grade 10 Indonesian high school students. We found good support for a model that revealed…
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Tynes, Brendesha M; Toomey, Russell B; Williams, David R; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study examined the associations between Latino adolescents' (n = 219; Mage = 14.35; SD = 1.75) perceptions of ethnic discrimination in multiple settings (e.g., online, school) and several domains of adjustment (e.g., mental health, academic), and tested whether developmentally salient cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity) directly promoted youth adjustment or moderated the negative impact of discrimination on adjustment. Each of the 3 ethnic identity components (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) demonstrated evidence of promoting positive outcomes among Latino youth; furthermore, there was some evidence that the promotive effects of affirmation and resolution were significantly stronger for older versus younger adolescents. In addition, with the exception of experiences with discrimination from adults outside of the school setting, there was evidence of ethnic identity interacting with each type of discrimination to predict Latino adolescents' self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and externalizing problems. Findings suggest directions for future research and identify potential targets for intervention that may prove fruitful in programming efforts with Latino adolescents.
Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M; Wheeler, Lorey A; Perez-Brena, Norma J
Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 and 18years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore supportive and shared leadership structures at schools as a function of school culture policies and procedures. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted at three secondary schools in the Midwestern USA. Administrators and teachers were interviewed, professional learning…
Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh
This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…
Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.
This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…
Jeffers, Michael P.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze how high school principals approached developing a collaborative culture and providing collaborative leadership in a large high school setting. The population sample for this study was 82 principals of large comprehensive high schools of grades 9 through 12 or some combination thereof with…
Nelson, Judith A.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Sawyer, Cheryl; Sloan, Eva D.
This collective case study investigated the experiences of bilingual counselors-in-training who assessed school-wide cultural competence in public schools. Analysis and interpretation of data resulted in the identification of 5 themes: eye-opening experiences, recognition of strengths, the role of school leaders, road maps for change, and…
School foodservice workers (SFW) are a direct link to children eating school meals. SFW who perceive positive and supportive organizational culture at their school nutrition departments also may perceive that such environments foster their own promotion of healthful food choices by students. To date...
White, Mary Frances
School organizational culture is an important facet of the coteaching service delivery model. The research study addressed how culture-related behaviors contributed to the effectiveness of organizational culture and the use of the coteaching service delivery model in a high school setting. The purpose of the study was to have a better…
Million, Steven K.; Vare, Jonatha W.
In professional development schools (PDSs), personnel from two different cultures come together to form a new, hybrid culture. Sharing the same goals and parity among the participating professionals produce authentic collaboration and are essential aspects of this culture. When parity and sharing are absent, collaboration between schools and…
Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L
An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being.
Trickett, Edison J; Jones, Curtis J
In immigrant families, culture brokering (CB) refers to the ways in which children and adolescents serve as mediator between their family and aspects of the new culture. This study focused on the debate in the literature about whether CB implies "role reversal" in the family and "adultification" of the adolescent or whether CB is better understood as simply one of the many ways that immigrant children contribute to family functioning. Results indicated a mixed picture with respect to this debate. Greater amounts of adolescent CB were indeed related to higher adolescent reports of family conflict, but also to greater family adaptability. In addition, the amount of CB was unrelated to family satisfaction and family cohesion. Secondary questions centered on the relationship of CB to adolescent and parent demographic and acculturation variables. Here, CB was related to parent acculturation patterns but not those of adolescents. Implications for future research on the CB role are discussed.
Kim, Eunjung; Wolpin, Seth
The goal of this cross-sectional study was to describe acculturation and characteristics of Korean American families. Self-reports were gathered from 106 families (105 mothers, 98 fathers, 106 adolescents) in the Midwest. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents maintained Korean cultural and linguistic characteristics while adopting some American cultural and linguistic features. The adoption of American culture and English was more evident among adolescents than their parents. The association between Korean American parents' acculturation attitudes and their characteristics were consistent with the acculturation framework. This information may provide basic understanding for health care providers who care for Korean American families.
Tucker, Catherine; Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Trepal, Heather C.
Young adolescents (ages 11-14), typically in the middle school grades, face life tasks involving connections and belonging with their peer group along with the development of their individual identity (Henderson & Thompson, 2010). Learning to negotiate through these developmental tasks, they face myriad relational challenges. This article explores…
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.
Purpose Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, parental support and friends were examined. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally-representative sample of grades 6 to 10 (N = 7182). The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with socio-demographic variables, parental support and number of friends as predictors. Results Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, while girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, while girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal and relational forms, but was not associated with cyber bullying. Conclusions Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying has a distinct nature from traditional bullying. PMID:19766941
Schreiber, Deborah A.
This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ozdemir, Metin
Previous research has identified school bonding as protective against substance use during adolescence. However, there is still a question as to whether school involvement predicts changes in substance use or if substance use actually predicts changes in level of school bonding. This study investigated the relationship between school bonding and…
Ozer, Emily J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kong, Carol
Adolescents' perceived connection to school has been consistently associated with positive development across a range of domains, with strongest evidence for the quality of student-adult relationships in school as a core factor. Using a purposive sample of 32 high school seniors from 9 urban schools who had participated in a quantitative study 5…
Soto, Claradina; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W; Black, David Scott; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Cultural values can shape people's attitudes toward substance use and influence their risk of experimentation with drugs. This article examines the relationships between cultural values (familism, respeto, and machismo), fatalism (a culturally encouraged personality disposition), and substance use among Hispanic adolescents. In 2005, cross-sectional data were collected from 1,616 Hispanic ninth grade students in Los Angeles. Each cultural value was associated with lifetime substance use; however, these relationships depended on the type of substance and gender. Our findings suggest that it might be useful to incorporate the cultural values and address the personality trait of fatalism in prevention programs for Hispanic adolescents. The study's limitations are noted.
Sefa Dei, George J.
(Learning, Culture, Spirituality and Local Knowedge: Implications for African Schooling) - Using a Ghanaian case study, this paper looks at the relevance and implications of local knowledge, culture and spirituality for understanding and implementing educational change in Africa. It examines how teachers, educators, and students use local cultural knowledge about self, personhood and community. Among the critical issues raised are: How do subjects understand the nature, impact and implications of spirituality for schooling and education? What is the role of spirituality, culture, language and social politics in knowledge production? What contribution does the local cultural knowledge base make to the search for genuine educational options in Africa?
Demir, Cennet Engin
This study analyzes the perceptions of Turkish and American middle school students of school and schooling by examining the metaphors they produce. A total of 18 American and 24 Turkish students were interviewed as part of this study. The results show differences in the participants' perceptions of schooling by culture. Turkish participants…
Ahmad Salfi, Naseer; Saeed, Muhammad
Purpose: This paper seeks to determine the relationship among school size, school culture and students' achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type). It was conducted on a sample of 90 secondary school head teachers and 540 primary, elementary and high school teachers working in…
Díaz-Aguado Jalón, María José; Martín Seoane, Gema
This article reviews recent research about academic learning and school coexistence in adolescence from a gender perspective. It focuses on the research developed by the Preventive Psychology research group (UCM), specially the results from the Spanish National Study of School Coexistence using a sample of 22,247 secondary school students. Research shows that girls are overrepresented in positive indicators whereas boys are in negative indicators, not only in academic adjustment but also in school coexistence. Girls' better academic achievement can be explained by their higher tendency to overcome sexism: they identify with traditional masculinity values (such as success orientation) without giving up traditional femininity values (such as empathy). Based on this, the following conclusions are reached: 1) to extend the advantages of equality also to men; 2) to emphasize that sharing academic contexts and activities is necessary but sufficient to construct equality; and lastly, 3) to improve school coexistence, it is necessary to adopt a integrative gender approach to prevent any kind of violence, including violence against women.
Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie
Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students.
This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…
Cole, Rebekah F.
School counselors must be knowledgeable about military culture in order to help military students and their families in a culturally competent manner. This article explores the nature of this unique culture, which is often unfamiliar to educators, including its language, hierarchy, sense of rules and regulations, self-expectations and…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and question aspects of the culture of the modern business school, and to investigate the possibilities for a more student oriented, more responsive, more flexible and performance-driven culture. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a critical discourse on the cultural conservatism of…
Conley, David T.
Factors that can powerfully affect an educator's ability to manage school change are culture, leadership, and readiness. Movement from bureaucracy to community, from isolation to collaboration, involves cultural changes. Managing the change process within a cultural context is influenced by the structural, human resources, political, and symbolic…
Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J
The aim of the study was to examine influence of school stress on level of health and health disorders in adolescence. The data were collected from students often post-elementary schools in Warsaw The investigation were carried on in two stages, when adolescents attended second grade (783 students aged 14-15 years), and in the next year, when they attended third grade (804 students aged 15-16 years). Four indicators measured severity of school stress: (1) change of school, (2) difficulties in learning, (3) lack of support from teacher (4) dislike to go to school. Seven indicators were accepted as indicators of the level of health and health disorders: (1) self-assessment of health status, (2) physical well-being, (3) psychical well-being, (4) sick absenteeism during the last month, (5) frequency of staying at home or in hospital during the last year due to health disorders, (6) frequency of being in contact with physician during the last year (7) frequency of intake medicines. The first three of them were assumed as subjective indicators, and the further four as objective indicators. The analysis found out that: (1) relatively more girls than boys experienced dislike to go to school, (2) students, who changed school, had difficulties in learning, had negative relation with teacher or dislike to go to school, in comparison to those, who did not notice these problems, in general, lower assessed their health and well-being and more frequently suffered from health disorders, (3) subjective indicators of health were much more associated with school stress than objective indicators. Simultaneously, the summarized rank scale of school stress was elaborated.
Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl
This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
Development of self-esteem tends to become stable in middle adolescence for mainstream groups, but relatively little is known about self-esteem development of individuals in groups undergoing cultural adaptation, such as Spanish-speaking adolescents. The idea that immigrant students (voluntary minorities) are alike in many psychological and social…
Collins, M. Elizabeth
The article examines cultural pressure for extreme thinness in the United States and its impact as a possible predisposing factor for developing eating disorders among adolescent females. Preventive strategies are recommended to help adolescents balance this pressure and their own desire for attractiveness within the larger context of good health.…
Hunter, Brooke D.; Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.
Nationally, approximately 10% of adolescents in need of treatment for a substance use (SU) disorder receive treatment. School-based treatment may provide an important opportunity to reduce the treatment gap by facilitating access to services. While some school-based SU treatment exists, little is known about whether newer, evidence-based…
Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim
The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…
Govender, Kaymarlin; Naicker, Sara Naomi; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Fanner, Joanne; Naidoo, Avanya; Penfold, Wendy Leigh
Background: This study investigated the relationship between school connectedness and health risk behaviors, specifically, substance abuse, violence-related behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, and suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents. School connectedness was understood to encompass a range of aspects pertaining to a learner's sense of…
Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Emler, Nicholas P.
This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using…
This preliminary phase of a quantitative research had two main objectives: to identify the emotional and relational components of body image in adolescents, and to determine whether the experience of body changes is dependent upon individuals' context. Two samples of adolescents, both 13 to 17 years of age, who were healthy, middle- or upper middle-class, and randomly chosen, participated in the study. Subjects were 80 French adolescents (40 boys and 40 girls) from a center for preventive medicine, and 60 American adolescents (30 boys and 30 girls), from a suburban high school. Thorough individual interviews were conducted with these adolescents on the basis of a precise interview guide in order to determine their perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about body image. A thematic analysis of the content of these recorded interviews revealed the differences between adolescents from the two countries. I was found that the main cultural differences were based on the belief that the real body and the ideal body coincide, and on the way physical appearance is included in the diversity of relational experiences. Gender differences were shown to be centered more on the level of control of body changes and on self-assessment modes; the signs of a failing or troubled body image may find their origin on an individual level, in the particularities of the family and parental language about the body, and on a collective level in the social representation of the body. The consequences of these symbolic representations on the adolescents' body image and attitudes toward their own health, are presented and discussed.
Fazel, Mina; Garcia, Jo; Stein, Alan
Access to needed mental health services can be particularly difficult for newly arrived refugee and asylum-seeking adolescents, although many attend school. This study examined young refugees' impressions and experience of mental health services integrated within the school system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 adolescent refugees discharged by three school-based mental health services across the United Kingdom. Two-thirds preferred to be seen at school. Rumination and worry about insecurity in the asylum process had a negative impact particularly on the adolescents' social functioning and ability to focus at school. The important role played by teachers in supporting and mediating contact with mental health services was valued by those interviewed. The study confirms that schools offer an important location for mental health services for adolescent refugees and provide an important portal for integration of services.
Burrello, Leonard C.; Reitzug, Ulrich C.
Examined how principals and staffs of four elementary schools and two middle schools assessed context of their schools and how they responded to contextual factors. Analyzed data within and between sites to develop cross-site summary of factors. Four factor clusters emerged and were examined in terms of context, school responses, and resultant…
Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen
Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience.
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.
In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12–14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12–14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed. PMID:28239244
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G
In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12-14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parents' and friends' school involvement declined across ages 12-14. Combined latent growth models and structural equation models showed effects of the trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement on adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement, over and above adolescents' prior performance. These effects were additive rather than interactive. Strategies for enhancing parent involvement in school and students' affiliation with peers who are positively engaged in school are discussed.
Watts, Stephen J
Prior research has shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to various negative outcomes in adolescence, including academic failure, behavioral problems at school, and criminal behavior. However, this line of research has generally failed to explore whether ADHD connects to criminal behavior through its effects on school factors. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study finds that a retrospective account of ADHD symptomatology during childhood and early adolescence predicts weakened school attachment, lower grades, and higher risks for both out-of-school suspension and crime. School attachment, grades, and out-of-school suspension have the expected effects on crime among females and males. Among females, these school factors mediate the effects of ADHD symptomatology on crime. The effect of ADHD symptomatology on crime among males remains significant when controlling for school factors. Implications of the findings for policy and theory are discussed.
Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis
The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity.
Adolescent English language learners present particular challenges for schools. The population of adolescent ELLs is diverse, and their educational needs are affected by differences in immigration status, quality of educational background, native language, cultural distance from U.S. culture, future plans, and economic status. The article offers…
As new technology has changed adolescents' literate life pathways outside of school in remarkable ways, new uses of terminology, such as "mutiliteracies", are necessary to capture the multidimensional nature of literacy. However, there have been few studies on the multiliteracies experiences of Korean adolescent English learners (ELs).…
Walsh, Danielle Leigh
The objective of this project is to review the literature on adolescent depression with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, symptomology, comorbidity, and the need for increased awareness within the secondary school system. Adolescent depression is one of the most overlooked, undertreated, and debilitating psychological disorders (Cicchetti &…
Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John
One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…
Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E
Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness.
Delgado, Melissa Y; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Roosa, Mark W; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Drawing on García Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Using multilevel modeling with data from mothers, fathers, seventh graders (M (age) = 12.8 years; SD = .57 year) and older siblings (M (age) = 15.7 years; SD = 1.5 years), findings revealed that perceived discrimination was positively related to depression, risky behaviors, and deviant peer affiliations. In addition, parents' cultural orientations and values and adolescent gender moderated the relationships between perceived discrimination and some indicators of adjustment. These findings suggest that parents' cultural orientations and values can serve as protective and vulnerability factors in the associations between Mexican-origin adolescents' perceived discrimination and their psychosocial adjustment.
Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M
Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model. Design: Three separate analytic approaches were conducted on baseline self report student survey data from a larger study to test the relation between school level perceived peer tobacco use and individual current smoking status. Participants: A representative sample of 5399 sixth through eighth grade students in 14 midwestern middle schools completed the survey. All enrolled sixth through eighth grade students were eligible to participate in the survey. The student participation rate was 91.4% for the entire sample, and did not differ significantly between the schools (range 82–100%). Main outcome measure: Thirty day cigarette smoking prevalence. Results: A level 2 only model based on aggregated individual responses indicated that students in schools with higher average reported peer tobacco use were more likely to be current smokers than students in schools with lower average peer tobacco use. Using a level 1 only model based on individual responses indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was excluded from the model but was non-significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. A multilevel model also indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was not significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. Conclusion: The analytic approach used to examine contextual effects using individuals' reports of peer tobacco use norms that were aggregated to obtain a context measure of the school norms may produce
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin.
Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.
Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702
Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo
Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented.
Moscovici, Hedy; Alfaro-Varela, Gilberto
This paper presents findings of a study that examined how school participants in two schools in a Florida city coped with conflict, with a focus on developing a cooperative school climate. Constructivism, which states that learning is the making-sense of experiences in a social environment, provides the theoretical framework. From this…
Lavoie, J C; Collins, B R
This study investigated the assumption that youth culture orientation adversely affects school performance, using rock music as the youth culture component. Adolescents in grades 9-12 were assigned to a subject matter topic in the area of literature, mathematics, physical science, or social science and requested to study this topic intensely for 30 min in a music condition consisting of rock, classical, or no music. The subjects then were tested on their retention of the factual content of the article either immediately after the study period, 1 day later, or 3 days later. Retention was significantly lower in the rock music condition. Students recalled more content in the literature topic and in the immediate test. The results are discussed with reference to a social learning theory interpretation of youth culture.
Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H J
Peer contexts play an important role in the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. Behavioral health involves the observable academic and social behaviors that relate to and influence youths' subsequent health and development. Setting-level research on peer networks and social norms indicates these aspects of peer contexts vary by peer group, classroom, and school and dynamically relate to individual students' academic and social behaviors. Yet, although peer contexts are both influential and potentially malleable, little research examines the effects of school and classroom interventions on the development and maintenance of positive and productive peer contexts in schools. The current article identifies school structures and classroom processes theorized to directly or indirectly shift peer networks and social norms-and thereby increase the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. We discuss the need for more rigorous and relevant research to better understand the role of schools and classrooms in strengthening these peer contexts and promoting behavioral health in early adolescence.
Brozo, William G.
"RTI and the Adolescent Reader" focuses exclusively on Response to Intervention (RTI) for literacy at the secondary level. In this accessible guide, William Brozo defines RTI and explains why and how it is considered a viable intervention model for adolescent readers. He analyzes the authentic structural, political, cultural, and teacher…
Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan
The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.
Barr, Robert D.
The socializing effects of the institutional culture of public schools may be the most powerful single influence in the development of teachers, yet the teacher education profession has largely ignored what happens to its students after they leave college. (DS)
Ahmed, Sawssan R; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Tsai, Katherine H
Despite evidence towards the risk for discrimination and acculturative stress that Arab American adolescents may face, the link between socio-cultural adversities and psychological well-being in this population has not been established. This study examined the role of socio-cultural adversities (discrimination and acculturative stress) and cultural resources (ethnic identity, religious support and religious coping) in terms of their direct impact on psychological distress. Using structural equation modeling, the proposed model was tested with 240 Arab American adolescents. The results indicated a strong positive relationship between socio-cultural adversities and psychological distress. Furthermore, this study supported a promotive model of cultural resources, where a negative association between cultural resources and psychological distress was found. Understanding the manner in which socio-cultural adversities and resources are linked to psychological distress can inform the development of culturally appropriate interventions that can effectively mitigate mental health concerns for understudied and vulnerable populations.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline
Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…
The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 326 adolescents in high school (176 female and 150 male) participated in this study. The data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, which is for the adolescents' subjective well-being, and determining…
Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A
To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.
Gerard, Jean M; Booth, Margaret Zoller
Using a school-based sample of 675 adolescents, this short-term longitudinal investigation examined the relationships among individual, family, and school influences on adolescent adjustment problems. Adolescents' perceptions of school climate and their sense of connectedness to school were negatively associated with conduct problems. A significant interaction between parental academic support and adolescents' academic aspirations was detected for the total sample, boys, and White youth, indicating that parental support serves a protective function against conduct problems for students with low academic expectations. Adolescents' hopefulness, parental academic aspirations, and school connectedness were negatively associated with depression. Adolescents' hopefulness and their academic aspirations moderated associations between both family and school influences on adolescent adjustment with youth gender and race qualifying these interaction effects.
Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734
Shaibu, Sheila; Holsten, Joanna E.; Stettler, Nicolas; Maruapula, Segametsi D.; Jackson, Jose C.; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokone, George; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Compher, Charlene W.
The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in…
Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart
The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace
Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…
Rovis, Darko; Bezinovic, Petar; Basic, Josipa
Background: Substance use, gambling, and violence represent a great risk for adolescent health. Schools are often referred to as the "best" places for health promotion and prevention, where positive school bonding serves as a strong protective factor for the development of risk behaviors and poor school bonding is associated with various…
LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert
Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…
Taylor, R.D.; Lopez, E.I.
The association of mothers' report of family management practices (e.g., family routine and parental achievement expectations) with school achievement, school engagement, and problem behavior was assessed among African American mothers and adolescents. Findings revealed that family routine was positively associated with school achievement and…
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Harris, Brett; Shaw, Benjamin; Lawson, Hal; Sherman, Barry
Background: Adolescent substance use is associated with chronic health conditions, accidents, injury, and school-related problems, including dropping out. Schools have the potential to provide students with substance use prevention and intervention services, albeit with confidentiality challenges. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide…
Erfle, Stephen E.; Gamble, Abigail
Background: In 2009, the Pennsylvania Department of Health developed the Active Schools Program (ASP) which required 30?minutes of daily physical education (PE) in middle schools to reduce childhood obesity. This investigation evaluated the ASP effects on physical fitness and weight status in middle school adolescents throughout 1 academic year.…
This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…
Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The current study used a multidimensional approach to examine developmental trajectories of three dimension of school engagement (school participation, sense of school belonging, and self-regulated learning) from grades 7 to 11 and their relationships to changes in adolescents' academic outcomes over time. The sample includes 1,148 African…
Dixon, Roselyn M.; Tanner, Kathleen
Adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) are increasingly being placed in academically focused high schools. These students, although academically able, may not be coping with the wider classroom and social demands of transition to, and within, the high school environment. Schools are keen to enroll these students. However, there appears to be a…
De Luca, Susan M.; Wyman, Peter A.
We examined associations between Latino adolescents' school engagement and their likelihood of disclosing suicidal ideation (SI) to adults and of asking for help for SI. A first set of analyses was conducted on a total sample of 14 high schools, and a second set of analyses was conducted on 8 "Latino-representative" high schools. The criterion for…
Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.
We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures…
Russell, Stephen T.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Lee, Sun-A; Larriva, Jacqueline C.; Laub, Carolyn
A growing body of research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are often unsafe at school. Little research has examined school safety for students with LGBT parents. We examined adolescents' perceptions of school safety for students with LGBT parents using data from a survey of 2,302 California sixth through…
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.
Astor, Ron A.; Estrada, Joey N.; Benbenishty, Rami; Unger, Jennifer B.
Substance use and violence co-occur among adolescents. However, the extant literature focuses on the substance use behaviors of perpetrators of violence and not on victims. This study identifies patterns of school victimization and substance use and how they co-occur. The California Healthy Kids Survey was used to identify latent classes/clusters of school victimization patterns and lifetime and frequency of recent (past month) alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use (N =419,698). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity) were included as predictors of latent class membership. Analyses revealed four latent classes of school victimization: low victimization (44.4 %), moderate victimization (22.3 %), verbal/relational victimization (20.8 %), and high victimization (with physical threats; 12.5 %). There were also four classes of substance use: non-users (58.5 %), alcohol experimenters (some recent alcohol use; 25.8 %), mild poly-substance users (lifetime use of all substances with few days of recent use; 9.1 %), and frequent poly-substance users (used all substances several times in the past month; 6.5 %). Those in the high victimization class were twice as likely to be frequent poly-substance users, and mild poly-substance use was most salient for those in the verbal victimization class. Few studies have explored latent patterns of substance use and violence victimization concurrently. The findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in victimization and substance use among youth in California schools with implications for targeted and tailored interventions. Understanding how certain types of victimization are associated with particular patterns of substance use will provide schools with opportunities to screen for concurrent behavioral health problems among youth. PMID:24482139
The purpose of this study was to determine the profile of an empowering school culture (ESC) with respect to the perceptions of teachers. Qualitative methods and techniques were used in the study, which is phenomenological in terms of research designs used in qualitative researches. The participants in the study were 43 secondary school teachers…
Ford, Bridgie A.
Today's increasingly multicultural student population requires that school-community partnerships operate from culturally responsive frameworks. Incorporating significant resources from multicultural communities is an essential component within school-community partnership. Although such a partnership is an essential strategy, it has not been…
Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Reynolds, Jennifer F.
In this article, the authors use and further elaborate a cultural modeling framework to juxtapose two distinct yet analogous literacy practices: (1) The out-of-school practice of translating and interpreting across languages, or "para-phrasing"; and (2) The cross-disciplinary and school-based practice of paraphrasing or summarizing written texts.…
Fear, such as fear of saying the wrong thing, fear of doing the wrong thing, and fear of being branded as intolerant, a racist, or worse, can be paralyzing for many school administrators in the United States because developing a culturally proficient school is a difficult task filled with the toughest land mines of all: the perceptions and…
Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Plotts, Cynthia
Never before have more children lived away from their home countries. Given the unique social, emotional, and academic needs of children who have migrated, school psychologists must be well prepared to meet these growing demands. Consequently, school psychology training programs must invest in the preparation of culturally competent future school…
Lamb, John H.
State assessments are taking over our classrooms. This study provides a descriptive account of how the testing culture affected students and instruction during one school year in two small, rural Mississippi secondary mathematics classrooms. Throughout this school year, engaging instructional activities were sacrificed for more traditional drill…
In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…
de Gabriel, Narciso
This article analyses the schooling process in rural areas of Galicia (Spain) from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, considering educational initiatives promoted by both the state and the rural population. The former, which were governed by the official school culture, were driven by a moralistic approach; the latter, within the…
Limberg, Dodie; Lambie, Glenn W.
The increase of international business, military placements, and immigration has led to an increase in students attending schools in a country other than where they were born: third culture kids (TCKs). TCKs have unique educational needs, necessitating the support of their school counselors. This article (a) defines and introduces the needs and…
DePalma, Renee; Jennett, Mark
This article presents some of the advances in legal support for addressing homophobia and transphobia in school settings and provides a critique of school-based policies that focus on these phenomena as particular incidents involving bullies and victims. Defining heteronormativity as a cultural phenomenon underpinning recognisable acts of…
Rusch, Edith A.
Little is known about how restructuring networks actually affect the cultures of school systems. This report examines the creation of an "island" of reform in a school district in northwest Ohio. The research emanated from the discovery of a new "island" in northwest Ohio called the Pathfinder Network. The group formed through…
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.
McNeely, Clea A.; Barber, Brian K.
The conceptualization and measurement of parental support is predominately the work of adult researchers from the West. This mixed-method study reports the parental behaviors that adolescents themselves perceive as supportive. Data come from the Cross-National Adolescent Project, a survey of adolescents in 12 nations or ethnic groups in Africa,…
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational deficits (e.g., age-inappropriate sexual behaviors). The trauma following such abuse can further affect neurodevelopment and physiology, aggravating mental or physical problems in adulthood. Early symptom recognition and appropriate interventional applications are important factors in successfully treating or even preventing the development of mental disorders in such cohorts. A central element of effective treatment is the selection of treatment targets. Cultural considerations are rarely or peripherally considered in sexual abuse treatment strategies. Western-trained psychiatrists and clinical psychologists tend to overlook or underestimate such factors in cross-cultural settings, resulting in interventional efforts that may interfere with traditional approaches to healing, and potentially contributing to a transgenerational cycle of trauma. By using Bali (Indonesia) as a focal culture, in this article we discuss the effects of cultural elements and showcase their potential contribution and systematic implementation into a holistic and sensitive interventional model for the treatment of mental illness in childhood and adolescence sexual traumatization.
The current study aimed at identifying Turkish primary school teachers' perceptions of school culture regarding ICT integration in education. In addition, the current study was designed to investigate factors that might influence their perceptions. The participants were 1540 primary school teachers. The findings revealed that the teachers'…
In this study; the perceptions of the students studying at sport high schools about democratic school culture were analysed in accordance with different variables. Participants of the research consisted of 216 students studying at Sport High Schools in Sakarya and Batman Provinces of Turkey. The data were collected with the Democratic School…
The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of six successful Blue Ribbon Catholic schools to determine the relationship between principal's leadership behaviors, teacher's perceptions of principals and resulting school culture within six successful Blue Ribbon schools. A mixed methods approach for analysis was used through both…
Nelson, Judith; Bustamante, Rebecca M.
In collaboration with principals and other leadership team members, professional school counselors have ethical responsibilities in promoting culturally competent school environments. Pre-service training is the ideal time for school counselors and principals to develop the necessary background information, tools, and assessment skills to assist…
Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the major features of market orientation (MO) and its benefits for schools, suggests an inventory to measure the degree of MO in a school, and provides strategies to incorporate elements of MO into the school culture. Design/methodology/approach: An instructional, technical approach which is based…
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests two competing explanations of differences in returns to cultural capital across schooling environments: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields a higher returns in high-achieving environments than in low-achieving ones) and cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments). Using multilevel mixture models, empirical results from analyses based on PISA data from three countries (Canada, Germany, and Sweden) show that returns to cultural capital tend to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results principally support the cultural mobility explanation and suggest that research should pay explicit attention to the institutional contexts in which cultural capital is converted into educational success.
Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O
The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.
Howard, Roy E.
This summary of a dissertation reports results of a study of teachers providing bilingual education at a Navajo border town school. History, demography and geography, socioeconomics, and politics all affect cultural knowledge to be taught and teachers must study these subjects. However, teaching Navajo language and culture in a bordertown school…
Opp, Gunther; Unger, Nicola; Teichmann, Jana
The many sea-changes in German culture have given rise to a growing population of children and youth at risk. This article describes the creation of a Positive Peer Culture in a special school for students with emotional and behavioural problems. The authors review challenges facing youth in modern Germany, the implementation of the PPC program,…
Kabler, April Lynn
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the correlational relationship between school culture factors and the appearance of teacher leadership within the organization. Schien's Organizational Culture Theory and Danielson's Teacher Leadership Theory serve as the framework for this study. Data for the study were collected using the…
LaRusso, Maria D.; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine
This mixed-method study examined the implementation and the challenges to implementation for participants in randomized controlled trials of two school-based programs for early adolescents: the Tier One Word Generation (WG) program, and the Tier Two Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI). Levels of implementation for WG and STARI varied…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lenes, Emi A.
A sandtray group experience is a creative intervention that counselors may want to incorporate into their work with adolescents. This qualitative inquiry explored the experiences of adolescent females who participated in a sandtray group while attending an alternative school. The researchers identified five themes that emerged from the data: (a)…
Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify how school factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and (2) to assess how these factors may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between parental domestic violence and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence, while accounting for individual and family…
Dukes, Richard L.; Lorch, Barbara (Day)
Among junior and senior high school students (N=6,428), adolescent emotional and ideological disparity with parents and disparity between importance adolescent placed on academic achievement and satisfaction with academic achievement were linked to suicide ideation through intervening variables of self-esteem, purpose in life, and two forms of…
Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia
This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The investigators compared the perceived attainment of developmental tasks by 181 German adolescents with hearing loss and 254 peers without hearing loss. The adolescents with hearing loss were attending special schools for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. On average, the two groups perceived similar levels of success across the assessed…
Punch, R.; Hyde, M.; Creed, P. A.
Career theorists emphasize the importance of the development of career maturity in adolescents if they are to successfully negotiate the school-to-work transition. Transitions of deaf and hard of hearing adolescents may be especially problematic. The authors examine the implications of current labor market trends for young people, in particular…
Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes
Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…
Chibbaro, Julia S.
Professional school counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide information to parents about self-injurious behaviors and methods to cope with adolescents who self-injure. This paper explores self-injurious behaviors, discusses some of the reasons why adolescents practice self-injury and recommends six strategies that…
Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from…
Matjasko, Jennifer L.
Based on the stage environment and the person environment fit perspectives, the current study examined the relation between school disciplinary policies and offending from adolescence into young adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a.k.a., Add Health), hierarchical multinomial logistic…
McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn
Young people excluded from school are a group at an increased risk of drug use and antisocial behaviour during adolescence and later marginalisation and exclusion from society in adulthood. As part of the Belfast Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of the onset and development of adolescent drug use, young people who entered post-primary…
This qualitative case study explores one young adolescent's transitional schooling from an American context to a Chinese context. Although the student was bilingual and bicultural, she experiences multiple struggles, triumphs, and dilemmas across the two educational settings. These findings have implications for those adolescents and parents who…
Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.
In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…
Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…
Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.
Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…
Salzman, Kenneth P.; Salzman, Stephanie A.
This study examined factors that may place adolescents at risk for psychological dysfunction and school failure. Subjects were 70 adolescents who were admitted to a psychiatric hospital from September 1986 to March 1988. Demographic, academic performance, familial, and psychological data were retroactively gathered from patient files, tabulated…
Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary A.; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula
Background: Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and ef?cacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Six high…
Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.
In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…
This qualitative phenomenological study was done to better understand the school experience of adolescents after the death of a parent. The participants were adults over the age of 19 and between 3 and 43 years past the death of a parent during adolescence. The study involved personal, reflective interviews with each of the participants. The…
Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria
Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood…
Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario
The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational…
Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama
Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…
Beiswenger, Krista L.; Grolnick, Wendy S.
This study explored interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with the level of autonomous motivation adolescents experience for their after-school activities. A total of 142 seventh-grade adolescents completed measures of peer relatedness, autonomy within friendships, mother and father autonomy support, perceived activity competence,…
Barnes, Margaux; Davis, Krista; Mancini, Mackenzie; Ruffin, Jasmine; Simpson, Tina; Casazza, Krista
Background: A unique biological shift in sleep cycles occurs during adolescence causing later sleep and wake times. This shift is not matched by a concurrent modification in school start times, resulting in sleep curtailment for a large majority of adolescents. Chronic inadequate sleep is associated with poor academic performance including…
Millings, Abigail; Buck, Rhiannon; Montgomery, Alan; Spears, Melissa; Stallard, Paul
Recent literature suggests that school connectedness (SC) may be a key determinant of adolescent mental health. Specifically, SC has been found to have a negative relationship with adolescent depression. In the current, cross sectional study, we examine whether the relationship between SC and symptoms of low mood is dampened or moderated by…
Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen
The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The present study analysed bullying in German adolescents with and without visual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents with vision loss from schools for students with visual impairment, of whom 31 were blind and 67 had low vision, were compared with 98 sighted peers using a matched-pair design. Students with low vision reported higher levels of…
Mahoney, Joseph L.
This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A.
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children…
Eicher, Joanne B.; And Others
Explored role of dress through observation and interviews of high school students. Examined adolescent dress in relation to public, private, and secret self. Obtained data on descriptions of various social types: average, punks, freaks, and nerds. Extreme social types appeared to offer valuable reference points for average adolescents in…
Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…
Busch, Vincent; de Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; de Harder, Alinda; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus
Background: In approaches to health promotion in adolescents, unhealthy behaviors are no longer regarded as independent processes, but as interrelated. This article presents a systematic literature review of school-based interventions targeting multiple adolescent behaviors simultaneously. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed…
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…
Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…
Negis-Isik, Ayse; Gursel, Musa
Even though they are perceived similar from outside, all schools have distinct characteristics and a culture that differ them from other schools. School culture, is one of the important factors that play role in school efficiency and success. The purpose of this study was to examine the culture of a successful school profoundly. This study was a…
Johnston, Megan; Ting, Tracy V.; Graham, Brent T.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Verkamp, Emily; Passo, Murray; Schikler, Kenneth N.; Hashkes, Philip J.; Spalding, Steven; Banez, Gerard; Richards, Margaret M.; Powers, Scott W.; Arnold, Lesley M.; Lovell, Daniel
Objective To describe school absences in adolescents with Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JPFS) and examine the relationship between school absenteeism, pain, psychiatric symptoms, and maternal pain history. Methods Adolescents with JPFS (N = 102; mean age 14.96 years) completed measures of pain and depressive symptoms, and completed a psychiatric interview. Parents provided information about the adolescents’ school absences, type of schooling, and parental pain history. School attendance reports were obtained directly from schools. Results Over 12% of adolescents with JPFS were homeschooled. Those enrolled in regular school missed 2.9 days per month on average, with one-third of participants missing more than 3 days per month. Pain and maternal pain history were not related to school absenteeism. However, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with school absences. Conclusion Many adolescents with JPFS experience difficulties with regular school attendance. Long-term risks associated with school absenteeism and the importance of addressing psychological factors are discussed. PMID:20360017
Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F
This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an increased likelihood of volunteering in young adulthood (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20 - 1.39; N = 2,648) and of Grade 12 completion (OR 1.14; CI 1.03 - 1.28; N = 2,648), after controlling for family socioeconomic status and adolescent school adjustment. These findings suggest that adolescent volunteering may lead to further involvement in young adult volunteering and have a positive effect on school completion.
Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma
This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…
Irvine, Janice M., Ed.
This collection of essays presents a new vision of adolescent sexuality shaped by a variety of social factors: race and ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, physical ability, and cultural messages propagated in films, books, and within families. The book is divided into three parts: (1) Contexts and Theories; (2) Cultures and Communities; and (3)…
Briman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J.
Surveyed Soviet Jewish adolescents and parents regarding language, behavior, and identity acculturation. Acculturation occurred in a linear pattern over time for most dimensions of acculturation, with acculturation to the American culture increasing and to the Russian culture decreasing. There were acculturation gaps between parents and children…
Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate
The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…
Perkins, Daniel F; Syvertsen, Amy K; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R; Berrena, Elaine; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard
The present study uses an ecological systems perspective to examine how parental involvement in school-related activities in sixth grade influences early adolescents' school bonding and academic achievement in eighth grade. Results of multilevel models of multiple data sources (i.e., adolescents, parents, and principals) suggested that parents' involvement in school, as reported by the adolescent in sixth grade, was a significant predictor of school bonding and academic grades in eighth grade. Furthermore, parent reports of guidance, support, and involvement in school and non-school activities were unrelated to their adolescents' grades and school bonding. Finally, schools' efforts to engage parents did not consistently predict an association between parental involvement and adolescent outcomes.
Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.
Background The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Results Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Discussion Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed. PMID:24057805
This case involves a small town in the southwestern United States. Background descriptions of the community and school are provided, including historical and demographic information. As the community and school transition from a small ranching town into a bedroom community for the large city nearby, tensions related to race and wealth erupt in a…
Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina
This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…
Matjasko, Jennifer L
Based on the stage environment and the person environment fit perspectives, the current study examined the relation between school disciplinary policies and offending from adolescence into young adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a.k.a., Add Health), hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models were utilized to test whether school disciplinary policies were related to offending patterns during adolescence and young adulthood. Descriptive results suggest that, overall, severe school policies were not associated with the course of offending. However, relations between individual characteristics (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) and offending patterns did appear to differ depending on the severity of disciplinary policies. Within schools with more severe policies, adolescents scoring higher on inattention were more likely to be in the adolescent-limited offender group over the persistent offender group. On the other hand, adolescents with high levels of impulsivity were more likely to be in the persistent group over the non-offender group within schools with more severe policies. The results suggest that severe policies may not be effective for all students and the policies, alone, may not be promising avenues for the prevention of offending during adolescence and young adulthood.
Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia
Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Romero, Andrea J.; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M.; Soto, Daniel W.; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132
Kim, Oh Myo; Reichwald, Reed; Lee, Richard M.
Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views. Parents also reported significantly greater engagement in cultural socialization than adolescents’ reports of parental engagement. However, only adolescent self-reports of parental engagement in cultural socialization matched the qualitative coding of family conversations. PMID:24235782
LaRusso, Maria D.; Romer, Daniel; Selman, Robert L.
Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied. Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted…
School psychologists are becoming more and more involved in helping our youth to learn better coping strategies, decision making skills, and develop tolerance with others. According to Elias (2002), school psychologists are valuable resources for early adolescents to learn skills necessary to avoid high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug…
Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.
This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…
Sandelowski, Margarete; McQuiston, Chris
Adverse sexual health outcomes remain disproportionately high for Latino adolescents. To examine sexual risk behaviors in Latino adolescents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 Latino parents and 13 school staff members and carried out one year of fieldwork in the school and community. “It’s a touchy subject [sex] here” exemplified the reluctance of addressing sexual risk behaviors. Community and systems-level strategies are recommended. PMID:21741798
Kuhn, Tarah M; Ebert, Jon S; Gracey, Kathy A; Chapman, Gabrielle L; Epstein, Richard A
Disruptive behaviors in the school setting can threaten the maintenance of optimal learning environments in schools. Challenging behaviors, such as defiance, hostility, and aggression, often define disruptive classroom behaviors. This article presents a clinical review of existing literature on interventions for adolescent disruptive behavior problems in school-based settings and in outpatient mental health settings and makes recommendations around working with adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. Many types of interventions are effective; effective implementation is key to good results.