Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi
The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M
Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic functioning was rated at age 18. Age 18 status violations were linked to delinquency, and property violations to academic underachievement. Engagement in status and property violations was predicted by childhood opposition. Findings suggest that (a) disaggregated forms of externalizing behavior are needed to understand behavioral pathways to adverse outcomes and (b) prevention of adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement should target childhood opposition.
Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia
The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents.
Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.
Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924
Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
Developmental trajectories of parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends' antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents' knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16)…
Hogan, Dennis P.
This study expands upon previous research by utilizing nationally representative data and multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between an adolescent’s disability status and their likelihood of engaging in a spectrum of delinquent behaviors through age 16. Logistic regression models of 7,232 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are used to investigate the association between the presence of a learning disability or emotional condition, chronic health condition, sensory condition, physical disability, or multiple conditions and ten delinquent acts, including violence-related delinquency, property crimes, drug offenses, and arrest. Additional analyses explore differences in delinquency prevalence by more specific types of limiting conditions. Results indicate that adolescents with learning disabilities or emotional conditions are particularly at risk of committing delinquent acts. Findings suggest that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent delinquency; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences. PMID:24273625
Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.
Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…
Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M
The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents.
Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo
Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.
Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.
Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971
Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan
Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo
Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119
Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane
Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…
Brunelle, Natacha; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Dufour, Magali; Gendron, Annie; Martin, Isabelle
Internet gambling among adolescents is a growing phenomenon that has received little attention to date. This study examines associations between Internet gambling and the severity of gambling, substance use (SU), and delinquent behavior among 1,870 Quebec students aged 14 to 18. The results show a higher proportion of Internet-gambling (IG) students reporting problematic substance use and delinquency, compared with nongamblers (NG) and non-Internet gamblers (NIG). Furthermore, a higher proportion of at-risk and probable pathological gamblers are found among IG compared with NIG. A moderating effect (Baron & Kenny, 1986) of the gambler categories (NIG, IG) was found in the relationship between the associated problems and the severity of gambling. Among IG, the severity of delinquency and of substance use contributes to explaining gambling severity whereas, among NIG, the severity of delinquency is the only factor that significantly contributes to such an explanation. Discussion of the results is based on Jessor, Donovan, and Costa's (1991) general deviance syndrome theory.
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
This report presents the prevalence of inhalant use among young adolescents aged 12 or 13, the association between inhalant use and delinquent behaviors within this age group, and the association between early onset of inhalant use and problems later in life. Early onset of substance use has been linked to substance use disorders, delinquent…
Torrente, Ginesa; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
The authors examined the relations between self-report measures of parental support, communication, and psychological control and measures of antisocial and delinquent behavior in a sample of 641 Spanish adolescents (M age = 14.35 years, SD = 1.53 years). Findings revealed similarities in the relations between parenting processes and both measures…
Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.
Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…
LAIRD, ROBERT D.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.
A longitudinal prospective design was used to test the generalizability of low levels of social preference and high levels of antisocial peer involvement as risk factors for delinquent behavior problems to African American (AA) and European American (EA) boys and girls (N = 384). Social preference scores were computed from peer reports in middle childhood (ages 6–9). Parents and adolescents reported antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence (ages 13–16) and adolescents reported on their own delinquent behavior in late adolescence (ages 17 and 18). Analyses tested for differences across four groups (AA boys, EA boys, AA girls, EA girls) in construct measurement, mean levels, and associations among variables. Few measurement differences were found. Mean-level differences were found for social preference and delinquent behavior. AA boys were least accepted by peers and reported the highest level of delinquent behavior. EA girls were most accepted by peers and reported the lowest level of delinquent behavior. Associations among peer experiences and delinquent behavior were equivalent across groups, with lower levels of social preference and higher levels of antisocial peer involvement associated with more delinquent behavior. Person-centered analyses showed the risk associated with low social preference and high antisocial peer involvement to be similar across groups, providing further evidence of the generalizability of the peer relationship experiences as risk factors for subsequent delinquent behavior problems. PMID:15971763
Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.
Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.
Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186
Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Research testing Hagan's power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory's merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory's merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups.
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.
This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567
Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R
The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.
McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn
This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…
Komro, Kelli A.; Williams, Carolyn L.; Forster, Jean L.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Stigler, Melissa H.
Study analyzed the relationship between alcohol use, psychological risk, and delinquent and violent behaviors using self-reported data from eighth and ninth grade students from a small, rural town population. Results suggest that alcohol use is an independent risk factor for delinquent and violent behaviors among young people (Author/JDM)
Leech, Sharon L.; Day, Nancy L.; Richardson, Gale A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush
This study examined relations among characteristics at ages 3 and 10 years and delinquent behavior at age 10. Findings indicated that race and gender were significant predictors of delinquent behavior at age 10, as were temperament, IQ, and emotional instability at age 3. Psychological status, perceived peer substance use, IQ, and temperament at…
Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866
Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Arzon, Margaret; Freitas, Derek; Malcolm, Shandey; Prado, Guillermo
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine ecodevelopmental risk factors associated with alcohol uses, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors among Hispanic delinquent adolescents. Specifically, this study tests the effect of attitudes, family, peer, and school bonding on alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors in Hispanic delinquent youth. Methods A sample of 235 heterogeneous Hispanic delinquent adolescents was recruited through referrals from the Miami-Dade County’s Department of Juvenile Services and from the Miami-Dade County Public School system. Logistic regression methods were utilized to examine the independent effect of each risk factor (attitudes, family, peer, school) and to determine the extent to which these factors are associated with alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Results Family functioning was inversely and significantly related to past 90-day alcohol use in univariate regression (β = −.24, p = .035) but was not significant in multiple regression (β = −0.09, p = .556). Peer alcohol use (β = 2.02, p<0.001) and poor alcohol attitudes (β =0.59, p=0.006) were positively and significantly related to past 90-day alcohol use in the final model. Poor alcohol attitudes, family functioning, peer alcohol use, and school bonding were all significantly related to both rule breaking and aggressive behaviors in the final model. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of identifying risk factors at multiple levels to prevent/reduce alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth. PMID:22473467
Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.
Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…
Donat, Matthias; Dalbert, Claudia; Kamble, Shanmukh Vasant
The more people believe in a just world (BJW) in which they get what they deserve, the more they are motivated to preserve a just world by ones' just behavior. Consequently, we expected school students with a strong BJW to show less deviant behavior as cheating or delinquency. The mediating role of teacher justice was also examined. Questionnaire…
Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.
Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…
Broidy, Lisa M.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Brame, Bobby; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.; Laird, Robert; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Loeber, Rolf; Lynam, Donald R.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Vitaro, Frank
This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood. PMID:12661883
Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur
Examines whether violence, rather than being an isolated subculture in itself, is part of a general subculture of delinquency. Data from 3,819 Icelandic high school students support the notion that violence is part of a general subculture of delinquency. (SLD)
Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L
This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency.
Research related to identification of delinquents, causes of delinquency, and effective intervention to stop delinquency is reviewed in this paper. In summary, the review indicates that adolescent problems appear to be concentrated among those disadvantaged in a variety of ways. Further, the reviewed literature indicates that biases in the justice…
Khurana, Atika; Gavazzi, Stephen M
This study examined ecological risk factors associated with teen paternity in a sample of 2,931 male adolescents coming to the attention of juvenile courts across five midwestern counties. In contrast to previous studies documenting significantly higher rates of teen paternity among African American youth, we found that the European American court-involved youth in our sample were as likely to be teen fathers as their African American counterparts. However, an in-depth examination of the social ecologies of these court-involved youth revealed significant racial differences (regardless of the paternity status), with African American males reporting more prior offenses, delinquent peer associations, traumatic pasts, risky sexual behaviors, and educational risks as compared to European American youth, who reported greater involvement in substance use. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age and racial background, youth who reported greater exposure to trauma and prior offenses had significantly greater odds of having fathered a child. Surprisingly, youth who were teen fathers reported lower rates of behavioral problems as compared to their nonfathering peers. Given the cross-sectional nature of our data, interpretation of this result is limited. Overall, our findings underscore the need for developing a comprehensive understanding of the ecological risk and protective factors present in the lives of teen fathers coming in contact with the juvenile justice system, as an essential first step in designing effective and relevant intervention programs and services for this at-risk population.
Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring
Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle
A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…
Sittner, Kelley J; Hautala, Dane
Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10-19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non-offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent-limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system.
Mitchell, D. R., Ed.
Presented are nine papers given at a New Zealand symposium on the prevention and treatment of delinquent/antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Major theories such as the cultural deviance theory are noted in the introduction by D.R. Mitchell. J. E. Ritchie defines delinquency as law breaking, critiques delinquency research, and offers a…
Li, Spencer D.
Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…
Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C
An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.
Vitaro, Frank; C Hartl, Amy; Laursen, Brett; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
This study examined sibling influence over gambling involvement and delinquency in a sample of 628 twins (151 male dyads, 163 female dyads). Self-reports of gambling involvement and delinquency were collected for each twin at ages 13, 14 and 15 years. Results revealed evidence of between-twin influence. Higher levels of an adolescent's delinquency predicted an increase in his or her co-twin's delinquency from age 13 to age 14 and from age 14 to age 15. In contrast, gambling behavior was unaffected by the co-twin's gambling involvement. Within-twins, higher initial levels of delinquency predicted a subsequent increase in gambling behavior from age 13 to age 14 and again from age 14 to age 15, and higher initial levels of gambling involvement predicted an increase in delinquency from age 14 to age 15. Between and within siblings effects are discussed in light of the scant literature on (a) sibling influence on gambling, and (b) the links between gambling and delinquency.
Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne
We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…
Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…
Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social desirability. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; Mage = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; Mage = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on antisocial behaviors was analyzed using linear regression (crude) and adjusted for gender, parental education, and social desirability. Adjustment for social desirability diminished the ethnic differences in delinquency (B = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, -0.04]), led to an increase in the differences in hostility (B = 2.43; 95% CI = [0.87, 3.99]), and led to the disappearance of differences in physical aggression (B = 0.45; 95% CI = [1.14, 2.07]). Parental education did not affect the associations in an important way. Our findings indicate that Roma are not that much different from non-Roma, in terms of antisocial behavior, which contradicts the general perception of Roma. Our findings should be confirmed in other settings.
Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885
Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M
Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.
Hasking, Penelope A
Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides an alternative conceptualisation of the role of personality in criminal behaviour, and has generally produced more consistent findings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity and delinquent behaviour in a sample of 259 adolescents, and to examine the role that coping strategies play in this relationship. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that use of problem solving mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and delinquent behaviour, while use of non-productive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BAS drive and delinquency. Consequently, it was suggested that coping skills training could be an effective early intervention for delinquent behaviour.
Crean, Hugh F.
This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…
Zavrazhin, S. A.
Examines the results of a survey presented to students, administrators, teachers, and social scientists in Russia, Canada, United States, Germany, and Austria. The survey investigated attitudes, causal factors, social background, and prevention efforts concerning antisocial behavior in adolescents. The Russian responses reflected a more punitive…
Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.
Kiriakidis, Stavros P.
The present paper is an overview of studies examining the way family influences the development of delinquency in adolescents. The review focused on published papers dealing with the association of adolescent delinquency and their families. The association between family practices and juvenile delinquency, with potent predictive value is…
Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W
While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life.
Hill, Nancy C.; And Others
Relevant and appropriate instruction for handicapped adolescent delinquents was the focus of a study involving 31 incarcerated handicapped Ss. Instruction was planned based on pretest performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test, the KeyMath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test and the Analytical Reading Inventory. Ss were tutored for 2 hours per week for…
Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…
Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne
We tested two hypotheses derived from Moffitt’s (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as: number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses using multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt’s hypothesis, persistently delinquent youth did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt’s hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses using alternative strategies and additional data to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt’s assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. PMID:25243328
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Todd, Michael
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in Bangkok. A structural equation model is employed for the analysis. The intergenerational transmission and the direct and indirect association between parents' and adolescents' beliefs and practices in Buddhism and adolescents' minor and serious delinquent behaviors are revealed to be significant, controlling for secular parental monitoring. Spirituality within the family can play an important role in preventing delinquency among early adolescents. Policies in the areas related to family empowerment and delinquency prevention may need to consider integrating both secular and non-secular program inputs in their implementation design.
Sanger, Dixie; Scheffler, Marilyn; Drake, Brian; Hilgert, Koree; Creswell, John W.; Hansen, David J.
Qualitative methodology was used to explore how incarcerated adolescent female delinquents (N=20) described their communication behaviors in multiple contexts. Four themes emerged: (1) participant communication, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) trust, and (4) maltreatment. Implications suggest that speech-language pathologists and educators need to…
Romi, Shlomo; Marom, Doron
This study examined differences in intelligence between dropout delinquent adolescents and nondelinquent adolescents in Israel. It was part of research aimed at using psychological tests to characterize dropout delinquents. The participants, 215 adolescents at a psychoeducational center, were divided into three groups and were tested using the…
Evans, Sara Z; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L
Given that one of the most powerful predictors of adult crime is the presence of behavior problems in childhood and adolescence, there is a need to further understand factors that determine behavior patterns during this developmental stage. This study focuses on stressful life experiences such as exposure to delinquent peers, racial discrimination, as well as family characteristics such as parenting style and family transitions. Data come from four waves of the Family and Community Health Survey, an African-American sample. The present study investigates 354 males from this dataset. We utilize a group-based trajectory model to estimate the number and type of trajectories of delinquency. We then estimate multinomial regression models to predict trajectory group membership. The results indicated that there were four distinct groups of offenders (negligible delinquents; early starter/declining; late starter; and early starter/chronic offenders). We predicted group membership using both early predictors and measures of change in these predictors across the study period. The results indicated that individuals who experience greater racial discrimination (both early in childhood and throughout adolescence) are more likely to be in trajectory groups that begin offending early and persist through adolescence. Additionally, those respondents who reported having friends with greater delinquent behavior were more likely to be in groups that began their offending early in life and persisted when compared to groups who started later or desisted as they entered adulthood. The results contribute to developmental research and provide information that may be helpful in preventing adolescents from persisting in antisocial behavior as they enter adulthood.
For many centuries, mankind has been concerned about the potential impact that the moon may have on human behavior, especially delinquency. The author presents a case report, in which the delinquency of the offender seems to show a certain synchronisation with the lunar phases. Finally, the issue is discussed on the basis of today's scientific literature on this topic.
Weiner, I B
The pediatrician's first step in responding to delinquent behavior is to make a differential diagnosis between sociological, characterological and neurotic delinquency. Sociological delinquency consists of subculturally sanctioned illegal activity by youngsters who are psychologically well-adjusted members of their peer group, and its treatment depends primarily on prevention through social action programs rather than on the intervention of the clinical practitioner. Characterological delinquency reflects a serious and long-standing personality disorder marked by aggressive and impulsive behavior and a lack of attachment to or consideration for others, and its treatment requires extensive psychotherapy, often in a residential setting. Neurotic delinquency involves uncharacteristic misbehavior of recent origin that represents an attempt to communicate unrecognized needs for attention or help, and it can often be treated effectively with short-term psychotherapy.
Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N
The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.
Fagan, Abigail A.; Najman, Jake M.
Examines sibling influences on adolescent delinquency. Based on maternal and self reports, a moderately strong association between siblings' delinquency is found. Relationship remains significant controlling for childhood aggression and family environment factors measured during childhood (age 5) and adolescence (age 14). Effect varies according…
Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan
Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474
Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD.
Wang, Pan; Niv, Sharon; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
Purpose This study investigated genetic and environmental commonalities and differences between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior (ASB) in male and female child and adolescent twins, based on a newly developed self-report questionnaire with good reliability and external validity – the Self-Report Delinquency Interview (SR-DI). Methods Subjects were 780 pairs of twins assessed through laboratory interviews at three time points in a longitudinal study, during which the twins were: (1) ages 9–10 years; (2) age 11–13 years, and (3) age 16–18 years. Results Sex differences were repeatedly observed for mean levels of ASB. In addition, diverse change patterns of genetic and environmental emerged, as a function of sex and form of ASB, during the development from childhood to adolescence. Although there was some overlap in etiologies of aggressive and non-aggressive ASB, predominantly in shared environmental factors, their genetic overlap was moderate and the non-shared environmental overlap was low. Conclusions Taken together, these results reinforced the importance of differentiating forms of ASB and further investigating sex differences in future research. These results should be considered in future comparisons between youth self-report and parental or teacher report of child and adolescent behavior, and may help elucidate commonalities and differences among informants. PMID:24465061
Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect relations between sports and delinquency via 2 peer-related constructs-deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing. Finally, they examined the extent to which gender and prior externalizing problems moderated the direct and indirect relations between sports participation and delinquency. The authors found that the odds of nonviolent delinquency were higher among boys who participated in sports when compared to boys who participated only in nonathletic activities but not when compared to boys who did not participate in any organized activities. Deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing mediated the relation between sports participation and boys' nonviolent delinquency. Moreover, prior externalizing problems moderated the mediated path through peer deviance. The authors did not, however, find direct, mediated, or moderated relations between sports and boys' violent delinquency nor between sports and girls' violent or nonviolent delinquency.
Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.
Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…
Björkenstam, C; Björkenstam, E; Ljung, R; Vinnerljung, B; Tuvblad, C
Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40% of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95% CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience-specifically of out-of-home care-in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent’s and adolescent’s beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in Bangkok. A structural equation model is employed for the analysis. The intergenerational transmission and the direct and indirect association between parents’ and adolescents’ beliefs and practices in Buddhism and adolescents’ minor and serious delinquent behaviors are revealed to be significant, controlling for secular parental monitoring. Spirituality within the family can play an important role in preventing delinquency among early adolescents. Policies in the areas related to family empowerment and delinquency prevention may need to consider integrating both secular and non-secular program inputs in their implementation design. PMID:23218782
Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.
Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951
Born, M.; Chevalier, V.; Humblet, I.
Attempts to identify factors that predict persistent, decreased, or increased delinquency between early childhood and adolescence. Delinquent trajectories, resilience, the nature of the population, family background, and individual characteristics are discussed. Findings are organized by a model distinguishing between resilience and desistance.…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim
This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…
Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh
Background: Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. Objectives: The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Patients and Methods: Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child–parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P < 0.001) and father-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Also, there is no statistically significant difference between these two groups in mother-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Besides, the results revealed that delinquent adolescents were significantly different regarding the quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers’ parenting is more strongly linked to their sons’ delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents’ delinquency. PMID:25032158
Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors.
The article summarizes characteristic interactive patterns in social systems concerned with acting-out, delinquent and violent behavior in adolescents. As a consequence, it develops a multi systems consultation approach. Core features of such an approach are the clarification of service demands and of available resources, the development of new and sometimes unusual cooperation, positive connotation of distrust and chaos, and an intelligent questioning of the usefulness of ones owen professional activities. At the end the question is raised, whether and in which ways educators, physicians and psychologists could involve themselves in political decision processes about media, work and welfare legislation, which influence their adolescent clients life situation.
Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan
There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…
Hudak, Mary A.; And Others
In comparing delinquent v nondelinquent response patterns, six psychological measures are drawn from different theories. The measures, reflecting selected socialization values, include the empathy scale, the socialization scale from the California Psychological Inventory, the Machiavellianism scale, the compassion-compulsion scale, the Andre…
Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)
Examined the outcome of a mentoring program aimed at minimizing conduct problems for young adolescent children at risk for delinquent behavior, focusing on 13 mentors, each of whom was responsible for 1 at-risk child for 15 hours per week. Parent reports suggest significant decreases in problem behavior, but there were no significant changes in…
Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A
In a longitudinal study of children followed for 8 years into adolescence, the authors investigated how different forms of maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence) in childhood and parenting during adolescence influenced adolescents' shame- and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the authors examined whether diminished feelings of guilt or heightened feelings of shame were related to delinquent behavior or depression in late adolescence. Results showed that whereas harsh parenting in childhood was related to shame proneness in adolescence, this relationship was mediated by parental rejection in adolescence. Findings confirmed that youth with rejecting parents were more shame-prone and less guilt-prone than other youth. Furthermore, shame-proneness was associated with higher depression when measured 2 years later and guilt-proneness was linked to less delinquent behavior. Results suggest that, as mediators, shame and guilt may provide useful focal points for intervention and prevention efforts in reducing adolescent depression and delinquency.
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Amrhein, Kelly E.; Hassan, Sarah
Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system in a small Midwestern city on their perceptions of their home neighborhood and self-reported delinquency. While perceptions of several home neighborhood characteristics significantly predicted severity of delinquency for all respondents, neighborhood effects were significantly weaker for those adolescents who tended to engage in illegal behaviors outside their home neighborhood. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts should include more attention to how adolescents may be influenced by multiple neighborhoods. PMID:24793379
Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…
Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael
This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…
Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…
Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S
This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.
Li, Yibing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Arbeit, Miriam R; Schwartz, Seth J; Bowers, Edmond P; Lerner, Richard M
The present study was designed to examine the effects of school engagement on risky behavior in adolescence. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents, discrete-time survival analyses were conducted to assess the effect of behavioral and emotional school engagement on the initiation of drug use and delinquency. The current analyses used seven years of longitudinal data collected from youth and their parents. Results of discrete-time survival analysis indicated that, controlling for demographic variables, higher degrees of behavioral and emotional school engagement predicted a significantly lower risk of substance use and involvement in delinquency. Substance use prevention programs and other health-risk reduction programs should include components (i.e., adolescents' participation in and emotional attachment to school) to capitalize on the protective role of the school context against youth risk behavior.
Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans
Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…
Powell, Darci; Perreira, Krista M.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Rising immigration rates to the United States have been associated with increased public sentiment against immigrant populations and fears that immigration will lead to escalations in crime and delinquency. However, surprisingly few researchers have studied delinquency among immigrant youth overall or in comparison with U.S.-born youth. Guided by…
Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui
School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.
Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.
There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640
Beasley, T. Mark; Dolin, Ira H.
Analyzes the results of administering the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale to 80 non-delinquent male high-school students and 101 delinquent males. Findings indicate that self destructiveness in both groups is related to alcohol use and other related risky behaviors. Suggests juvenile-delinquency intervention strategies. (MKA)
Karaman, Neslihan G.
Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…
Mallett, Christopher A; Kirven, Joshua
A majority of adolescents who are formally involved with the juvenile courts and detained or incarcerated are dealing with past or present maltreatment victimization, learning disabilities, and/or mental health/substance abuse difficulties. Addressing these problems and traumas is an integral part of preventing delinquency and breaking a youthful offender's recidivist cycle, a pattern that often predicts adult offending and incarceration. Fortunately, there are effective programs across the social work profession that decrease or may even eliminate delinquent behaviors, both for low-level and more serious youthful offenders. Unfortunately, the use of these social work preventative programs is not consistent or extensive within the juvenile justice system.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Little research has examined the way in which perceptions of peer behavior (i.e., descriptive norms) influence externalizing behavior among rural adolescents. Using a social norms framework, the current study examined gender differences in the relationship between perceived delinquency among friends and externalizing behavior in a sample of rural adolescents. Based on previous research, the authors proposed that adolescents experience negative emotional responses when they believe that their peers are engaging in delinquency, which subsequently influences externalizing behavior. Consequently, internalizing symptoms were explored as a mediator of the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior. Data came from the NC-ACE Rural Adaptation Project, a longitudinal panel study of adolescents in two rural, economically disadvantaged counties with exceptional racial/ethnic diversity (29 % White, 25 % African American, 25 % American Indian, 12 % Mixed Race/Other, 9 % Hispanic/Latino). Using multiple group structural equation modeling (N = 3489; 51 % female), results indicated that perceived friend delinquency was significantly related to externalizing behavior and this relationship did not vary by gender. Internalizing symptoms fully mediated the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior and the path between perceived friend delinquency and internalizing symptoms was stronger for males. Implications of these relationships for prevention and intervention programming for externalizing behavior were highlighted.
Warnick, Kristan; Caldarella, Paul
This study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory phonics-based reading remediation program for adolescent delinquents classified as poor readers living at a residential treatment center. We used a pretest--posttest control group design with random assignment. The treatment group participated in a 30-hr multisensory phonics reading…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
Alcohol use by youths has been linked to delinquent behaviors, such as stealing, illicit drug use, and problems in school. Research also indicates that early drinkers are more likely than nondrinkers to engage in delinquent behaviors. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report their alcohol use in…
Bao, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Xuefen; Sun, Wenqiang; Wang, Yanhui
There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between secure parental attachment and lower adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the mediating mechanisms (i.e., how does parental attachment relate to delinquency?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether secure parental attachment would be indirectly related to lower adolescent delinquency through lower adolescent moral disengagement. A total of 1766 adolescents (44% male; mean age = 14.25 years, SD = 1.54) living in an urban area of southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding parental attachment, moral disengagement and delinquency. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and school variable, it was found that secure parental attachment was negatively associated with adolescent delinquency and this negative association was fully mediated by the extent of adolescent moral disengagement. These findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of adolescent delinquency and have important implications for intervention.
Anderson, Amy L.; Hughes, Lorine A.
Multilevel cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to test predictions based on Osgood and colleagues' extension of routine activity theory to individual offending. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between delinquent behavior and three variables hypothesized to increase exposure…
Svensson, Ylva; Burk, William J.; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret
This study examines selection and influence related to delinquent behaviors of immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents attending three majority-immigrant schools (54% to 65.2% immigrant) and four minority-immigrant schools (11.1% to 25.1% immigrant) in one community. The sample included 1,169 youths (50.4% male; 24.2% immigrant) initially between…
Richter, Jörg; Krecklow, Beate; Eisemann, Matrin
We performed a cross-validation of results from investigations in juvenile delinquents in Russia and Germany concerning relationships of personality characteristics in terms of temperament and character with parental rearing. Both studies used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory, and the Own Memories on Parenting (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Swedish [EMBU]) questionnaire on parental rearing based on Perris' vulnerability model. The inter-relatedness of parental rearing, temperament, and character traits in socially normally integrated adolescents, as well as in delinquent adolescents, implying direct and indirect pathways from personality and parental rearing to delinquency, could be cross-validated. Differences between delinquents and socially normally integrated adolescents are rather based on different levels of expressions of various temperament traits, harm avoidance and novelty seeking in particular, and the character trait self-directedness, as well as on parental rearing behavior (predominantly parental rejection and emotional warmth) than on different structures within related developmental processes.
Burt, S Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.
Whiteside, Leanne; And Others
This study of 1,093 public high school students was designed to test an integrated theoretical model of delinquency, consisting of elements of social control and social learning theories, with LISREL procedures. The model confirmed with LISREL was very similar to the hypothesized model. The hypothesized model was fitted to data on one random…
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Hagglof, Bruno; Eisemann, Martin
Compared the relationship between adolescent aggression and parental rearing factors for delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents in Russia. Found that delinquent adolescents differed from nondelinquents on aggression as well as on the parental rearing factors of rejection and overprotection and maternal warmth, with aggression in both groups…
The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…
McKnight, Lela Renee'; Loper, Ann Booker
Describes two studies conducted with samples of adolescent girls to determine whether resilience factors could distinguish at risk characteristics as delinquent or non-delinquent. Resiliency was shown to determine delinquency levels. Suggests that intervention programs designed to remediate the effects of risk factors should include components…
Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung
The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…
Bean, Roy A.; Barber, Brian K.; Crane, D. Russell
Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in…
Sanders, Jolene M
This research aims to uncover aspects of adolescent masculine development among adult substance abusers. In-depth interviews and the resulting narrative provide the data for this exploratory analysis. Three main areas of adolescent masculinities are discussed: substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and recreation. The findings are interpreted in light of Connell's conceptualization of hegemonic masculinities. Based on this sample, masculinities are constructed via a menu of adolescent behaviors that are descriptive of a working class lifestyle. It is the cultural context that sets the stage for substance abuse and its meaning to identity formation in adolescence, as well as in adulthood. Substance abuse in adolescence, along with other forms of juvenile delinquency and recreation, is a means of achieving masculinity. Unfortunately, for these men the use of substance abuse to achieve masculinity in adolescence becomes problematic later in adulthood. This article concludes that to successfully recover from substance abuse and addiction, these men must revisit and reframe their adolescent constructions of masculinity to better fit the problems and challenges they face as adults.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S
Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood.
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986
Kretschmer, Tina; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara
Extensive evidence supports associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent externalizing behavior, but how and under which conditions they are linked is not fully understood. In addition, pubertal development is also characterized by variations in the relative speed at which individuals mature, but studies linking pubertal 'tempo' and outcomes are scarce. This study examined the mediating and moderating roles of spare time activities in associations between pubertal development and later delinquency, using data from a large (4,327 girls, 4,250 boys) longitudinal UK cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children). Self-reports of Tanner stage were available from ages 9 to 14, spare time activities at age 12 and delinquency at age 15. Pubertal development was examined using latent growth models. Spare time activities were categorized using factor analyses, yielding four types (hanging out at home, hanging out outside, consumerist behavior, and sports/games), which were examined as mediators and moderators. Earlier and faster maturation predicted delinquency in boys and girls. Spare time activities partially mediated these links such that early maturing girls more often engaged in hanging out outside, which placed them at greater risk for delinquency. In addition, compared to their later and slower maturing counterparts, boys who matured earlier and faster were less likely to engage in sports/games, a spare time activity type that is linked to lower delinquency risk. No moderation effects were found. The findings extend previous research on outcomes of early maturation and show how spare time activities act as proxies between pubertal development and delinquency.
Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Luque De La Rosa, Antonio; Martos Martínez, África; Barragán Martín, Ana Belén; Simón Márquez, María del Mar
The present study analyzes the relation between delinquent behaviors, interpersonal values, and academic performance. It also analyzes the possible protective function of interpersonal values against delinquent behaviors. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire (IVQ) was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D) was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 students of Compulsory Secondary Education, aged from 14 to 17 years. The results show that individuals who fail a subject as well as those who repeat a course present higher means in delinquent behaviors. Repeaters present higher means in the values of recognition and leadership, and non-repeaters in the value stimulation, whereas students who do not fail obtain higher scores in the value benevolence. Students with high levels of recognition, independence, and leadership, as well as students with low levels of conformity and benevolence display significantly higher levels of delinquent behaviors. Lastly, the probability of presenting a high level of delinquent behaviors is greater in individuals with: high independence, high leadership, high recognition, low benevolence, and low conformity. PMID:27799914
Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.
The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…
Landsheer, Johannes A.; Oud, Johan H. L.; van Dijkum, Cor
Although it is well known that during adolescence the delinquent involvement of females is consistently less when compared to male involvement, it remains an important question whether the development of delinquency has a similar trajectory for both sexes. The main hypothesis tested is whether sex differences in delinquency, specifically growth,…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra
According to the reputation enhancement theory, social bonds influence adolescents' delinquent activity indirectly through the reputations they select. Findings from the current study of a school-based sample of female adolescents indicate that bonds to parents affect reputation enhancement beliefs, which, in turn, predict delinquent activity.…
Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara
This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…
Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…
Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa
We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome…
van der Laan, André M; Veenstra, René; Bogaerts, Stefan; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan
This study uses a social-ecological approach to the development of delinquency. The authors emphasize that a balance between eliminating risk and enhancing protection across domains is essential in reducing problems and promoting competence. The cumulative risk and promotive effects of temperament, family and school factors in preadolescence were examined on different groups of delinquents (based on self-report) in early adolescence. Data from the first two waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2,230) were used. The results provide evidence for a compensatory model that assumes main effects of risk and promotive factors on problem behavior. Accumulation of risks in preadolescence promoted being a serious delinquent in early adolescence, with the strongest effects for temperament. Accumulation of promotive effects decreased being a delinquent and supported being a non-delinquent. Furthermore, evidence is found for a counter-balancing effect of cumulative promotive and risk factors. Exposure to more promotive domains in the relative absence of risk domains decreased the percentage of serious delinquents. Our results did not support a protective model. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W
Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples.
White, Barry A B; Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J
Recent analyses of the long-term societal benefits from early intervention (prenatal care, home visitation, and high quality preschool) for at-risk children commonly include significant savings to society in the form of reduced juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. However, a nontrivial proportion of the reported benefits of several early intervention programs are based on forecasts of criminal behavior throughout adulthood conditional on intervention effects on delinquency in adolescence. Data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an investigation of the life course of 1,539 children from low-income families born in 1979-1980, are used to investigate the bias resulting from predicting the effect of early intervention on adult criminal behavior from the effect on delinquency in adolescence. The investigation concludes that the general method used to predict adult criminal behavior results in a conservative estimate of the reduction in the cost of adult criminal behavior attributed to early intervention.
Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori
Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…
Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.
This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…
Hundleby, John D.; And Others
Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles.
Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D; Pardini, Dustin A
This review examines the development and etiology of disruptive behavior [symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and psychopathic features] and delinquency (particularly violence). We address selected key developmental issues, including (a) to what extent negative emotional ODD symptoms are associated with later internalizing disorders, (b) whether psychopathic features provide added predictive utility beyond traditional disruptive behaviors, and (c) the role of oppositional behavior and conduct problems in the development of violence. This review also focuses on the causes of ODD, CD, psychopathic features, and delinquency and explores the extent to which the causes of disruptive and delinquent behavior are the same. We examine the degree to which risk and promotive factors change with age and whether promotive factors buffer the impact of risk factors. Finally, we explore the question of whether there are developmental shifts in children's exposure to risk and promotive factors.
Giordano, Peggy C; Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively "cold and brittle" relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the "cold" and "brittle" dimensions of Hirschi's hypothesis. Regarding the "cold" assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the "brittle" description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict.
Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Messersmith, Emily E.
Does success in school protect teenagers from drug use? Does drug use impair scholastic success? This book tackles a key issue in adolescent development and health--the education-drug use connection. The authors examine the links and likely causal connections between educational experiences, delinquent behavior, and adolescent use of tobacco,…
Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim
This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents reported on delinquent activities and parental support. Latent growth curve analyses revealed a linear decline in parental control between ages 13 and 16. Adolescent disclosure decreased gradually in adolescent reports and showed an L-shaped pattern in father reports and a V-shaped pattern in mother reports. A stronger increase in delinquent activities was related to a stronger decrease in disclosure in mother and adolescent reports and to lower levels of disclosure in father reports. The linkages between levels of disclosure and delinquent activities were stronger in families with high parental support than in families with lower support. Furthermore, in lower parental support families, a stronger decrease in paternal control was related to a stronger increase in delinquent activities. In high parental support families, however, a stronger decrease in adolescent-reported parental control was related to a less strong increase in delinquent activities.
Keijsers, Loes; Frijns, Tom; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim
This 4-wave study among 309 Dutch adolescents and their parents examined changes in adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control and their links with the development of delinquent activities. Annually, adolescents and both parents reported on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control, and adolescents…
Meltzer, Lynn J.; And Others
The relationship between juvenile delinquency and learning disabilities has been studied in the context of socioeconomic status, temperament, school success, and peer relationships. To use a process-oriented approach in evaluating cognitive and learning profiles of delinquents and learning disabled adolescents, and to examine the possibility that…
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno
Examined interrelations between hopelessness, loneliness, self-esteem, and personality in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents in Russia. Found that delinquents differed from controls on most variables. Loneliness and hopelessness were highly interrelated and correlated with harm avoidance, and inversely correlated with self- directedness.…
Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa
This study examined the trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents in two cultural contexts. Relying on data from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of children and youth from Bronx, New York, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, a group-based trajectory procedure estimated the number of delinquency trajectories,…
Petts, Richard J.
This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting…
Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.
Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc
The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C
The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (M age = 12.48; 41.0 % male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents' susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David
Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim
Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency.
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning
Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.
Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.
Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…
Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf
Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12-13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.
As the primary socializing institution of youth, the family has long been recognized as important for predicting delinquency. Social control theory focuses on the effects of parental behavior on adolescent delinquency but fails to take into account the effect of adolescent delinquency on parental behaviors. This study addresses this problem by…
de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J
The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.
Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F
Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p = 0.08) larger for boys than for girls.
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K
The literature proposes that leisure boredom may systematically increase during adolescence. Moreover, some authors assume that this hypothesized developmental trend is associated with increases in youthful delinquency and depression. Individual dispositions (e.g., temperamental disinhibition) are believed to exacerbate the relationship between boredom and delinquency. This study investigated whether (1) leisure boredom really is an increasing phenomenon during early adolescence; (2) gender, temperamental disinhibition, shyness, family relationship quality, peer rejection, a deprived school context, and rural/urban living explain developmental variations in boredom; (3) boredom is longitudinally and reciprocally related to delinquency and depression; and (4) bored disinhibited adolescents are particularly likely to become delinquent and to use delinquent acts to mitigate boredom. Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 722) who provided annual self-reports on study variables from age 10 to 14 years. Bivariate growth curve models captured correlations between developmental trajectories of boredom and delinquency/depression. Cross-lagged models examined reciprocal short-term associations. Analyses revealed a modest increase in leisure boredom during early adolescence. Disinhibition and qualities of proximal social contexts (family, peers, school) were related to boredom with peer rejection showing the most consistent longitudinal association. Boredom was developmentally associated with depression whereas longitudinal associations with delinquency were weaker and more short-term. Temperamentally disinhibited adolescents appeared to buffer leisure boredom by means of delinquency. Results support person-context models of leisure boredom with regard to its etiology and consequences. Findings further demonstrate that leisure boredom plays a prominent role in the developmental adaptation of adolescents.
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary D
Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively related to, and collectivism negatively related to, self-reported delinquency, with partial mediation through peer delinquency (PD). Although the percentage of variance in delinquency attributable to individualism-collectivism was small compared to PD, it cannot be discounted as trivial. The results also supported the measurement and structural invariance of these associations across the 4 ethnic groups.
Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D
Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.
Rozalski, Michael; Drasgow, Erik; Drasgow, Fritz; Yell, Mitchell
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among students' disruptive and violent behavior and staff's use of proactive and reactive strategies in a secure residential treatment center serving delinquent adolescent males. One hundred hours of observational data were collected, and linear regression models were used to explore the…
Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.
This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103
Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu
This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…
Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.
Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…
Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie
This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…
Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…
Lucero, Jessica L.; Barrett, Courtenay; Jensen, Hilary
Early delinquency has received considerably less scholarly attention than adolescent delinquency. Early delinquency is of great concern to school social workers, as it may lead to problematic behaviors in adolescence and future involvement with the juvenile justice system. Using an ecological framework, authors used data from the Fragile Families…
Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele
Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…
Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin
This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls.
Jeon, Hye Sook; Chun, JongSerl
The present study sought to examine self-control, parental support, and peer support as internal and external protective factors that buffer the influence of adolescent stress on delinquency among Korean adolescents. To this end, the paper utilized the 1st-year data from the Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute; the study surveyed a total of 3,449 2nd-year middle school students. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that despite high levels of stress, high self-control mitigated the negative influence of stress on delinquency in adolescents. In contrast, parental and peer support were only found to be directly influential on juvenile delinquency. Parental support had only negative influences on status delinquency, and peer support had positive influences on both status and serious delinquency. Based on these results, we propose implications for preventing and intervening with juvenile delinquency.
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.
Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…
Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon
Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…
McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena
Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…
Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert
This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…
Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo
The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. The subjects for this study consisted of 1,943 Korean adolescents, including 1,236 students and 707 juvenile delinquents, using a proportional stratified random sampling method. Compared to student adolescents, delinquent adolescents perceived their parents as having a higher level of dysfunctional parental partner dynamics, poorer family functioning, and a higher level of family violence. Furthermore, delinquent adolescents were more likely to report a greater incidence of antisocial personality tendencies, a higher level of psychosomatic symptoms and frustration, and higher frequencies of delinquent behavior compared to student adolescents. Antisocial personality tendency and gender had the largest significant total effects on delinquent behavior, followed by family violence, psychosomatic symptoms, family functioning, parental partner dynamics and need frustration. On the other hand, family functioning and parental partner dynamics had the largest indirect effect on delinquent behavior. Gender, antisocial personality tendency, and family violence, in that order, had the largest direct effects on delinquent behavior. In conclusion, it is apparent from the results of the present study that delinquent Korean adolescents perceived and experienced significantly more family dysfunction, family violence, and poor parental partner dynamics than did non-delinquents.
Teachman, Jay; Tedrow, Lucky
Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we examine the relationship between delinquency and enlistment in the military. We argue that delinquent behavior is positively related to enlistment because military service is an attractive alternative for delinquents to mark their transition to adulthood and their desistance from delinquent behavior. We also argue, however, that this relationship is not linear, with higher levels of delinquent behavior actually acting to reduce the likelihood of enlistment. We further suggest that the relationship between delinquency and enlistment is similar for men and women. We test and find support for our hypotheses using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. PMID:24576626
Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R
A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.
Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner
Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…
Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20, examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence, and evaluate association between risk behavior trajectories and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Group-based dual trajectory modeling, examining trajectories of two outcomes over time, revealed strong interrelationships among developmental trajectories of the four risk behaviors, and indicated potential pathways to co-occurring risk behaviors. Adolescents with higher levels of alcohol use or marijuana use were more likely to engage in higher levels of early sexual risk-taking and delinquency. Moreover, adolescents involved in higher levels of delinquency were at higher risk for engaging in early sexual risk-taking. Also belonging to the highest risk trajectory of any of the four risk behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Lee, Sang Min; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Majuta, Aaron; Young, Choi Bo
High school delinquency, adolescent behaviors ranging from repeated school misconduct to being arrested, is a critical concern in the United States. Though widely believed that reputation is related to adolescent behavior, few studies have addressed the relationship between adolescent reputation and delinquency. Using the National Educational…
Boardman, Jason D; Menard, Scott; Roettger, Michael E; Knight, Kelly E; Boutwell, Brian B; Smolen, Andrew
This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors.
Chhangur, Rabia R; Overbeek, Geertjan; Verhagen, Maaike; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Engels, Rutger C M E
Gene by environment (G × E) research has been increasingly appreciated as it relates to the development of psychopathology. In particular, interactions between dopaminergic genotypes and maladaptive parenting have been prominently in the spotlight. In this study, we investigated whether high parental psychological control and low support would be differentially related to the development of delinquency in adolescents based on their genetic background (i.e., DRD4 and DRD2 genotypes). Data were derived from a 5-wave longitudinal survey among adolescents (N = 308; Mage = 13.4 at Time 1). After accounting for possible passive genetic effects (i.e., parents' genotype, Parents' Genotype × Adolescents' Genotype, and Parents' Genotype × Parenting, cf. Keller, 2014), latent growth modeling revealed a significant interaction of DRD2 × Parental Support, indicating that adolescents with the DRD2 A2A2 genotype were more vulnerable for low parental support, developing more delinquent behavior as a consequence. No significant interactions emerged for DRD4 with parental support and psychological control, nor for DRD2 with parental psychological control. The observed effect size of the identified DRD2 × parental support interaction was modest, emphasizing that replication is essential to confirm the present evidence.
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno
Compared coping styles in 178 delinquent adolescents versus 91 controls from a region of Northern Russia and tested for possible interactions with personality traits and parental rearing factors. Discusses the specific correlational patterns discovered between coping styles and both personality dimensions and parental styles. (SLD)
Yu, Jeong Jin; Gamble, Wendy C.
Using social control theory and attachment theory as guides, this study examined how qualities of young adolescents' social relationships (i.e., mother, sibling, and friend) and dynamic interactions among characteristics of those relationships are associated with school involvement and delinquency. The participants included older siblings (M age =…
Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.
This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…
Barker, Edward D.; Arseneault, Louise; Brendgen, Mara; Fontaine, Nathalie; Maughan, Barbara
The study measures the development of bullying and victimization in early to mid-adolescence, the relations between the developmental trajectories, and their associations with delinquency and self-harm. Evidence suggests youths victimized by peers are at increased risk of victimizing others.
Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others
Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…
Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…
This study tested Agnew's (1992) general strain theory (GST) of delinquency and crime. GST predicts that strain has an increasing effect on delinquency, and that the effect of strain is conditional upon several variables, including delinquent peers. I analyzed longitudinal data of 87 Japanese college students' deviant behavior in a classroom with a one-week interval, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and applying an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate missing values. I found a significant main effect of strain and a significant interaction between strain and delinquent peers, after controlling for variables such as gender, school year, the number of previous delinquencies, and other variables based on social control and differential association theories. These results are consistent with GST. However, I also found that delinquent peers had a decreased effect for unstrained students, and an increasing one for strained students. The implications of the results are discussed.
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Dölitzsch, Claudia; Schmid, Marc; Keller, Ferdinand; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael
Since an important goal of the youth welfare system is to prevent troubled adolescents from committing acts of delinquency in future, professional caregivers need to possess accurate knowledge about past behaviors in order to implement appropriate interventions. As part of a comprehensive study on youth in state care, adolescents at 30 residential care facilities in Switzerland were surveyed about past acts of delinquency, and their responses were compared to those of their professional caregivers to see how well they correlated. A sample of 267 male and female adolescents aged 11-18years completed questionnaires about the frequency, nature, and seriousness of different types of offenses, while a designated caregiver for each resident completed a corresponding questionnaire. The majority of residents (86.1%) reported having committed at least one offense, which confirms the prevalence of problem behaviors in this population and the need for strategies to prevent it. The overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was 77.2%, with both parties reporting that the resident had committed at least one offense in 69.7% of cases, and both reporting that no offense had been committed in 7.5% of cases. Agreement was substantially higher for offenses that were serious than for those that were minor or moderate. Cohen's kappa reached slight to moderate values with regard to individual and categorized offenses. Seriousness scales of delinquency for self-reports and caregiver reports were moderately associated. While the overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was high, increasing it still further might lead to improvements in strategies for the prevention of recidivism.
Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Shaghelanilor, Hossein; Pocock, Lesley
Background: Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012. They answered the instrument of family power structure (Saidian, 2004) and identity style (ISI-6G: White et al. 1998). The obtained data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles with regard to family power structure, its subscales (P < 0.001), and identity style (P < 0.001). Moreover, the informational identity style was associated with lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was related to the delinquency. Conclusions: These results emphasize that the inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family power structure can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescent delinquency. PMID:26834795
Day, Nancy L; Leech, Sharon L; Goldschmidt, Lidush
We hypothesized that there would be an association between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and delinquency and that the effects of PME on neurocognitive development would mediate this association. Mothers and offspring enrolled in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on child development, were interviewed from the fourth prenatal month through 14 years. There were 580 mother/child dyads at the 14-year phase. A standardized protocol assessed psychological, neurocognitive, social, environmental, and demographic characteristics, and substance use at each phase. The Self Report Delinquency scale (Loeber et al., 1998) and the Child Behavior checklist (Achenbach, 1991) delinquency subscale were combined to represent delinquent behavior. First trimester PME was used as a dichotomous variable, daily use versus all other use. Offspring of heavier marijuana users were significantly more likely to report delinquent behavior at age 14. The odds ratio for delinquency among those who were exposed to one or more joints per day during gestation was 1.76 (C.I. 1.05-2.96). PME significantly predicted child depressive symptoms and attention problems at age 10, after controlling for other significant covariates. Child depressive symptoms and attention problems at age 10 significantly predicted delinquency at 14 years. The association between PME and delinquent behavior at 14 years was mediated by depressive symptoms and attention problems in the offspring at 10 years.
Megens, Kim C. I. M.; Weerman, Frank M.
While a growing number of longitudinal studies contribute to our knowledge on the relationship between delinquent peers and one's own delinquent behavior, researchers have generally approached the issue in a restricted way: failing to identify mediating processes or to distinguish between what peers approve of and what they do. Moreover, most…
Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa; Stoddard, Sarah
This study explores the impact of a feared delinquent possible self on the relationship between exposure to negative peer behaviors and violent and non-violent self-reported delinquency. Previous research strongly supports that deviant peers influence adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Yet, few studies have explored intrapersonal factors that may moderate this influence. Possible selves include what one hopes, expects and fears becoming and are believed to motivate behavior. Thus, it was hypothesized that adolescents who were exposed to deviant peers and also feared engaging in delinquency would be more likely to self-report delinquency. Seventh grade students (n = 176) identified feared possible selves in the future, their exposure to negative peer behavior and self-reported violent and non-violent delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that exposure to negative peer behavior is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior. For violent behavior, possessing a feared delinquent possible self moderates this relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25460676
Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record
Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur
Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…
Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko
Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…
Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cooper, Brittany R.; Bray, Bethany C.
Purpose To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. Methods We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 tenth-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities that Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models are considered. Results Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models are selected as optimal. The five-class regression model is interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors have varying salience across classes of adolescents. Conclusions Standard regression shows that all risk factors are significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provides more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that are salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed. PMID:24231260
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components.
Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan
In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…
Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591
Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom
The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.
Dmitrieva, Julia; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ding, Yuan-Chun
The present study investigated gender differences in the associations between the DRD4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and adolescent delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. We also explored whether the gender-specific expression of the DRD4 can be explained by gender differences in the exposure to psychosocial risks, such as poor parent-child relationship. Participants were 263 14- to 17-year olds (50% males) living in Russia. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the VNTR DRD4 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Participants reported on the extent of their delinquent behaviour, short temper, thrill seeking and exposure to psychosocial risk (i.e. poor parental monitoring of adolescent behaviour, exposure to violence and peer delinquency). Compared to individuals with the 4/4 genotype, males, but not females, with the 7-repeat allele (7R) had significantly higher delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. This interaction effect, however, was completely explained by males' higher exposure to psychosocial risk factors. When parental monitoring of youths' activities and youth exposure to violence were included in the model, the 7R × gender interaction was no longer significant. Thus, social context plays an important role in explaining gender-specific phenotypic expression of the DRD4 gene.
Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
This study examined gender differences in trajectories of delinquent behaviors over a 6-year period in adolescence and differential outcomes of these diverse developmental pathways. Participants were 754 children who were part of a longitudinal study of the development of early starting conduct problems. Four trajectory patterns were identified across grades 7–12: increasing, desisting, chronic, and nonproblem groups. Although the proportion of boys and girls varied across the pathways, both genders were represented on these trajectories. Boys were more represented on the chronic and desisting trajectories; girls were more represented in the nonproblem group. However, the proportion of boys and girls was similar in the increasing trajectory. Trajectory membership significantly predicted age 19 outcomes for partner violence, risky sexual behavior and depression, and the risk conferred on these negative adjustment outcomes did not vary by gender. The overall pattern was characterized by poor outcomes at age 19 for youth in both the chronic and the increasing trajectories. The major conclusion is that, other than base rate differences, developmental patterns and outcomes for girls mimic those previously found for boys. PMID:20602164
Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R
Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.
Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…
Booth, Jeb A.; Farrell, Amy; Varano, Sean P.
Social control theory asserts that strong social bonds inhibit delinquency, whereas weak bonds offer little resistance to offending. In the development of this theoretical perspective, new research suggests that the type and magnitude of social bonds have differing effects on male and female delinquency. This study adds to our understanding of how…
Dembo, Richard; Pacheco, Kimberly; Schmeidler, James; Fisher, Lori; Cooper, Sheila
Reports the results of a study of substance use (measured by self-reports and hair test results) and delinquency among arrested youths entering a service intervention program. Results highlight important relationships between alcohol and other drug use and involvement in delinquency in the year prior to the interviews. (Author/RJM)
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond
The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…
Robinson, Ross; Roberts, William L.; Strayer, Janet; Koopman, Ray
Two groups of male adolescents, incarcerated young offenders (N = 64, mean age = 16.3 years) and a comparison group of community youth (N = 60; mean age = 16.6 years), were administered the Empathy Continuum (measuring cognitive-affective responses to persons in emotionally evocative videotaped vignettes) and questionnaire measures of empathy,…
Prince, Dana M; Epstein, Marina; Nurius, Paula S; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B
We examined the reciprocal relationships among positive future expectations, expected threats to future safety, depression, and individual substance use and delinquency using 4 waves of data (N = 248-338) from African American and Latino adolescent male participants in the Chicago Youth Development Study. Individual positive future expectations and expected threats to safety were assessed at each wave and modeled as latent constructs. Individual substance use and delinquency were assessed at each wave and represented as ordinal variables ranging from low to high. Categorical autoregressive cross-lagged structural models were used to examine the hypothesized reciprocal relationships between both aspects of future expectations construct and risk behavior across adolescence. Analyses show that future expectations has important effects on youth substance use and involvement in delinquency, both of which in turn decrease positive expectations and increase expectation of threats to future safety across adolescence. Similarly, low positive expectations for the future continued to predict increased substance use and involvement in delinquency. The expected threats to safety construct was significantly correlated with delinquency within time. These effects are observed across adolescence after controlling for youth depression and race. Findings support the reciprocal effects hypothesis of a negative reinforcing cycle in the relationships between future expectations and both substance use and involvement in delinquent behavior across adolescence. The enduring nature of these relationships underscores the importance of future expectation as a potential change mechanism for intervention and prevention efforts to promote healthy development; vulnerable racial and ethnic minority male adolescents may especially benefit from such intervention.
Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington
Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study examined males' and females' criminality in young adulthood with models that considered the associations of both their own past delinquency and their current partners' criminality. Specific models considered the main effects of both previous…
Demoulin, Donald F.
Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…
Henneberger, Angela K; Durkee, Myles I; Truong, Nancy; Atkins, Avis; Tolan, Patrick H
Mapping the relationship of peer influences and parental/family characteristics on delinquency can help expand the understanding of findings that show an interdependence between peer and family predictors. This study explored the longitudinal relationship between two characteristics of peer relationships (violence and perceived popularity) with subsequent individual delinquency and the moderating role of family characteristics (cohesion and parental monitoring) using data from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Participants were 364 inner-city residing adolescent boys (54% African American; 40% Hispanic). After controlling for the effects of age and ethnicity, peer violence is positively related to boys' delinquency. The effect of popularity depends on parental monitoring, such that the relationship between popularity and delinquency is positive when parental monitoring is low, but there is no relationship when parental monitoring is high. Furthermore, parental monitoring contributes to the relationship between peer violence and delinquency such that there is a stronger relationship when parental monitoring is low. Additionally, there is a stronger relationship between peer violence and delinquency for boys from high cohesive families. Findings point to the value of attention to multiple aspects of peer and family relationships in explaining and intervening in the risk for delinquency. Furthermore, findings indicate the importance of family-focused interventions in preventing delinquency.
Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol
This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…
Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.
Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…
Delinquent youth display weaker attachment to their parents than do other youth, but the reasons for this remain unclear. One explanation is that delinquent youth poison their relations with parents by lying to them about their friends, behavior, whereabouts, and more. Analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…
Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo
The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…
Haynie, Dana L.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Soller, Brian
Researchers have examined selection and influence processes in shaping delinquency similarity among friends, but little is known about the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Our objective is to examine differences between adolescent boys and girls regarding delinquency-based selection and influence processes. Using longitudinal network data from adolescents attending two large schools in AddHealth (N = 1,857) and stochastic actor-oriented models, we evaluate whether girls are influenced to a greater degree by friends' violence or delinquency than boys (influence hypothesis) and whether girls are more likely to select friends based on violent or delinquent behavior than boys (selection hypothesis). The results indicate that girls are more likely than boys to be influenced by their friends' involvement in violence. Although a similar pattern emerges for nonviolent delinquency, the gender differences are not significant. Some evidence shows that boys are influenced toward increasing their violence or delinquency when exposed to more delinquent or violent friends but are immune to reducing their violence or delinquency when associating with less violent or delinquent friends. In terms of selection dynamics, although both boys and girls have a tendency to select friends based on friends' behavior, girls have a stronger tendency to do so, suggesting that among girls, friends' involvement in violence or delinquency is an especially decisive factor for determining friendship ties. PMID:26097241
Chan, Gloria Hongyee; Lo, T Wing
This study examines the relationship between negative experiences, negative emotions, and delinquent behavior among young people in a social withdrawal situation. There were 533 participants in this study and various quantitative analyses were utilized. Results showed that participants with a longer period of social withdrawal were generally less affected by negative experiences, while those with a higher level of social withdrawal were more affected by negative experiences, particularly negative relationships with other people. Also, both negative emotions and higher level of social withdrawal mediated the relationship between negative experiences and involvement in delinquent behavior, with negative emotions displaying a higher mediating effect. This reflects that the root of delinquent behavior is the negative experiences which arouse negative emotions, rather than the social withdrawal behavior itself. Results imply that practitioners should first explore the negative experiences suffered by these young people, so as to provide them the most appropriate support.
de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; Rommes, Els W. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The article discusses a three-wave longitudinal study that investigates the relationship between self-control and aggressive and delinquent behavior of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consists of 1,012 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.3) in their first year of secondary education. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that high…
Giordano, Peggy C.; Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively “cold and brittle” relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the “cold” and “brittle” dimensions of Hirschi’s hypothesis. Regarding the “cold” assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the “brittle” description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict. PMID:21423845
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Mayzer. Roni; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert
A common diathesis model with precursive patterns of aggression and delinquent behavior from preschool onward is examined whether it anticipates early first drinking (EFD). It was found that EFD and delinquent behavior have a common diathesis that is evident before school entry. It is suggested that interventions should aim at dismantling the…
Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Maroco, João; Gama, Ana Paula; Neves, Saul; Nunes, Cristina
The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquency. Using a sample of 543 young males from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of high psychopathic traits (n = 281) and a group of low psychopathic traits (n = 262) were formed based on the Portuguese version of Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Results showed that youths with high psychopathic traits start engaging in criminal activities earlier in life, come into contact with the justice system earlier in life, and have higher levels of conduct disorder, behavior problems, and delinquent behaviors as well as lower levels of self-esteem.
Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A
The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.
DeLisi, Matt; Angton, Alexia; Behnken, Monic P; Kusow, Abdi M
Although substance abuse often accompanies delinquency and other forms of antisocial behavior, there is less scholarly agreement about the timing of substance use vis-à-vis an individual's antisocial trajectory. Similarly, although there is extraordinary evidence that onset is inversely related to the severity of the criminal career, there is surprisingly little research on the offense type of onset or the type of antisocial behavior that was displayed when an individual initiated his or her offending career. Drawing on data from a sample of serious adult criminal offenders (N = 500), the current study examined 12 forms of juvenile delinquency (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson, weapons, sexual offense, drug sales, and drug use) in addition to age at arrest onset, age, sex, race to explore their association with chronicity (total arrests), extreme chronicity (1 SD above the mean which was equivalent to 90 career arrests), and lambda (offending per year). The only onset offense type that was significantly associated with all criminal career outcomes was juvenile drug use. Additional research on the offense type of delinquent onset is needed to understand launching points of serious antisocial careers.
Hirschfield, Paul J; Gasper, Joseph
Engagement in school is crucial for academic success and school completion. Surprisingly little research has focused on the relationship between student engagement and delinquency. This study examines whether engagement predicts subsequent school and general misconduct among 4,890 inner-city Chicago elementary school students (mean age: 11 years and 4 months; 43.3% boys; 66.5% black; 28.8% Latino). To improve upon prior research in this area, we distinguish three types of engagement (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive), examine whether the relationship between engagement and misconduct is bidirectional (misconduct also impairs engagement), and control for possible common causes of low engagement and misconduct, including peer and family relationships and relatively stable indicators of risk-proneness. Emotional and behavioral engagement predict decreases in school and general delinquency. However, cognitive engagement is associated with increases in these outcomes. School and general delinquency predict decreased engagement only in the cognitive domain. Suggestions for future research and implications for policy are discussed.
Pine, D S; Wasserman, G; Coplan, J; Staghezza-Jaramillo, B; Davies, M; Fried, J E; Greenhill, L; Shaffer, D
The objective of this study was to examine associations in youth between antisocial behavior and cardiovascular profile. Younger brothers of adjudicated delinquents (N = 120) received a standardized psychiatric assessment and an assessment of three factors often studied in behavioral cardiology research: family history of hypertension, resting blood pressure, and obesity. As a group, relative to population norms, these youth exhibited signs of obesity and elevated blood pressure, with 30% of the sample appearing clinically obese and 24% having a blood pressure above the 90th percentile for national norms in their age cohort. Within the sample, score on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Delinquency scale correlated with blood pressure (r = .29-.34) and an index of obesity, weight/height3 (r = .20). Further, scores on the CBCL Delinquency, Aggression, and Externalizing scales were elevated in boys with a positive family history of hypertension. Among boys at risk for delinquency, disruptive psychopathology relates to factors often studied in behavioral cardiology research. Relationships between risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular disease and hostile behavior may be manifested with measures of disruptive psychopathology.
Wiesner, Margit; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
This longitudinal study examined individual, family, and peer covariates of distinctive trajectories of juvenile delinquency, using data from a community sample of 318 German adolescents (mean age at the first wave was 11.45 years). Latent growth mixture modelling analysis revealed four trajectory groups: high-level offenders, medium-level…
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…
Mason, W. Alex; Hitchings, Julia E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spoth, Richard L.
This study compared alternative hypotheses (from general deviance, life course, and developmental psychopathology perspectives) regarding the effects of early adolescent delinquency on psychosocial functioning in family, school, and peer contexts, and on alcohol use. Analyses also examined parent-child negative affective quality, prosocial school…
McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D
Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys.
Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E
Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.
Brown, Barbara Horovitz; And Others
The document reports the suggestions offered by workshop participants regarding alternative responses to the problems of delinquent behavior patterns in youth. Recommendations offered include the following: priority must be given to services to children in need, with the goal of preventing entrance into the traditional justice system; programs…
McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.
Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…
Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…
Shippen, Margaret E.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Green, Kemeche L.; Smitherman, Tracy
Youth at risk for school failure need community and school supports to reduce the likelihood of developing delinquent behavior. This article provides an overview of community and school approaches aimed at intervening on the school-to-prison pipeline. Community and school efforts are emerging that take into account empirical evidence demonstrating…
Gottfredson, Gary D.
The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) appears to have promise in future work which studies the relation of school variables to disruption or delinquent behavior. The RRT is especially useful in situations when it is difficult or undesirable directly to ask stigmatizing questions. The proportions of students in this study estimated to have used…
Hasking, Penelope A.
Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. "Behavior Research…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.
The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…
Kuhl, Danielle C; Chavez, Jorge M; Swisher, Raymond R; Wilczak, Andrew
Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology.
Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark
The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409
Li, Yibing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Arbeit, Miriam R.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lerner, Richard M.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of school engagement on risky behavior in adolescence. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents, discrete-time survival analyses were conducted to assess the effect of behavioral and emotional school engagement on the initiation…
DELINQUENCY SHOULD BE DISTINGUISHED FROM "SILLY PRANKS" AND JUVENILE CRIMES. COMMONSENSE THEORIES DO NOT PROVIDE ADEQUATE ANALYSIS OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN. NEITHER THE SEVERITY OF A YOUTH'S OFFENSE NOR HIS BEHAVIOR WHEN CAPTURED, PUNISHED, OR CORRECTED IS A SAFE SIGN OF THE SEVERITY OF THE DELINQUENT PROBLEM INVOLVED. EARLY DETECTION OF DELINQUENCY…
Faulkner, Guy E J; Adlaf, Edward M; Irving, Hyacinth M; Allison, Kenneth R; Dwyer, John J M; Goodman, Jack
Many policy-related reviews of the potential social value of sport and physical activity list the prevention of juvenile delinquency. We examined the relationships among vigorous physical activity, self-esteem, and delinquent behavior among adolescents in a large cross-sectional survey of Ontario adolescents. Data are based on questionnaires from 3,796 students (range 11-20 years) derived from the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey. Negative binominal regression methods were used to estimate both additive and interactive models predicting delinquent behavior. Vigorous physical activity was positively associated with delinquent behavior; however, this pattern of association was observed only among male adolescents. There was no evidence of a mediating role for self-esteem. Our findings suggest that physical activity is not the solution for reducing juvenile delinquency.
Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.
The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David
The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…
Brauer, Jonathan R.; De Coster, Stacy
Scholars interested in delinquency have focused much attention on the influence of parent and peer relationships. Prior research has assumed that parents control delinquency because they value convention, whereas peers promote delinquency because they value and model nonconvention. We argue that it is important to assess the normative and…
Crosnoe, Robert; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
Used self-reports and reports from friends to explore gender differences in the impact of risk and protective factors on adolescent deviant behavior. Both family and school factors reduced adolescent delinquency and substance use and protected adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends, though school factors were more consistently…
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…
Wiklund, Gunnar; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Koposov, Roman A; Af Klinteberg, Britt
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n=171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed.
Parrott, C. A.; Strongman, K. T.
Assessed delinquent and nondelinquent male adolescents (N=43) on locus of control and intellectual achievement responsibilty. Results supported a multidimensional model. There was no difference in expectancy of control for negative academic events between delinquents and nondelinquents. Birth order and delinquency were the most important…
Kim, Ryang Hui
This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Despite evidence that American Indian adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew’s (1992) General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain American Indian delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined a subsample of American Indian students—a study that represents, to the best of our knowledge, the initial published test of GST principles used to explain AI delinquent behavior. Overall, we find mixed support for the core principles of GST applying to AI delinquent behavior. We also found evidence that some of the personal and social resources identified by Agnew condition the strain-delinquent behavior relationship, albeit, sometimes in ways that are not entirely consistent with GST. PMID:27217594
Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.
The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…
McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.
Conway, Allan; Bogdan, Carol
A 10-year comparison of New York State Family Court records examines the differences in the way courts adjudicate adolescent delinquents according to sex and offense. Attention is called to the improbability of altering adolescent behavior in any positive way through the punitive and highly moralistic means now employed. (Author)
Larm, Peter; Silva, Teresa C; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents.
Reardon, J P; Tosi, D J
This study examined the effect of four treatment conditions on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females. The treatments were Rational State Directed Imagery, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized intensive muscle relaxation and vivid-emotive-imagery, a rational (cognitive) restructuring treatment, a placebo condition, and a no treatment control. Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks, with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically scale were noted for the RSDI group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up, which supports the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. Support was found for the effectiveness of the rational (cognitive) restructuring approach immediately posttreatment; however these effects disappeared at the 2-month follow-up. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects at either posttreatment or the follow-up. These results suggest that RSDI has potential for use as a short-term psychotherapeutic approach when self-concept modification is a primary goal.
Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H
This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record
McNamara, John; Vervaeke, Sherri-Leigh; Willoughby, Teena
Risk-taking behavior includes alcohol and drug use, delinquency, acts of aggression, sexual activity, and so on. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents' temperament and youth reported on their own and their friends' delinquent behavior. Self-reports of adolescents' delinquent behavior were collected again 16 months later. Peer deviance was related to delinquent behavior over time more strongly for adolescents with low levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood, compared to youth with high levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood. Analyses of gender differences indicated that low flexibility increased susceptibility to negative peer influence only for males, but not females. General activity level and sleep rhythmicity did not moderate the effect of peer behavior on delinquency.
Fine, Adam; Mahler, Alissa; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Social ecological theories and decades of supporting research suggest that contexts exert a powerful influence on adolescent delinquency. Individual traits, such as impulse control, also pose a developmental disadvantage to adolescents through increasing risk of delinquency. However, such individual differences may also predispose some youth to struggle more in adverse environments, but also to excel in enriched environments. Despite the prominence of impulse control in both developmental and criminological literatures, researchers are only beginning to consider impulse control as an individual characteristic that may affect developmental outcomes in response to environmental input. Using a racially diverse (Latino 46 %; Black 37 %; White 15 %; other race 2 %) sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the longitudinal Crossroads Study, this study examined key interactions between baseline impulse control and the home, school, and neighborhood contexts in relation to delinquency within the following 6 months. The results indicated that even after accounting for prior delinquency, youth in more negative home, school, and neighborhood contexts engaged in the same amount of delinquency in the following 6 months regardless of their level of impulse control. However, the effects of positive home, school, and neighborhood contexts on delinquency were stronger for youth with moderate or high impulse control and minimally affected youth with low impulse control. The findings suggest two risk factors for delinquency: low impulse control as a dispositional vulnerability that operates independently of developmental context, and a second that results from a contextual vulnerability.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong
Background: Little is known about the level of social bond elements and their effects on delinquency among nonadjudicated (traditional low and at-risk school-aged) and adjudicated Chinese male adolescents. Objective: Using a large adolescent sample (N = 1,177) from Hong Kong and Macau, this study aims to distinguish the level of social bond…
Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A
We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.
Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.
Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…
Asscher, Jessica J; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; Yousfi, Sarah
A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator effects revealed that various study and participant characteristics influenced the strength of the association between psychopathy, delinquency, and (violent) recidivism. It was concluded that screening for the (early) detection of psychopathy is important, as delinquent behavior and recidivism can be predicted from psychopathy as early as the transition from middle childhood to adolescence.
Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington
Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…
Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.
Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…
Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.
Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief strategic family therapy. In addition to summarizing the theoretical and clinical bases of these treatments, their results in efficacy and effectiveness trials are examined with particular emphasis on any demonstrated capacity to achieve favorable outcomes when implemented by real world practitioners in community practice settings. Special attention is also devoted to research on purported mechanisms of change as well as the long-term sustainability of outcomes achieved by these treatment models. Importantly, we note that the developers of each of the models have developed quality assurance systems to support treatment fidelity and youth and family outcomes; and the developers have formed purveyor organizations to facilitate the large scale transport of their respective treatments to community settings nationally and internationally. PMID:22283380
Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F
Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: The effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline.
Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev
CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.
Hubble, L.M.; Groff, M. G.
This study examined the hypothesis that the Wechsler Verbal/Performance Intelligence quotient discrepancy would be larger or more frequent for persons classified as exhibiting a psychopathic delinquent adjustment than for persons classified as either neurotic or subculturally delinquent. (Author/PN)
Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joël; Blanchette-Martin, Nadine; Gendron, Annie; Tessier, Mélanie
A total of 726 youths presenting a severe addiction were evaluated at the time of their request for services in an addiction rehabilitation center. Results show that the more delinquent youths have a more severe profile of substance use, thus confirming the strong association between psychoactive substance (PAS) use severity and delinquency. Girls…
Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kerr, Margaret; Pagani, Linda; Bukowski, William M.
Tested the individual characteristics and deviant peer association theoretical models of friends' influence on the development of delinquency in disruptive boys. Found that moderately disruptive boys with aggressive-disturbing friends were more delinquent at age 13 than other subgroups of moderately disruptive boys. Highly disruptive and…
van Dorn, Richard A.; Williams, James Herbert
Investigates the extent to which attitudes, family, and environmental correlates are associated with the escalation from nonviolent to violent offending among incarcerated youths. Beliefs that power equates safety and a violent home environment were salient in understanding escalation in offending behavior, and prior criminal victimization was…
Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.
The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…
Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.
Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…
Barnes, Grace M.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Welte, John W.; Farrell, Michael P.; Dintcheff, Barbara A.
Using an integration of social control theory and the routine activity perspective, adolescent time use was examined for effects on problem behaviors. We examined a wide variety of time use categories, including homework, extracurricular activities, sports time, alone time, paid work, housework, television watching, as well as indices of family…
Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.
Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002, Kim-Cohen et al. 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. Method This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N=250) by parent, teacher, and self report using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. Results We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. Conclusion The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype. PMID:19951362
Jalling, Camilla; Bodin, Maria; Romelsjö, Anders; Källmén, Håkan; Durbeej, Natalie; Tengström, Anders
Two theoretically based parent training programs, delivered in real-world settings by the social services, were examined in this randomized controlled trial for effectiveness in reducing adolescents' antisocial behavior and substance use. Two hundred and thirty-seven (237) adolescents in ages between 12 and 18 and their parents were assigned to one of two programs or to a wait-list control condition. The programs were the nine weekly group sessions program Comet 12-18 (Swedish Parent Management Training Program) and the six weekly ParentSteps (Swedish shortened version by Strengthening Families Program 10-14). Outcome measures were antisocial behavior, substance use, and delinquency, and psychosocial dysfunction. Data based on adolescents' and parents' ratings of the adolescents' problem behavior at baseline and 6 months later were analyzed with repeated measures ANVOA, Logistic regression, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. The results showed that parents' ratings of adolescents' antisocial behaviors decreased significantly over time, but no time by group effect emerged. No program effects were found in the adolescents' self-reported antisocial behavior, delinquency, or psychosocial functioning. A threefold risk of illicit drug use was found in both intervention groups. The results suggest that neither Comet nor ParentSteps had beneficial effects on adolescent's antisocial or delinquent behavior, or on alcohol use. The only significant group difference found was a threefold risk of drug use in the intervention adolescents at follow-up, but for several reasons this finding should be interpreted with caution. Trial registration number: ISRCTN76141538.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Fraser, Ashley M; Harper, James M
The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335 adolescents (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.28, SD = .99, 51% female) and their parents. Analyses examined associations between adolescents' values at Time 3 and corresponding behaviors at Time 4, and the moderating role of proactive parenting (assessed at Time 2 using cluster analysis). Results suggested that adolescents with the most consistent value-congruent behavior had parents who used deference or reasoned deference as an approach to proactive parenting, highlighting the importance of autonomy supportive parenting in the encouragement of self-generated values and corresponding behaviors. Discussion focused on value-congruent behaviors and associations between values and behaviors across domains.
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo
Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.
The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.
Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…
Joy riding is the technical term for a specific behavioral pattern consisting of stealing a car without money-making purposes but in order to take it for fast and exciting rides, partially in combination with alcohol or drug consumption. In several cases this behavior can show addiction-like traits. American studies from earlier decades have shown that Joy riding seems to be a typical teenage offense committed by youths stemming from orderly social backgrounds, showing basically prosocial attitudes and seldom ending up in criminal careers. However, the present study provides evidence that Joy riding can also be part of an antisocial lifestyle. The characteristics of the joy riders examined in this trial differed just gradually from the control group of juvenile delinquents. It remains open a question, whether the differences found between our sample and American joy riders are due to sociocultural factors or rather are a consequence of different selection modes.
Molina, Brooke S. G.; Flory, Kate; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Elliott, Glen R.; Wells, Karen C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Marcus, Sue; Conners, C. Keith; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy
Objective: To compare delinquent behavior and early substance use between the children in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24 and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments and…
Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Wood, Mark
The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of…
Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J
Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.
Harden, K. Paige; Mann, Frank D.
Adolescence is a time of increasing engagement in a variety of problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Genetic risk for problem behavior increases over adolescence, is mediated partially by individual differences in sensation seeking, and is exacerbated by involvement with deviant peers. In this article, we describe how findings from behavioral genetic research on problem behavior intersect with research from developmental neuroscience. In particular, the incentive-processing system, including the ventral striatum, responds increasingly to rewards in adolescence, particularly in peer contexts. This developmental shift may be influenced by hormonal changes at puberty. Individual differences in the structure and function of reward-responsive brain regions may be intermediary phenotypes that mediate adolescents’ genetic risk for problem behavior. The study of problem behavior can be enriched by interdisciplinary research that integrates measures of brain structure and function into genetically informed studies. PMID:26664416
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.
This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…
Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M
The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.
Piquero, Alex R.; Brezina, Timothy; Turner, Michael G.
An established finding in criminology is that most adolescents engage in delinquency. Still, studies continue to identify a small group of individuals who refrain from delinquency even when it is normative for their same-age peers. Moffitt's developmental taxonomy provides some reasons for delinquency abstention, but research has been slow to…
Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun
Adolescence is a transitional, developmental phase with marked shifts in behavior, particularly as related to risk-taking and experimentation. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior also show marked changes across this developmental period; in fact, adolescence showcases the dynamic nature of genetic influences on human behavior. Using the twin studies literature on alcohol use and misuse, we highlight several principles of genetic influence on adolescent behavior. We illustrate how genetic influences change (increase) across adolescence, as individuals have more freedom to express their predispositions and to shape their social worlds. We show how there are multiple genetic pathways to risk, and how the environment can moderate the importance of genetic predispositions. Finally, we review the literature aimed at identifying specific genes involved in adolescent behavior and understanding how identified genes impact adolescent outcomes. Ultimately, understanding how genetic predispositions combine with environmental influences to impact pathways of risk and resilience should be translated into improved prevention and intervention efforts; this remains a rich area for future research.
Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.
Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…
Hux, K; Bond, V; Skinner, S; Belau, D; Sanger, D
Completed questionnaires from parents of youths attending a public middle school or high school and parents of youths admitted to an institution for juvenile delinquents provided information about incidents of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in their children. Results revealed that approximately 40% of the non-delinquent youth and 50% of the delinquent youth had sustained one or more TBIs during their childhood or youth. The majority of injuries appeared to be mild and had no permanent consequences. However, the parents of more than one-third of the delinquent youth with TBI histories reported long-term effects on academic performance, behavior and emotional control, activity level, and/or interactions with friends and family members; parental reports of long-term effects occurred significantly less frequently among the non-delinquent youth. The most common causes of TBI differed between the two adolescent populations. Non-delinquent youth sustained TBIs most frequently from blows to the head during sporting events, and delinquent youth sustained TBIs with approximately equal frequency from sporting events, fall, motor vehicle accidents and fights.
Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan
Aim To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. Methods This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children’s stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Results Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P = 0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P = 0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI = 1.03-1.16, P < 0.002). Conclusion Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents. PMID:24170725
Lynch, James P.; And Others
Studies of delinquency have recently shifted their emphasis from social structures that motivate delinquent acts to those that define an act as delinquent. This shift suggests that preventing behavior from being labeled delinquent could prevent the occurrence of additional or more serious delinquency. A study of Chicago communities demonstrated…
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents’ substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents’, but not parents’, perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060
Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…
The major aim of the present investigation was to determine if delinquent youths show neuropsychological deficits on the Lurias' Neuropsychological Investigation. Of the 11 general categories examined, only two, cutaneous and kinesthetic functions, did not statistically discriminate between a sample of 28 subjects from a California juvenile…
Hirschfield, Paul J.; Gasper, Joseph
Engagement in school is crucial for academic success and school completion. Surprisingly little research has focused on the relationship between student engagement and delinquency. This study examines whether engagement predicts subsequent school and general misconduct among 4,890 inner-city Chicago elementary school students (mean age: 11 years…
Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J H
This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student relationships. The analyses of data from 670 students in 69 classes showed that the classroom-level variables only had a significant impact on misconduct at school of students aged 12 to 20. For the other outcome variables, the student-level variables (student and teacher-student relationships, but especially students' moral orientation) were significant. A novel finding was that a positive teacher-student relationship not only proved to be related to less misconduct inside the school but also to less delinquent behavior and vandalism outside the school. This indicates that the teacher is an important socializing agent for adolescent behavior in general.
Bailey, Jon S.; Wolf, Montrose M.; Phillips, Elery L.
In Exp. I, five pre-delinquents from Achievement Place attended a special summer school math class where study behavior and rule violations were measured daily for each boy. The boys were required to take a “report card” for the teacher to mark. The teacher simply marked yes or no whether a boy had “studied the whole period” and “obeyed the class rules.” All yeses earned privileges in the home that day but a no lost all the privileges. Using a reversal design, it was shown that privileges dispensed remotely could significantly improve classroom performance. In Exp. II and III, home-based reinforcement was also shown to be effective in improving the study behavior of two youths in public school classrooms. In addition, data from Exp. III suggest that the daily feedback and reinforcement may be faded without much loss in study behavior. Home-based reinforcement was demonstrated to be a very effective and practical classroom behavior modification technique. PMID:16795262
Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.
Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097
Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A
Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sigfusdottir, Inga-Dora; Farkas, George; Silver, Eric
Drawing on R. Agnew's (Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology 30: 47-87, 1992) general strain theory, this paper examines whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of family conflict on delinquency. We examine data on 7,758 students, 14-16 years old, attending the compulsory 9th and 10th grades of…
Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen
Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed.
Willemsen, Tineke M.; van Schie, Els C. M.
Describes two studies to test the following hypotheses: (1) delinquent behavior that corresponds to sex stereotypes will be punished more severely; and (2) delinquent behavior that deviates will be evaluated more negatively. Presents model illustrating how sex stereotypes about delinquent behavior lead to sex-related differences in attribution and…
This study investigated interrelations between the number of difficult temperament factors (e.g., arrhythmicity, inflexibility, high distractibility) and substance use, perceived family support, and problem behaviors for a sample of 297 adolescents (M age = 15.7 years). The number of adolescent difficult temperament factors was associated significantly with more childhood behavior problems (e.g., hyperactivity, conduct disordered symptoms), which suggests some continuity of disordered behavior from childhood to adolescence. Number of adolescent difficult temperament factors also was associated with a higher percentage of substance users (for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs), lower perceived family support, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and more delinquent activity. Number of difficult temperament factors was not associated significantly with gender or age of respondents.
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah
This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships.
Lee, Yoona; Liu, Xiaodong; Watson, Malcolm W
This longitudinal study investigated the timing effect of bullying on developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors from middle childhood to adolescence. We focused on the relation of (a) only an early experience of bullying (i.e., desisters) to subsequent externalizing behaviors in adolescence and (b) only a late experience of bullying (i.e., late-onsetters) to the concurrent externalizing behaviors in adolescence. Their trajectories of externalizing behaviors were compared with the persisters and to the non-experience group. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted using 440 child-mother dyads from the Springfield Child Development Project, a community-representative, longitudinal study over a 6-year period that included four time interviews. We modeled the changes in child aggression and delinquency from 7 to 19 years of age as a function of bully status group. Results indicated that the levels of aggression and delinquency for the desisters decreased over time (with the cessation of bullying in adolescence) and were significantly lower than those of the persisters and similar to those of the non-involved group at the end of the trajectory (cessation effect). For the late-onsetters, the level of delinquency increased over time (with the onset of bullying behaviors in adolescence) and were significantly higher than those of the non-involved group and similar to those of the persisters at the end of the trajectory (onset effect). The aggression for the late-onsetters, however, did not support the onset effect. This study implies that we need to pay more attention to intervening for late-onset.
Cisler, Josh M; Begle, Angela M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with a range of subsequent negative outcomes; however, research has yet to test whether IPV operates as a specific risk factor for separate psychopathology outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, or binge drinking. To address this, cumulative exposure to IPV and non-IPV-related traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and binge drinking were measured 3 times over approximately 3 years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 3,614 at Wave 1). Results demonstrated that cumulative IPV exposure predicted subsequent PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking (βs = .07, .12, .10, and .09, respectively; all ps < .01) when all cross-relationships (e.g., the effect of delinquency on future binge drinking) were in the model. Exposure to non-IPV traumatic events generally did not confer vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology outcomes. Overall, findings from this study advance the literature in this area by exploring consequences for adolescents following cumulative IPV exposure.
Lau, S; Leung, K
Current research and theory have suggested that the relational domains of family and school experiences are important to children's development. The present study thus examined how relations with parents and school were related to Chinese students' psychosocial and cognitive development in self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. A total of 1668 secondary school students were studied, and results showed that better relation with parents was associated with higher general, academic, appearance, social, and physical ability self-concepts. Better relation with school was associated with higher academic performance, as shown in higher class rank, higher grand total exam scores, and higher scores in Chinese, English, mathematics, physical education, and music. Both poorer relations with parents and school were found to associate with more self-reported delinquency as well as more school records of misconduct.
... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December ... is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and ...
Both the intensity and prevalence of violence and delinquency among children and adolescents have continued to rise during the past fifteen years. Efforts to counteract this development may benefit from recent evidence from developmental psychopathology and neurobiology. A model proposed by Moffitt describes two developmental pathways into antisocial problem behavior: one path characterized by an early onset and a stable course of symptoms ("life-course persistent") and the other by an episodic ("adolescence-limited") occurrence of anti-social behavior. While in the latter the specific developmental tasks and life circumstances of adolescence play a major role in the pathogenesis, persistent antisocial behavior is perceived to be a result of a transactional process between child and environment. Apart from psychosocial factors, biological predispositions (genetic susceptibility) and psychological dispositions (temperament and personality characteristics) are of primary interest. The recent progress in neurobiological and personality research promises significant insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Integrating these approaches may help in targeting prevention and early intervention programs to high-risk groups and may thus contribute to improving their effectiveness.
Norris, Terry D.; Dodder, Richard A.
This paper develops some ideas in Matza's Neutralization Theory into a continuum containing four categories ranging from extreme goodness to rebellion. It was hypothesized that involvement in delinquency would increase progressively across these four categories. (Author/KC)
Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan
Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.
Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William
A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine
The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299
Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo
Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.
Ray, James V.; Frick, Paul J.; Thornton, Laura C.; Wall Myers, Tina D.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Research has only recently begun to examine how callous-unemotional (CU) traits interact with contextual factors to predict delinquent behavior. The current study attempts to explain the well-established link between CU traits and offending by testing the potential mediating and moderating roles of 2 critical contextual factors: peer delinquency…
Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; Hale, William W., III; Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This study examined the association between the adolescents' conflict resolution style "exiting statements" (i.e., the expression of the adolescent' desire to minimize or end the contact with his or her parents) in parent-adolescent conflicts with self-rated adolescent GAD symptoms and delinquency symptoms of 1313 adolescents. A multi-group,…
Abar, Caitlin C; Jackson, Kristina M; Wood, Mark
The current study prospectively examined hypothesized short- and long-term reciprocal relations between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and delinquency. Using the contextual model of parenting style (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), we examined the extent to which the bidirectional nature of associations between knowledge and adolescent outcomes is dependent on a facet of parenting style: the quality of the parent-child relationship. Data came from the first 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. The sample for the current study consisted of 5,419 students between 12 and 14 years of age at baseline (52% male) surveyed annually for 4 years. Parallel process, autoregressive latent trajectory models were used to examine relations between initial levels and change over time in perceived parental knowledge and adolescent risk, and short-term cross-lagged paths were included to examine bidirectionality while accounting for long-term associations. Results showed significant short-term and long-term bidirectionality between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent outcomes, with parent effects on students and student effects on parents. Long-term associations across constructs were negative, whereas short-term associations were positive. These reciprocal associations were shown to differ across levels of parent-child relationship quality with regard to adolescent heavy episodic drinking and delinquency, providing support for the contextual model of parenting style. Implications for future work on parent-child bidirectional relationships and parent-based interventions are discussed.
James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.
This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…
Silver, Rawley; Ellison, JoAnne
Examines assumption that art therapists can objectively identify self-images in drawings by troubled adolescents without talking to these youth. Findings suggest that discussion, though preferable, is not required for identifying self-images. Analysis of adolescents' drawings indicates that structured art assessment can be useful in evaluating…
Maniglio, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco
To provide a comprehensive picture of the whole spectrum of psychosocial factors potentially associated with adolescent cannabis use, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess a variety of social, demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of last-month cannabis use and age of first use among 6,838 students. Results showed that only family problems, alcohol and/or other drug use/misuse, deviant behavior, and victimization were independently associated with either recent cannabis use or early onset of cannabis use when multiple, interacting factors were considered. Certain family and behavioral factors might be more important than other psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use.
Wang, Ming-Te; Brinkworth, Maureen; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by positive teacher-student relationships characterized by warmth and trust. Data were collected on 1,400 urban youths (52% female, 51% Black, 44% White) who reported on their effortful control at age 13 years and on their depressive symptoms and misconduct from ages 13-18. Teacher-student relationship data were collected from teacher-report at age 13 and parent-adolescent conflict data from parent-report at age 13. As hypothesized, regardless of gender, both early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationship were general risks for adolescents' depression and misconduct. Positive teacher-student relationships protected adolescents against depression and misconduct throughout ages 13-18. In addition, positive teacher-student relationships moderated the negative influences of adolescents' early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationships on misconduct and helped such at-risk adolescents to attain less behaviorally delinquent developmental trajectories over time.
Lippold, Melissa A.; Fosco, Gregory; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E.
Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities has been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from Grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in Grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, plus measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence. PMID:26381431
Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
Objective While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remains relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. Methods A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12 to 19 years; M = 15.6; SD = 1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Results Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Conclusions Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. Practice implications For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. PMID:21783253
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…
Pechorro, Pedro; Maroco, João; Poiares, Carlos; Vieira, Rui Xavier
The main objectives of the present study were to validate a Portuguese version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self-Report and to evaluate the predictive importance of some constructs in discriminating between inmate delinquent youth and community youth. With a total of 760 participants, male (n = 543) and female (n = 217), divided in an inmate forensic sample (n = 250) and a community sample (n = 510), the authors were able to demonstrate psychometric properties that justify its use with the Portuguese juvenile population, in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, temporal stability, convergent validity, divergent validity, concurrent validity, and cutoff score. The predictive importance of psychopathic traits, self-reported delinquent behavior, and behavior problems on the prediction of sample membership (forensic vs. community) was established by binary logistic regression.
Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M
Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs.
Huang, David Y C; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23, and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high and increased risk trajectory over the observed ages. The Decreased group had a risk trajectory that accelerated before age 19, but decreased afterwards. The risk trajectories of the Increased-Early and Increased-Late groups were low at age 15, but increased significantly starting at ages 16 and 18 for the groups, respectively. Participants in the Low group remained at low risk over time. Sexual risk behaviors were also positively associated with alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquency. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to consider developmental timing of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with other problem behaviors.
Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior.
Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…
De Haan, A. D.; Prinzie, P.; Dekovic, M.
Background: This study examines how and why children change in aggression and delinquency from age 6 to 15 years. Besides assessing the shape of the developmental trajectories of aggression and delinquency, we investigated whether child personality characteristics, parenting, and interactions between these two predict the development of…
Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.
The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…
Snyder, Susan M.; Smith, Rachel E.
This article describes a study that investigated whether child welfare-involved youths' school engagement affected delinquency after controlling for peer deviance, caregiver closeness, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study used data from 461 11- to 17-year-olds who had substantiated child maltreatment investigations and…
Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit
The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest.
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.
BACKGROUND: This paper presents a test of Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993a) regarding offending trajectories as it applies to a population of adolescent offenders. This study is novel since few studies have empirically explored Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993a) with adolescent populations. METHOD: Data were collected retrospectively on 174 adolescents (101 males and 73 females), aged 13 to 18. Three groups of offenders were identified based on a two-step cluster analysis: well adjusted, internalizing and externalizing groups. RESULTS: Consistent with Moffitt's theory, a sub-sample of offenders (externalizing group) engaged in more problem behaviours than the other offending groups. Additionally, female offenders in the internalizing group evidenced more psychopathology than males in this offending group as well as females in the other offending groups. Offending rates, in terms of offending frequency and variety of criminal offences, were not distinguished between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence for Moffitt's theory (1990, 1993) regarding trajectories in adolescent offending. This study also provides support for the theory developed by Silverthorn and Frick (1999) regarding female offending. This was particularly evident in the rates of psychopathology evidenced by a sub-sample of adolescent females in the internalizing group.
Millstein, Susan G.
This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…
Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.
Prior research has found that proactive and reactive aggression differentially relate to many variables, including peer relations. However, no research has examined the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer delinquency, an important proximal predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior. The current study examined the…
Anderson, Nancy; Rodriguez, Orlando
This article examines the delinquency literature to determine how factors identified as influencing delinquency actually operate among Hispanics. In light of the fact that Hispanic youth with similar socioeconomic levels to Blacks engage in delinquency at lower rates than Blacks, the article also tries to explain how Hispanic adolescents living in…
Diaz, Amelia; And Others
Three personality questionnaires were completed by 122 delinquent and 421 nondelinquent adolescents in Valencia, Spain. Delinquents scored higher than nondelinquents on factors of dogmatism, neuroticism, and criminal propensity and lower than nondelinquents on intelligence. Neuroticism was the best predictor of delinquency for females. (BC)
Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A
Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.
Ellis, Lee; Das, Shyamal
There is little doubt that family factors can influence involvement in delinquency, although the full nature and extent of their influences remain unclear. In recent decades, testosterone has been increasingly implicated as a contributor to adolescent offending. The present study sought to determine whether two important types of familial factors--parental socioeconomic status and amicable parent-child relationships--are interacting with testosterone (and possibly other androgens) to affect delinquency. A large sample of North American college students self-reported their involvement in eight categories of delinquency along with self-ratings of various androgen-promoted traits (e.g., muscularity and low-deep voice), parental social status, and the quality of the relationships they had with parents. In both sexes, parent-child relationships and androgens were significantly associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. Factor analysis revealed that the authors' measures of all four categories of variables exhibited strong loadings onto their respective factors. Androgens and amicable parent-child relationships were associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. About one third of the influence of parent-child relationships on delinquency appeared to be attributable to androgens. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of delinquent and criminal behavior.
Narusyte, Jurgita; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul
Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent-child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13-14 to 16-17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene-environment correlation.
Analysis of national longitudinal survey data on 918 adolescent males and their parents shows that violent delinquency is a product of learning definitions favorable to violence; such learning is determined by association with aggressive peers, socioeconomic status, parenting practices, and prior violent delinquency. Emphasizes joint contributions…
Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.
We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct…
Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D
Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed.
Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.
One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…
Smith, Thomas Edward; Sells, Scott P.; Rodman, Jeffrey; Reynolds, Lisa Rene
Ninety-three parents and 102 adolescents were referred by juvenile court and treated for substance abuse and a co-morbid diagnosis of either oppositional defiant or conduct disorder using a parent education program over a six-week period. The goals of this study were to assess whether or not active parent involvement and the concurrent treatment…
Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne
Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7…
Cundiff, Patrick R
Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.
Frey, Ariel; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Martin, Andrés; Schwab-Stone, Mary
Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.
Goodnight, Jackson A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Emery, Robert E.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents’ multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children’s antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6–9-year-old, 6,911 10–13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence. PMID:22829173
Goodnight, Jackson A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Cherlin, Andrew J; Emery, Robert E; Van Hulle, Carol A; Lahey, Benjamin B
Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents' multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children's antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6-9-year-old, 6,911 10-13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence.
Barry, Christopher T; Grafeman, Sarah J; Adler, Kristy K; Pickard, Jessica D
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively interrelated; however, only narcissism was significantly correlated with delinquency. The results suggested that low self-esteem was actually associated with delinquency when controlling for narcissism. So-called adaptive narcissism was positively correlated with self-esteem, but maladaptive narcissism was not related to self-esteem. Limitations and directions for future research in this area are discussed.
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.
The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…
Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J
This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.
Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
OBJECTIVE Substance use and delinquency among adolescents has been shown to be positively associated; however, the temporal relationship is not well understood. Examining the association between delinquency and substance use is especially relevant among adolescents with a first-time substance use related offense as they are at-risk for future problems. METHOD Data from 193 adolescents at time of diversion program entry and six months later was examined using cross-lagged path analysis to determine whether substance use and related consequences were associated with other types of delinquency across time. RESULTS Results demonstrated that delinquency at program entry was related to subsequent reports of heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, but not marijuana use or its consequences. In contrast, alcohol and marijuana use at program entry was not related to future reports of delinquency. CONCLUSIONS Findings emphasize the need to build in comprehensive assessments and interventions for youth with a first time offense in order to prevent further escalation of substance use and criminal behaviors. PMID:24656642
Veltri, Carlo O C; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Forbey, Johnathan D; White, Robert S
This study examined the relationship between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales and violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Participants were 260 adolescent boys and girls in a forensic setting. Results indicated that Disconstraint (DISC), a marker of behavioral disinhibition and impulsivity, was associated with nonviolent delinquency, whereas Aggressiveness (AGGR), which is characterized by the use of instrumental aggression and interpersonal dominance, was specifically associated with violent delinquency. These findings are consistent with expectations based on empirical findings in the broader personality literature linking the construct of disinhibition with externalizing psychopathology as well as the literature identifying callous-unemotional aggression as a risk factor for violence.
Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali
Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API) youth; that they can have high grades but still exhibit problem behaviors. This study finds that academic performance is a significant predictor of aggressive and nonaggressive delinquent offenses, gang initiation, sexual behaviors, and substance use, and that the relationship generally does not vary by race and ethnicity. Thus, there is little evidence that API youth are high achievers who are also engaging significantly in problem behaviors. The existing perceptions of API youth may be largely based on stereotype and ambivalence. PMID:25170181
Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.
Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial. PMID:23111547
Monahan, Kathryn C; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D
Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial.
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Khoury, Nabieh; Ali, Rabab
This study examines the involvement of Arab youth at risk from East Jerusalem in delinquent behaviors, such as crimes against a person, public disorder offenses, and political violence. The contribution of religiosity and parental control factors in explaining these different types of youth involvement in illegal behaviors is assessed. A total of 161 young males, aged 15-21, participated in the study. We found that the greater the parental control and the more religious the adolescent, the less likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors and political violence. The relationship between parental control and youth involvement in delinquency and political violence was mediated by youth level of religiosity, after controlling for age and family socioeconomic status. (PsycINFO Database Record
Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael
How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations.
Paunesku, David; Ellis, Justin; Fogel, Joshua; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Gollan, Jackie; Gladstone, Tracy; Reinecke, Mark; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.
OBJECTIVE Risk factors for various disorders are known to cluster. However, the factor structure for behaviors and beliefs predicting depressive disorder in adolescents is not known. Knowledge of this structure can facilitate prevention planning. METHODS We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to identify clusters of behaviors/experiences predicting the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1-year follow-up (N=4,791). RESULTS Four factors were identified: family/interpersonal relations, self-emancipation, avoidant problem solving/low self-worth, and religious activity. Strong family/interpersonal relations were the most significantly protective against depression at one year follow-up. Avoidant problem solving/low self-worth was not predictive of MDD on its own, but significantly amplified the risks associated with delinquency. CONCLUSION Depression prevention interventions should consider giving family relationships a more central role in their efforts. Programs teaching problem solving skills may be most appropriate for reducing MDD risk in delinquent youth. PMID:20502621
Levine, Edward M.; Kozak, Conrad
Survey findings indicated the use of alcohol and drugs among prepubertal and teenage students, and the involvement of both groups in theft and valdalism. The view advanced was by the study that deficient socialization and inadequate parenting, as well as peer group pressures and psychogenic factors, influenced these behavioral problems. (Author/RD)
Beaver, Kevin M.
A growing body of empirical research reveals that genetic factors account for a substantial amount of variance in measures of antisocial behaviors. At the same time, evidence is also emerging indicating that certain environmental factors moderate the effects that genetic factors have on antisocial outcomes. Despite this line of research, much…
Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J
There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Jensen, Alexander C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
A growing body of research indicates that siblings influence each other’s risky and deviant behaviors during adolescence. Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study examined the operation and implications of three different influence processes--social learning, shared friends, and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (earlier born age: M = 17.17 years, SD = 0.94; later born age: M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.27) from 326 families. Data were collected via telephone interviews. Using reports from both older and younger siblings, two-stage cluster analyses revealed three influence profiles: mutual modeling and shared friends, younger sibling admiration, and differentiation. Additional analyses revealed that mutual modeling and shared friends as well as younger sibling admiration were linked to similarities in brothers’ and sisters’ health-risk behaviors and attitudes, whereas differentiation processes were associated with divergence in siblings’ characteristics. The discussion focuses on refining the study of sibling influence, with particular attention paid to the operation and implications of both convergent and divergent influence processes. PMID:23765197
Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori
A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
Moore, Roy L.; And Others
Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…
Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...
King, Serena M.; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M.; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Aim To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. Design We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the lifetime of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998-2004. Participants Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. Measurements For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes, and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. Findings A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were biologically related to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the lifetime of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is largely attributable to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families. PMID:19215604
Welsh, Ralph S.
Parental discipline appears to play a major role in the development of delinquent and aggressive behavior. The belt theory predicts that parents who have used corporal punishment are likely to produce children who exhibit delinquent behavior. A striking factor is that all delinquent youths see corporal punishment as necessary in child rearing and…
Scalco, Matthew D.; Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.; Read, Jennifer P.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.
Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% female, 83% White) to test a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was tested as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence. PMID:25134030
Scalco, Matthew D; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J
Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% women, 83% White) to test a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was tested as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David
Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…
Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha
Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners
KELLY, FRANCIS J.
THE LACK OF CONSENSUS AMONG MEDICAL-LEGAL AUTHORITIES AS TO THE MEANING OF DELINQUENCY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED. THIS CONFLICT IS GENERAL IN THAT THE LEGAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES BEHAVIOR AND ACTION WHILE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFINITION EMPHASIZES THE ENDOPSYCHIC CONFLICT AND NEED MOTIVATING THE BEHAVIOR. EMPHASIS IS…
Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna
Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth.
Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.
Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…
Mun, Eun Young; Windle, Michael; Schainker, Lisa M
Data from a community-based sample of 1,126 10th- and 11th-grade adolescents were analyzed using a model-based cluster analysis approach to empirically identify heterogeneous adolescent subpopulations from the person-oriented and pattern-oriented perspectives. The model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities and accordingly to classify subpopulations using more rigorous statistical procedures for the comparison of alternative models. Four cluster groups were identified and labeled multiproblem high-risk, smoking high-risk, normative, and low-risk groups. The multiproblem high risk exhibited a constellation of high levels of problem behaviors, including delinquent and sexual behaviors, multiple illicit substance use, and depressive symptoms at age 16. They had risky temperamental attributes and lower academic functioning and educational expectations at age 15.5 and, subsequently, at age 24 completed fewer years of education, and reported lower levels of physical health and higher levels of continued involvement in substance use and abuse. The smoking high-risk group was also found to be at risk for poorer functioning in young adulthood, compared to the low-risk group. The normative and the low risk groups were, by and large, similar in their adolescent and young adult functioning. The continuity and comorbidity path from middle adolescence to young adulthood may be aided and abetted by chronic as well as episodic substance use by adolescents.
Ho, Ching-hua; Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie
This article presents two studies that used community-based, national samples of adolescents to compare demographic differences between delinquent and nondelinquent respondents. Results indicated that ethnic differences in alcohol problems were similar in the delinquent and nondelinquent groups, with whites reporting higher levels of alcohol problems. In contrast, age differences were smaller among delinquents than nondelinquents, which pointed to a heightened risk for both alcohol and marijuana problems among younger delinquents. Future research can explore biological and psychosocial factors that increase risk for substance problems among younger delinquents.
9".- 20 Quay, 11. C., and Peterson, D. R. The questionnaire measurement of personality dimensions associated with juvenile delinquency . Unpublish- ed...AD-AO12 764 SUMMARY OF ARI R1’FEARCH ON MILITARY DELINQUENCY D. B. Bell, et al Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Sccial Sciences...RESEARCH ON MILITARY DELINQUENCY e D B Bell atid P F Holt. Work 1.n1m Leade, SOCIAL PROCESSES TECHNICAL AREA U. S. Army Research Institute for the
The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians
King-White, Dakota L.
A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Forgatch, Marion S; Patterson, Gerald R; Degarmo, David S; Beldavs, Zintars G
This paper presents experimental tests of the Oregon delinquency model applied within a randomized design of an at-risk sample of single mothers and their elementary school-aged sons. In the theoretical model, ineffective parenting practices and deviant peer association serve as the primary mechanisms for growth in adolescent delinquent behavior and early arrests. Multiple-method assessments of 238 mothers and sons include delinquency as measured by teacher reports and official arrest records, parenting skills measured by observations of parent-child interactions, and deviant peer association as reported by focal boys. Analyses of the 9-year follow-up data indicate that the Oregon model of parent management training significantly reduced teacher-reported delinquency and police arrests for focal boys. As hypothesized, the experiments demonstrated that improving parenting practices and reducing contacts with deviant peers served as mediating mechanisms for reducing rates of adolescent delinquency. As predicted, there was also a significant delay in the timing of police arrests for youth in the experimental as compared to the control group.
Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others
Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K
Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.
Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949
Using data from a longitudinal study of adolescent boys, examines whether appearance (including dress and grooming) has an effect on school achievement, popularity with peers, self-concept, happiness, aspirations and expectations, honesty and kindness, and delinquent behavior. (GC)
Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.
Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…
Mounts, Nina S.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of level and discrepancy in mothers' and adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships and parent-child conflict about peer relationships to mothers' and adolescent's reports of adolescents' drug use, delinquent behavior, and grade-point-average (GPA). An…
Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F
Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record
Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele
Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.
Mitchell, Jim; And Others
Path model illustrating relationships between church attendance, delinquent peer association, tendency to neutralize delinquency, and self-reported delinquent behavior was compared between males and females and between Mexican-American and Anglo college students (N=694). In all four subsamples, strongest paths were between neutralization and…
Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others
This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…
Browning, Christopher R.; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.
This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an innovative approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents’ non-home routine activities may be conceptualized as ecological, or “eco”-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth’s behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks—the neighborhood-level extent to which households share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement—and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to “activity clusters,” which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with adolescent dimensions of health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of eco
Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L
This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks--the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement--and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for
Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh
Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…
De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.
One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…
Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Mallamace, Domenico; Mento, Carmela; Zoccali, Rocco; Bruno, Antonio
Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) and other cognitive impairments, such as lower IQ and verbal deficits, have been associated with the pattern of antisocial and delinquent behavior starting in childhood (early-onset), but not with late-onset antisocial behavior. Beyond objective measures of ECF, basic symptoms are prodromal, subjectively experienced cognitive, perceptual, affective, and social disturbances, associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, mainly with psychosis. The goal of the present study was to examine ECF and basic symptoms in a sample of late-onset juvenile delinquents. Two-hundred nine male adolescents (aged 15-20 years) characterized by a pattern of late-onset delinquent behavior with no antecedents of Conduct Disorder, were consecutively recruited from the Social Services of the Department of Juvenile Justice of the city of Messina (Italy), and compared with nonantisocial controls matched for age, educational level, and socio-demographic features on measures for ECF dysfunction and basic symptoms. Significant differences between late-onset offenders (completers=147) and control group (n=150) were found on ECF and basic symptoms measures. Chi-square analysis showed that a significantly greater number of late-onset offending participants scored in the clinical range on several ECF measures. Executive cognitive impairment, even subtle and subclinical, along with subjective symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (basic symptom), may be contributing factor in the development and persistence of antisocial behaviors displayed by late-onset adolescent delinquents. The findings also suggest the need for additional research aimed to assess a broader range of cognitive abilities and specific vulnerability and risk factors for late-onset adolescent offenders.
Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Ragan, Daniel T
Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents' friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion.
Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.
This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency, respectively. The risk thresholds for boys and girls were established at two developmental stages (late childhood: ages 10–12 years, and adolescence: ages 13–16 years) and compared between boys and girls. Sex similarities as well as differences existed in risk and promotive factors for delinquency. ROC analyses revealed only small sex differences in delinquency thresholds, that varied by age. Accumulative risk level had a linear relationship with boys’ delinquency and a quadratic relationship with girls’ delinquency, indicating stronger effects for girls at higher levels of risk. PMID:23183920
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Herrnstein, Richard J.; Farrington, David P.
This document presents two articles on the topic of the existence of genetic predisposition for delinquent behavior. In the first article, "The Individual Offender," Richard J. Herrnstein reviews the rich and rapidly growing body of research literature on the relationship between genes and the predisposition for certain social behaviors. He makes…
Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy
High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.
Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama
The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.
Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo
The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.
Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Early maturing girls are at increased risk for disordered eating. However, it is unclear if the association between puberty and disordered eating continues throughout pubertal development and if a similar association is exhibited in boys. Method Participants included 1340 same- and 624 opposite-sex twins from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development. Pubertal development was assessed at age 13–14 with the Pubertal Development Scale. General disordered eating, measured with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI) was assessed at age 16–17, and dieting and purging behaviors were assessed at both ages 16–17 and 19–20. We applied analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses to determine whether pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence predicted eating disorder-related behaviors in late adolescence and young adulthood Results Pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence was significantly associated with EDI scores and dieting in late adolescence. No significant association was observed between pubertal development and dieting and purging in young adulthood. Discussion Complex combinations of cultural and biological influences likely converge during pubertal development increasing vulnerability to disordered eating. The impact of pubertal development on disordered eating appears to be limited to the adolescent period. PMID:22522282
Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T
This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.
Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D
Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Newsome, Jamie; Vaske, Jamie C; Gehring, Krista S; Boisvert, Danielle L
Research on adolescent risk factors for delinquency has suggested that, due to genetic differences, youth may respond differently to risk factors, with some youth displaying resilience and others a heightened vulnerability. Using a behavioral genetic design and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study examines whether there are sex differences in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the ways in which adolescents respond to cumulative risk for violent, nonviolent, and overall delinquency in a sample of twins (152 MZ male, 155 MZ female, 140 DZ male, 130 DZ female, and 204 DZ opposite-sex twin pairs). The results revealed that males tended to show greater vulnerability to risk for all types of delinquency, and females exhibited greater resilience. Among males, additive genetic factors accounted for 41, 29, and 43 % of the variance in responses to risk for violent, nonviolent, and overall delinquency, respectively. The remaining proportion of variance in each model was attributed to unique environmental influences, with the exception of 11 % of the variance in nonviolent responses to risk being attributed to common environmental factors. Among females, no significant genetic influences were observed; however, common environmental contributions to differences in the ways females respond to risk for violent, nonviolent, and overall delinquency were 44, 42, and 45 %, respectively. The remaining variance was attributed to unique environmental influences. Overall, genetic factors moderately influenced males' responses to risk while environmental factors fully explain variation in females' responses to risk. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of improving the understanding of relationships between risks and outcomes, as well as informing policy and practice with adolescent offenders.
McLean, Kate C.; Wood, Becky; Breen, Andrea V.
We examined narrative processes of identity development as they related to desistance from delinquent behavior in a sample of vulnerable adolescents. Building on a robust theoretical and empirical foundation in the field of narrative identity, we examined processes of meaning-making and agency in relation to desistance. Thirty-one adolescents were…
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda
The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent-adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent-adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents' interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring.
Choi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Song E; Lee, Hyang Woon
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific behavioral problems on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Methods Children and adolescents with epilepsy (n=92; age range=6–17 years) and their mothers completed questionnaires about behavioral problems, HRQOL, socio-demographics, and epilepsy-related variables. To determine significant predictor variables of the HRQOL, the stepwise regression analyses and partial correlations were performed to adjust for other behavioral problems and covariates. Results The analyses revealed that an increase in social behavioral problems and delinquent behavior was associated with a decrease in the HRQOL. Lower levels of maternal education and the number of antiepileptic drugs were also associated with a decline in the HRQOL; the HRQOL and social behavioral problems remained significantly correlated after adjusting for maternal education level, number of antiepileptic drugs, and non-social behavioral problems. Conclusion Parents and practitioners should provide intervention if behavioral problems, particularly social behavioral problems, are observed in children or adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:27757126
Akrami, Leila; Davudi, Maryam
Objective: To compare sexual and behavioral puberty problems between intellectually disabled (ID) and normal boys in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In the present study, 65 intellectually disabled and 65 normal boys were included. The Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) was used to investigate behavioral problems. In order to study sexual problems, a questionnaire that was designed by the researchers was applie. Results: Anxiety, depression, social problems, attention problems, aggressiveness, and sexual problems were more frequent in intellectually disabled boys than in normal boys. On the other hand, regarding somatic complaints, withdrawal, thought problems, internalizing, delinquent behavior, and externalizing there was no difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Behavioral and sexual problems are more common in adolescent boys with intellectual disability (ID) than in normal boys during the puberty period. Therefore, puberty is an important period for intellectually disabled boys and their families; this should be taken into consideration by psychologists and clinicians. PMID:25053959
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…
Little is known about the delinquency and social relations of adolescents who lack close friendships. This study compares the delinquency of "loners" and "nonloners," explores group differences within the larger social context of peers, family, and school, and assesses the efficacy of loner status as a distinct dimension of peer relationships. The…
Wiatrowski, Michael D.; Swatko, Mary K.
Hirschi's social control theory of delinquency status that delinquency involvement is the function of the failure of an adolescent to form or maintain a bond to society comprised of attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. In the past decade Hirschi and other researchers have found substantial support for this original thesis using tabular…
Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…
Salehi, Saeed; And Others
The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…
Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others
The infants of the adolescent mothers were found to be significantly less capable of responding to social stimuli, to be less alert, and to be less able to control motor behavior and to perform integrated motor activities than were the infants of older mothers. Journal availability: J. B. Lippincott Co., E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…
Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.
Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…
Fortenberry, J. Dennis; And Others
Relations of contraceptive behavior, problem behaviors, and health-protective behaviors were examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of sexually active adolescents. Findings demonstrate substantial organization among adolescent health and problem behaviors and suggest that contraceptive behavior should be conceptualized…
Reddy, Linda A; Pfeiffer, Steven I
To examine the behavioral and emotional difficulties of 73 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), mental retardation-only, and dual diagnosis (i.e., mental retardation and psychiatrically disordered) on the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD: Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (DSMD) San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp 1994). Multivariate analyses and "Italic">d-ratios were computed to assess the statistical and clinically meaningful differences between pairs of samples. The PWS sample exhibited statistically significant higher levels of psychopathology than the mentally-retarded-only sample on the Total, Externalizing, Internalizing, Attention/Delinquency, Conduct, Anxiety, and Acute Problems Scales. When compared to the dually-diagnosed sample, children with PWS Syndrome had comparable levels of psychopathology, but lower levels of depression. Results revealed that PWS represents a highly unique and complex psychological disorder with multiple areas of disturbances.
Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.
Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…
O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony
Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646
Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, François; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.
In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, substance use) and their friends’ deviance (antisocial behaviors, substance use) as predictors of condom use frequency and lifetime number of sexual partners. The socialization model postulates that youths’ problem behaviors and RSB are behaviors learned within the friendship network where deviancy training can occur. The selection model posits that delinquent youth tend to affiliate with each other, and that RSB is one of many behaviors that can form the basis of selection. Using structural equation modeling, this study showed that the socialization model was the most accurate to explain the emergence of RSB. A full mediation of parenting practices, passing through deviant friends and youths’ problem behavior, was observed for condom use. The same process applied to number of sexual partners, but a direct effect for parenting practices was also found. PMID:21857759
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.
This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…
Koh, Bibiana D; Rueter, Martha A
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families with at least one parent and two adolescent siblings with a maximum 5-year age difference. The analyses used data from the mothers (M age = 45.56, SD = 4.23), fathers (M age = 48.23, SD = 4.42), and the elder sibling (M age = 16.14, SD = 1.5). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits and negative emotionality. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship.
McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.
Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, decades of descriptive research have consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. Yet we have little understanding of the specific contributing factors that help explain this increased risk. Therefore, the present investigation tested a process model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS; McGue et al., 2007). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits, and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits over the other lower order traits (alienation, stress reactivity) and higher order negative emotionality in our proposed process. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship. PMID:22023274
Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416
Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon
An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…
Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.
Background: A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene "monoamine oxidase A" ("MAOA") has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of…
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…
O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna
Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…
Smith, Carolyn A.
Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Rekker, Roderik; Pardini, Dustin; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Loeber, Rolf; Meeus, Wim
A family’s SES can be changeable over time. This study was the first to investigate if such within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in boys’ delinquent behavior from childhood to adolescence. Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503) who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7–18. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents’ SES was lower than during years in which their parents’ SES was higher. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that this association was accounted for by families moving to different neighborhoods or by changes in parenting. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths’ delinquency. PMID:26575271
Rekker, Roderik; Pardini, Dustin; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Loeber, Rolf; Meeus, Wim
A family's SES can be changeable over time. This study was the first to investigate if such within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in boys' delinquent behavior from childhood to adolescence. Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503) who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7-18. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents' SES was lower than during years in which their parents' SES was higher. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that this association was accounted for by families moving to different neighborhoods or by changes in parenting. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths' delinquency.
Meeus, W.; Branje, S.; Overbeek, G. J.
Background: This study sought the answer to three questions: 1. Is having an intimate partner associated with the level of delinquency? 2. Does the quality of the relationship with an intimate partner, operationalised as partner support, predict the level of delinquency? 3. Does a relationship with an intimate partner or age moderate the…
Ferreira Gonçalves, Sónia; Martins, Carla; Rosendo, Ana P; Machado, Bárbara C; Silva, Eliana
In order to assess the frequency and correlates of self-injurious behavior (SIB), 569 Portuguese adolescents aged 12 to 20 years completed questionnaires assessing SIB and psychopathological symptoms. Almost 28% (n = 158) reported a lifetime history of SIB and nearly 10% had performed it in the previous month. The most frequently injured body parts were arms, hands and nails. Most of the self-injurers admit that "now and then" they feel some "mild" to "moderate" pain during SIB. Most of them admitted using these behaviors to avoid/suppress negative feelings, painful images or memories, to punish themselves and to avoid doing something bad. Positive emotions increased significantly after SIB. The self-injurer group reported more psychopathological symptoms. SIB appears to be a common phenomenon with specific functions in adolescence and this must be addressed by clinicians and educational professionals.
Warren, Keith; Moberg, D Paul; McDonald, Lynn
This study applies a multi-player arms race model to peer contagion in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students. Because this model of peer contagion differs from the usual model based on positive reinforcement of delinquent behavior, it raises the possibility that the persistent finding of iatrogenic effects of group treatment might not apply to group treatment of elementary school children if the possibility of aggressive behavior in the group is limited. One way of limiting aggressive behavior is to include parents in the groups. The study therefore applies the model to groups of elementary school students assigned to Families and Schools Together (FAST; a group treatment that includes parental participation) or to an intervention focused on individual families. The model effectively describes the relationship between group averages of aggressive behavior in the classroom and aggressive and delinquent behavior outside the classroom for those students assigned to the individual intervention. The model fits those children assigned to FAST less well, suggesting that FAST may make it less likely that aggressive and delinquent behavior is generalized outside of aggressive classroom settings. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors draw on evolutionary biology, developmental psychology, sociology, and learning theory to present an innovative prevention model and test the promising FAST program. Using longitudinal data from 403 children, their parents, and their teachers, the authors describe how FAST may interfere with the process of escalating aggression.
Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark
The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). However, in a sample of at-risk adolescents, only a culture-specific variable measuring orientation toward the family was able to predict self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed.
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A
The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains.
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children’s whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that males, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:20822236
Schlarb, Angelika A; Sopp, Roxanne; Ambiel, David; Grünwald, Julia
Eveningness has been found to negatively affect adolescents' sleep and daytime functioning. Furthermore, eveningness is associated with greater impulsivity than morningness. Externalizing behavior could be chronotype-related, implying that the alteration of the circadian rhythm itself is connected to aspects of emotion and emotion regulation. The present study investigated chronotype-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems, especially aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive search via web of knowledge (MEDLINE, web of science), EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed, Google Scholar and PsycINDEX using the keywords: chronotype, chronobiology, morningness, eveningness, owls and larks as well as diurnal preference to fully capture every aspect of chronotype. For aggression we used the search terms: aggression, anger, hostility, violence, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, social adjustment and externalizing behavior. N = 13 studies were included concerning chronotype, childhood, adolescence and antisocial behavior. Results showed that children and adolescents being E-types were more affected by daytime impairments. Additionally, behavioral and emotional problems as aggression or antisocial behavior were more pronounced in E- than in M-types. Our findings support an association of eveningness and the impact of aggression on children and adolescents. Longitudinal investigations should be conducted in order to insure causality of the effects in question. In addition, the elevated vulnerability toward aggression in evening types demonstrates the need for prevention and intervention programs that educate youths in proper sleep hygiene and evoke an awareness of the consequences of a habitually diminished sleep quality.
van Domburgh, L; Vermeiren, R; Blokland, A A J; Doreleijers, Th A H
Heterogeneity of re-offending patterns was studied in a group of 287 male early onset offenders who were first arrested before age 12. By combining data on the frequency and severity of offending as registered by the police over a 5-year follow-up period, three delinquent trajectories were identified; low, escalating, and high level re-offenders. Predicting group membership by individual and environmental characteristics known to the police at the time of the first arrest proved difficult. Compared to low level re-offenders, escalators were older and more often came from disadvantaged neighborhoods. High level re-offenders were also older at onset, more often had a non-Western ethnic background, and initially committed more vandalism. Furthermore, at the first police encounter, the police reacted more severely towards those who later became high level re-offenders. Finally, high and escalating re-offenders more often had other adverse outcomes, such as criminal victimization and Child Welfare Agency involvement.
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21720452
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during early adolescence. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine longitudinal relations among these constructs, with results supporting a negative association between use of active distraction and peer rejection and a positive association between peer rejection and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, an indirect effect of active distraction on antisocial behavior was found through peer rejection. Thus, adaptive self-regulation strategy use in early childhood demonstrated direct longitudinal relations with peer rejection and an indirect association with antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation of emotion and reduce risk for later social problems and delinquency. PMID:20161105
Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred
This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.; Dyer, W. Justin; Black, Brent C.
The current study examined adolescent persistence as a mediator between authoritative parenting and adolescents' school engagement, prosocial behavior, and delinquency. Participants were taken from Time 2, 3, and 4 of the Flourishing Families Project and included 325 two-parent families with a child between the ages of 11 and 14 at Time 2 (mean…
Noting that half of America's adolescents are at risk for serious problems such as substance abuse, accident-prone lifestyles, and delinquent behavior, this book explores the world of adolescents through the study of eight middle-school and high-school students from Reston, Virginia. These eight teenagers were selected based on gender, ethnicity,…
Smith, Dana K; Saldana, Lisa
Girls in the juvenile justice system are known to have high rates of co-occurring childhood abuse, trauma, and substance abuse. Girls with this constellation of problems are at high risk for serious adverse outcomes, including problems with drug dependence and abuse. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, other types of childhood trauma, and rates of substance use during adolescence were examined for girls in the juvenile justice system. As expected, childhood sexual abuse was significantly related to girls' substance use during adolescence. In contrast to prior research, no link was found between physical abuse, lifetime trauma, and substance use. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…
Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.
The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…
Level, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia
Although association with delinquent peers is a recognized precursor to ongoing delinquency problems, youth in the juvenile justice system are commonly prescribed intervention services that aggregate delinquent youth. However, little is known about the process variables that mediate the relationship between aggregating youth in intervention settings and poor subsequent outcomes. We examined data from two randomized intervention trials (one male sample and one female sample) with delinquent adolescents placed either in Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) or in group care. Path analyses suggested that the MTFC youth had fewer associations with delinquent peers at 12 months than did the group care youth. Further, associating with delinquent peers during the course of the intervention mediated the relationship between group condition and 12-month delinquent peer association. Implications for the development of interventions with delinquent youth are discussed.
Background A recent study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates, age trends, and stability of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB; purging and diet pill use) in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to provide similar, comparative analyses for a nationally representative sample of American youth. Methods Data were extracted from the restricted use data files of survey Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), selecting all participants who at Wave I had provided information on age, sex, and UWCB. Using UWCB information, three groups were created (purging, diet pill use, and no recent UWCB “controls”) and compared on indicators of adverse health or mental health. Results Girls consistently were more likely than boys to report UWCB. UWCB were significantly associated with higher body mass index, self-perception of being overweight, low self-esteem, depression, and delinquency. Prevalence estimates for purging remained relatively constant across the three survey waves; in contrast, diet pill use was especially common at Wave III. Conclusions Age trends, gender differences, and clinical correlates of change in the likelihood of UWCB between Waves I-III were all identified in analyses comparing purging and diet pill use in American adolescents. Females and older adolescents were specifically more likely to engage in pill use than purging, and individuals with increased weight dissatisfaction, a history of delinquent behaviors, more depression symptoms, or lower self-esteem were more likely to engage in an unhealthy weight control behavior over time. While the Norwegian study found that prevalence of purging was lower among young adult participants, our results suggested that there were no significant differences in prevalence between age groups. PMID:24940509
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara
The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer
The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.
The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…
Romero, Erin Gregory; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Welty, Leah J.; Washburn, Jason J.
Objective . To examine the prevalence, development, and persistence of sex and drug behaviors that place delinquent youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI drug and sex risk behaviors were assessed in a stratified random sample of 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years. Participants were re-interviewed approximately 3 years later (mean [SD] follow-up, 3.2 [0.3] years; median follow-up, 3.1 years). The final sample in these analyses (n = 724) includes 316 females and 408 males, 393 African Americans, 198 Hispanics, 131 non-Hispanic whites, and 2 participants who self-identified as “other.” Results Nearly three quarters of youth engaged in one or more unprotected sexual risk behaviors at follow-up. Over 60% had engaged in 10 or more risk behaviors at their baseline interview, and nearly two thirds of them persisted in 10 or more risk behaviors at follow-up. Among youth living in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up than at baseline. Among incarcerated youth, the opposite pattern prevailed. Development and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors differed by gender, race/ethnicity, and age, even after adjusting for incarceration status. Compared with females, males had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors and were more likely to persist in some behaviors and develop new ones. Yet, injection risk behaviors were more prevalent among females than males and were also more likely to develop and persist. Compared with persons younger than 18, persons 18 and older had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors at follow-up. Overall, there were few racial and ethnic differences in patterns of HIV/STI risk behaviors; most involved the initiation and persistence of substance use among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Conclusions Because detained youth have a median stay of only 2 weeks, HIV/STI risk behaviors in
Warren, Michael T.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Rote, Wendy M.; Shubert, Jennifer
Recent advances in positive youth development theory and research explicate complex associations between adaptive functioning and risk behavior, acknowledging that high levels of both co-occur in the lives of some adolescents. However, evidence on nuanced overlapping developmental trajectories of adaptive functioning and risk has been limited to 1…
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…
Nihira, Kazuo; And Others
Parents' behavior as perceived by an adolescent population admitted to the adolescent crisis Ward at USC Medical Center is analyzed. The sample consisted of 86 patients who were admitted to the adolescent crisis ward during 1969 and 1970. The population could be divided according to four distinct crisis groups: (1) the suicidal group; (2) the…
Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta
The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…
Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.
Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048
Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.
This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…
Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan
Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed.
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.
In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…